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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087581/brief-encounters-of-cytochrome-c
#1
Joseph A Lyons, Poul Nissen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087580/self-regulating-ubiquitin-ligases
#2
Spencer Hill, Gary Kleiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077488/id2-controls-specification-of-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cell-progenitors-during-gut-development
#3
Lira Nigmatullina, Maxim Norkin, Margarita M Dzama, Berith Messner, Sergi Sayols, Natalia Soshnikova
The adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs), their hierarchies, mechanisms of maintenance and differentiation have been extensively studied. However, when and how ISCs are established during embryogenesis remains unknown. We show here that the transcription regulator Id2 controls the specification of embryonic Lgr5(+) progenitors in the developing murine small intestine. Cell fate mapping analysis revealed that Lgr5(+) progenitors emerge at E13.5 in wild-type embryos and differ from the rest on the intestinal epithelium by a characteristic ISC signature...
January 11, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077487/calcium-permeable-ampa-receptors-and-silent%C3%A2-synapses-in-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference
#4
Avani Shukla, Anna Beroun, Myrto Panopoulou, Peter A Neumann, Seth Gn Grant, M Foster Olive, Yan Dong, Oliver M Schlüter
Exposure to cocaine generates silent synapses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), whose eventual unsilencing/maturation by recruitment of calcium-permeable AMPA-type glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs) after drug withdrawal results in profound remodeling of NAc neuro-circuits. Silent synapse-based NAc remodeling was shown to be critical for several drug-induced behaviors, but its role in acquisition and retention of the association between drug rewarding effects and drug-associated contexts has remained unclear. Here, we find that the postsynaptic proteins PSD-93, PSD-95, and SAP102 differentially regulate excitatory synapse properties in the NAc...
January 11, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069708/ubiquitylation-dependent-oligomerization-regulates-activity-of-nedd4-ligases
#5
Ilan Attali, William Sam Tobelaim, Avinash Persaud, Khatereh Motamedchaboki, Kobi J Simpson-Lavy, Bayan Mashahreh, Olga Levin-Kravets, Tal Keren-Kaplan, Inbar Pilzer, Martin Kupiec, Reuven Wiener, Dieter A Wolf, Daniela Rotin, Gali Prag
Ubiquitylation controls protein function and degradation. Therefore, ubiquitin ligases need to be tightly controlled. We discovered an evolutionarily conserved allosteric restraint mechanism for Nedd4 ligases and demonstrated its function with diverse substrates: the yeast soluble proteins Rpn10 and Rvs167, and the human receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR1 and cardiac IKS potassium channel. We found that a potential trimerization interface is structurally blocked by the HECT domain α1-helix, which further undergoes ubiquitylation on a conserved lysine residue...
January 9, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069707/tfiid-or-not-tfiid-a-continuing-transcriptional-saga
#6
Slawomir Kubik, Maria Jessica Bruzzone, David Shore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069706/dna-sequence-properties-that-predict-susceptibility-to-epiallelic-switching
#7
Marco Catoni, Jayne Griffiths, Claude Becker, Nicolae Radu Zabet, Carlos Bayon, Mélanie Dapp, Michal Lieberman-Lazarovich, Detlef Weigel, Jerzy Paszkowski
Transgenerationally heritable epialleles are defined by the stable propagation of alternative transcriptional states through mitotic and meiotic cell cycles. Given that the propagation of DNA methylation at CpG sites, mediated in Arabidopsis by MET1, plays a central role in epigenetic inheritance, we examined genomewide DNA methylation in partial and complete loss-of-function met1 mutants. We interpreted the data in relation to transgenerational epiallelic stability, which allowed us to classify chromosomal targets of epigenetic regulation into (i) single copy and methylated exclusively at CpGs, readily forming epialleles, and (ii) transposon-derived, methylated at all cytosines, which may or may not form epialleles...
January 9, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057705/translational-control-of-lipogenic-enzymes-in-the-cell-cycle-of-synchronous-growing-yeast-cells
#8
Heidi M Blank, Ricardo Perez, Chong He, Nairita Maitra, Richard Metz, Joshua Hill, Yuhong Lin, Charles D Johnson, Vytas A Bankaitis, Brian K Kennedy, Rodolfo Aramayo, Michael Polymenis
Translational control during cell division determines when cells start a new cell cycle, how fast they complete it, the number of successive divisions, and how cells coordinate proliferation with available nutrients. The translational efficiencies of mRNAs in cells progressing synchronously through the mitotic cell cycle, while preserving the coupling of cell division with cell growth, remain uninvestigated. We now report comprehensive ribosome profiling of a yeast cell size series from the time of cell birth, to identify mRNAs under periodic translational control...
January 5, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057704/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protease-marp-activates-a-peptidoglycan-hydrolase-during-acid%C3%A2-stress
#9
Helene Botella, Julien Vaubourgeix, Myung Hee Lee, Naomi Song, Weizhen Xu, Hideki Makinoshima, Michael S Glickman, Sabine Ehrt
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can persist in the human host in a latent state for decades, in part because it has the ability to withstand numerous stresses imposed by host immunity. Prior studies have established the essentiality of the periplasmic protease MarP for Mtb to survive in acidified phagosomes and establish and maintain infection in mice. However, the proteolytic substrates of MarP that mediate these phenotypes were unknown. Here, we used biochemical methods coupled with supravital chemical probes that facilitate imaging of nascent peptidoglycan to demonstrate that during acid stress MarP cleaves the peptidoglycan hydrolase RipA, a process required for RipA's activation...
January 5, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043948/angptl2-expression-in-the-intestinal-stem-cell-niche-controls-epithelial-regeneration-and-homeostasis
#10
Haruki Horiguchi, Motoyoshi Endo, Kohki Kawane, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu, Kazutoyo Terada, Jun Morinaga, Kimi Araki, Keishi Miyata, Yuichi Oike
The intestinal epithelium continually self-renews and can rapidly regenerate after damage. Dysregulation of intestinal epithelial homeostasis leads to severe inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, aberrant signaling by the secreted protein angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) causes chronic inflammation in a variety of diseases. However, little is known about the physiologic role of ANGPTL2 in normal tissue homeostasis and during wound repair following injury. Here, we assessed ANGPTL2 function in intestinal physiology and disease in vivo Although intestinal development proceeded normally in Angptl2-deficient mice, expression levels of the intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker gene Lgr5 decreased, which was associated with decreased transcriptional activity of β-catenin in Angptl2-deficient mice...
January 2, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031253/global-snapshots-of-bacterial-rna-networks
#11
Jens Hör, Jörg Vogel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028054/fluorescence-based-atg8-sensors-monitor-localization-and-function-of-lc3-gabarap-proteins
#12
Alexandra Stolz, Mateusz Putyrski, Ivana Kutle, Jessica Huber, Chunxin Wang, Viktória Major, Sachdev S Sidhu, Richard J Youle, Vladimir V Rogov, Volker Dötsch, Andreas Ernst, Ivan Dikic
Autophagy is a cellular surveillance pathway that balances metabolic and energy resources and transports specific cargos, including damaged mitochondria, other broken organelles, or pathogens for degradation to the lysosome. Central components of autophagosomal biogenesis are six members of the LC3 and GABARAP family of ubiquitin-like proteins (mATG8s). We used phage display to isolate peptides that possess bona fide LIR (LC3-interacting region) properties and are selective for individual mATG8 isoforms. Sensitivity of the developed sensors was optimized by multiplication, charge distribution, and fusion with a membrane recruitment (FYVE) or an oligomerization (PB1) domain...
December 27, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028053/mrtf-potentiates-tead-yap-transcriptional-activity-causing-metastasis
#13
Tackhoon Kim, Daehee Hwang, Dahye Lee, Jeong-Hwan Kim, Seon-Young Kim, Dae-Sik Lim
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) play similar roles and exhibit significant crosstalk in directing transcriptional responses to chemical and physical extracellular cues. The mechanism underlying this crosstalk, however, remains unclear. Here, we show MRTF family proteins bind YAP via a conserved PPXY motif that interacts with the YAP WW domain. This interaction allows MRTF to recruit NcoA3 to the TEAD-YAP transcriptional complex and potentiate its transcriptional activity...
December 27, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028052/an-rna-binding-atypical-tropomyosin-recruits-kinesin-1-dynamically-to-oskar-mrnps
#14
Imre Gáspár, Vasiliy Sysoev, Artem Komissarov, Anne Ephrussi
Localization and local translation of oskar mRNA at the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte directs abdominal patterning and germline formation in the embryo. The process requires recruitment and precise regulation of motor proteins to form transport-competent mRNPs. We show that the posterior-targeting kinesin-1 is loaded upon nuclear export of oskar mRNPs, prior to their dynein-dependent transport from the nurse cells into the oocyte. We demonstrate that kinesin-1 recruitment requires the DmTropomyosin1-I/C isoform, an atypical RNA-binding tropomyosin that binds directly to dimerizing oskar 3'UTRs...
December 27, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011581/hippo-kinases-maintain-polarity-during-directional-cell-migration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Guoxin Feng, Zhiwen Zhu, Wen-Jun Li, Qirong Lin, Yongping Chai, Meng-Qiu Dong, Guangshuo Ou
Precise positioning of cells is crucial for metazoan development. Despite immense progress in the elucidation of the attractive cues of cell migration, the repulsive mechanisms that prevent the formation of secondary leading edges remain less investigated. Here, we demonstrate that Caenorhabditis elegans Hippo kinases promote cell migration along the anterior-posterior body axis via the inhibition of dorsal-ventral (DV) migration. Ectopic DV polarization was also demonstrated in gain-of-function mutant animals for C...
December 23, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011580/replication-fork-passage-drives-asymmetric-dynamics-of-a-critical-nucleoid-associated-protein-in-caulobacter
#16
Rodrigo Arias-Cartin, Genevieve S Dobihal, Manuel Campos, Ivan V Surovtsev, Bradley Parry, Christine Jacobs-Wagner
In bacteria, chromosome dynamics and gene expression are modulated by nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs), but little is known about how NAP activity is coupled to cell cycle progression. Using genomic techniques, quantitative cell imaging, and mathematical modeling, our study in Caulobacter crescentus identifies a novel NAP (GapR) whose activity over the cell cycle is shaped by DNA replication. GapR activity is critical for cellular function, as loss of GapR causes severe, pleiotropic defects in growth, cell division, DNA replication, and chromosome segregation...
December 23, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007896/the-complete-structure-of-the-chloroplast-70s-ribosome-in-complex-with-translation-factor-py
#17
Philipp Bieri, Marc Leibundgut, Martin Saurer, Daniel Boehringer, Nenad Ban
Chloroplasts are cellular organelles of plants and algae that are responsible for energy conversion and carbon fixation by the photosynthetic reaction. As a consequence of their endosymbiotic origin, they still contain their own genome and the machinery for protein biosynthesis. Here, we present the atomic structure of the chloroplast 70S ribosome prepared from spinach leaves and resolved by cryo-EM at 3.4 Å resolution. The complete structure reveals the features of the 4.5S rRNA, which probably evolved by the fragmentation of the 23S rRNA, and all five plastid-specific ribosomal proteins...
December 22, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007895/hypoxia-inducible-factors-coupling-glucose-metabolism-and-redox-regulation-with-induction-of%C3%A2-the-breast-cancer-stem-cell-phenotype
#18
REVIEW
Gregg L Semenza
Reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the electron transport chain. Here, I review recent work delineating mechanisms by which hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) mediates adaptive metabolic responses to hypoxia, including increased flux through the glycolytic pathway and decreased flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, in order to decrease mitochondrial ROS production. HIF-1 also mediates increased flux through the serine synthesis pathway and mitochondrial one-carbon (folate cycle) metabolism to increase mitochondrial antioxidant production (NADPH and glutathione)...
December 22, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007894/the-pseudophosphatase-styx-targets-the-f-box-of-fbxw7-and-inhibits-scffbxw7-function
#19
Veronika Reiterer, Cristina Figueras-Puig, Francois Le Guerroue, Stefano Confalonieri, Manuela Vecchi, Dasaradha Jalapothu, Sandip M Kanse, Raymond J Deshaies, Pier Paolo Di Fiore, Christian Behrends, Hesso Farhan
The F-box protein FBXW7 is the substrate-recruiting subunit of an SCF ubiquitin ligase and a major tumor-suppressor protein that is altered in several human malignancies. Loss of function of FBXW7 results in the stabilization of numerous proteins that orchestrate cell proliferation and survival. Little is known about proteins that directly regulate the function of this protein. In the current work, we have mapped the interactome of the enigmatic pseudophosphatase STYX We reasoned that a catalytically inactive phosphatase might have adopted novel mechanisms of action...
December 22, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007893/young-microglia-restore-amyloid-plaque-clearance-of-aged-microglia
#20
Anna Daria, Alessio Colombo, Gemma Llovera, Heike Hampel, Michael Willem, Arthur Liesz, Christian Haass, Sabina Tahirovic
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation. In order to study microglial contribution to amyloid plaque phagocytosis, we developed a novel ex vivo model by co-culturing organotypic brain slices from up to 20-month-old, amyloid-bearing AD mouse model (APPPS1) and young, neonatal wild-type (WT) mice. Surprisingly, co-culturing resulted in proliferation, recruitment, and clustering of old microglial cells around amyloid plaques and clearance of the plaque halo...
December 21, 2016: EMBO Journal
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