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Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering

Nicolas Vignais, Justin Weresch, Peter J Keir
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist, and represents the most common peripheral neuropathy. It has long been an issue in the workplace because of healthcare costs and loss of productivity. The two main pathomechanisms of carpal tunnel syndrome include increased hydrostatic pressure within the carpal tunnel (carpal tunnel pressure) and contact stress (or impingement). As most cases of carpal tunnel syndrome in the workplace are labelled "idiopathic", a clear understanding of the physical parameters that may act as pathomechanisms is critical for its prevention...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Nehaarika Kantipudi, Vivek Patel, Graham Jones, Markad V Kamath, Adrian R M Upton
The World Health Organization defines air pollution as "any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere." The most common pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur dioxide. The two types of air pollution, indoor and ambient, both contribute to a host of cardiac and respiratory illnesses. Exposure to excess levels of air pollution is significantly associated with a variety of acute and chronic respiratory illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, respiratory allergies, and lung cancer...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Leo Huan-Hsuan Hsu, Aditya Aryasomayajula, Ponnambalam R Selvaganapathy
Water is a valuable natural resource and is needed to sustain human life. Water pollution significantly jeopardizes clean drinking water supplies, it is hazardous to human health, and it inhibits economic development. Well-designed sensors that can continuously monitor water quality during transport and identify contaminants in the watershed help effectively control pollution and thereby manage water resources. However, the commercially available sensors are expensive and require frequent maintenance. These limitations often make these sensors inadequate for continuous water monitoring applications...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Alan J McComas, Adrian R M Upton
The scintillating zigzag pattern that a migraine patient may see as an illusion before the onset of headache offers a unique investigative approach to visual mechanisms. The likeliest interpretation of these zigzags is that they are the spontaneous discharges of the orientation-selective neurons first described in the striate cortex by Hubel and Wiesel (Hubel DH, Wiesel TN. Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat's visual cortex. J Physiol (Lond). 1962 Jan;160:106-54; and Hubel DH, Wiesel TN...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Vivek Patel, Neha Kantipudi, Graham Jones, Adrian Upton, Markad V Kamath
Air pollution is comprised of different compounds and particulate matter (PM) of sizes 2.5 and 10 μm, with the former size posing the greatest danger to humans. Evidence suggests that the global rise in air pollution levels during the past century is correlated with the increased incidence of diseases of the cardiovascular system. On a global scale, 7 million individuals died as a result of the effects of air pollution in 2012. Air pollution leads to tremendous amounts of financial burden (in 2010, $16 trillion in the US and Europe) on the health-care system...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Alan J McComas, Adrian R M Upton
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was first found to be effective in acute migraine 12 years ago, and subsequent studies have confirmed this benefit in approximately two -thirds of treated patients. High response rate, ease of application, and freedom from adverse effects combine to make TMS a natural front-line treatment for migraine, and its use should therefore be encouraged. In relation to the pathogenesis of migraine, the prompt relief of symptoms often observed with TMS is considered incompatible with an underlying neuroinflammatory process and with spreading depression as a cause of aura...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Everette C Burdette, Joseph Seals, Stephen P Auda, Aishwarya D Ambhire, Richard L Magin
In this article, we combine a review of the wide range of tissue dielectric studies and applications (e.g., safety, imaging, therapy) being pursued by the bioelectromagnetics community with a description of one specific application of dielectric measurements (in vivo tumor classification). The tumor measurements were acquired over a frequency range of 0.01-4.0 GHz using a technique based on the impedance change recorded by a short antenna when placed near or in a lossy dielectric. Substantial differences (up to 300%) were found between the dielectric properties of tumors (mammary adenocarcinoma, melanoma, lung carcinoma, glioblastoma and ependymoblastoma) and normal host tissues...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Stacey Rigney, Anne Simmons, Lauren Kark
Conventional lower-limb mechanical models were originally developed for gait analysis of ablebodied Conventional lower-limb mechanical models were originally developed for gait analysis of ablebodied subjects and therefore potentially misrepresent prosthetic foot behavior when applied to modern energy storage and return (ESAR) prostheses. This review investigates the limitations of current models of prosthetic foot dynamics and kinematics. The Scopus online database was used to identify 236 articles on prosthetic foot behavior during either experiments or simulations, categorized into three main types of models: 74% (n = 175) of studies featured a rigid-link model, 17% (n = 39) a lumped-parameter model and 10% (n = 23) finite element (FE) analysis...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
T Deleon-Nwaha, D R Peterson
In December of 2014, the United States Congress funded a fundamental shift in the recruiting policy of the US Navy Submarine Force to include the integration of women. As a result, design modifications became necessary, especially those that facilitate integration without inflating costs. Current cost levels associated with new submarine design(s) are maintained through the use of legacy components and systems. Additionally, many of the systems aboard are computer controlled, necessitating man-machine interfaces...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Shivaprasad Chikop, Girish Koulagi, Ankita Kumbara, Sairam Geethanath
We review recent feature-based tracking algorithms as applied to fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Motion in fetal MRI is an active and challenging area of research, but the challenge can be mitigated by strategies related to patient setup, acquisition, reconstruction, and image processing. We focus on fetal motion correction through methods based on tracking algorithms for registration of slices with similar anatomy in multiple volumes. We describe five motion detection algorithms based on corner detection and region-based methods through pseudocodes, illustrating the results of their application to fetal MRI...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Patrick W Stroman
Structural equation modeling (SEM) provides a means of investigating relationships between blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes in functional MRI data across neuroanatomical regions. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate adapted SEM methods for the brainstem and spinal cord, validate statistical methods and appropriate statistical thresholds, and test the methods with existing data. SEM methods were applied using an anatomical model of regions of the thalamus, brainstem, and spinal cord that are involved with pain processing...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Olga Dona, Jeff Thompson, Cheryl Druchok
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. However, definitive diagnosis of AD is only achievable postmortem and currently relies on clinical neurological evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can evaluate brain changes typical of AD, including brain atrophy, presence of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques, and functional and biochemical abnormalities. Structural MRI (sMRI) has historically been used to assess the inherent brain atrophy present in AD. However, new techniques have recently emerged that have refined sMRI into a more precise tool to quantify the thickness and volume of AD-sensitive cerebral structures...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Seul-A Bae, Alison Acevedo, Ioannis P Androulakis
Oscillations are an important feature of cellular signaling that result from complex combinations of positive- and negative-feedback loops. The encoding and decoding mechanisms of oscillations based on amplitude and frequency have been extensively discussed in the literature in the context of intercellular and intracellular signaling. However, the fundamental questions of whether and how oscillatory signals offer any competitive advantages-and, if so, what-have not been fully answered. We investigated established oscillatory mechanisms and designed a study to analyze the oscillatory characteristics of signaling molecules and system output in an effort to answer these questions...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Rohit T Rao, Kamau K Pierre, Naomi Schlesinger, Ioannis P Androulakis
In this short review, we discuss evidence supporting the modulation of peripheral circadian systems as a therapeutic strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We first review the role of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, two of the primary mediators of chronic inflammation in RA, and their regulation by circadian clock machinery. We further highlight the role of environmental and metabolic signals in regulating the central and peripheral circadian clocks, with an emphasis on seasonal variations in photoperiod and rhythmic metabolic input, respectively...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Mandakini Jain, Michael D Noseworthy
Multimodality imaging is driven by the rising demand for highly integrated diagnostic information from in vivo imaging. We provide a comprehensive review of multimodality imaging techniques available in nuclear medicine, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with ultrasound and MRI combined with stereotactic methods for image-guided breast biopsies and MR-guided stereotactic neurosurgery. Commercially available and investigative hardware- and software-based platforms for multimodality imaging are evaluated critically and their advantages and limitations are outlined...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Hisham M F Sherif
Mathematical modeling of flow in the circulatory system, particularly the arterial system, has long relied on old equations derived from the study of fluid mechanics in rigid tubes, which does not account for the cyclic distension of the vessel or the effects of intraluminal forces on wall components. An understanding of the current scientific evidence and the limitations of such assumptions is essential for adequate computational modeling of the circulatory system. Improved interdisciplinary communication among the basic science, medical, surgical, and biomedical engineering communities should prove to be beneficial in developing safer, more effective, and more reliable tools and devices that are more consistent with physiological processes within the body...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Dayo O Adewole, Mijail D Serruya, James P Harris, Justin C Burrell, Dmitriy Petrov, H Isaac Chen, John A Wolf, D Kacy Cullen
The ideal neuroprosthetic interface permits high-quality neural recording and stimulation of the nervous system while reliably providing clinical benefits over chronic periods. Although current technologies have made notable strides in this direction, significant improvements must be made to better achieve these design goals and satisfy clinical needs. This article provides an overview of the state of neuroprosthetic interfaces, starting with the design and placement of these interfaces before exploring the stimulation and recording platforms yielded from contemporary research...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Mohammadali Beheshti, Karthikeyan Umapathy, Sridhar Krishnan
Cardiac electrophysiological modeling in conjunction with experimental and clinical findings has contributed to better understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in various species. As our knowledge on underlying electrical, mechanical, and chemical processes has improved over time, mathematical models of the cardiac electrophysiology have become more realistic and detailed. These models have provided a testbed for various hypotheses and conditions that may not be easy to implement experimentally. In addition to the limitations in experimentally validating various scenarios implemented by the models, one of the major obstacles for these models is computational complexity...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Julianne Jorgensen, Corin Williams, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski
Between 0.5 and 4 of every 1000 children are born with hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus is an over-accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain, which can affect cognitive function, vision, appetite, and cranial nerve function. Left untreated, hydrocephalus can result in death. The current treatment for hydrocephalus uses ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts with valves to redirect CSF from the ventricles into the peritoneum. Shunt technology is limited by a number of complications, which include infection after implantation, shunt obstruction due to clot formation or catheter obstruction by scar tissue or choroid plexus, disconnection and tubing migration, and overdrainage or underdrainage of CSF due to valve malfunction...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Muhammad Irfan Karamat, Sahar Darvish-Molla, Alejandro Santos-Diaz
The desire to achieve clinical ultra-high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems stems from the fact that higher field strength leads to higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and spatial resolution. During last few years 7T MRI systems have become a quasi standard for ultra-high field MRI (UhFMRI) systems. This review presents a detailed account of opportunities and challenges associated with a clinical 7T MRI system for cranial and extracranial imaging. As with all of the previous transitions to higher field strengths, the switch from high to UhFMRI is not easy...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
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