Read by QxMD icon Read

Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering

Dayo O Adewole, Mijail D Serruya, James P Harris, Justin C Burrell, Dmitriy Petrov, H Isaac Chen, John A Wolf, D Kacy Cullen
The ideal neuroprosthetic interface permits high-quality neural recording and stimulation of the nervous system while reliably providing clinical benefits over chronic periods. Although current technologies have made notable strides in this direction, significant improvements must be made to better achieve these design goals and satisfy clinical needs. This article provides an overview of the state of neuroprosthetic interfaces, starting with the design and placement of these interfaces before exploring the stimulation and recording platforms yielded from contemporary research...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Mohammadali Beheshti, Karthikeyan Umapathy, Sridhar Krishnan
Cardiac electrophysiological modeling in conjunction with experimental and clinical findings has contributed to better understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in various species. As our knowledge on underlying electrical, mechanical, and chemical processes has improved over time, mathematical models of the cardiac electrophysiology have become more realistic and detailed. These models have provided a testbed for various hypotheses and conditions that may not be easy to implement experimentally. In addition to the limitations in experimentally validating various scenarios implemented by the models, one of the major obstacles for these models is computational complexity...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Julianne Jorgensen, Corin Williams, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski
Between 0.5 and 4 of every 1000 children are born with hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus is an over-accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain, which can affect cognitive function, vision, appetite, and cranial nerve function. Left untreated, hydrocephalus can result in death. The current treatment for hydrocephalus uses ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts with valves to redirect CSF from the ventricles into the peritoneum. Shunt technology is limited by a number of complications, which include infection after implantation, shunt obstruction due to clot formation or catheter obstruction by scar tissue or choroid plexus, disconnection and tubing migration, and overdrainage or underdrainage of CSF due to valve malfunction...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Muhammad Irfan Karamat, Sahar Darvish-Molla, Alejandro Santos-Diaz
The desire to achieve clinical ultra-high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems stems from the fact that higher field strength leads to higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and spatial resolution. During last few years 7T MRI systems have become a quasi standard for ultra-high field MRI (UhFMRI) systems. This review presents a detailed account of opportunities and challenges associated with a clinical 7T MRI system for cranial and extracranial imaging. As with all of the previous transitions to higher field strengths, the switch from high to UhFMRI is not easy...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Roxanne H Leung, Patrick W Stroman
Pain is a complex sensory experience, and cognitive factors such as attention can influence its perception. Modulation of pain involves a network of subcortical structures; however, the role and relationship of these regions in cognitive modulation of pain are not well understood. The aims of this research were to evaluate the behavioral effect of cognitive modulation of pain and investigate the neural correlates of this mechanism in the brainstem and cervical spinal cord (SC), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural equation modeling (SEM)...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Roxanne H Leung, Patrick W Stroman
Pain is a multifaceted and malleable sensory experience that is processed at all levels of the central nervous system (CNS). The experience of pain can vary widely across a healthy population and even within an individual and can be influenced by cognitive factors such as attention, expectation, suggestion, and attitudes. The neurophysiological role of attention in cognitive modulation of pain is the focus for the work presented in this review. Behavioral studies show that pain perception was reduced under cognitive loads that placed a continuous demand on executive functions such as working memory...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Leah Piggott, Samantha Wagner, Mounia Ziat
Motor and sensory loss or dysfunction affects the quality of life for thousands of individuals daily. The upper limb, and especially the hand, are important for a person's ability to complete activities of daily living. Traditional therapy methods focus on motor recovery, but future methods should include sensory recovery and should promote the use of the affected limb(s) at home. In this review, we highlight the current state-of-art robotic devices for the upper limb, and we discuss benefits of including haptic feedback and virtual reality environments during neurorehabilitation...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Amanda Jo LeBlanc, Christopher D Nevitt
From an obscure and overlooked beginning, the function of the microvessels in the heart has received increasing attention after the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation study concluded roughly a decade ago. This review defines the contribution of the coronary microcirculation in the development of heart disease and focuses on the therapeutic methods to reverse coronary microvascular dysfunction. Tissue engineering approaches in the past have largely neglected vascular cells in the attempts to design augmented myocardial tissue, but groups are now making advances that incorporate a functional microcirculation with cardiomyocytes that may advance this line of research...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Bo Wang, Sourav S Patnaik, Bryn Brazile, J Ryan Butler, Andrew Claude, Ge Zhang, Jianjun Guan, Yi Hong, Jun Liao
Myocardial infarction (MI) causes massive heart muscle death and remains a leading cause of death in the world. Cardiac tissue engineering aims to replace the infarcted tissues with functional engineered heart muscles or revitalize the infarcted heart by delivering cells, bioactive factors, and/or biomaterials. One major challenge of cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration is the establishment of functional perfusion and structure to achieve timely angiogenesis and effective vascularization, which are essential to the survival of thick implants and the integration of repaired tissue with host heart...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Xuetao Sun, Sevan Evren, Sara S Nunes
Engineered blood vessels have often been found to be immature and unstable. Similarly, numerous pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy and cancer are characterized by highly abnormal, defective, hypervascular networks, consisting of immature, leaky, and irregular vessels with a marked loss of perivascular cell coverage. An emerging therapeutic concept in treatment of such vascular diseases and their management is the potential to normalize blood vessels by strengthening the cellular components that form the vascular network...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Laxminarayanan Krishnan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Bethany S Powell, Yasin Y Dhaher, Igal G Szleifer
Collagenases and gelatinases regulate many physiological processes and are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of various disease states, such as osteoarthritis, renal fibrosis, and atherosclerosis. These enzymes belong to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family and are regulated by a number of factors, including sex hormones. Estrogen, relaxin, and progesterone can alter the balance between tissue degradation and repair by modulating MMPs, leading to gender disparities in many MMP-related disease states...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Pradeepa Hoskeri Dakappa, Chakrapani Mahabala
Body temperature is a continuous physiological variable. In normal healthy adults, oral temperature is estimated to vary between 36.1°C and 37.2°C. Fever is a complex host response to many external and internal agents and is a potential contributor to many clinical conditions. Despite being one of the foremost vital signs, temperature and its analysis and variations during many pathological conditions has yet to be examined in detail using mathematical techniques. Classical fever patterns based on recordings obtained every 8-12 h have been developed...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Dipal Chatterjee, David B Frumberg, Neil B Mulchandani, Ahmed M Eldib, Fred Xavier, Scott E Barbash, Subrata Saha, William P Urban
Traumatic brain injury, specifically concussion, is prevalent in contact sports. In the United States (US) each year, 170 million adults participate in physical recreational activities, and 38 million children and adolescents participate in organized sports. The Centers for Disease Control estimate that in this group ~1.6 to 3.8 million concussions occur annually. Recent class-action lawsuits in the US filed by professional athletes against their respective leagues allege negligence in protecting them from concussions, and this has contributed to the attention received in the popular media...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Ankita Mohapatra, Bashir I Morshed, Warren O Haggard, Richard A Smith
In generic terms, a drug delivery substrate (DDS) can be described as a vehicle to transport drug to the point of interest. A DDS that would ideally have the capability to control drug dosage and achieve target specificity, localization, and higher therapeutic efficacy has been pursued as a holy grail in pharmaceutical research. Over the years, diverse classes, structures, and modifications of DDS have been proposed to achieve this aim. One of its major deterrents, however, is rapid elimination of drug by the immune system before intended functionality...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Jie Liang, Youfang Cao, Gamze Gursoy, Hammad Naveed, Anna Terebus, Jieling Zhao
Genome sequences provide the overall genetic blueprint of cells, but cells possessing the same genome can exhibit diverse phenotypes. There is a multitude of mechanisms controlling cellular epigenetic states and that dictate the behavior of cells. Among these, networks of interacting molecules, often under stochastic control, depending on the specific wirings of molecular components and the physiological conditions, can have a different landscape of cellular states. In addition, chromosome folding in three-dimensional space provides another important control mechanism for selective activation and repression of gene expression...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Yanan Zhi, Benquan Wang, Xincheng Yao
Light microscopy plays a key role in biological studies and medical diagnosis. The spatial resolution of conventional optical microscopes is limited to approximately half the wavelength of the illumination light as a result of the diffraction limit. Several approaches-including confocal microscopy, stimulated emission depletion microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, photoactivated localization microscopy, and structured illumination microscopy-have been established to achieve super-resolution imaging...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Xenia Meshik, Sidra Farid, Min Choi, Yi Lan, Souvik Mukherjee, Debopam Datta, Mitra Dutta, Michael A Stroscio
This review is a survey of the biomedical applications of semiconductor quantum dots, nucleic acid-based aptamers, and nanosensors as molecular biosensors. It focuses on the detection of analytes in biomedical applications using (1) advances in molecular beacons incorporating semiconductor quantum dots and nanoscale quenching elements; (2) aptamer-based nanosensors on a variety of platforms, including graphene; (3) Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using nanostructures for enhanced SERS spectra of biomolecules, including aptamers; and (4) the electrical and optical properties of nanostructures incorporated into molecular beacons and aptamer-based nanosensors...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Arghya K Bishal, Arman Butt, Sathees K Selvaraj, Bela Joshi, Sweetu B Patel, Su Huang, Bin Yang, Tolou Shukohfar, Cortino Sukotjo, Christos G Takoudis
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique increasingly used in nanotechnology and ultrathin film deposition; it is ideal for films in the nanometer and Angstrom length scales. ALD can effectively be used to modify the surface chemistry and functionalization of engineering-related and biologically important surfaces. It can also be used to alter the mechanical, electrical, chemical, and other properties of materials that are increasingly used in biomedical engineering and biological sciences. ALD is a relatively new technique for optimizing materials for use in bio-nanotechnology...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Tyler Johnson, Nikhil Nandakumar, Robert Kenyon, James Patton
Recent work has pointed to the advantages of using distorted reality to foster sensorimotor adaptations. Here we evaluate the extent to which a visuomotor discrepancy created within the large CAVE2 Hybrid Reality Environment might induce an adaptive effect in walking. This experiment specifically studied the consequences of exposure to a rotational gain that made it appear as though the subjects were turning more than actual by a ratio of 3 to 2. We then studied subjects' abilities make turns while blindfolded before and after the experience...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"