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Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering

Vivek Patel, David Armstrong, Malika Ganguli, Sandeep Roopra, Neha Kantipudi, Siwar Albashir, Markad V Kamath
Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is used to inspect the lumen or interior of the GI tract for several purposes, including, (1) making a clinical diagnosis, in real time, based on the visual appearances; (2) taking targeted tissue samples for subsequent histopathological examination; and (3) in some cases, performing therapeutic interventions targeted at specific lesions. GI endoscopy is therefore predicated on the assumption that the operator-the endoscopist-is able to identify and characterize abnormalities or lesions accurately and reproducibly...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Paul Polak, John Van Tuyl, Robin Engel
A disease initially associated with boxers ninety years ago, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is now recognized as a significant risk to boxers, American football players, ice hockey players, military personnel or anyone to whom recurrent head injuries are a distinct possibility. Diagnosis is currently confirmed at autopsy, although CTE's presumed sufferers have symptoms of depression, suicidal thoughts, mood and personality changes, and loss of memory. CTE sufferers also complain of losing cognitive ability, dysfunction in everyday activities, inability to keep regular employment, violent tendencies and marital strife...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Joshua J Pothen, Anne E Dixon, Jason H T Bates
The GI tract of a normal adult human contains on the order of 1014 foreign living organisms, collectively known as the gut microbiome, the proper maintenance of which is critical for health. Because the gut microbiome is a dynamic system of vast complexity, computational modeling is assuming an increasingly important role in helping us to understand how and why it behaves as it does. In particular, computational models can serve as a rapid, cost-effective means of simulating the microbiome on multiple scales, from that of an individual bacterium to the microbiome as a whole...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
A L Bredlau, M A McCrackin, Anjan Motamarry, Kris Helke, Chao Chen, Ann-Marie Broome, Dieter Haemmerich
Primary brain tumors are often aggressive, with short survival from time of diagnosis even with standard of care therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Thermal therapies have been extensively investigated as both primary and adjuvant therapy. Although thermal therapies are not yet widely used clinically, there have been several promising approaches demonstrated in both animals and humans. This review presents thermal therapy approaches in animal and human studies, including both hyperthermia (temperatures ~42°C-45°C) and thermal ablation (temperatures > 50°C)...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Sergei Obruchkov, Norman B Konyer, Michael D Noseworthy
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging modality that uses radio frequency (RF) energy to excite nuclei in the presence of a strong magnetic field and linear spatially encoding magnetic field gradients. Clinically, MRI takes advantage of the spin properties of hydrogen (1H) nuclei due to the high concentration and relative abundance in tissue water and fats. However, other nuclei having the quantum mechanical property of spin can also be probed. One of the most common is phosphorous (31P), which has 100% natural abundance and reasonable in vivo concentrations that are measurable at clinical MRI field strengths...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Sandeep Bodduluri, Surya P Bhatt, Joseph M Reinhardt
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by progressive airflow obstruction due to the combined effects of emphysema and small airways disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The complex link between emphysema and airways disease is associated with significant heterogeneity in clinical presentation. Spirometry is the current gold standard for diagnosis and stratification of the severity of airflow obstruction in COPD. Although spirometry is simple to use, it does not enable the separation of emphysema from airways disease...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Nicolas Vignais, Justin Weresch, Peter J Keir
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a neuropathy of the median nerve at the wrist, and represents the most common peripheral neuropathy. It has long been an issue in the workplace because of healthcare costs and loss of productivity. The two main pathomechanisms of carpal tunnel syndrome include increased hydrostatic pressure within the carpal tunnel (carpal tunnel pressure) and contact stress (or impingement). As most cases of carpal tunnel syndrome in the workplace are labelled "idiopathic", a clear understanding of the physical parameters that may act as pathomechanisms is critical for its prevention...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Nehaarika Kantipudi, Vivek Patel, Graham Jones, Markad V Kamath, Adrian R M Upton
The World Health Organization defines air pollution as "any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere." The most common pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur dioxide. The two types of air pollution, indoor and ambient, both contribute to a host of cardiac and respiratory illnesses. Exposure to excess levels of air pollution is significantly associated with a variety of acute and chronic respiratory illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, respiratory allergies, and lung cancer...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Leo Huan-Hsuan Hsu, Aditya Aryasomayajula, Ponnambalam R Selvaganapathy
Water is a valuable natural resource and is needed to sustain human life. Water pollution significantly jeopardizes clean drinking water supplies, it is hazardous to human health, and it inhibits economic development. Well-designed sensors that can continuously monitor water quality during transport and identify contaminants in the watershed help effectively control pollution and thereby manage water resources. However, the commercially available sensors are expensive and require frequent maintenance. These limitations often make these sensors inadequate for continuous water monitoring applications...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Alan J McComas, Adrian R M Upton
The scintillating zigzag pattern that a migraine patient may see as an illusion before the onset of headache offers a unique investigative approach to visual mechanisms. The likeliest interpretation of these zigzags is that they are the spontaneous discharges of the orientation-selective neurons first described in the striate cortex by Hubel and Wiesel (Hubel DH, Wiesel TN. Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat's visual cortex. J Physiol (Lond). 1962 Jan;160:106-54; and Hubel DH, Wiesel TN...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Vivek Patel, Neha Kantipudi, Graham Jones, Adrian Upton, Markad V Kamath
Air pollution is comprised of different compounds and particulate matter (PM) of sizes 2.5 and 10 μm, with the former size posing the greatest danger to humans. Evidence suggests that the global rise in air pollution levels during the past century is correlated with the increased incidence of diseases of the cardiovascular system. On a global scale, 7 million individuals died as a result of the effects of air pollution in 2012. Air pollution leads to tremendous amounts of financial burden (in 2010, $16 trillion in the US and Europe) on the health-care system...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Alan J McComas, Adrian R M Upton
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was first found to be effective in acute migraine 12 years ago, and subsequent studies have confirmed this benefit in approximately two -thirds of treated patients. High response rate, ease of application, and freedom from adverse effects combine to make TMS a natural front-line treatment for migraine, and its use should therefore be encouraged. In relation to the pathogenesis of migraine, the prompt relief of symptoms often observed with TMS is considered incompatible with an underlying neuroinflammatory process and with spreading depression as a cause of aura...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Everette C Burdette, Joseph Seals, Stephen P Auda, Aishwarya D Ambhire, Richard L Magin
In this article, we combine a review of the wide range of tissue dielectric studies and applications (e.g., safety, imaging, therapy) being pursued by the bioelectromagnetics community with a description of one specific application of dielectric measurements (in vivo tumor classification). The tumor measurements were acquired over a frequency range of 0.01-4.0 GHz using a technique based on the impedance change recorded by a short antenna when placed near or in a lossy dielectric. Substantial differences (up to 300%) were found between the dielectric properties of tumors (mammary adenocarcinoma, melanoma, lung carcinoma, glioblastoma and ependymoblastoma) and normal host tissues...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Stacey Rigney, Anne Simmons, Lauren Kark
Conventional lower-limb mechanical models were originally developed for gait analysis of ablebodied Conventional lower-limb mechanical models were originally developed for gait analysis of ablebodied subjects and therefore potentially misrepresent prosthetic foot behavior when applied to modern energy storage and return (ESAR) prostheses. This review investigates the limitations of current models of prosthetic foot dynamics and kinematics. The Scopus online database was used to identify 236 articles on prosthetic foot behavior during either experiments or simulations, categorized into three main types of models: 74% (n = 175) of studies featured a rigid-link model, 17% (n = 39) a lumped-parameter model and 10% (n = 23) finite element (FE) analysis...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
T Deleon-Nwaha, D R Peterson
In December of 2014, the United States Congress funded a fundamental shift in the recruiting policy of the US Navy Submarine Force to include the integration of women. As a result, design modifications became necessary, especially those that facilitate integration without inflating costs. Current cost levels associated with new submarine design(s) are maintained through the use of legacy components and systems. Additionally, many of the systems aboard are computer controlled, necessitating man-machine interfaces...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Shivaprasad Chikop, Girish Koulagi, Ankita Kumbara, Sairam Geethanath
We review recent feature-based tracking algorithms as applied to fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Motion in fetal MRI is an active and challenging area of research, but the challenge can be mitigated by strategies related to patient setup, acquisition, reconstruction, and image processing. We focus on fetal motion correction through methods based on tracking algorithms for registration of slices with similar anatomy in multiple volumes. We describe five motion detection algorithms based on corner detection and region-based methods through pseudocodes, illustrating the results of their application to fetal MRI...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Patrick W Stroman
Structural equation modeling (SEM) provides a means of investigating relationships between blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes in functional MRI data across neuroanatomical regions. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate adapted SEM methods for the brainstem and spinal cord, validate statistical methods and appropriate statistical thresholds, and test the methods with existing data. SEM methods were applied using an anatomical model of regions of the thalamus, brainstem, and spinal cord that are involved with pain processing...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Olga Dona, Jeff Thompson, Cheryl Druchok
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. However, definitive diagnosis of AD is only achievable postmortem and currently relies on clinical neurological evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can evaluate brain changes typical of AD, including brain atrophy, presence of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques, and functional and biochemical abnormalities. Structural MRI (sMRI) has historically been used to assess the inherent brain atrophy present in AD. However, new techniques have recently emerged that have refined sMRI into a more precise tool to quantify the thickness and volume of AD-sensitive cerebral structures...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Seul-A Bae, Alison Acevedo, Ioannis P Androulakis
Oscillations are an important feature of cellular signaling that result from complex combinations of positive- and negative-feedback loops. The encoding and decoding mechanisms of oscillations based on amplitude and frequency have been extensively discussed in the literature in the context of intercellular and intracellular signaling. However, the fundamental questions of whether and how oscillatory signals offer any competitive advantages-and, if so, what-have not been fully answered. We investigated established oscillatory mechanisms and designed a study to analyze the oscillatory characteristics of signaling molecules and system output in an effort to answer these questions...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Rohit T Rao, Kamau K Pierre, Naomi Schlesinger, Ioannis P Androulakis
In this short review, we discuss evidence supporting the modulation of peripheral circadian systems as a therapeutic strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We first review the role of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, two of the primary mediators of chronic inflammation in RA, and their regulation by circadian clock machinery. We further highlight the role of environmental and metabolic signals in regulating the central and peripheral circadian clocks, with an emphasis on seasonal variations in photoperiod and rhythmic metabolic input, respectively...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
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