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Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering

Olga Dona, Jeff Thompson, Cheryl Druchok
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. However, definitive diagnosis of AD is only achievable postmortem and currently relies on clinical neurological evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can evaluate brain changes typical of AD, including brain atrophy, presence of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques, and functional and biochemical abnormalities. Structural MRI (sMRI) has historically been used to assess the inherent brain atrophy present in AD. However, new techniques have recently emerged that have refined sMRI into a more precise tool to quantify the thickness and volume of AD-sensitive cerebral structures...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Seul-A Bae, Alison Acevedo, Ioannis P Androulakis
Oscillations are an important feature of cellular signaling that result from complex combinations of positive- and negative-feedback loops. The encoding and decoding mechanisms of oscillations based on amplitude and frequency have been extensively discussed in the literature in the context of intercellular and intracellular signaling. However, the fundamental questions of whether and how oscillatory signals offer any competitive advantages-and, if so, what-have not been fully answered. We investigated established oscillatory mechanisms and designed a study to analyze the oscillatory characteristics of signaling molecules and system output in an effort to answer these questions...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Rohit T Rao, Kamau K Pierre, Naomi Schlesinger, Ioannis P Androulakis
In this short review, we discuss evidence supporting the modulation of peripheral circadian systems as a therapeutic strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We first review the role of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, two of the primary mediators of chronic inflammation in RA, and their regulation by circadian clock machinery. We further highlight the role of environmental and metabolic signals in regulating the central and peripheral circadian clocks, with an emphasis on seasonal variations in photoperiod and rhythmic metabolic input, respectively...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Mandakini Jain, Michael D Noseworthy
Multimodality imaging is driven by the rising demand for highly integrated diagnostic information from in vivo imaging. We provide a comprehensive review of multimodality imaging techniques available in nuclear medicine, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with ultrasound and MRI combined with stereotactic methods for image-guided breast biopsies and MR-guided stereotactic neurosurgery. Commercially available and investigative hardware- and software-based platforms for multimodality imaging are evaluated critically and their advantages and limitations are outlined...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Hisham M F Sherif
Mathematical modeling of flow in the circulatory system, particularly the arterial system, has long relied on old equations derived from the study of fluid mechanics in rigid tubes, which does not account for the cyclic distension of the vessel or the effects of intraluminal forces on wall components. An understanding of the current scientific evidence and the limitations of such assumptions is essential for adequate computational modeling of the circulatory system. Improved interdisciplinary communication among the basic science, medical, surgical, and biomedical engineering communities should prove to be beneficial in developing safer, more effective, and more reliable tools and devices that are more consistent with physiological processes within the body...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Dayo O Adewole, Mijail D Serruya, James P Harris, Justin C Burrell, Dmitriy Petrov, H Isaac Chen, John A Wolf, D Kacy Cullen
The ideal neuroprosthetic interface permits high-quality neural recording and stimulation of the nervous system while reliably providing clinical benefits over chronic periods. Although current technologies have made notable strides in this direction, significant improvements must be made to better achieve these design goals and satisfy clinical needs. This article provides an overview of the state of neuroprosthetic interfaces, starting with the design and placement of these interfaces before exploring the stimulation and recording platforms yielded from contemporary research...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Mohammadali Beheshti, Karthikeyan Umapathy, Sridhar Krishnan
Cardiac electrophysiological modeling in conjunction with experimental and clinical findings has contributed to better understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in various species. As our knowledge on underlying electrical, mechanical, and chemical processes has improved over time, mathematical models of the cardiac electrophysiology have become more realistic and detailed. These models have provided a testbed for various hypotheses and conditions that may not be easy to implement experimentally. In addition to the limitations in experimentally validating various scenarios implemented by the models, one of the major obstacles for these models is computational complexity...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Julianne Jorgensen, Corin Williams, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski
Between 0.5 and 4 of every 1000 children are born with hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus is an over-accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain, which can affect cognitive function, vision, appetite, and cranial nerve function. Left untreated, hydrocephalus can result in death. The current treatment for hydrocephalus uses ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts with valves to redirect CSF from the ventricles into the peritoneum. Shunt technology is limited by a number of complications, which include infection after implantation, shunt obstruction due to clot formation or catheter obstruction by scar tissue or choroid plexus, disconnection and tubing migration, and overdrainage or underdrainage of CSF due to valve malfunction...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Muhammad Irfan Karamat, Sahar Darvish-Molla, Alejandro Santos-Diaz
The desire to achieve clinical ultra-high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems stems from the fact that higher field strength leads to higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and spatial resolution. During last few years 7T MRI systems have become a quasi standard for ultra-high field MRI (UhFMRI) systems. This review presents a detailed account of opportunities and challenges associated with a clinical 7T MRI system for cranial and extracranial imaging. As with all of the previous transitions to higher field strengths, the switch from high to UhFMRI is not easy...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Roxanne H Leung, Patrick W Stroman
Pain is a complex sensory experience, and cognitive factors such as attention can influence its perception. Modulation of pain involves a network of subcortical structures; however, the role and relationship of these regions in cognitive modulation of pain are not well understood. The aims of this research were to evaluate the behavioral effect of cognitive modulation of pain and investigate the neural correlates of this mechanism in the brainstem and cervical spinal cord (SC), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural equation modeling (SEM)...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Roxanne H Leung, Patrick W Stroman
Pain is a multifaceted and malleable sensory experience that is processed at all levels of the central nervous system (CNS). The experience of pain can vary widely across a healthy population and even within an individual and can be influenced by cognitive factors such as attention, expectation, suggestion, and attitudes. The neurophysiological role of attention in cognitive modulation of pain is the focus for the work presented in this review. Behavioral studies show that pain perception was reduced under cognitive loads that placed a continuous demand on executive functions such as working memory...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Leah Piggott, Samantha Wagner, Mounia Ziat
Motor and sensory loss or dysfunction affects the quality of life for thousands of individuals daily. The upper limb, and especially the hand, are important for a person's ability to complete activities of daily living. Traditional therapy methods focus on motor recovery, but future methods should include sensory recovery and should promote the use of the affected limb(s) at home. In this review, we highlight the current state-of-art robotic devices for the upper limb, and we discuss benefits of including haptic feedback and virtual reality environments during neurorehabilitation...
2016: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Amanda Jo LeBlanc, Christopher D Nevitt
From an obscure and overlooked beginning, the function of the microvessels in the heart has received increasing attention after the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation study concluded roughly a decade ago. This review defines the contribution of the coronary microcirculation in the development of heart disease and focuses on the therapeutic methods to reverse coronary microvascular dysfunction. Tissue engineering approaches in the past have largely neglected vascular cells in the attempts to design augmented myocardial tissue, but groups are now making advances that incorporate a functional microcirculation with cardiomyocytes that may advance this line of research...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Bo Wang, Sourav S Patnaik, Bryn Brazile, J Ryan Butler, Andrew Claude, Ge Zhang, Jianjun Guan, Yi Hong, Jun Liao
Myocardial infarction (MI) causes massive heart muscle death and remains a leading cause of death in the world. Cardiac tissue engineering aims to replace the infarcted tissues with functional engineered heart muscles or revitalize the infarcted heart by delivering cells, bioactive factors, and/or biomaterials. One major challenge of cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration is the establishment of functional perfusion and structure to achieve timely angiogenesis and effective vascularization, which are essential to the survival of thick implants and the integration of repaired tissue with host heart...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Xuetao Sun, Sevan Evren, Sara S Nunes
Engineered blood vessels have often been found to be immature and unstable. Similarly, numerous pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy and cancer are characterized by highly abnormal, defective, hypervascular networks, consisting of immature, leaky, and irregular vessels with a marked loss of perivascular cell coverage. An emerging therapeutic concept in treatment of such vascular diseases and their management is the potential to normalize blood vessels by strengthening the cellular components that form the vascular network...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Laxminarayanan Krishnan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Bethany S Powell, Yasin Y Dhaher, Igal G Szleifer
Collagenases and gelatinases regulate many physiological processes and are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of various disease states, such as osteoarthritis, renal fibrosis, and atherosclerosis. These enzymes belong to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family and are regulated by a number of factors, including sex hormones. Estrogen, relaxin, and progesterone can alter the balance between tissue degradation and repair by modulating MMPs, leading to gender disparities in many MMP-related disease states...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Pradeepa Hoskeri Dakappa, Chakrapani Mahabala
Body temperature is a continuous physiological variable. In normal healthy adults, oral temperature is estimated to vary between 36.1°C and 37.2°C. Fever is a complex host response to many external and internal agents and is a potential contributor to many clinical conditions. Despite being one of the foremost vital signs, temperature and its analysis and variations during many pathological conditions has yet to be examined in detail using mathematical techniques. Classical fever patterns based on recordings obtained every 8-12 h have been developed...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Dipal Chatterjee, David B Frumberg, Neil B Mulchandani, Ahmed M Eldib, Fred Xavier, Scott E Barbash, Subrata Saha, William P Urban
Traumatic brain injury, specifically concussion, is prevalent in contact sports. In the United States (US) each year, 170 million adults participate in physical recreational activities, and 38 million children and adolescents participate in organized sports. The Centers for Disease Control estimate that in this group ~1.6 to 3.8 million concussions occur annually. Recent class-action lawsuits in the US filed by professional athletes against their respective leagues allege negligence in protecting them from concussions, and this has contributed to the attention received in the popular media...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Ankita Mohapatra, Bashir I Morshed, Warren O Haggard, Richard A Smith
In generic terms, a drug delivery substrate (DDS) can be described as a vehicle to transport drug to the point of interest. A DDS that would ideally have the capability to control drug dosage and achieve target specificity, localization, and higher therapeutic efficacy has been pursued as a holy grail in pharmaceutical research. Over the years, diverse classes, structures, and modifications of DDS have been proposed to achieve this aim. One of its major deterrents, however, is rapid elimination of drug by the immune system before intended functionality...
2015: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
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