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Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055533/classification-of-infectious-and-noninfectious-diseases-using-artificial-neural-networks-from-24-hour-continuous-tympanic-temperature-data-of-patients-with-undifferentiated-fever
#1
Pradeepa Hoskeri Dakappa, Keerthana Prasad, Sathish B Rao, Ganaraja Bolumbu, Gopalkrishna K Bhat, Chakrapani Mahabala
Fever is one of the major clinical symptoms of undifferentiated fever cases. Early diagnosis of undifferentiated fever is a challenging task for the physician. The aim of this study was to classify infectious and noninfectious diseases from 24-hour continuous tympanic temperature recordings of patients with undifferentiated fever using a machine learning algorithm (artificial neural network). This was an observational study conducted in 103 patients who presented with undifferentiated fever. Twenty-four-hour continuous tympanic temperature was recorded from each patient...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055532/a-comparative-study-on-single-and-multiple-point-crossovers-in-a-genetic-algorithm-for-coarse-protein-modeling
#2
Sandhya P N Dubey, N Gopalakrishna Kini, S Balaji, M Sathish Kumar
The protein structure prediction problem is a holy grail for life science researchers. Computational protein structure prediction involves the folding of protein sequence (string) into the tertiary structure, called the native protein structure. The hydrophobic polar (HP) model is one of the basic models used to investigate the protein folding mechanism at the coarse level. In the HP model, the protein structure prediction problem is defined as an optimization problem, where the protein sequence must be folded over a lattice space such that the protein structure exhibits the lowest value of free energy...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055531/a-review-of-protein-structure-prediction-using-lattice-model
#3
Sandhya P N Dubey, N Gopalakrishna Kini, S Balaji, M Sathish Kumar
The prediction of the tertiary structure of a protein from its primary sequence is a long-standing problem for life science researchers. Solutions to this problem have a direct impact on other research areas such as design and discovery of new drugs, understanding the sequenced genomic data, solving the puzzle of protein structure, and understanding the folding mechanism. Solving protein structure prediction (PSP) is considered a cornerstone for life science research to reveal the mechanism of cellular processes; it has been an open problem for past six decades...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055530/automation-of-detection-of-cervical-cancer-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#4
Vidya Kudva, Keerthana Prasad, Shyamala Guruvare
Classification of digital cervical images acquired during visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is an important step in automated image-based cervical cancer detection. Many algorithms have been developed for classification of cervical images based on extracting mathematical features and classifying these images. Deciding the suitability of a feature and learning the algorithm is a complex task. On the other hand, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) self-learn most suitable hierarchical features from the raw input image...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055529/pattern-classification-of-images-from-acetic-acid-based-cervical-cancer-screening-a-review
#5
Vidya Kudva, Keerthana Prasad
Automated analysis of digital cervix images acquired during visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is found to be of great help to physicians in diagnosing cervical cancer. Application of 3-5% acetic acid to the cervix turns abnormal lesions white, while normal lesions remain unchanged. Digital images of the cervix can be acquired during VIA procedure and can be analyzed using image-processing algorithms. Three main attributes to be considered for analysis are color, vascular patterns, and lesion margins, which differentiate between normal and abnormal lesions...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055528/considerations-for-gradient-echo-echo-planar-imaging-of-skeletal-muscle
#6
Andrew D Davis
Adequate blood circulation to muscles is important for good health. In recent years, researchers have increasingly used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study temporal skeletal muscle physiological changes using gradient echo (GRE) echo planar imaging (EPI). These studies, typically involving exercise or ischemic challenges, have differentiated healthy subjects from athletic or unhealthy populations, such as those with peripheral vascular disease. The T*2-weighted GRE EPI signal is sensitive to changes in blood flow and oxygenation in muscle...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055527/estimation-of-caffeine-regimens-a-machine-learning-approach-for-enhanced-clinical-decision-making-at-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-nicu
#7
Rudresh Deepak Shirwaikar
The decision-making process for estimating the optimal dosage is critical in clinical settings. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), preterm neonates suffering from apnea of prematurity, optimum drug dosage can make a difference between life and death. To improve clinical decision making in the NICU, we have developed prediction models using machine learning algorithms. We have used optimized Support Vector Machine (SVM), decision trees with ensembles created using Bagging, Boosting, Random Forest, optimized Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Deep Learning to predict adequacy of caffeine, a methylxanthine used to prevent the development of recurrent apneas, to reduce the need for mechanical ventilation...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055526/advances-in-powered-ankle-foot-prostheses
#8
Ming-Chien Chyu, Erik Chumacero
We present a review of recent developments in powered ankle-foot prostheses (PAFPs), with emphasis on actuation, high- and low-level control strategies, and pneumatic, hydraulic, and electromechanical actuators. A high-level control strategy based on finite-state machines, combined with low-level control that drives the ankle torque, is the most common control strategy. On the other hand, brushless direct-current motors along with an energy storage and release mechanism are commonly used to reduce the overall size of the actuators and increase PAFP autonomy...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717678/communicating-gastrointestinal-symptoms-the-patient-s-challenge
#9
Surinder K Dhaliwal, Richard H Hunt, David Armstrong
Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders present with signs that are objective and symptoms that are subjective, evaluable only if an individual can recognize, characterize, describe, and communicate them to a healthcare professional (HCP). The aim of this study was to quantify the extent to which healthcare seekers perceive difficulties in communicating their GI symptoms to HCPs. Interviews were conducted in two settings where individuals were expected to acknowledge experiencing GI symptoms: a tertiary-care, ambulatory GI clinic and the digestive health medication area of a large retail pharmacy...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717677/facilitating-earlier-diagnosis-of-cardiovascular-disease-through-point-of-care-biosensors-a-review
#10
Mackenzie M Honikel, Chi-En Lin, David Probst, Jeffrey T La Belle
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 30% of all global deaths and is predicted to dominate in the coming years, despite vast improvements in medical technology. Current clinical methods of assessing an individual's cardiovascular health include blood tests to monitor relevant biomarker levels as well as varying imaging modalities such as electrocardiograms, computed tomography, and angiograms to assess vasculature. As informative as these tools are, they each require lengthy scheduling, preparation, and highly trained personnel to interpret the results before any information is accessible to patients, often leading to delayed treatment, which can be fatal...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717676/lung-and-heart-sounds-analysis-state-of-the-art-and-future-trends
#11
Ana L Padilla-Ortiz, David Ibarra
Lung sounds, which include all sounds that are produced during the mechanism of respiration, may be classified into normal breath sounds and adventitious sounds. Normal breath sounds occur when no respiratory problems exist, whereas adventitious lung sounds (wheeze, rhonchi, crackle, etc.) are usually associated with certain pulmonary pathologies. Heart and lung sounds that are heard using a stethoscope are the result of mechanical interactions that indicate operation of cardiac and respiratory systems, respectively...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717675/quantitative-ultrasound-using-texture-analysis-of-myofascial-pain-syndrome-in-the-trapezius
#12
Dinesh A Kumbhare, Sara Ahmed, Michael G Behr, Michael D Noseworthy
Objective-The objective of this study is to assess the discriminative ability of textural analyses to assist in the differentiation of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) region from normal regions of skeletal muscle. Also, to measure the ability to reliably differentiate between three clinically relevant groups: healthy asymptomatic, latent MTrPs, and active MTrP. Methods-18 and 19 patients were identified with having active and latent MTrPs in the trapezius muscle, respectively. We included 24 healthy volunteers...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953388/critical-examination-of-stress-shielding-evaluation-of-hip-prostheses
#13
Luca Cristofolini
In vitro evaluation of the load transfer of hip prostheses has been performed in recent years for the purpose of understanding the stress shielding phenomena. Over 200 papers were reviewed to determine if a standard exists to evaluate and compare the performance of hip stems. Surprisingly, it was found that little agreement exists in the testing protocol. This makes it very difficult to compare the results reported in different investigations. In several cases very incomplete data are reported about the testing conditions, thus making it impossible to compare the results...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953387/review-of-inverse-optimization-for-functional-and-physiological-considerations-related-to-the-force-sharing-problem
#14
Dimitrios Tsirakos, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Roger Bartlett
This paper is a review of the optimization techniques used for the solution of the force-sharing problem in biomechanics; that is, the distribution of the net joint moment to the force generating structures such as muscles and ligaments. The solution to this problem is achieved by the minimization (or maximization) of an objective function that includes the design variables (usually muscle forces) that are subject to certain constraints, and it is generally related to physiological or mechanical properties such as muscle stress, maximum force or moment, activation level, etc...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953386/review-most-recent-advancements-in-digital-signal-processing-of-the-phonocardiogram
#15
Louis-Gilles Durand, Philippe Pibarot
The objective of the present paper is to provide a detailed review of the most recent developments in instrumentation and signal processing of digital phonocardiography and heart auscultation. After a short introduction, the paper presents a brief history of heart auscultation and phonocardiography, which is followed by a summary of the basic theories and controversies regarding the genesis of the heart sounds. The application of spectral analysis and the potential of new time-frequency representations and cardiac acoustic mapping to resolve the controversies and better understand the genesis and transmission of heart sounds and murmurs within the heart-thorax acoustic system are reviewed...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953385/a-review-of-hydroxapatite-and-its-use-as-a-coating-in-dental-implants
#16
Joo L Ong, Daniel C N Chan
At present, no standard manufacturing guideline exists for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) on implant surfaces. Although animal and in vitro studies have reported on the benefits of using HA-coated implants as well as the risks of dissolution, these short-term studies did not demonstrate that the dissolution of the HA coating leads to a loss of implants. In addition, many in vivo and clinical studies did not include the chemical and structural characterization of the coatings, and thus comparisons between studies are difficult...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953384/control-of-multifunctional-prosthetic-hands-by-processing-the-electromyographic-signal
#17
M Zecca, Silvestro Micera, M C Carrozza, P Dario
The human hand is a complex system, with a large number of degrees of freedom (DoFs), sensors embedded in its structure, actuators and tendons, and a complex hierarchical control. Despite this complexity, the efforts required to the user to carry out the different movements is quite small (albeit after an appropriate and lengthy training). On the contrary, prosthetic hands are just a pale replication of the natural hand, with significantly reduced grasping capabilities and no sensory information delivered back to the user...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953383/hemodynamic-parameters-and-early-intimal-thickening-in-branching-blood-vessels
#18
Clement Kleinstreuer, Sinjae Hyun, J R Buchanan, P W Longest, Joseph P Archie, George A Truskey
Intimal thickening due to atherosclerotic lesions or intimal hyperplasia in medium to large blood vessels is a major contributor to heart disease, the leading cause of death in the Western World. Balloon angioplasty with stenting, bypass surgery, and endarterectomy (with or without patch reconstruction) are some of the techniques currently applied to occluded blood vessels. On the basis of the preponderance of clinical evidence that disturbed flow patterns play a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia, it is of interest to analyze suitable hemodynamic wall parameters that indicate susceptible sites of intimal thickening and/or favorable conditions for thrombi formation...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953382/laser-non-contact-drug-delivery-methods-mathematical-and-experimental-substantiation
#19
V P Zharov, A S Latyshev
This article outlines the existing methods for parenteral drug delivery. It also presents novel alternative methods based on laser technologies, namely laser impregnation and laser injection. A mathematical model is constructed to calculate laser impregnator's technical parameters, such as the energy density of laser radiation, pulse duration, and pulse repetition frequency. This model also makes it possible to estimate the increase in the diffusion rate of drug preparations when they are impregnated through multilayer structures, such as the skin...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953381/developments-in-gastrointestinal-electrical-stimulation
#20
Zhiyue Lin, J D Z Chen
Electrical stimulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, analogous to pacing the human heart, is an attractive idea. This is because these organs, like the heart, have their own natural pacemakers, and the electrical signals they generate can be altered by externally delivering certain types of electric currents via intraluminal or serosal electrodes to certain areas of the GI tract. A number of studies on animals have been accomplished successfully to treat a variety of disease models, including gastroparesis, dumping, and short bowel syndrome...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
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