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Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering

Surinder K Dhaliwal, Richard H Hunt, David Armstrong
Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders present with signs that are objective and symptoms that are subjective, evaluable only if an individual can recognize, characterize, describe, and communicate them to a healthcare professional (HCP). The aim of this study was to quantify the extent to which healthcare seekers perceive difficulties in communicating their GI symptoms to HCPs. Interviews were conducted in two settings where individuals were expected to acknowledge experiencing GI symptoms: a tertiary-care, ambulatory GI clinic and the digestive health medication area of a large retail pharmacy...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Mackenzie M Honikel, Chi-En Lin, David Probst, Jeffrey T La Belle
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 30% of all global deaths and is predicted to dominate in the coming years, despite vast improvements in medical technology. Current clinical methods of assessing an individual's cardiovascular health include blood tests to monitor relevant biomarker levels as well as varying imaging modalities such as electrocardiograms, computed tomography, and angiograms to assess vasculature. As informative as these tools are, they each require lengthy scheduling, preparation, and highly trained personnel to interpret the results before any information is accessible to patients, often leading to delayed treatment, which can be fatal...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Ana L Padilla-Ortiz, David Ibarra
Lung sounds, which include all sounds that are produced during the mechanism of respiration, may be classified into normal breath sounds and adventitious sounds. Normal breath sounds occur when no respiratory problems exist, whereas adventitious lung sounds (wheeze, rhonchi, crackle, etc.) are usually associated with certain pulmonary pathologies. Heart and lung sounds that are heard using a stethoscope are the result of mechanical interactions that indicate operation of cardiac and respiratory systems, respectively...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Dinesh A Kumbhare, Sara Ahmed, Michael G Behr, Michael D Noseworthy
Objective-The objective of this study is to assess the discriminative ability of textural analyses to assist in the differentiation of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) region from normal regions of skeletal muscle. Also, to measure the ability to reliably differentiate between three clinically relevant groups: healthy asymptomatic, latent MTrPs, and active MTrP. Methods-18 and 19 patients were identified with having active and latent MTrPs in the trapezius muscle, respectively. We included 24 healthy volunteers...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Luca Cristofolini
In vitro evaluation of the load transfer of hip prostheses has been performed in recent years for the purpose of understanding the stress shielding phenomena. Over 200 papers were reviewed to determine if a standard exists to evaluate and compare the performance of hip stems. Surprisingly, it was found that little agreement exists in the testing protocol. This makes it very difficult to compare the results reported in different investigations. In several cases very incomplete data are reported about the testing conditions, thus making it impossible to compare the results...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Dimitrios Tsirakos, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Roger Bartlett
This paper is a review of the optimization techniques used for the solution of the force-sharing problem in biomechanics; that is, the distribution of the net joint moment to the force generating structures such as muscles and ligaments. The solution to this problem is achieved by the minimization (or maximization) of an objective function that includes the design variables (usually muscle forces) that are subject to certain constraints, and it is generally related to physiological or mechanical properties such as muscle stress, maximum force or moment, activation level, etc...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Louis-Gilles Durand, Philippe Pibarot
The objective of the present paper is to provide a detailed review of the most recent developments in instrumentation and signal processing of digital phonocardiography and heart auscultation. After a short introduction, the paper presents a brief history of heart auscultation and phonocardiography, which is followed by a summary of the basic theories and controversies regarding the genesis of the heart sounds. The application of spectral analysis and the potential of new time-frequency representations and cardiac acoustic mapping to resolve the controversies and better understand the genesis and transmission of heart sounds and murmurs within the heart-thorax acoustic system are reviewed...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Joo L Ong, Daniel C N Chan
At present, no standard manufacturing guideline exists for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) on implant surfaces. Although animal and in vitro studies have reported on the benefits of using HA-coated implants as well as the risks of dissolution, these short-term studies did not demonstrate that the dissolution of the HA coating leads to a loss of implants. In addition, many in vivo and clinical studies did not include the chemical and structural characterization of the coatings, and thus comparisons between studies are difficult...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
M Zecca, Silvestro Micera, M C Carrozza, P Dario
The human hand is a complex system, with a large number of degrees of freedom (DoFs), sensors embedded in its structure, actuators and tendons, and a complex hierarchical control. Despite this complexity, the efforts required to the user to carry out the different movements is quite small (albeit after an appropriate and lengthy training). On the contrary, prosthetic hands are just a pale replication of the natural hand, with significantly reduced grasping capabilities and no sensory information delivered back to the user...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Clement Kleinstreuer, Sinjae Hyun, J R Buchanan, P W Longest, Joseph P Archie, George A Truskey
Intimal thickening due to atherosclerotic lesions or intimal hyperplasia in medium to large blood vessels is a major contributor to heart disease, the leading cause of death in the Western World. Balloon angioplasty with stenting, bypass surgery, and endarterectomy (with or without patch reconstruction) are some of the techniques currently applied to occluded blood vessels. On the basis of the preponderance of clinical evidence that disturbed flow patterns play a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia, it is of interest to analyze suitable hemodynamic wall parameters that indicate susceptible sites of intimal thickening and/or favorable conditions for thrombi formation...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
V P Zharov, A S Latyshev
This article outlines the existing methods for parenteral drug delivery. It also presents novel alternative methods based on laser technologies, namely laser impregnation and laser injection. A mathematical model is constructed to calculate laser impregnator's technical parameters, such as the energy density of laser radiation, pulse duration, and pulse repetition frequency. This model also makes it possible to estimate the increase in the diffusion rate of drug preparations when they are impregnated through multilayer structures, such as the skin...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Zhiyue Lin, J D Z Chen
Electrical stimulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, analogous to pacing the human heart, is an attractive idea. This is because these organs, like the heart, have their own natural pacemakers, and the electrical signals they generate can be altered by externally delivering certain types of electric currents via intraluminal or serosal electrodes to certain areas of the GI tract. A number of studies on animals have been accomplished successfully to treat a variety of disease models, including gastroparesis, dumping, and short bowel syndrome...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Xu-Sheng Zhang, Johnnie W Huang, Rob J Roy
This article reviews the various modeling techniques for neuromonitoring depth of anesthesia (DOA). Traditional techniques such as parametric, predictive, optimal, and adaptive modeling; proportional, integral, derivative (PID) modeling; together with modern techniques such as bispectral-based, artificial neural-network-based, fuzzy logic, and neuro-fuzzy modeling, bring us to the current state of the art in DOA neuromonitoring. This article reviews historical information about each of the modern techniques and provides an example demonstrating its implementation; reviews drug pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) and drug interaction PK/PD modeling techniques for a balanced total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) administration; and discusses the existing technical problems and clinical challenges, suggesting new techniques necessary for the future development of a DOA monitoring and control system...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Mark van Gils, Ilkka Korhonen, Arvi Yli-Hankala
Assessing adequacy of anesthesia requires evaluation of its components: hypnosis, analgesia, and neuromuscular transmission. In order to do this, many methods have been developed that process signals representing different modalities. Assessment of hypnosis requires cortical measures of the central nervous system (CNS); methods that assess analgesia concentrate on subcortical and spinal levels of the CNS; and neuromuscular transmission is a peripheral phenomenon. This article presents an overview of the current state of methods available for measuring each of these components...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
S E Kvashnin, E V Bosova, A V Grigor'ev
An investigation was made of the dynamics of ultrasonic vibrodrills with a common source of rotational and ultrasonic reciprocal motions. The source was constructed on the basis of an electroacoustic transducer of longitudinal vibrations. The dependences of power, rotation speed, and flutter rates were plotted for various pushers as a function of biological tissue drag torque. The results obtained allowed us to determine the optimal parameters of basic ultrasonic modes used in treating biological tissues. Apart from that, ultrasonic vibrodrill pilot models, which are new in principle, are presented...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
V P Zharov, Yu A Menyaev, R K Kabisov, S V Al'kov, A V Nesterov, G V Savrasov
Further development of combined laser-ultrasonic medical technologies is presented. An analysis is made of the main effects produced by low-frequency ultrasound on biological tissues. These effects include cavitation, acoustic streamings, acoustic pressure, and mechanical influence. Possible application of low-frequency ultrasound is considered in regard to tumor therapy, bactericidal treatment of infectious tissues, and spray treatment of head and neck wounds. Some limitations of ultrasound application in medicine are discussed, and the feasibility of combining laser radiation with ultrasound is studied...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
V S Anishchenko, N B Igosheva, A N Pavlov, I A Khovanov, T A Yakusheva
A comparative analysis is made of various methods for processing electrocardiograms and RR-interval sequences. This analysis was carried out by using standard nonlinear-dynamics algorithms and methods. Apart from that, we assessed the expediency of using a number of characteristics to classify the cardiovascular system's state under stress.
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
V V Lopatin, A V Priezzhev, V V Fedoseev
This article considers the processes of light propagation and scattering in biological tissues. The results obtained made it possible to estimate basic signal parameters and their dependence on various optical parameters with respect to the laser Doppler flowmeter and laser Doppler microscope. We also developed a new method to determine the indicatrix asymmetry of single and multiple light scattering by a suspension of oriented spheroidal particles that simulated erythrocytes in a shear flow. It was found that the angular dependence of the asymmetry index provides information on the shape and orientation of particles...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
E A Gel'vich, V N Mazokhin
This article considers the fundamental advantages of electromagnetic hyperthermia over different techniques for heating the human being's body. It also presents basic parameters that characterize hyperthermia and electromagnetic techniques for heating biological tissues. Apart from that, engineering solutions directed at providing effective hyperthermia are outlined.
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
I M Taubinsky, M T Alexandrov, S Yu Koz'ma, V V Chernyi
Possible application is studied for fluorescence spectroscopy in the express-evaluation of the gastrointestinal microflora. This diagnostic approach is feasible because of the difference in fluorescent spectra from different microorganisms, with anaerobic microorganisms exhibiting the most pronounced fluorescence. It was found that fluorescence strength raised with an increase in the bacteria Bacteroides and bifid bacteria, whereas it decreased with an increase in Escherichia coli. The bacteria Bacteroides and bifid bacteria are the most typical representatives of anaerobic bacteria, whereas the bacteria Escherichia coli arc the typical representatives of aerobic bacteria...
2017: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
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