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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Zhu Chen, Caixia Wan
This study aimed at developing low-cost, robust non-sterile fermentation processes for microbial lipid production from lignocellulose-derived sugars. Three representative oleaginous yeasts, Lipomyces tetrasporus (NRRL Y-11562), Rhodotorula toruloides (NRRL Y-1091), and Yarrowia lipolytica (NRRL YB-437), were tested for lipid production via non-sterile fermentation. Under optimal non-sterile conditions, all the tested strains had good performance on salt tolerance and lipid production. L. tetrasporus (NRRL Y-11562) gave the highest lipid titer of 12...
May 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ryan M Kalinoski, Hector D Flores, Sunil Thapa, Erin R Tuegel, Michael A Bilek, Evelin Y Reyes-Mendez, Michael J West, Tim J Dumonceaux, Thomas Canam
The pretreatment of plant biomass negatively impacts the economics of many bioenergy and bioproduct processes due to the thermochemical requirements for deconstruction of lignocelluluose. An effective strategy to reduce these severity requirements is to pretreat the biomass with white-rot fungi, such as Trametes versicolor, which have the innate ability to deconstruct lignocellulose with a suite of specialized enzymes. In the present study, the effects of 12 weeks of pretreatment with a wild-type strain (52J) and a cellobiose dehydrogenase-deficient strain (m4D) of T...
May 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Diego Todescato, Danielle Maass, Diego Alex Mayer, J Vladimir Oliveira, Débora de Oliveira, Selene M A Guelli Ulson de Souza, Antônio Augusto Ulson de Souza
Rhodococcus sp. has a broad catabolic diversity and unique enzymatic capabilities, and it is able to adapt under extreme conditions. Thereby, the production of this remarkable bacterium has a great biotechnological and industrial importance. In this sense, we sought to improve the R. erythropolis ATCC 4277 growth through a central composite design, by varying the components of nutrient medium (glucose, malt extract, yeast extract, CaCO3), temperature, and agitation. It was found that the concentrations of glucose and malt extract are not statistically significant, being reduced of 4...
May 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Sipeng Li, Zhaoyang Ding, Jifu Liu, Xuejun Cao
ε-Poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) is a natural preservative for food processing industry. A thermo-responsive polymer, attached with Cu(2+) or Ni(2+), was prepared for metal-chelate affinity precipitation for purification of ε-PL. The low critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) of these polymers were close to the room temperature (31.0-35.0 °C). The optimal adsorption conditions were as follows: pH 4.0, 0 mol/L NaCl, ligand density 75.00 μmol/g, and 120 min. The ligand Cu(2+) showed a stronger affinity interaction with ε-PL and the highest adsorption amount reached 251...
May 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xiaoyun Li, Dong Wang, Dongbo Cai, Yangyang Zhan, Qin Wang, Shouwen Chen
Pulcherrimin, a potential biocontrol agent produced by microorganisms, has the promising applications in the agricultural, medical, and food areas, and the low yield of pulcherrimin has hindered its applications. In this study, the red pigment produced by Bacillus licheniformis DW2 was identified as pulcherrimin through the spectrometry analysis and genetic manipulation, and the component of the medium used for pulcherrimin production was optimized. Based on our results, the addition of 1.0 g L(-1) Tween 80 could improve the yield of pulcherrimin, and glucose and (NH4)2SO4 were served as the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for pulcherrimin synthesis, respectively...
May 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Li-Shuang Zhang, Yue Fang, Ying Zhou, Bang-Ce Ye
Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (P34O), which is isolated from Rhizobium sp. LMB-1, catalyzes the ring cleavage step in the metabolism of aromatic compounds, and has great potential for environmental bioremediation. However, its structure is very sensitive to different environmental factors, which weaken its activity. Immobilization of the enzyme can improve its stability, allow reusability, and reduce operation costs. In this work, the relative molecular mass of the native P34O enzyme was determined to be 500 kDa by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-200, and the enzyme was immobilized onto (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by the glutaraldehyde method...
May 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Lizhen Qin, Hanyu Qian, Yucai He
Biodiesel is a fuel composed of monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from renewable biomass sources. In this study, biomass waste pecan nutshell (PS) was attempted to be converted into microbial oil. For effective utilization of PS, sequential pretreatment with ethylene glycol-H2SO4-water (78:2:20, wt:wt:wt) at 130 °C for 30 min and aqueous ammonia (25 wt%) at 50 °C for 24 h was used to enhance its enzymatic saccharification. Significant linear correlation was obtained about delignification-saccharification (R (2) = 0...
May 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
A Cabrera-Díaz, I Pereda-Reyes, D Oliva-Merencio, R Lebrero, M Zaiat
The anaerobic treatment of raw vinasse in a combined system consisting in two methanogenic reactors, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) + anaerobic packed bed reactors (APBR), was evaluated. The organic loading rate (OLR) was varied, and the best condition for the combined system was 12.5 kg COD m(-3)day(-1) with averages of 0.289 m(3) CH4 kg COD r(-1)for the UASB reactor and 4.4 kg COD m(-3)day(-1) with 0.207 m(3) CH4 kg COD r(-1) for APBR. The OLR played a major role in the emission of H2S conducting to relatively stable quality of biogas emitted from the APBR, with H2S concentrations <10 mg L(-1)...
May 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Tahereh Fozooni, Hadi Ravan, Hosseinali Sasan
Due to their unique properties, such as programmability, ligand-binding capability, and flexibility, nucleic acids can serve as analytes and/or recognition elements for biosensing. To improve the sensitivity of nucleic acid-based biosensing and hence the detection of a few copies of target molecule, different modern amplification methodologies, namely target-and-signal-based amplification strategies, have already been developed. These recent signal amplification technologies, which are capable of amplifying the signal intensity without changing the targets' copy number, have resulted in fast, reliable, and sensitive methods for nucleic acid detection...
May 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
K A Ishak, M Suffian M Annuar, N Ahmad
Polymeric nanoparticles gain a widespread interest in food and pharmaceutical industries as delivery systems that encapsulate, protect, and release lipophilic compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, carvedilol, cyclosporine, and ketoprofen. In this study, medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA)-incorporated nanoparticle was developed via facile organic solvent-free nanoemulsion templating technique. The water content (W/surfactant-to-oil (S/O)), S/O, and Cremophor EL-to-Span 80 (Cremo/Sp80) ratios were first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain nanoemulsion template prior to incorporation of mcl-PHA...
May 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Taojing Chen, Quanyu Zhao, Liang Wang, Yunfeng Xu, Wei Wei
Co-culture of microalgae with many types of bacteria usually comes out with significant different treatment efficiencies for COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus in wastewater remediation, compared with the single culture. In order to understand the mechanism behind, a comparative experiment was designed in this study, using the green microalgae species Chlorella sorokiniana in the single culture and a consortium with a bacterium, Pseudomonas H4, for nutrient removal. Comparative metabolome profile analysis was conducted to reveal the Chlorella cell responses to the synergistic growth with the bacteria, and possible relations between the metabolic regulation of microalgae and the nutrient degradation were discussed...
May 12, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
S B Choudhary, I Chowdhury, R K Singh, S P Pandey, H K Sharma, A Anil Kumar, P G Karmakar, N Kumari, J Souframanien, S J Jambhulkar
Lignin is a versatile plant metabolite challenging high-end industrial applications of several plant products including jute. Application of developmental mutant in regulation of lignification in jute may open up door for much awaited jute based diversified products. In the present study, a novel dark jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) mutant with low lignin (7.23%) in phloem fibre being compared to wild-type JRO 204 (13.7%) was identified and characterised. Unique morphological features including undulated stem, petiole and leaf vein distinguished the mutant in gamma ray irradiated mutant population...
May 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Zhen Guo, Ying Li, Haiyan Guo
To improve the photoproduction of hydrogen (H2) by a green algae-based system, the effect of light/dark regimens on H2 photoproduction regulated by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) was investigated. A fuel cell was integrated into a photobioreactor to allow online monitoring of the H2 evolution rate and decrease potential H2 feedback inhibition by consuming the generated H2 in situ. During the first 15 h of H2 evolution, the system was subjected to dark treatment after initial light illumination (L/D = 6/9 h, 9/6 h, and 12/3 h)...
May 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Dong-Sheng Xue, Long-Yuan Liang, Dong-Qiang Lin, Shan-Jing Yao
Two kinds of exoglucanase were purified from a marine Aspergillus niger. Catalytic ability of halophilic exoglucanase with a lower molecular weight and secondary structure change was analyzed at different salinities. Activity of the low molecular weight exoglucanase in 10% NaCl solution (w/v) was 1.69-fold higher of that in NaCl-free solution. Half-life time in 10% NaCl solution (w/v) was over 1.27-fold longer of that in NaCl-free solution. Free energy change of the low molecular weight exoglucanase denaturation, △G, in 10% NaCl solution (w/v) was 0...
May 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Carlos Rodriguez, Dong Hyun Nam, Evan Kruchowy, Xin Ge
Molecular chaperones and protein folding factors of bacterial periplasmic space play important roles in assisting disulfide bond formation and proper protein folding. In this study, effects of disulfide bond protein (Dsb) families were investigated on assembly of 3F3 Fab, an antibody inhibitor targeting matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14). By optimizing DsbA/C co-expression, promoter for 3F3 Fab, host strains, and culture media and conditions, a high yield of 30-mg purified 3F3 Fab per liter culture was achieved...
May 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Francisco J Choix, Raúl Snell-Castro, Jorge Arreola-Vargas, Alberto Carbajal-López, Hugo O Méndez-Acosta
In the present study, the capacity of the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. CChF1 to remove CO2 from real and synthetic biogas was evaluated. The identification of the cyanobacterium, isolated from the lake Chapala, was carried out by means of morphological and molecular analyses, while its potential for CO2 removal from biogas streams was evaluated by kinetic experiments and optimized by a central composite design coupled to a response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that Leptolyngbya sp. CChF1 is able to remove CO2 and grow indistinctly in real or synthetic biogas streams, showing tolerance to high concentrations of CO2 and CH4, 25 and 75%, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hui-Hui Yang, Cheng Zhang, Shang-Hai Lai, Chuan-Chuan Zeng, Yun-Jun Liu, Xiu-Zhen Wang
Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has been reported to have a wide range of biological activities. This study evaluated the cytotoxic effect of ISL on norvegicus pheochromocytoma cell line (PC-12 cells) and its possible molecular mechanism. The cytotoxicity in vitro of ISL against PC-12 cells was investigated by MTT assay. The migration and invasion of PC-12 cells were performed by scratch test and transwell assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by microscopy and flow cytometry. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were studied by fluorescent microscopy...
May 9, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jagan Mohan Rao Tingirikari, Wesley Faria Gomes, Sueli Rodrigues
Dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512F was subjected to immobilization and co-immobilization with dextranase from Chaetomium erraticum. Immobilization has enhanced the operational and storage stability of dextransucrase. Two hundred milligrammes (2.4 IU/mg) of alginate beads (immobilized and co-immobilized) were found to be optimum for the production of gluco-oligosaccharides (GOS) in orange juice with a high degree of polymerization. The pulp of the orange juice did not interfere in the reaction...
May 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Govind V Waghmare, Abhishek Chatterji, Virendra K Rathod
This work illustrates the enzymatic synthesis of cinnamyl butyrate by esterification of butyric acid and cinnamyl alcohol. Experiments were performed to study the various operating parameters such as molar ratio, enzyme concentration, temperature, and speed of agitation. Also, the suitable kinetic model for esterification reaction was predicted and the various kinetic parameters were determined. It has been observed that the experimental results agree well with the simulated results obtained by following the ping-pong bi-bi mechanism with dead-end inhibition by both the substrate acid and alcohol...
May 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Pranhita R Nimbalkar, Manisha A Khedkar, Shashank G Gaikwad, Prakash V Chavan, Sandip B Bankar
In the present study, press mud, a sugar industry waste, was explored for biobutanol production to strengthen agricultural economy. The fermentative production of biobutanol was investigated via series of steps, viz. characterization, drying, acid hydrolysis, detoxification, and fermentation. Press mud contains an adequate amount of cellulose (22.3%) and hemicellulose (21.67%) on dry basis, and hence, it can be utilized for further acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production. Drying experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 60-120 °C to circumvent microbial spoilage and enhance storability of press mud...
May 5, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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