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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar, Mohamad Nurul Azmi, Khairul Anuar Shariff, Joo Shun Tan
Withaferin A (WA), a bioactive constituent derived from Withania somnifera plant, has been shown to exhibit many qualifying properties in attenuating several metabolic diseases. The current investigation sought to elucidate the protective mechanisms of WA (1.25 mg/kg/day) on pre-existing obese mice mediated by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Following dietary administration of WA, significant metabolic improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines with enhanced glucose tolerance were observed...
November 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Rachidi Farid, Chanda Mutale-Joan, Benhima Redouane, E L Mernissi Najib, Aasfar Abderahime, Sbabou Laila, E L Arroussi Hicham
Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that produce several bioactive molecules that have received considerable attention in scientific and industrial communities. Today, many plant biostimulants including seaweed extracts and polysaccharides are used in agriculture. However, microalgae have not been largely exploited in this field as a potential source of plant bio stimulants. This study investigated the biostimulatory effects of microalgae polysaccharides on different metabolomic and biochemical pathways related to plant defense...
November 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Sinem Evli, Deniz Aktaş Uygun
In this presented work, magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (p (HEMA)) nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization technique. Cibacron Blue F3GA was covalently attached to the magnetic p (HEMA) nanoparticles and Cu2+ ions were then chelated with dye molecules. Synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were spherical with the diameter of 80 nm and exhibited magnetic character. Incorporation rate of Cibacron Blue for magnetic nanoparticles was found to be 28.125-μmol/g polymer...
November 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Reham I El-Mahdy, Mohammed Mahmoud Mostafa, Hanan Sharaf El-Deen
Despite advances in the management of cardiovascular diseases, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. ACS is associated with an imbalance between coronary blood supply and metabolic requirements. Lipid peroxidation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage the cardiac cell membrane. A total of 130 subjects, 65 ACS patients (45 with ST segment elevation (STE-ACS), 20 non-STE-ACS), and 65 healthy controls were recruited. Measurement of serum zinc, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) by spectrophotometric methods 24 h after onset of ACS, and relations between the studied biochemical parameters and risk factors were performed...
November 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Wan-Yu Liu, Bing Liao
Vegetable and fruit waste (VFW) is becoming a heavy burden of municipal waste disposal because of its huge amount, but it is a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products such as methane. Conventional anaerobic digestion processes are not suitable for solving the problem of easy acidification of VFW. Thus, a two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion system was assembled for waste reduction and biogas production of VFW in the mesophilic temperatures. The biphasic system consists of a 70-L leach bed reactor (LBR) and a 35-L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)...
November 7, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Petra Tomášová, Martina Bugáňová, Helena Pelantová, Martina Holubová, Blanka Šedivá, Blanka Železná, Martin Haluzík, Lenka Maletínská, Jaroslav Kuneš, Marek Kuzma
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major epidemiological problem. Metformin and vildagliptin are well-established antidiabetic drugs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes of plasma metabolic profile induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent oral administration of metformin, vildagliptin, and their combination in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO)/T2DM analyzed using quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Metformin treatment increased the levels of butyrylcarnitine and acylcarnitine C18:1 concentrations and decreased the levels of isoleucine concentrations compared to untreated HFD mice...
November 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Abhishek Sinha, Suresh P K
Luteolin, a naturally derived polyphenol, has shown to induce apoptosis in HaCaT cells. Its role in induction of caspase-14 and thus in the terminal differentiation program of the human keratinocytes has also been revealed. Delivery and hence bioavailability of this relatively hydrophobic drug can be enhanced by using a suitable vehicle. Hence liposomal formulations of luteolin with/without polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification were studied for their relative potential in initiating apoptosis in immortalized human keratinocytes...
November 3, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Gizem Ertürk Bergdahl, Martin Hedström, Bo Mattiasson
A capacitive sensor for saccharide detection is described in this study. The detection is based on selective interaction between diols and aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) immobilized on a gold electrode. Glucose, fructose, and dextran (MW: 40 kDa) were tested with the system over wide concentration ranges (1.0 x 10-8 M - 1.0 x 10-3 M for glucose, 1.0 x 10-8 M - 1.0 x 10-2 M for fructose and 1.0 x 10-10 M - 1.0 x 10-5 M for dextran). The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.8 nM for glucose, 0.6 nM for fructose, and 13 pM for dextran...
October 28, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xuedong Wang, Chaolong Hua, Xinwei Xu, Dongzhi Wei
In order to obtain high 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) yield, nucleus degradation needs to be avoided during phytosterol bioconversion process with Mycobacterium neoaurum NwIB-R10hsd4A . 3-Ketosteroid-Δ1 -dehydrogenase (KstD) catalyzes 1,2-desaturation of steroids and is a key enzyme involved in steroid nucleus oxidation. Heterogeneous expression and characterization of two KstDs (KstD2, KstD3) from M. neoaurum NwIB-R10hsd4A showed that their activities were inhibited by shifting temperature from 30 to 37 °C...
October 28, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Avinesh R Byreddy, Prusothman Yoganantharjah, Adarsha Gupta, Yann Gibert, Munish Puri
A 28-day feeding experiment with formulated feed using docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich whole cells of freeze-dried marine microalgae Schizochytrium sp. to understand the distribution of fatty acids in a laboratory model zebrafish was conducted. Three feeds, commercial feed, 50:50 feed (50% commercial and 50% algae), and pure algae, were investigated. All feeds were consumed by zebrafish and showed optimal growth and weight gain with a survival rate of 100%. Lipids were extracted from four different tissues, brain, liver, muscle, and blood, to understand the distribution of fatty acids with respect to the feed...
October 22, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jiawei Tang, Tengyun Wei, Guowei Ni, Xiang Guo, Yuanjie Wu, Fuli Zhang, Shaoxin Chen
(R)-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) phenyl] ethanol [(R)-3,5-BTPE] is a crucial chiral intermediate for the synthesis of the NK-1 receptor antagonists aprepitant, rolapitant and fosaprepitant. The carbonyl reductase KR01 from Leifsonia sp. S749, discovered by protein sequence alignment, could convert 3',5'-bis(trifluoromethyl) acetophenone (3,5-BTAP) into (R)-3,5-BTPE with excellent activity and enantioselectivity. In order to enhance the conversion efficiency at high substrate concentrations, the reaction conditions were optimized by response surface analysis...
October 20, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Qiaozhi Zhang, Mengjiao Zhao, Qinqin Xu, Hongrui Ren, Jianzhong Yin
Sorghum was pretreated by sole ultrasound or supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ), as well as the method combining both to intensify enzymatic hydrolysis. The effect of the time (1-5 h) and temperature (30-70 °C) on ultrasonic pretreatment was investigated, and the best condition was determined as 5 h and 50 °C with the EH sugar yield of 33.69%. The influence of the time (6-48 h), temperature (40-80 °C), and pressure (15-25 MPa) on scCO2 pretreatment were also discussed in this study. The optimum condition of scCO2 pretreatment was identified as 60 °C, 20 MPa, and 36 h with the EH sugar yield of 43...
October 20, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Rasha Shaaban, Wael M El-Sayed, Safia Samir, Ehab El-Dabaa
Recombinant human interferon alpha2b (rhIFN-α2b) protein is FDA approved for treatment of many tumors and viral diseases. A rhIFN-α2b isoform has been produced and purified from the refolding reaction using high-resolution anion ion exchange chromatography. This isoform has a proper MW (19 kDa) and high purity and homogeneity. The conservation of native linear and conformational epitopes in this isoform was immunologically confirmed by Western blot and ELISA. Mass spectrometry assessment of its intact mass showed average mass (19,337 Da) equivalent to that of the expressed rhIFN-α2b protein without any chemical modification and without the first methionine...
October 18, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Elif Akbas, U Betul Soyler, Mecit Halil Oztop
Oleoresin capsicum (OC) is an extract of chili pepper containing the active agent capsaicin. In this study, OC-loaded nanoemulsions were prepared by microfluidization and stabilized with sucrose monopalmitate (SMP) and lecithin. The difference in size and distribution of droplets determined the nanoemulsion behavior mainly due to the interaction of emulsifiers between oil and aqueous phase. The hydrophilic interaction between SMP and aqueous phase and the hydrophobic interaction between lecithin and oil phase were monitored with NMR relaxometry...
October 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Olfa Ben Braïek, Slim Smaoui, Yannick Fleury, Stefano Morandi, Khaled Hani, Taoufik Ghrairi
Lactic acid bacteria produce various antibacterial peptides such as bacteriocins that are active against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Very little attention has been paid to the production of lysozyme as an antimicrobial enzyme. The present work represents one of the few studies reporting lysozyme production by enterococci. Indeed, this study was first conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus lactis Q1, an enterocin P-producing strain previously isolated from fresh shrimp (Penaeus vannamei), against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates...
October 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Rafaela I S Ladeira-Ázar, Túlio Morgan, Gabriela Piccolo Maitan-Alfenas, Valéria M Guimarães
Considering bioethanol production, extensive research has been performed to decrease inhibitors produced during pretreatments, to diminish energy input, and to decrease costs. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with NaOH, H2 SO4 , and water. The higher concentration of phenols, 3.3 g/L, was observed in biomass liquid fraction after alkaline pretreatment. Acid pretreatment was responsible to release considerable acetic acid concentration, 2.3 g/L, while water-based pretreatment was the only to release formic acid, 0...
October 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Taiji Nomura, Shinjiro Ogita, Yasuo Kato
6-Tuliposides A (6-PosA) and B (6-PosB) are major secondary metabolites in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana), having an acyl group at the C-6 position of D-glucose. They serve as precursors of the antimicrobial α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones tulipalins A (PaA) and B (PaB). The conversions of 6-PosA/6-PosB to PaA/PaB are catalyzed by tuliposide-converting enzymes A and B (TCEA and TCEB), respectively. A minor Pos, 1-PosA, which has the acyl group at the C-1 position of D-glucose, has been identified in some wild tulip species, but availability of this compound is limited...
October 4, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ning Zhang, Jian-Chun Jiang, Jing Yang, Min Wei, Jian Zhao, Hao Xu, Jing-Cong Xie, Ya-Juan Tong, Long Yu
In this study, acorn starch was investigated as a new material for fermenting production of citric acid by using a tannin tolerance mutant strain Aspergillus niger AA120. The mutant A. niger AA120 was obtained by initially atmospheric pressure plasma at room temperature (ARTP) mutagenesis and then tannin gradient domestication. ARTP experiments showed that a "double-saddle" shape of survival rate curve was achieved, and a positive mutation rate of 63.6% was reached by setting the implantation time of mutagenesis to 100 s...
October 3, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Haitao Lin, Mengshi Li, Liyun Ding, Jun Huang
A multiparameter fiber optic biosensor for continuous determination of cholesterol and glucose was developed. This sensor was based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) complex (PIGC) and immobilized cholesterol oxidase (COD). The immobilized COD catalysis to the oxidation of cholesterol and PIGC catalysis to the oxidation of glucose could be performed at different temperatures. Therefore, the sensor could detect cholesterol and glucose continuously by changing temperature...
October 3, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Agnieszka Małgorzata Pudlarz, Katarzyna Ranoszek-Soliwoda, Ewa Czechowska, Emilia Tomaszewska, Grzegorz Celichowski, Jarosław Grobelny, Janusz Szemraj
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the best characterized enzyme maintaining the redox state in the cell. A bacterial expression system was used to produce human recombinant manganese SOD with a His-tag on the C-end of the protein for better purification. In addition, gold and silver nanoparticles were chemically synthesized in a variety of sizes, and then mixed with the enzyme for immobilization. Analysis by dynamic light scattering and scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed no aggregates or agglomerates of the obtained colloids...
October 3, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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