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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Jia Zeng, Senwen Deng, Yiping Wang
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD 9) is the ninth member of ACADs involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and possibly complex I assembly. Sequence alignment suggested that Glu389 of rat ACAD 9 was highly conserved and located near the active center and might act as an important base for the dehydrogenation reaction. The role of Glu389 in the catalytic reaction was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. Both wild-type and mutant ACAD 9 proteins were purified and their catalytic characterization was studied...
January 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Shuai Zong, Lan Li, Jinglei Li, Farnaz Shaikh, Liu Yang, Ming Ye
In the present study, an intracellular melanin, named LIM205, was separated from Lachnum YM205 mycelia and was purified on a Sephadex G-15 column. The molecular weight of LIM205 was determined as 522 Da, and its molecular formula was speculated as C28H14N2O7S. The possible chemical structure of LIM205 was determined according to the results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and pyrolysis/GC-MS analysis. With the aim to increase its water solubility, its carboxymethylated derivative, named CLIM205, was formed by the substitution of hydrogen atoms in LIM205 with one, two, and three carboxymethylate groups...
January 12, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Eung-Sam Kim, Jung Hee Kwon, Ji Hye Shin, Sungyong You, Sun Mi Hong, Kwan Yong Choi
The conventional gene expression profiling approaches have been replaced with DNA microarrays with exhibiting a powerful high-throughput capacity. Most solid surfaces of DNA microarrays contain such a high area density of functional groups to immobilize capture DNAs to the surface that the hybridization of capture DNAs with cDNA can be hindered, resulting in low intensity and reproducibility. Since our previous works showed that the 9-acid dendron was able to increase the hybridization efficiency, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of 9-acid dendron-coated glass slides as an advanced microarray platform for gene expression profiling...
January 12, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Simone Farias, Diego A Mayer, Débora de Oliveira, Selene M A Guelli U de Souza, Antônio Augusto Ulson de Souza
The aim of this work was to remove the dyes Reactive Blue 221 (RB 221) and Reactive Blue 198 (RB 198) of synthetic effluent using the immobilized enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in Ca-alginate beads. Experimental parameters affecting the dye removal process such as the effect of pH, temperature, hydrogen peroxide concentration, mass capsules, and reuse were evaluated, and a numerical model of mass transfer was developed. A maximum removal of 93 and 75%, respectively, for the dyes RB 221 and RB 198, at pH 5...
January 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Young Hoon Jung, Hyun Min Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Jungwoo Yang, Kyoung Heon Kim
To reduce the distillation costs of cellulosic ethanol, it is necessary to produce high sugar titers in the enzymatic saccharification step. To obtain high sugar titers, high biomass loadings of lignocellulose are necessary. In this study, to overcome the low saccharification yields and the low operability of high biomass loadings, a fed-batch saccharification process was developed using an enzyme reactor that was designed and built in-house. After optimizing the cellulase and biomass feeding profiles and the agitation speed, 132...
January 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Vijay L Kumar, B Guruprasad, Syed Meraj A Fatmi, Priyanka Chaudhary, Nylane Maria Nunes Alencar, José Vitor Moreira Lima-Filho, Márcio Viana Ramos
Calotropis procera latex fractions possessing anti-inflammatory property were characterized for their biochemical properties, compared for their efficacy in ameliorating fever in rats and their mechanism of action was elucidated. Aqueous fraction and methanol extract (AqDL and MeDL) were derived from the dried latex (DL) and proteins were separated from the fresh latex (LP). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis carried out under denaturing conditions showed the presence of proteins with some similarity in LP and AqDL and both of these fractions exhibited proteinase activity by gelatin zymography...
January 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Rakhi Baddam, G Peter van Walsum
Hemicellulose extracted from wood prior to processing the wood into paper or composite materials can be a resource for the production of biofuels or bioproducts. Mixed microbial cultures are capable of converting biomass into mixed carboxylic acids, which can be purified as products or converted to biofuels or other biochemicals. Mixed cultures are robust conversion systems and do not require added enzymes to hydrolyze biomass to sugars. We produced mixed carboxylic acids using mesophilic and thermophilic fermentation of raw, unconditioned green liquor and hot water hardwood extracts, as well as baseline sugar solutions...
January 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hongyan Ren, Cong Tao, Kui Li, Yanzhen Bi, Xinmin Zheng
MicroRNA-8 and its target gene, u-shaped (ush), regulate body size in Drosophila. As the mouse homolog of the Drosophila miR-8, whether the miR-200 family has similar functions and how they perform their regulatory roles in body size control is unknown. In order to discover the biological function of the miR-200s in vivo, we generated mice lacking the miR-200b/200a/429 gene cluster using the Cre/loxp system. miR-200b/200a/429 null mutant mice were viable, fertile, and showed normal development.
January 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Tatsuya Kato, Suparmin Ahmad, Enoch Y Park
Cordyceps militaris produces cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), which has various activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-tumoral, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) seems to be a candidate to produce cordycepin in C. militaris because RNR catalyzes the reduction of nucleotides to 2'-deoxynucleotides, whose structures are similar to that of cordycepin. However, the role of RNR has not been confirmed yet. In this study, complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of C. militaris RNR (CmRNR) large and small subunits (CmR1 and CmR2) were cloned from C...
January 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Youji Shimazaki, Rino Miyatsuka
Delipidation in biological samples is important for some diagnostic tests and protein analyses. Lipids in the samples can be hydrolyzed by native esterases (ESs) within gel capsules after ES, and ES-antibody complexes are specifically trapped, extracted, and separated. Acrylamide and agarose gel capsules containing complexes of ES antibody were produced after the complexes were extracted using protein A-immobilized membranes, separated by non-denaturing electrophoresis, and stained by colloidal silver using glucose as a reductant...
January 9, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Nilkanta Chowdhury, Angshuman Bagchi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic human pathogen. It generally attacks immunosuppressed patients like AIDS, cancer, cystic fibrosis, etc. The virulence of P. aeruginosa is mediated by various virulence factors. One of such potential virulence factors is HCN synthesized by HCN synthase enzyme, which is encoded by the hcnABC operon. The expressions of the genes of this operon are regulated by three transcriptional regulators, viz., LasR, ANR, and RhlR. In our previous work, we analyzed the molecular details of the functionalities of LasR...
January 7, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Wuxi Chen, Wei Guo, Feng Gao, Limei Chen, Shulin Chen, Demao Li
Phosphatidylcholine enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was successfully produced by phospholipase A1-catalysed acidolysis. Reverse micelles were firstly selected as the reaction system to avoid the process of immobilization and to ensure the efficient catalysis of phospholipase A1. Parameters were optimized for a high incorporation of phosphatidylcholine enriched with DHA (DHA-PC). A response-surface design with four factors, including the water content, enzyme loading, pH and substrate-mass ratio were used to evaluate the influence of the major factors and to predict the optimal reaction conditions...
January 7, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Emna Meddeb, Mohamed Charni, Tesnime Ghazouani, Autilia Cozzolino, Florinda Fratianni, Faten Raboudi, Filomena Nazzaro, Sami Fattouch
The traditional medicinal properties of Carpobrotus edulis are well recognized, particularly in Tunisia where it is used for wound healing. Thus, in this study, biochemical and molecular properties of its leaves' bioactive aqueous-acetone extract were investigated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extract was estimated to be 184 ± 5 mg/100 g of fresh matter (FM). The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic profile was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) and showed that chlorogenic acid was the major compound (43...
January 7, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Juliane Zimmerling, Dirk Tischler, Carolin Großmann, Michael Schlömann, Michel Oelschlägel
Herein, different dehydrogenases (DH) were characterized by applying a novel two-step enzyme assay. We focused on the NAD(P)(+)-dependent phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenases because they produce industrially relevant phenylacetic acids, but they are not well studied due to limited substrate availability. The first assay step comprises a styrene oxide isomerase (440 U mg(-1)protein) which allows the production of pure phenylacetaldehydes (>70 mmol L(-1)) from commercially available styrene oxides. Thereafter, a DH of interest can be added to convert phenylacetaldehydes in a broad concentration range (0...
January 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ling Kou, Mingzhao Du, Chaopu Zhang, Zhiyin Dai, Xuan Li, Baohai Zhang
Zeaxanthin (ZA), an important compound found in Lycium barbarum, shows various pharmacodynamic effects. In our present study, a high-fat, high-sucrose diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model was used to investigate the antidiabetic activities of ZA. After a 4-week administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of ZA and 100 mg/kg of metformin hydrochloride, various blood biochemical indexes were detected. ZA strongly normalized the reduced bodyweight and enhanced fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats...
January 5, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Sirisha Pamidipati, Asma Ahmed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Sai Swaroop Dalli, Silvio Silverio da Silva, Bijaya K Uprety, Sudip K Rakshit
A new strain, Candida tropicalis UFMG BX 12-a, was found to produce higher yields of xylitol on poplar wood hemicellulose hydrolysate. The hemicellulose hydrolysate liquor was detoxified using a novel method we developed, involving vacuum evaporation and solvent separation of inhibitors which made the hydrolysate free of toxins while retaining high concentrations of fermentable sugars. The effect of the detoxification method on the fermentation was also reported and compared to well-known methods reported in literature...
January 4, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Liu Yang, Chen Ying, Ni Fang, Yao Zhong, Zhong Zhao-Xiang, Sun Yun
Biodegradation is one of the important methods for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing aniline. In this paper, a degrading bacterium named MC-01, which could survive in high concentration aniline wastewater, was screened from industrial wastewater containing aniline and sludge. MC-01 was preliminarily identified as Ochrobactrum sp. based on the amplified 16S rDNA gene sequence and Biolog system identification. MC-01 was highly resistant to aniline. After 24-h culture under aniline concentration of 6500 mg/L, the amount of bacterium survived still remained 0...
January 3, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hasan Kariminezhad, Hossein Amani, Reza Khanbabaie, Mahbobeh Biglarnia
The lack of a comparative study about potential of high-power light emitting diodes (LEDs) for photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of pathogenic microorganisms has remained as a challenging issue for researchers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to fill this gap through introduction of an efficient model for in vitro PDI in an aqueous medium. For this purpose, two individual 30 mW/cm(2) irradiation systems were designed using suitable sets of green and red LEDs. At another work, Methylene blue (MB) and Rose bengal (RB) as two simple models in the range of 5-150 μM were used in order to compare PDI of E...
December 27, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Sathishkumar Arumugam, Kapil Bandil, Peter Proksch, Kalaiselvam Murugiyan, Mausumi Bharadwaj
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an anticancer agent, which has greater apoptosis inducing capacity, but most of the cancer cells become resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The combined treatment of TRAIL with natural products could restore the cancer cell sensitivity to recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) protein and might enhance the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R) expression. This investigation was aimed to isolate flavonoids from leaves of Avicennia marina and evaluate their potential for sensitization of rhTRAIL in human cervical cancer cells (SiHa)...
December 24, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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