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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Akram Abi, Anqi Wang, Hans-Joachim Jördening
The first continuous production system of laminaribiose from sucrose and glucose in a bienzymatic reaction is reported in this study. Immobilized laminaribiose phosphorylase and sucrose phosphorylase were used in a packed bed reactor system comprising of a 3-cm glass column at 35 °C with a steady feeding flow rate of 0.1 ml/min. Factors affecting product formation including enzyme ratio, peal concept (both enzymes in one pearl or in separate pearls), and pearl size were studied. An enzyme ratio of 2:1 of laminaribiose phosphorylase (LP) to sucrose phosphorylase (SP) when encapsulated separately in bigger size peals resulted in higher concentration of product...
May 16, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jerzy Drzewiecki, Alma Leticia Martinez-Ayala, María A Lozano-Grande, Hanna Leontowicz, Maria Leontowicz, Zenon Jastrzebski, Pawel Pasko, Shela Gorinstein
Electrophoretic, antioxidant, and FTIR profiles of some varieties of amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat seeds and their by products were compared. Water extracts of these products were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method in order to determine total phenolic content. The antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2'-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide, ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity radical scavenging assays. FTIR spectra showed the secondary structure of pseudocereals in the ranges of amides I, II, and III shifts...
May 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hung Nguyen, Tri Pham, Hoang Linh Nguyen, Tuyn Phan
The aim of this work is to investigate the binding affinity between the prokaryotic proteins-AHU-IHF proteins (AHU (AHU2, TR3, and AHU6) and IHF (IHF-WT and IHF-βE44A))-and DNAs (DNA, H'-DNA, and H'44A-DNA) by using the steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation and the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. The gained results show that although the fluctuation of the pulling force yielded the change of the pulling work, the higher pulling work of the AHU/DNA complexes in comparison to those of the IHF/DNA complexes is not only dependent on the pulling force but also controlled by the change of the trajectory in SMD simulation process...
May 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Liangkun Long, Meijuan Xu, Yuexin Shi, Qunying Lin, Jing Wang, Shaojun Ding
Two new endo-1,4-beta-xylanases encoding genes EpXyn1 and EpXyn3 were isolated from mesophilic fungus Eupenicillium parvum 4-14. Based on analysis of catalytic domain and phylogenetic trees, the xylanases EpXYN1 (404 aa) and EpXYN3 (220 aa) belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 and 11, respectively. Both EpXYN1 and EpXYN3 were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and the recombinant enzymes were characterized using beechwood xylan, birchwood xylan, or oat spelt xylan as substrates, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mohamed Mahmoud Elseweidy, Rawia Sarhan Amin, Hebatallah Husseini Atteia, Reham Raafat El-Zeiky, Naif A Al-Gabri
Platelet markers [soluble p selectin (sP-selectin) and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L)] are associated with platelet activation and cardiovascular risk. Both policosanol and 10-dehydrogingerdione are natural products with proven CETP inhibitory and antiatherogenic effects. Present work aimed mainly to investigate the levels of platelet activation biomarkers in the serum of dyslipidemic rabbits and the potential of these phytochemicals either alone or in a combination form to protect against atherogenicity. Additionally, this work clarified their effect on PCSK9, a key player in atherosclerosis progression...
May 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Wei Jiang, Ya-Li Wang, Bai-Shan Fang
As phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH) plays an important role in the synthesis of chiral drug intermediates and detection of phenylketonuria, it is significant to obtain a PheDH with specific and high activity. Here, a PheDH gene, pdh, encoding a novel BhPheDH with 61.0% similarity to the known PheDH from Microbacterium sp., was obtained. The BhPheDH showed optimal activity at 60 °C and pH 7.0, and it showed better stability in hot environment (40-70 °C) than the PheDH from Nocardia sp. And its activity and thermostability could be significantly increased by sodium salt...
May 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Touseef Amna
At present, hydroxyapatite is being frequently used for diverse biomedical applications as it possesses excellent biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and non-immunogenic characteristics. The aim of the present work was to recycle bone waste for synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to be used as bone extracellular matrix. For this reason, we for the first time utilized bio-waste of cow bones of Albaha city. The residual bones were utilized for the extraction of natural bone precursor hydroxyapatite. A facile scientific technique has been used to synthesize hydroxyapatite nanoparticles through calcinations of wasted cow bones without further supplementation of chemicals/compounds...
May 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hala M ElBadre, Reham I El-Mahdy, Nahed A Mohamed, Madeha M Zakhary, Doaa W Maximous
Telomere length dysfunction is involved in the generation of genomic rearrangements that drive progression to malignancy. A set of serological markers for telomere dysfunction, namely chitinase and N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), DNA damage, and tissue alteration of p53 have been identified. The probability that genomic damage, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and shorter telomeres may be related to the onset and advancement of gastrointestinal (GI) tumors. A total of 40 patients with GI tumors and 20 healthy controls with matched age and sex were included...
May 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Juliana Albuquerque da Silva, Lucas Guimarães Cardoso, Denilson de Jesus Assis, Gleice Valéria Pacheco Gomes, Maria Beatriz Prior Pinto Oliveira, Carolina Oliveira de Souza, Janice Izabel Druzian
This study aimed to evaluate the properties of xanthan gum produced by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 1866 and 1867 from lignocellulosic agroindustrial wastes. XG was produced using an orbital shaker in a culture medium containing coconut shell (CS), cocoa husks (CH), or sucrose (S) minimally supplemented with urea and potassium. The XG production results varied between the CS, CH, and S means, and it was higher with the CH in strains 1866 (4.48 g L-1 ) and 1867 (3.89 g L-1 ). However, there was more apparent viscosity in the S gum (181...
May 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
P Selvakumar, P Sivashanmugam
The economical production of lipids is considered as an appropriate renewable alternative feedstock for biodiesel production because of the contemporary concerns on fuel crisis, climate change and food security. In this study, lipid accumulation potential of a novel oleaginous yeast isolate Naganishia liquefaciens NITTS2 by utilizing pre-digested municipal waste activated sludge (PWAS) was explored. Optimization of culture conditions was performed using response surface methodology coupled with genetic algorithm and maximum lipid content of 55...
May 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Angela Boyce, Gary Walsh
A locally isolated strain of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was found to produce thermostable β-xylosidase activity. The enzyme was purified by cation and anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Maximum activity was observed at 70-75 °C and pH 4.5. The enzyme was found to be thermostable retaining 91 and 87% of its original activity after incubation for 72 h at 60 and 65 °C, respectively, with 52% residual activity detected after 18 h at 70 °C. Available data indicates that the purified β-xylosidase is more thermostable over industrially relevant prolonged periods at high temperature than those reported from other A...
May 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Özlem Öztopuz, Gülseren Pekin, Ro Dong Park, Rengin Eltem
Bacillus is an antagonistic bacteria that shows high effectiveness against different phytopathogenic fungi and produces various lytic enzymes, such as chitosanase, chitinase, protease, and gluconase. The aim of this study is to determine Bacillus spp. for lytic enzyme production and to evaluate the antifungal effects of the selected strains for biocontrol of mycotoxigenic and phytopathogenic fungi. A total of 92 endospore-forming bacterial isolates from the 24 fig orchard soil samples were screened for chitosanase production, and six best chitosanolytic isolates were selected to determine chitinase, protease, and N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase activity and molecularly identified...
May 3, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Francisco Guzmán-Rodríguez, Sergio Alatorre-Santamaría, Lorena Gómez-Ruiz, Gabriela Rodríguez-Serrano, Mariano García-Garibay, Alma Cruz-Guerrero
Fucosylated oligosaccharides, such as 2'-fucosyllactose in human milk, have important biological functions such as prebiotics and preventing infection. In this work, the effect of an acceptor substrate (lactose) and the donor substrate 4-nitrophenyl-α-L-fucopyranoside (pNP-Fuc) on the synthesis of a fucosylated trisaccharide was studied in a transglycosylation reaction using α-L-fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima. Conducting a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), it was demonstrated that synthesized oligosaccharide corresponded to a fucosylated trisaccharide, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the hydrolyzed compound confirmed it was fucosyllactose...
May 2, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jing Li, Suan Shi, Maobing Tu, Brain Via, Fubao Fuelbio Sun, Sushil Adhikari
Bioconversion of lignocellulose to biofuels suffers from the degradation compounds formed during pretreatment and acid hydrolysis. In order to achieve an efficient biomass to biofuel conversion, detoxification is often required before enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Prehydrolysates from ethanol organosolv-pretreated pine wood were used as substrates in butanol fermentation in this study. Six detoxification approaches were studied and compared, including overliming, anion exchange resin, nonionic resin, laccase, activated carbon, and cysteine...
May 2, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Pansuwan Supaporn, Sung Ho Yeom
This study investigated the biological conversion of crude glycerol generated from a commercial biodiesel production plant as a by-product to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD). Statistical analysis was employed to derive a statistical model for the individual and interactive effects of glycerol, (NH4 )2 SO4 , trace elements, pH, and cultivation time on the four objectives: 1,3-PD concentration, yield, selectivity, and productivity. Optimum conditions for each objective with its maximum value were predicted by statistical optimization, and experiments under the optimum conditions verified the predictions...
April 30, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xiaoqing Lv, Zhaoxin Geng, Zhiyuan Fan, Shicai Wang, WeiHua Pei, Hongda Chen
Cell migration and invasion are important factors during tumor progression and metastasis. Wound-healing assay and the Boyden chamber assay are efficient tools to investigate tumor development because both of them could be applied to measure cell migration rate. Therefore, a simple and integrated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device was developed for cell migration assay, which could perform quantitative evaluation of cell migration behaviors, especially for the wound-healing assay. The integrated device was composed of three units, which included cell culture dish, PDMS chamber, and wound generation mold...
April 30, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Md Harun-Ur-Rashid, Hironori Iwasaki, Shahanaz Parveen, Shigeki Oogai, Masakazu Fukuta, Md Amzad Hossain, Toyoaki Anai, Hirosuke Oku
In higher plants, multiple copies of the cysteine synthase gene are present for cysteine biosynthesis. Some of these genes also have the potential to produce various kinds of β-substitute alanine. In the present study, we cloned a 1275-bp cDNA for cytosolic O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (cysteine synthase) (Cy-OASTL) from Leucaena leucocephala. The purified protein product showed a dual function of cysteine and mimosine synthesis. Kinetics studies showed pH optima of 7.5 and 8.0, while temperature optima of 40 and 35 °C, respectively, for cysteine and mimosine synthesis...
April 25, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Edwin E Martínez Leo, Victor E Arana Argáez, Juan J Acevedo Fernández, Rosa Moo Puc, Maira R Segura Campos
Inflammation is considered to be a major risk factor for the pathogenesis of chronic non-communicable diseases. Macrophages are important immune cells, which regulate inflammation and host defense by secretion of proinflammatory mediators. Obtaining biopeptides by enzymatic hydrolysis adds value to proteins of vegetative origin, such as Mucuna pruriens L. The present study evaluated the effect of enzymatic digestion of protein derivatives obtained from M. pruriens L. on the production of proinflammatory mediators by BALB/c mouse macrophages...
April 25, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Huan Liu, Shiwei Zhang, Na Yu, Liting Dou, Li Deng, Fang Wang, Tianwei Tan
Bio-ethanol, as an environment friendly and renewable fuel, has gained increasing worldwide attention and can be produced through the fermentation of the carbohydrates or sugar(s) fraction of biomass materials. Here, dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS), a waste in production of bio-ethanol, were applied to prepare acid-hydrolytic liquid and it was directly used as seed culture and fermentation medium without pretreatment. Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13-9# cultured in non-pretreated acid-hydrolytic liquid with pH 4...
April 23, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jakeline Kathiele Poppe, Carla Roberta Matte, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente, Rafael C Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Záchia Ayub
This work describes the use of an ultrasound system for the enzymatic transesterification of oils using combi-lipases as biocatalyst. The reactions were carried out evaluating the individual use of waste oil and fresh soybean oil, and the immobilized lipases CALB, TLL, and RML were used as biocatalysts. It was performed in a mixture design of three factors to obtain the ideal mixture of lipases according to the composition of fatty acids present in each oil, and the main reaction variables were optimized. After 18 h of reaction, ultrasound provided a biodiesel yield of about 90% when using soybean oil and 70% using the waste oil...
April 21, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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