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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Krzysztof Ziemiński, Monika Kowalska-Wentel
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sugar beet pulp (SBP) pretreatments on biogas yield from anaerobic digestion. SBP was subjected to grinding, thermal-pressure processing, enzymatic hydrolysis, or combination of these pretreatments. It was observed that grinding of SBP to 2.5-mm particles resulted in the cumulative biogas productivity of 617.2 mL/g volatile solids (VS), which was 20.2 % higher compared to the biogas yield from the not pretreated SBP, and comparable to that from not ground, enzymatically hydrolyzed SBP...
October 20, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Lakshmi Kasirajan, Kalaivaani Aruchamy, Prathima P Thirugnanasambandam, Selvi Athiappan
Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the highest biomass-producing plant and the best lignocellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. To achieve more efficient conversion of biomass to ethanol, a better understanding of the main factors affecting biomass recalcitrance is needed. Therefore, with this objective, here, we report a systematic study on lignin content, deposition, identification, and cloning of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and their differential expression in five sugarcane clones, EC11003, EC11010, IK 76-91, IK 76-99, and Co 86032...
October 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Enerelt Urnukhsaikhan, Tsogbadrakh Mishig-Ochir, Soo-Chan Kim, Jung-Keug Park, Young-Kwon Seo
Low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields (LF-PEMFs) affect many biological processes; however, the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these effects remain unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of LF-PEMFs on neuroprotection after ischemic stroke. C57B6 mice were exposed to LF-PEMF (F = 60 Hz, Bm = 10 mT) after photothrombotic occlusion. We measured the BDNF/TrkB/Akt signaling pathway, pro-apoptotic and pro-survival protein and gene expressions, and the expression of inflammatory mediators and performed behavioral tests in both LF-PEMF-treated and untreated ischemic stroke mice...
October 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
S Raposo, A Constantino, F Rodrigues, B Rodrigues, M E Lima-Costa
Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity...
October 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Roent Dune A Cayetano, Tae Hyun Kim
Corn stover was treated using low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) at controlled ammoniation temperature. Moisturized corn stover (50 % moisture) was contacted with anhydrous ammonia (0.1 g NH3/g-biomass) in a batch reactor at various temperatures (ambient to 150 °C). After ammoniation at elevated and controlled temperature, ammoniated corn stover was pretreated at various temperatures (60-150 °C) for 72-144 h. Change in composition was marginal at low pretreatment temperature but was relatively severe with pretreatment at high temperature (130-150 °C)...
October 18, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Teresa Lopes da Silva, Cátia Baptista, Alberto Reis, Paula C Passarinho
Lignocellulosic materials have been considered low-cost effective substrates for bioethanol production. However, lignocellulosic pretreatment releases toxic compounds such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that is known to inhibit the yeast growth and ethanol production. In this work, flow cytometry was used to monitor the physiological response of the yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis ATCC 6269 in the presence of different initial HMF concentrations within the range of 0-15 g/L, in terms of cell membrane integrity, potential, and intracellular lipids...
October 18, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Zahoor Qadir Samra, Sadaf Shabir, Zainab Rahmat, Mariam Zaman, Aqsa Nazir, Nadia Dar, Muhammad Amin Athar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Farshad Darvishi, Marzieh Moradi, Catherine Madzak, Claude Jolivalt
Laccases are used in numerous applications, from green degradation of various xenobiotic compounds, waste detoxification, textile dye bleaching, and delignification of lignocellulose materials to biofuel production. In this study, the recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica YL4 strain carrying the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor laccase IIIb gene was used for laccase production from beet molasses as an agro-industrial residue. Response surface methodology was used to statistical optimization of the production of laccase by Y...
October 15, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hao Lu, Wenqiao Yuan, Jay Cheng, Robert B Rose, John J Classen, Otto D Simmons
The objective of this study was to develop sigmoidal models, including three-parameter (Quadratic, Logistic, and Gompertz) and four-parameter models (Schnute and Richards) to simulate the growth of archaeon Halobacterium halobium affected by temperature and light. The models were statistically compared by using t test and F test. In the t test, confidence bounds for parameters were used to distinguish among models. For the F test, the lack of fit of the models was compared with the prediction error. The Gompertz model was 100 % accepted by the t test and 97 % accepted by the F test when the temperature effects were considered...
October 14, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Subin Jung, Byeong-Chul Jeong, Soon-Kwang Hong, Chang-Ro Lee
A novel β-agarase AgaJ11 belonging to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 16 family was identified from an agar-degrading bacterium Gayadomonas joobiniege G7. AgaJ11 was composed of 317 amino acids (35 kDa), including a 26-amino acid signal peptide, and had the highest similarity (44 % identity) to a putative β-agarase from an agarolytic marine bacterium Agarivorans albus MKT 106. The agarase activity of purified AgaJ11 was confirmed by zymogram analysis. The optimum pH and temperature for AgaJ11 activity were determined to be 4...
October 14, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hammad Ismail, Erum Dilshad, Mohammad Tahir Waheed, Bushra Mirza
Lettuce is an edible crop that is well known for dietary and antioxidant benefits. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rol ABC genes on antioxidant and medicinal potential of lettuce by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene integration and expression was confirmed through PCR and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. The transformed plants showed 91-102 % increase in total phenolic contents and 53-65 % increase in total flavonoid contents compared to untransformed plants. Total antioxidant capacity and total reducing power increased up to 112 and 133 % in transformed plants, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Janifer Raj Xavier, Karna Venkata Ramana
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan attract much attention due to a wide range of applications in food technology and pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Bacillus licheniformis ANT 179, isolated from Antarctica soil, produced levansucrase and levan in a medium containing sucrose as carbon substrate. In this study, characterization of levansucrase and production of short-chain FOS and levan were investigated. Temperature and pH optimum of the enzyme were found to be 60 °C and pH 6.0, respectively. The optimization of fermentation conditions for levan production using sugarcane juice by response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Neha Atale, Sharad Saxena, J Grace Nirmala, R T Narendhirakannan, Sujata Mohanty, Vibha Rani
There exists a complex and multifactorial relationship between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Hyperglycemia is an important factor imposing damage (glucose toxicity) on cardiac cell leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy. There are substantial clinical evidences on the adverse effects of conventional therapies in the prevention/treatment of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Currently, green-synthesized nanoparticles have emerged as a safe, efficient, and inexpensive alternative for therapeutic uses. The present study discloses the silver nanoparticle biosynthesizing capability and cardioprotective potential of Syzygium cumini seeds already reported to have antidiabetic properties...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Zeynep Ustaoglu Iyigundogdu, Okan Demir, Ayla Burcin Asutay, Fikrettin Sahin
In conjunction with an increasing public awareness of infectious diseases, the textile industry and scientists are developing hygienic fabrics by the addition of various antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. In the current study, sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan are applied to cotton fabrics in order to gain antimicrobial and antiviral properties for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of textiles treated with 3 % sodium pentaborate pentahydrate, 0.03 % triclosan, and 7 % Glucapon has been investigated against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and fungi...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jidong Zhou, Dexin Wang, Chenghong Wang, Jinjie Gu, Chul Ho Kim, Jiping Shi, Biao Jiang, Min Wang, Jian Hao
Pyruvate dehydrogenase-complex (AcoABCD) and pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL) are two pathways responsible for synthesis of acetyl-CoA from pyruvate (pyruvate acetyl-CoA switch). The two pathways were individually deleted in Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the role of the pyruvate acetyl-CoA switch in 1,3-propanediol production was investigated. Fermentation results showed that the two pathways were both active in the wild-type strain. Acetyl-CoA formation between the two pathways was equal in the wild-type strain. The pflB mutant produced high level of lactic acid, and deletion of ldhA eliminated lactic acid synthesis...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jingwen Qiu, Qing Wang, Fei Shen, Gang Yang, Yanzong Zhang, Shihuai Deng, Jing Zhang, Yongmei Zeng, Chun Song
Wheat straw was pretreated by phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP), in which temperature, time, and H3PO4 proportion for pretreatment were investigated by using response surface method. Results indicated that hemicellulose and lignin removal positively responded to the increase of pretreatment temperature, H3PO4 proportion, and time. H3PO4 proportion was the most important variable to control cellulose recovery, followed by pretreatment temperature and time. Moreover, these three variables all negatively related to cellulose recovery...
October 11, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jing Xu, Wenhua Zhu, Yuanxu Guo, Congshan Jiang, Nazim Hussain, Liesu Meng, Shemin Lu
The pLKO.1-TRC plasmid has been a popular and widely used vector due to its simple handling and stability. The huge RNAi database, a TRC library, has been established based on this vector. However, this plasmid only has a puromycin-resisted gene for selecting, which limits its application in microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). In the present work, PCR, restriction endonuclease digestion and molecular cloning techniques were used to insert the gene decoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) without changing the structure of original plasmid to extend its application...
October 11, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hamed Moradkhani, Mir-Shahabeddin Izadkhah, Navideh Anarjan
In this work, gas dispersion in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor is analyzed by calculating volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient which is modeled using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD), code FLUENT 6.2. Dispersed oxygen bubbles dynamics is based on standard "k-ε" Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. This paper describes a three-dimensional CFD model coupled with population balance equations (PBE) in order to get more confirming results of experimental measurements. Values of k L a are obtained using dynamic gassing-out method...
October 8, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Vijay Sundaram, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Stephen Gent
Lignocellulosic feedstocks corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass were subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment and densified using extrusion pelleting and ComPAKco densification technique. The effects of AFEX™ pretreatment and densification were studied on the fast pyrolysis product yields. Feedstocks were milled in a hammer mill using three different screen sizes (2, 4, and 8 mm) and were subjected to AFEX™ pretreatment. The untreated and AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks were moisture adjusted at three levels (5, 10, and 15 % wb) and were extruded using a lab-scale single screw extruder...
October 8, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Krupa M Parmar, Zubeen J Hathi, Nishant A Dafale
The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is an emerging threat to the environment and public wellness. Inappropriate use and indiscriminate release of antibiotics in the environment through un-metabolized form create a scenario for the emergence of virulent pathogens and MDR bugs in the surroundings. Mechanisms underlying the spread of resistance include horizontal and vertical gene transfers causing the transmittance of MDR genes packed in different host, which pass across different food webs. Several controlling agents have been used for combating pathogens; however, the use of lytic bacteriophages proves to be one of the most eco-friendly due to their specificity, killing only target bacteria without damaging the indigenous beneficial flora of the habitat...
October 8, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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