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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Xuwang Zhang, Yuanyuan Qu, Qiao Ma, Shuzhen Li, Chunxiao Dai, Shengyang Lian, Jiti Zhou
Indole is a typical nitrogen-containing aromatic pollutant in coking wastewater, and it can be used for the microbial production of indigo, one of the oldest dyestuffs. In this study, the activated sludge system bioaugmented with two indigo-producing bacterial strains, wild strain Comamonas sp. MQ and recombinant Escherichia coli (ND_IND), was constructed to investigate indigo bioproduction from indole. During the operation, the bioaugmentation could promote the production of indigo, especially in early stages, and the indigo yields gradually increased from 17...
September 24, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Preety S Gedam, Atulkumar N Raut, Pradip B Dhamole
The present study was undertaken in order to investigate effect of diverse parameters such as fermentation media, pH, initial concentration of biomass, different surfactant concentrations, and immobilization on increasing butanol and total solvent production. Cheng's fermentation media was successfully tested and perceived to increase final solvents concentration. Controlled pH at 12th and 24th hours had negative effect on butanol enhancement; however, it resulted in more butyric acid production which remained accumulated...
September 21, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Muhammad Shahbaz, Muhammad Ammar, Dexun Zou, Rashid Mustafa Korai, XiuJin Li
The unbalanced nutrients of municipal solid waste (MSW), particularly high carbon contents, were regarded as a major limiting factor to anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the addition of MSW in food waste (FW) feedstock to have a balanced C/N ratio was studied. Different co-substrate mixtures with C/N ratio of 20 to 40 were subjected to anaerobic batch experiment at lab scale, under mesophilic conditions. The biogas production decreased with the increase in C/N ratio due to insufficient availability of organic nitrogen for anaerobic microbial growth...
September 19, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Neha Verma, Anita Yadav, Surbhi Bal, Ranjan Gupta, Neeraj Aggarwal
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-redox metal that can indirectly cause oxidative stress by depleting cellular levels of glutathione. It is well-known for the generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide. The latter inactivates antioxidant enzymes and induces lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in cells. In our study, we have investigated the ameliorative effect of limonene against Cd-induced genotoxicity using various biomarkers such as sister chromatid exchange (SCE), comet, and lipid peroxidation (LPA) assays in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from healthy individuals...
September 19, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jasmina Ćilerdžić, Milica Galić, Žarko Ivanović, Ilija Brčeski, Jelena Vukojević, Mirjana Stajić
Biological pretreatment of the lignocellulosic residues, in which white-rot fungi have a crucial role, has many advantages compared to the chemical, physical, and physico-chemical methods of delignification and therefore attracts increasing scientific attention. Regarding the fact that properties and capacities of the ligninolytic enzymes of Daedaleopsis spp. are still unknown, the aim of this study was to research how nitrogen sources and inducers affect the potential of Daedaleopsis confragosa and Daedaleopsis tricolor to degrade cherry sawdust...
September 19, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Linlin Shan, Dongyang Wang, Qinwen Mao, Haibin Xia
DGKθ protein expression levels are closely related to the development of diseases including diabetes, cancer, and neuronal disease. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of the DGKθ gene, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate a DGKθ endogenous promoter luciferase reporter HepG2 cell line, in which the endogenous DGKθ promoter controls the expression of the luciferase reporter gene. To test the cell line, FXR, the transcription factor for upregulating the expression of DGKθ gene, was used to validate the cell line...
September 19, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Gelson Perin, Helen A Goulart, Liane K Soares, Thiago J Peglow, Ricardo F Schumacher, Mikaela P Pinz, Angélica S Reis, Cristiane Luchese, Ethel A Wilhelm
In the present study, the synthesis of new selenoethers from nucleophilic substitution reaction between organyl halides and nucleophilic species of selenium generated in situ was demonstrated. After, this method was applied for the synthesis of pyridylselenides glycerol derivatives 9b and 9c and the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as, acute toxicity were evaluated. In the formalin test, the compound 9b caused a reduction in licking time in both phases. Compounds 9b and 9c increased the latency to response in the hot-plate test and reduced the licking time induced by glutamate...
September 19, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Kok-Tong Tan, Shiming Li, Yi Rong Li, Shih-Lung Cheng, Sheng-Hao Lin, Yu-Tang Tung
Lung cancer remains a highly prevalent disease and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Currently, exploring antitumor drugs derived from herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine is increasingly becoming an attractive area of research. Paclitaxel (PTX), a highly effective chemotherapeutic drug, is widely used for treating different cancers; however, the clinical use of PTX is dose limited because of its adverse side effects. Chemotherapeutic agents are being developed to enhance the anticancer activity of PTX, particularly for use in combination therapy...
September 19, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Pailin Sukwong, In Yung Sunwoo, Min Ju Lee, Chae Hun Ra, Gwi-Taek Jeong, Sung-Koo Kim
Gracilaria verrucosa, red seaweed, is a promising biomass for bioethanol production due to its high carbohydrate content. The optimal hyper thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis conditions are 12% (w/v) G. verrucosa with 0.2 M H2 SO4 at 130 °C for 15 min, with a severity factor of 1.66. This HT acid hydrolysis produces 50.7 g/L monosaccharides. The maximum monosaccharide concentration of 58.0 g/L was achieved with 96.6% of the theoretical monosaccharide production from 120 g dry weight/L G. verrucosa slurry after HT acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification...
September 17, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jing Luo, Yong Xu, Yimin Fan
Pectin, as one of the most widely used functional polysaccharide, can be abundantly extracted from apple pomace which is the main by-product of apple juice industry. In the case of 110 min, 10% (w/w) acetic acid (AA), and 100 °C, extraction yield of pectin reached 19.6%. Compared with mineral acid-extracted pectin, the yield, molecular weight, galacturonic acid content, and DE of the AA-extracted pectin were higher while neutral sugars were lower. Furthermore, the AA-extracted pectin solution demonstrated a higher viscosity during the shear rate increased, and a higher G″ modulus than pectin extracted with mineral acid and commercial pectin possibly because of stronger polymer chain interaction, which was reflected in gel textural properties...
September 15, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Naiane Sabedot Marcon, Rosicler Colet, Denise Bibilio, Adriana Marcia Graboski, Clarice Steffens, Clarissa Dalla Rosa
This work aimed to produce ethyl esters from Chlorella vulgaris microalgae biomass, using an immobilized enzymatic catalyst associated with pressurized fluid (propane) by direct transesterification. In order to optimize the ethyl conversion, different temperatures (46.7-68.1 °C) and pressures (59.5-200.5 bar) were applied a central composite design rotational (CCDR) obtaining the high conversion (74.39%) at 50 °C and 180 bar. The molar ratio also was investigated showing conversions ~ 90% using a molar ratio of 1:24 (oil:ethanol)...
September 15, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Dharitri Rath, Satyendra Kumar, Siddhartha Panda
Detection of minute quantities of target antigens in serum samples (consisting of a mixture of proteins/biomolecules) can be achieved by enhancement of the capture efficiencies of heterogeneous immunosensors. An important process parameter which affects the capture of target analytes in such immunosensors is the pH of the solution as the target proteins present in the serum samples are charged molecules. Here, we investigated the capture of prostate-specific antigens (PSAs), first in a mixed-analyte system wherein the solution contained two other non-specific proteins along with the target analyte, using the surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy...
September 15, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xue Cai, Ines Seitl, Wanmeng Mu, Tao Zhang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Bo Jiang
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide with beneficial physiological properties and commercial potential. Trehalose synthase (EC catalyzes the reversible conversion between maltose and trehalose. A recombinant trehalose synthase from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus SK 33.001 (ACTS) was cloned, expressed, and characterized. The recombinant enzyme encoded a protein of 598 amino acids with a molecular mass of 66 kDa. Gel filtration showed that ACTS is a tetramer in sodium phosphate buffer. The enzyme was metal ion independent and exhibited maximal activity in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7...
September 14, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hui Li, Xiangdong Wang, Longfei Zhou, Yang Ma, Wanjuan Yuan, Xiaomei Zhang, Jinsong Shi, Zhenghong Xu
3-Ketosteroid-9α-hydroxylase (KSH) consists of two protein systems, KshA and KshB, and is a key enzyme in microbial degradation pathway of natural sterols. 9α-Hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (9α-OH-AD) is a valuable steroid pharmaceutical intermediate. The expression of a 3-ketosteroid-9α-hydroxylase oxygenase (KshA1) with a broad substrate range and high hydroxylation ability was enhanced in Mycobacterium sp. LY-1 to improve the yield of 9α-OH-AD. Through whole-genome sequence mining and homologous comparison, the putative genes (kshA1 and kshB) in wild strain LY-1 were firstly identified...
September 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Yan Yang, Bo Hu
Fusarium equiseti UMN-1 fungal strain isolated from soybean is selected as a potential oleaginous fungal strain for biodiesel generation. It possesses desirable features, such as high lipid content (up to 56%) and high fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content (more than 98%) in total lipids, and also has the capability to produce cellulase. This research focused on the investigation of the characteristics of this strain and optimization of culture conditions to enhance lipid production. Impact of temperature, agitation, C/N ratio, medium composition, and carbon and nitrogen sources has been observed, and central composite design (CCD) has been applied to improve the lipid accumulation...
September 11, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jianbin Shi, Jian Wang, Ning Wang, Hong Zhou, Qinghua Xu, Gentu Yan
It has been known that GA2ox is one kind of key enzyme gene in the gibberellin synthesis pathway, which plays important regulatory roles throughout plant whole growth and development. In this article, one of the GA2ox family genes, designated StGA2ox1, was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The full length of cDNA is 1005 bp, and the cDNA corresponds to a protein of 334 amino acids; this protein was classified in a group with NtGA2ox3 based on multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic characterization...
September 7, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Weicong Lin, Xiaojie Zheng, Danqing Fang, Shengfu Zhou, Wenjuan Wu, Kangcheng Zheng
Human glutaminyl cyclase (hQC) appeared as a promising new target with its inhibitors attracted much attention for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in recent years. But so far, only a few compounds have been reported as hQC inhibitors. To find novel and potent hQC inhibitors, a high-specificity ZBG (zinc-binding groups)-based pharmacophore model comprising customized ZBG feature was first generated using HipHop algorithm in Discovery Studio software for screening out hQC inhibitors from the SPECS database...
September 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Shahla Khalili, Saied Nouri Khorasani, Seyed Mohammad Razavi, Batool Hashemibeni, Ali Tamayol
Treatments of skin injuries caused by trauma and diseases are among the most considerable medical problems. The use of scaffolds that can cover the wound area and support cellular ingrowth has shown great promise. However, mimicking the physicochemical properties of the native skin extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for the successful integration of these scaffolds. Elastin has been known as the second main protein-based component of the native skin ECM. In this research, scaffolds containing gelatin, cellulose acetate, and elastin were fabricated using electrospinning...
September 5, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ronivaldo Rodrigues da Silva, Nathalia Gonsales da Rosa, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Luiz Juliano, Jose C Rosa, Hamilton Cabral
The fungal genus Pyrenochaetopsis has received particular attention because of its different lifestyles, such as numerous plant pathogenic, saprophytic, and endophytic species. Its ability to infect plant cells relies heavily upon secreted peptidases. Here, we investigated the biochemical properties and catalytic specificity of a new serine peptidase secreted by the filamentous fungus Pyrenochaetopsis sp. We found that while this neutral serine peptidase displayed optimal activity at a pH of 7.0 and temperature of 45 °C, it tolerated a wide range of pH conditions and temperatures lower than 45 °C...
September 4, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Li-Qun Jin, Wei Xu, Bo Yang, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Yu-Guo Zheng
Xylitol is an important functional sugar alcohol which is widely used in industries. To efficiently produce xylitol from xylose by xylose reductase in a single step, the coupled system and the coexpression system using xylose reductase (XR) from Rhizopus oryzae and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Exiguobacterium sibiricum were constructed, the latter of which was used for cofactor regeneration. One hundred fifty grams/liter of xylose could be fully converted to xylitol by employing the two-enzyme coupled system with cell-free extract, and xylitol productivity of 21...
September 3, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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