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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Trisha L Dupnock, Marc A Deshusses
This research reports the development of a biotrickling filter (BTF) to upgrade biogas, which is achieved by adding H2 to reduce CO2. H2 and CO2 (80:20% vol.) were fed to a bench-scale BTF packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) and inoculated with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Maximum CH4 production rates recorded were as high as 38 m(3)CH4 m(-3)reactor day(-1), which is 5-30 times faster than earlier reports with other kinds of bioreactors. The high rates were attributed to the efficient mass transfer and high density of methanogens in the BTF...
August 14, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Balázs Frankó, Karin Carlqvist, Mats Galbe, Gunnar Lidén, Ola Wallberg
Softwood bark contains a large amounts of extractives-i.e., soluble lipophilic (such as resin acids) and hydrophilic components (phenolic compounds, stilbenes). The effects of the partial removal of water-soluble extractives before acid-catalyzed steam pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility were assessed for two softwood barks-Norway spruce and Scots pine. A simple hot water extraction step removed more than half of the water-soluble extractives from the barks, which improved the enzymatic digestibility of both steam-pretreated materials...
August 14, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Yufei Xue, Baojun Chen, Rui Wang, Aung Naing Win, Jiana Li, Yourong Chai
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oilseed crop worldwide, and fatty acid (FA) compositions determine the nutritional and economic value of its seed oil. Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) play a pivotal role in regulating FA compositions, but to date, no comprehensive genome-wide analysis of FAD gene family in rapeseed and its parent species has been reported. In this study, using homology searches, 84, 45, and 44 FAD genes were identified in rapeseed, Brassica rapa, and Brassica oleracea genomes, respectively...
August 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Yunbin Lyu, Gisèle LaPointe, Lei Zhong, Jing Lu, Chong Zhang, Zhaoxin Lu
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.x) can catalyze detoxification of acetaldehydes. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (istALDH) from the non-Saccharomyces yeast Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2 has been previously characterized. In this work, Lactococcus lactis with the NIsin Controlled Expression (NICE) System was applied to express the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (istALDH) in order to catalyze oxidation of acetaldehyde at low pH. A recombinant L. lactis NZ3900 was obtained and applied for the detoxification of acetaldehyde as whole-cell biocatalysts...
August 8, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xuefeng Wu, Qing Liu, Yongdong Deng, Xiaoju Chen, Zhi Zheng, Shaotong Jiang, Xingjiang Li
The use of microorganism fermentation for production of fumaric acid (FA), which is widely used in food, medicine, and other fields, can provide technical support for the FA industry. In this study, we aimed to increase the titer of FA production by using an improved Rhizopus oryzae WHT5, which was domesticated to obtain a furfural-resistant strain in corncob hydrolytes. The metabolic pathways and metabolic network of this strain were investigated, and the related enzymes and metabolic flux were analyzed. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that the R...
August 8, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Neha Srivastava, Manish Srivastava, Ambepu Manikanta, Pardeep Singh, P W Ramteke, P K Mishra, Bansi D Malhotra
Cellulase enzymes have versatile industrial applications. This study was directed towards the isolation, production, and characterization of cellulase enzyme system. Among the five isolated fungal cultures, Emericella variecolor NS3 showed maximum cellulase production using untreated orange peel waste as substrate using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Maximum enzyme production of 31 IU/gds (per gram of dry substrate) was noticed at 6.0 g concentration of orange peel. Further, 50 °C was recorded as the optimum temperature for cellulase activity and the thermal stability for 240 min was observed at this temperature...
August 3, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ke-Cai Chen, Ming-Min Zheng, Jiang Pan, Chun-Xiu Li, Jian-He Xu
The lipase isolated from Serratia marcescens (LipA) is a useful biocatalyst for kinetic resolution of a pharmaceutically relevant epoxyester, (±)-3-(4'-methoxyphenyl) glycidic acid methyl ester [(±)-MPGM], to afford optically pure (-)-MPGM, a key intermediate for the synthesis of diltiazem hydrochloride. Two mutants, LipAL315S and LipAS271F, were identified from the combinatorial saturation mutation library of 14 amino acid residues lining the substrate-binding pocket. LipAL315S, LipAS271F, and their combination LipAL315S/S271F showed 2...
August 1, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Sinem Diken Gür, Neslihan İdil, Nilüfer Aksöz
In this study, two different materials-alginate and glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads-were used for the co-immobilization of α-amylase, protease, and pectinase. Firstly, optimization of multienzyme immobilization with Na alginate beads was carried out. Optimum Na alginate and CaCl2 concentration were found to be 2.5% and 0.1 M, respectively, and optimal enzyme loading ratio was determined as 2:1:0.02 for pectinase, protease, and α-amylase, respectively. Next, the immobilization of multiple enzymes on glutaraldehyde-activated chitosan beads was optimized (3% chitosan concentration, 0...
July 31, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Zheng Sun, Xiao-Peng Fang, Xiao-Yang Li, Zhi-Gang Zhou
Producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in wastewater is environment-friendly and cost-effective. The present study investigated the algae found in wastewater of a local dairy farm for their potential as biodiesel feedstocks. Thirteen native algal strains were isolated. On the basis of morphology and 16S/18S rRNA gene sequences, one strain was identified to be a member of cyanobacteria, while other 12 strains belong to green algae. After screening, two Scenedesmus strains out of the 13 microalgae isolates demonstrated superiority in growth rate, lipid productivity, and sedimentation properties, and therefore were selected for further scale-up outdoor cultivation...
July 31, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Trung Hau Nguyen, Chae Hun Ra, In Yung Sunwoo, Pailin Sukwong, Gwi-Taek Jeong, Sung-Koo Kim
Bioethanol was produced using polysaccharide from soybean residue as biomass by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). This study focused on pretreatment, enzyme saccharification, and fermentation. Pretreatment to obtain monosaccharide was carried out with 20% (w/v) soybean residue slurry and 270 mmol/L H2SO4 at 121 °C for 60 min. More monosaccharide was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis with a 16 U/mL mixture of commercial enzymes C-Tec 2 and Viscozyme L at 45 °C for 48 h. Ethanol fermentation with 20% (w/v) soybean residue hydrolysate was performed using wild-type and Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 1129 adapted to high concentrations of galactose, using a flask and 5-L fermenter...
July 29, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Shaozhou Zhu, Ying Shi, Xinyu Zhang, Guojun Zheng
1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACCA) and its derivatives are essential pharmacophoric unit that widely used in drug research and development. Specifically, (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester (vinyl-ACCA) is a key chiral intermediate in the synthesis of highly potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitors such as asunaprevir and simeprevir. Developing strategies for the asymmetric synthesis of vinyl-ACCA is thus extremely high demand. In this study, 378 bacterial strains were isolated from soil samples using N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester as the sole carbon source and were screened for esterase activity...
July 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Marina Lucía Díaz, Selva Cuppari, Daniela Soresi, Alicia Carrera
Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) catalyze the introduction of a double bond into acyl chains. Two FAD groups have been identified in plants: acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) and acyl-lipid or membrane-bound FAD. The former catalyze the conversion of 18:0 to 18:1 and to date have only been identified in plants. The latter are found in eukaryotes and bacteria and are responsible for multiple desaturations. In this study, we identified 82 desaturase gene and protein sequences from 10 grass species deposited in GenBank that were analyzed using bioinformatic approaches...
July 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Đurđica Kovačić, Davor Kralik, Daria Jovičić, Slavko Rupčić, Brigita Popović, Marina Tišma
Several batch experiments were conducted on the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cow manure (DCM) with three harvest residues (HR) (soybean straw, sunflower stalks, and corn stover). The influence of thermal pretreatment of HR on biogas production was investigated, where the HR were thermally pretreated at two different temperatures: T = 121 °C and T = 175 °C, during t = 30 and t = 90 min, respectively. All anaerobic co-digestion batch experiments were performed simultaneously under thermophilic regime, at T = 55 °C...
July 25, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hua Hang, Changbao Wang, Yiqun Cheng, Ning Li, Liuli Song
A commercial inulinase could convert inulin into fructose, which was optimized to be entrapped in the calcium alginate-gelatin beads with the immobilization yield of 86% for free inulinase activities. The optimum pH values and temperatures were 4.5 and 40 °C for the free enzyme and 5.0-5.5 and 45-50 °C for the immobilized enzyme. The kinetic parameters of V max and K m were 5.24 μmol/min and 57.6 mg/mL for the free inulinase and 4.32 μmol/min and 65.8 mg/mL for the immobilized inulinase, respectively...
July 22, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Maryam Sadat Nabavinia, Fahimeh Charbgoo, Mona Alibolandi, Fatemeh Mosaffa, Aida Gholoobi, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous
Aptamers are single-stranded RNA or DNA, which bind to their target with high affinity and specificity. Method of isolating aptamers against cell surface protein is called cell-SELEX. Common approach for monitoring cell-SELEX developed aptamers is flow cytometry. Since flow cytometry is costly and requires sophisticated equipments, we suggested implementing easy access, high throughput enzyme-link apta-sorbent assay test (ELASA) to confirm the specificity of aptamers selected through cell-SELEX process. In this regard, we compared ELASA and flow cytometry techniques in order to screen potent candidate aptamers against A2780 Rcis cell line, which were selected by cell-SELEX...
July 19, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Saksit Imman, Navadol Laosiripojana, Verawat Champreda
Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment is an efficient chemical-free strategy for enhancing enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass for conversion to fuels and chemicals in biorefinery. In this study, effects of LHW on removals of hemicelluloses and lignin from corncobs were studied under varying reaction conditions. LHW pretreatment at 160 °C for 10 min promoted the highest levels of hemicellulose solubilization into the liquid phase, resulting into the maximized pentose yield of 58.8% in the liquid and more than 60% removal of lignin from the solid, with 73...
July 19, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Shota Tokuyama-Nakai, Hideto Kimura, Tomoe Ishihara, Mitsuo Jisaka, Kazushige Yokota
Polygonum tinctorium Lour (indigo plant) has been regarded as a useful medicinal plant for traditional herbal medicine. The polyphenolic fraction of indigo leaves exhibited anti-inflammatory activities as determined by the suppressed synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in cultured RAW264 macrophage cells. The acid hydrolysate of the fraction showed much more potent effect than the unhydrolyzed one. In sharp contrast, those fractions of indigo stems had almost no effect. 3,5,4'-Trihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (TMF)-O-glycosides and tryptanthrin were detected exclusively in the extracts of the leaves...
July 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hung Nguyen, Nhat Do, Tuyn Phan, Tri Pham
The aim of this study is to use steered molecular dynamics to investigate the dissociation process between IRK and PTP1Bs for wild type and five mutants (consisting of p.D181E, p.D181A, p.Q262A, p.D181A-Y46F, and p.D181A-Q262A). The gained results are observed not only the unbinding mechanism of IRK-PTP1B complexes came from pulling force profile, number of hydrogen bonds, and interaction energy between IRK and PTP1Bs but also described PTP1B's point mutations could variably change its binding affinity towards IRK...
July 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Aleksandra Wojciechowska, Robert Klewicki, Michał Sójka, Katarzyna Grzelak-Błaszczyk
In view of a commonly known beneficial role and low stability of ascorbic acid, many efforts are constantly undertaken to produce its improved derivatives. This paper presents results on the synthesis of ascorbic acid galactoside using transgalactosylation properties of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis and lactose as a donor of galactosyl moiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of selected factors (concentration and molar ratio of substrates, amount of the enzyme preparation, pH of the solution, presence of different ions) on the course of transgalactosylation reaction...
July 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Katarzyna Skórkowska-Telichowska, Anna Kulma, Tomasz Gębarowski, Wioleta Wojtasik, Kamil Kostyn, Helena Moreira, Anna Szyjka, Aleksandra Boba, Marta Preisner, Justyna Mierziak, Malgorzata Arendt, Anna Kostyn, Michał Szatkowski, Jan Szopa, Kazimierz Gąsiorowski
Chinese hamster pulmonary fibroblasts (V79 cells) pre-treated with flax fabrics derived from non-modified or genetically engineered flax fibres and treated with H2O2 revealed a markedly lower level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) than control, non-pre-treated cells. The fabrics were prepared from fibres derived from two kinds of transgenic plants: W92 plants, which overproduce flavonoids, and M type plants, which produce hydroxybutyrate polymer in their vascular bundles and thus in fibres. Incubating the V79 cells with the flax fabrics prior to H2O2 treatment also reduced the amount of DNA damage, as established using the comet assay (also known as alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis) and pulsed-field electrophoresis of intact cellular DNA...
July 8, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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