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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Mandana Behbahani, Mokhtar Nosrati, Hassan Mohabatkar
Lysozyme is a relatively small enzyme with different biological activities, which is found in tears, saliva, egg white, and human milk. In the study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of lysozymes purified from quail, Meleagris, and hen egg white has been determined. For this end, a time-of-drug-addition assay was performed to identify the target of anti-HIV-1 agents and for determination of probable anti HIV-1 mechanism of the studied lysozyme, the binding affinity of the lysozymes to the human CD4 receptor was studied by molecular docking method...
January 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
B Vijayalakshmi Ayyar, Stephen Hearty, Richard O'Kennedy
In a recombinant antibody scFv format, the presence of an unpaired cysteine (Cys) is implicated in reduced soluble expression and inefficient presentation in phage display. Compared to other species, antibodies derived from rabbits are more likely to contain this unpaired Cys residue at position 80 (Cys80), when generated in a scFv format. In a screening campaign to isolate rabbit scFv against cardiac troponin I (cTnI), it was found that, a large proportion of isolated cTnI-specific clones contained unpaired Cys80...
January 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy, Shaymaa M M Yahya, Ahmed R Hamed, Maha M Soltan, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed El-Bondkly
Forty-four endophytic fungal isolates obtained from marine sponge, Hyrtios erectus, were evaluated and screened for their hydrolase activities. Most of the isolates were found to be prolific producers of hydrolytic enzymes. Only 11 isolates exhibited maximum cellular contents of lipids, rhamnolipids, and protein in the fungal isolates under the isolation numbers MERVA5, MERVA22, MERVA25, MERVA29, MERVA32, MERVA34, MERV36, MERVA39, MERVA42, MERVA43, and MERVA44. These isolate extracts exhibit the highest reducing activities against carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes including α-amylase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and tyrosinase...
January 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ting-Yi Wu, Yuan-Rong Lai, Shau-Wei Tsai
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Eq. 3.
January 10, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
A S Axambayeva, L R Zhaparova, Zh S Shagyrova, E M Ramankulov, A V Shustov
Tyrosinases catalyze oxidation of phenols with a formation of biphenols, quinones, and highly polymerized melanins. Tyrosinases have prospects for industrial use to remove phenols, also in biosensors, in bioorganic synthesis, and for a production of biocompatible adhesives (medical glues). Despite growing fields of potential applications, a selection of commercially available tyrosinases are currently limited to a single enzyme which is isolated from fruiting bodies of mushrooms. This article describes a preparation of recombinant tyrosinase from a bacterium Verrucomicrobium spinosum using a heterologous expression in Escherichia coli...
January 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Agnieszka Małgorzata Pudlarz, Ewa Czechowska, Katarzyna Ranoszek-Soliwoda, Emilia Tomaszewska, Grzegorz Celichowski, Jarosław Grobelny, Janusz Szemraj
Human catalase cDNA was cloned into a pEX-C-His vector. Purified recombinant catalase was immobilized on nanoparticles. Gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized in a variety of sizes by chemical reduction; no agglomerates or aggregates were observed in any of the colloids during dynamic light scattering or scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. After immobilization on gold nanoparticles, recombinant catalase activity was found to be lower than that of the same amount of enzyme in aqueous solution...
January 3, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Daniela Remonatto, J Vladimir de Oliveira, J Manuel Guisan, Débora de Oliveira, Jorge Ninow, Gloria Fernandez-Lorente
The performance of two new commercial low-cost lipases Eversa® Transform and Eversa® Transform 2.0 immobilized in different supports was investigated. The two lipases were adsorbed on four different hydrophobic supports. Interesting results were obtained for both lipases and for the four supports. However, the most active derivative was prepared by immobilization of Eversa® Transform 2.0 on Sepabeads C-18. Ninety-nine percent of fatty acid ethyl ester was obtained, in 3 h at 40 °C, by using hexane as solvent, a molar ratio of 4:1 (ethanol/oil), and 10 wt% of immobilized biocatalyst...
January 3, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Krushi Hingurao, Anuradha Nerurkar
Considering the importance of methylotrophs in industrial wastewater treatment, focus of the present study was on utilization of a methylotrophic bacterial consortium as a microbial seed for biotreatment of a variety of industrial effluents. For this purpose, a mixed bacterial methylotrophic AC (Ankleshwar CETP) consortium comprising of Bordetella petrii AC1, Bacillus licheniformis AC4, Salmonella subterranea AC5, and Pseudomonas stutzeri AC8 was used. The AC consortium showed efficient biotreatment of four industrial effluents procured from fertilizer, chemical and pesticide industries, and common effluent treatment plant by lowering their chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 950-2000 mg/l to below detection limit in 60-96 h in 6-l batch reactor and 9-15 days in 6-l continuous reactor...
January 1, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Pascal Dubessay, Christian Larroche, Pierre Fontanille
The alpha-pinene oxide lyase (Prα-POL) from Pseudomonas rhodesiae CIP107491 belongs to catabolic alpha-pinene degradation pathway. In this study, the gene encoding Prα-POL has been identified using mapping approach combined to inverse PCR (iPCR) strategy. The Prα-POL gene included a 609-bp open reading frame encoding 202 amino acids and giving rise to a 23.7 kDa protein, with a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.23. The amino acids sequence analysis showed homologies with those of proteins with unknown function from GammaProteobacteria group...
December 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Umar Ndagi, Ndumiso N Mhlongo, Mahmoud E Soliman
UM-164, a potent Src/p38 inhibitor, is a promising lead compound for developing the first targeted therapeutic strategy against triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, lack of understanding of conformational features of UM-164 in complex with Src serves a challenge in the rational design of novel Src dual inhibitors. Herein, we provide an in-depth insight into conformational features of Src-UM-164 using different computational approaches. This involved molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, principal component analysis (PCA), thermodynamics calculations, dynamic cross-correlation (DCCM) analysis, and hydrogen bond formation...
December 27, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Yuan Wang, Peng Jia, Rahat Sharif, Zhengchen Li, Yuhong Li, Peng Chen
Endonuclease I is a widely distributed periplasmic or extracellular enzyme. A method for the high-level production of recombinant AsEndI (endonuclease I from Aliivibrio salmonicida) in Escherichia coli with secretion expression is investigated. The coding sequence of AsEndI gene was assembled according to the E. coli codon usage bias, and AsEndI was expressed in the periplasm of E. coli TOP10 with a C-terminal 6× His-tagged fusion. The recombinant AsEndI (His-AsEndI) was purified by Ni-NTA resin with a yield of 1...
December 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Balaji Venkatesagowda, Ebenezer Ponugupaty, Aneli M Barbosa-Dekker, Robert F H Dekker
The coconut kernel-associated fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae VBE1, was grown on coconut cake with added coconut oil as lipase inducer under solid-state fermentation conditions. The extracellular-produced lipases were purified and resulted in two enzymes: lipase A (68,000 Da)-purified 25.41-fold, recovery of 47.1%-and lipase B (32,000 Da)-purified 18.47-fold, recovery of 8.2%. Both lipases showed optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 35 °C, were activated by Ca2+, exhibited highest specificity towards coconut oil and p-nitrophenyl palmitate, and were stable in iso-octane and hexane...
December 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Bin Zou, Yanhong Chu, Jiaojiao Xia, Xueshan Chen, Shuhao Huo
Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was immobilized onto functionalized ionic liquid-modified silica carrier using gelatinization and physical adsorption. The immobilized lipase was characterized with N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) before and after modification and immobilization. The results showed that the modification of the ionic liquid and the introduction of lipase had been successfully approved. The rate of enzymatic reaction and its influencing factors was primarily studied by enzymatic reaction kinetics...
December 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
M Venkateswar Reddy, S Venkata Mohan, Young-Cheol Chang
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are saturated monocarboxylic acids and can be used as antimicrobials, corrosion inhibitors, precursors in biodiesel, and bioplastic production. In the present study, MCFA production was evaluated with acetate and ethanol using the bacteria Clostridium kluyveri. Effects of substrate, electron donor, and methane inhibitor on MCFA production were evaluated. Bacteria successfully converted the ethanol and acetate to butyrate (C4), caproate (C6), and caprylate (C8) by chain elongation process...
December 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ting-Yi Wu, Yuan-Rong Lai, Shau-Wei Tsai
Optically pure 3-substituted glutarates can be prepared from the alcoholic ring-opening of cyclic anhydride derivatives, esterification of 3-substituted glutaric acid, and hydrolysis, alcoholysis, aminolysis, and ammonolysis of the diester derivatives via hydrolases or organocatalysts. Unfortunately, most of them mainly focus on the first-step desymmetrization, leading to the difficulty on producing optically pure enantiomers. As a general trend in lipase-catalyzed desymmetrization of 3-methylglutarates, poorer enantiomeric excesses with lower chemical yields were found, as the methyl substituent is relatively small to induce a high enzyme stereodiscrimination...
December 15, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Wei-Fan Liang, Ming-Yang Sun, Lan-Yu Cui, Chong Zhang, Xin-Hui Xing
Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 is the model strain for methylotrophic bacteria that metabolize methanol as the sole carbon and energy source. Genetically modified M. extorquens AM1 is used as a methylotrophic cell factory (MeCF) for high value-added chemical production. We tested the Cre-loxP recombination system for its ability to mediate multicopy gene integration of the mvt3 operon (mvt3) in M. extorquens AM1. mvt3 controls the expression of the first three enzymes of the mevalonate synthesis pathway. We assayed for Cre-mediated multigene integration by screening for multicopy mutants via their survival in culture with a high kanamycin concentration (600 μg/mL)...
December 15, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Birru Bhaskar, Robert Owen, Hossein Bahmaee, Parcha Sreenivasa Rao, Gwendolen C Reilly
Bioreactors can be used to apply fluid flow in vitro to scaffolds to improve mass transport of media and apply mechanical forces to cells. In this study, we developed and tested an autoclavable, modular perfusion bioreactor suitable for large scaffolds. We investigated the effects of fluid flow induced shear stress (FFSS) on osteogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal progenitors (hES-MP cells) cultured on large polyurethane (PU) scaffolds (30 mm diameter × 5 mm thickness) in osteogenesis induction media (OIM)...
December 12, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ping Xu, Ruyue Yuan, Guohua Hou, Jinglei Li, Ming Ye
Exopolysaccharide of Lachnum YM130 (LEP) was purified by diethylaminoethyl cellulose 52 and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. LEP-2a was identified to be a homogeneous component with an average molecular weight of 1.31 × 106 Da, which was consisted of mannose and galactose in a molar ratio of 3.8:1.0. The structure of LEP-2a was characterized by methylation analysis, FT-IR analysis, and NMR analysis. Results indicated that LEP-2a was a galactomannan with a backbone, composed of 1,2-linked-α-D-Manp, 1,2,6-linked-α-D-Manp, 1,3,4-linked-α-D-Manp, and 1,3-linked-β-D-Galp, which was substituted at O-2, O-3, O-4, and O-6 by branches...
December 8, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Maryam Honardoost, Seyed Mohammad Ali Hosseini Rad
AKT (AK mouse plus Transforming or Thymoma) is a frequent oncogene expressed in most tissues which includes three isoforms AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3. Hyperactivation of AKT signaling is a central key in many human cancer progressions, through modulating angiogenesis, tumor growth, and cell migration, invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Among all three isoforms, AKT2 is most related to cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and survival. Amplification and overexpression of AKT2 have been shown in many cancers. Accumulating evidence shows the potential role of different miRNA involvements in cancer progression by activating or suppressing AKT2 expression...
December 4, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Rodrigo A Mancilla, Cedric Little, Alejandro Amoroso
Low solubility of sterols in aqueous media limits efficient steroid production mediated by biocatalytic microorganisms such as Mycobacterium. Sterol emulsion technologies have been developed with low success rates, largely due to the complexity of generating stable and bioavailable particles. In this study, several aqueous dispersions of sterols in-water of different particle sizes were bioconverted to 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) in a solvent-free environment, using a classic microorganism Mycobacterium sp...
December 1, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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