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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Helberth Júnnior Santos Lopes, Lucas Rodrigues Ramos, Edson Luiz Silva
This study evaluated the production of hydrogen and propionic acid in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor by co-fermentation of cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG). The reactor was operated at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h by changing the CW/CG ratio from 5:1 to 5:2, 5:3, 5:4, and 5:5. At the ratio of 5:5, HRT was reduced from 8 to 0.5 h. The maximum hydrogen yield of 0.120 mmol H2 g COD(-1) was observed at the CW/CG ratio of 5:1. Increasing the CG concentration repressed hydrogen production in favor of propionic acid, with a maximum yield of 6...
March 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Jingzu Hao, Ying Li, Baoe Li, Xiaolin Wang, Haipeng Li, Shimin Liu, Chunyong Liang, Hongshui Wang
Hybrid micro-nanostructure implant surface was produced on titanium (Ti) surface by acid etching and anodic oxidation to improve the biological and mechanical properties. The biological properties of the micro-nanostructure were investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test and MC3T3-E1 cell co-culture experiment. The cell proliferation, spreading, and bone sialoprotein (BSP) gene expression were examined by MTT, SEM, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. In addition, the mechanical properties were evaluated by instrumented nanoindentation test and friction-wear test...
March 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Faiza Amin, Haq Nawaz Bhatti, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Asgher
An extracellular exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) produced by Penicillium notatum was purified (3.07-folds) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography. Two distinct isoforms of the enzyme, namely exo-PGI and exo-PGII, were identified during column purification with molecular weights of 85 and 20 kDa, respectively, on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme displayed its optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50 °C and was found to be stable in the slightly acidic pH (ranging from 4...
March 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Vijitha Vijayan, Chekidhenkuzhiyil Jasmin, Abdulaziz Anas, Sreelakshmi Parakkaparambil Kuttan, Saradavey Vinothkumar, Parameswaran Perunninakulath Subrayan, Shanta Nair
Melanin is a photo-protective polymer found in many organisms. Our research shows that the bacteria associated with darkly pigmented sponges (Haliclona pigmentifera, Sigmadocia pumila, Fasciospongia cavernosa, Spongia officinalis, and Callyspongia diffusa) secrete non-cytotoxic melanin, with antioxidant activity that protects animal cells from photo-toxicity. Out of 156 bacterial strains screened, 22 produced melanin and these melanin-producing bacteria (MPB) were identified as Vibrio spp., Providencia sp., Bacillus sp...
March 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Varsha Singh, Mingma Sherpa
Mesenchymal stem cells have been extensively used for cell-based therapies especially in neuronal diseases. Studies still continue to delineate mechanisms involved in differentiating mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells under experimental conditions as they have low mortality rate and hence, the number of cells available for experiments is much more limited. Culturing and differentiating of neuronal cell is more challenging as they do not undergo cell division thus, bringing them to differentiate proves to be a difficult task...
March 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Li-Qun Jin, Qi Xu, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Dong-Xu Jia, Cheng-Jun Liao, De-Shui Chen, Yu-Guo Zheng
Glucose isomerase is the important enzyme for the production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). One-step production of HFCS containing more than 55% fructose (HFCS-55) is receiving much attention for its industrial applications. In this work, the Escherichia coli harboring glucose isomerase mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T was immobilized for efficient production of HFCS-55. The immobilization conditions were optimized, and the maximum enzyme activity recovery of 92% was obtained. The immobilized glucose isomerase showed higher pH, temperature, and operational stabilities with a K m value of 272 mM and maximum reaction rate of 23...
March 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Muhammad Tauqeer Ahmed, Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Rashid Rasheed, Ameer Fawad Zahoor, Muhammad Usman, Zaib Hussain
Bacterial infection is one of the vital reasons of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. It appears silently without bothering the geological borders and imposes a grave threat to humanity. Nuclear medicine technique has an important role in helping early diagnosis of deep-seated infections. The aim of this study was to develop a new radiopharmaceutical (99m)Tc-labeling sulfadiazine as an infection imaging agent. Radiolabeling of sulfadiazine with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) was carried out using stannous tartrate as a reducing agent in the presence of gentistic acid at pH = 5...
March 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Sayiter Yıldız, Mehmet Çekim, Turgay Dere
In this study, biosorption of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) ions to tobacco stalks was investigated under different operational conditions. The effects of the initial pH, ion concentrations, temperature, and duration of contact and adsorbent dosage were determined in the batch experiments. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyses were also performed to identify the possible negative effects of the sorbent throughout biosorption process. The sorption capacities of this sorbent were predicted by use of the equilibrium and kinetic models...
March 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Naglaa A Abdallah, Wael El-Menofy, Abdelhadi Abdallah Abdelhadi
In this study, Agrotis ipsilon nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid has been constructed as an infectious bacmid in an attempt to allow genome recombination and generation of virus mutants. Since the FseI, a unique restriction site, is located in a viral coding region (ORF_119), PCR was performed to partially amplify the ORF_119 fragment containing the FseI site to facilitate the bacmid construction in a proper way without interrupting the ORF expression. Construction with repeated fragments at the end of the cloned viral was carried out in an attempt to facilitate circulation during infection in insect cells...
March 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Vishakha Baikar, Ashwini Rane, Rajendra Deopurkar
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are naturally occurring biodegradable polymers that can curb the extensive use of polypropylene based plastics. In contrast to chemically synthesized polypropylene plastics, PHAs are biodegradable and thus environmentally safe. PHAs have attracted much attention as biocompatible and biodegradable thermoplastics. The present study involves isolation of bacteria from different environments capable of synthesizing PHAs. The bacterium producing highest yield of PHA (0.672 ± 0.041 g/L) was identified as Bacillus megaterium VB89 by biochemical and molecular techniques such as 16S rDNA sequence analysis...
March 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Erica Aparecida de Oliveira, Jelena Lazovic, Lea Guo, Horacio Soto, Bluma Linkowski Faintuch, Massoud Akhtari, Whitney Pope
Angiogenesis plays a critical role in progression of malignant gliomas. The development of glioma-specific labeling molecules that can aid detection and visualization of angiogenesis can help surgical planning and improve treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate if two peptides (GX1 and RGD-GX1) linked to angiogenesis can be used as an MR-imaging markers of angiogenesis. MR imaging was performed in U87 glioblastoma-bearing NOD-SCID mice at different time points between 15 and 120 min post-injection to visualize particle distribution...
March 9, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Sarah Johnson, Kurt A Brorson, Douglas D Frey, Arun K Dhar, David A Cetlin
Viral clearance is a critical aspect of biopharmaceutical manufacturing process validation. To determine the viral clearance efficacy of downstream chromatography and filtration steps, live viral "spiking" studies are conducted with model mammalian viruses such as minute virus of mice (MVM). However, due to biosafety considerations, spiking studies are costly and typically conducted in specialized facilities. In this work, we introduce the concept of utilizing a non-infectious MVM virus-like particle (MVM-VLP) as an economical surrogate for live MVM during process development and characterization...
March 9, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Priyanka Saini, Arun Beniwal, Shilpa Vij
During the aging of yeast culture, Kluyveromyces marxianus undergoes a number of changes in physiology and these changes play a significant role during fermentation. Aged stationary phase cells were found to contain more reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the level of oxidant is counteracted by the antioxidant defense system of the cells. Comparison of 3-day-old culture of K. marxianus with 45-day stationary phase culture represents an increased level of ROS inside the cells. Moreover, a decrease in glutathione content was observed over the set of the incubation period...
March 9, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xue-Chao Hu, Wei-Ming Liu, Miao-Miao Luo, Lu-Jing Ren, Xiao-Jun Ji, He Huang
Bacillus natto is commonly used in industrial production of menaquinone-7, an important vitamin which plays a crucial role for blood clotting and may contribute to prevention of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. This study determined the optimal combination of key nutrients and established an effective use of surfactant in a coupling medium to enhance the yield of extracellular MK-7. MK-7 yield of 31.18 mg/L was achieved under optimal conditions containing 53.6 g/L glycerol, 100 g/L soy peptone, and 10 g/L K2HPO4...
March 3, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Vartika Mishra, Asim K Jana
Sweet sorghum (Sorghum sp.) has high biomass yield. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) to fermentable sugar could be useful for manufacture of biofuel or other fermentation products. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass to degrade lignin before enzymatic hydrolysis is a key step. Fungal pretreatment of SSB with combined CuSO4-gallic acid supplements in solid-state fermentation (SSF) to achieve higher lignin degradation, selectivity value (SV), and enzymatic hydrolysis to sugar was studied...
February 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ikram Ul Haq, Fatima Akram
Commonly, unintentional induction and inadvertently preparing medium for engineered Escherichia coli BL21 CodonPlus (DE3)-RIPL, give poor or variable yields of heterologous proteins. Therefore, to enhance the activity and production of an industrially relevant recombinant processive endo-1,4-β-glucanase (CenC) propagated in Escherichia coli BL21 CodonPlus(DE3)-RIPL through various cultivation and induction strategies. Investigation of various growth media and induction parameters revealed that high-cell-density and optimal CenC expression were obtained in ZYBM9 medium induced either with 0...
February 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mozhgan Abasi, Fatemeh Kohram, Parviz Fallah, Arash Arashkia, Masoud Soleimani, Nosratollah Zarghami, Hossein Ghanbarian
While some microRNAs are transcribed from a specific promoter, at least one third of human miRNA genes are clustered, wherein multiple miRNA genes are generated from a single primary transcript such as miR-17 ~ 92 cluster. Although six members of the cluster are generated from a single transcript, the mature level of each member may be diverse in various cell types. Here, we attempt to monitor the mature level of miR-17, miR-92a, and miR-20a from miR-17 ~ 92 cluster in blood (HL60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cells) and Jurkat) and breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) cancer cell lines...
February 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Abdelrahman M Yassin, Nehal M El-Deeb, Ahmed M Metwaly, Gomaa F El Fawal, Mohamed M Radwan, Elsayed E Hafez
The aim of this investigation is to examine the anticancer activities of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit extract with its biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against colon and liver cancer cells. B. aegyptiaca aqueous extract was fractionated according to polarity and by biosynthesized AgNP. The cytotoxicity of the extract, semi-purified fractions, and the AgNPs was examined on noncancerous cell lines. The safer fraction was subjected to ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS to identify the major active constituents...
February 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
YunHua Hou, Yang Pan, MengJie Yan, Huan He, QinZheng Yang, YaoHua Zhong
As a well-known industrial fungus for cellulase production, the strain RUT-C30 of Trichoderma reesei was selected to produce the feruloyl esterase A (FAEA) by a random integration protocol. The strong promoter of cellobiohydrolase 1 (cbh1) gene was used to drive the expression of FAEA. Using double-joint PCR protocol, Pcbh1-faeA-TtrpC expression cassette was successfully constructed and co-transformed into RUT C30 strain of T. reesei. One transformant with high feruloyl esterase yield (3.44 ± 0.16 IU/mL) was obtained through plate screening and named TrfaeA1...
February 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ahmed H Korany, Amal E Ali, Tamer M Essam, Salwa A Megahed
A halophilic cellulase-producing bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum Province, Egypt). Molecular identification based on 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing revealed 99% homology with Halobacillus sp. and hence was designated as Halobacillus sp. QLS 31. Medium composition and culture conditions were optimized for enhancing the production of cellulase enzyme using the Plackett-Burman statistical design. Ten variables were evaluated for their influence on cellulase production...
February 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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