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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Chao Ji, Chui-Xue Kong, Zi-Li Mei, Jiang Li
Fruit and vegetable waste is an ever-growing global question. Anaerobic digestion techniques have been developed that facilitate turning such waste into possible sources for energy and fertilizer, simultaneously helping to reduce environmental pollution. However, various problems are encountered in applying these techniques. The purpose of this study is to review local and overseas studies, which focus on the use of anaerobic digestion to dispose fruit and vegetable wastes, discuss the acidification problems and solutions in applying anaerobic digestion for fruit and vegetable wastes and investigate the reactor design (comparing single phase with two phase) and the thermal pre-treatment for processing raw wastes...
April 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Aslina Pahrudin Arrozi, Siti Nur Syazwani Shukri, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, Mohd Hanafi Ahmad Damanhuri, Suzana Makpol
Neuroblastoma cell lines such as SH-SY5Y are the most frequently utilized models in neurodegenerative research, and their use has advanced the understanding of the pathology of neurodegeneration over the past few decades. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), several pathogenic mutations have been described, all of which cause elevated levels of pathological hallmarks such as amyloid-beta (Aβ). Although the genetics of Alzheimer's disease is well known, familial AD only accounts for a small number of cases in the population, with the rest being sporadic AD, which contains no known mutations...
April 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Gyeongtaek Gong, Sun-Mi Lee, Han Min Woo, Tai Hyun Park, Youngsoon Um
Efficient isolation of lignocellulolytic bacteria is essential for the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, bacteria with cellulolytic, xylanolytic, and lignolytic activities were isolated from environmental sites such as mountain, wetland, and mudflat using isolation media containing the combination of lignocellulose components (cellulose, xylan, and lignin). Eighty-nine isolates from the isolation media were characterized by analyzing taxonomic ranks and cellulolytic, xylanolytic, and lignolytic activities...
April 13, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Song Li, Xupeng Cao, Yan Wang, Zhen Zhu, Haowei Zhang, Song Xue, Jing Tian
With the fast development of microalgal biofuel researches, the proteomics studies of microalgae increased quickly. A filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method is widely used proteomics sample preparation method since 2009. Here, a method of microalgae proteomics analysis based on modified filter-aided sample preparation (mFASP) was described to meet the characteristics of microalgae cells and eliminate the error caused by over-alkylation. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the model, the prepared sample was tested by standard LC-MS/MS and compared with the previous reports...
April 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Yue Deng, Fenglong Yang, Chunping Deng, Jinshui Yang, Jing Jia, Hongli Yuan
This study focused on a haloduric BTEX-degrading microbial consortium EC20 enriched from Bohai Sea sediment. EC20 degraded 87% of BTEX at 435 mg L(-1) initial concentration (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes in equal proportions) in the presence of 3.4% NaCl. 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that the dominant bacteria in EC20 were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes at the phylum level, and Pseudomonas, Mesorhizobium, Achromobacter, Stenotrophomonas, and Halomonas at the genus level...
April 8, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Qian Yang, Liang-Huan Wei, Wei-Zun Li, Yu Chen, Mei-Ting Ju
Different inoculum sources and acclimatization methods result in different substrate adaptation and biodegradability. To increase straw degradation rate, shorten the digester start-up time, and enhance the biogas production, we domesticated anaerobic sludge by adding microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). During acclimatization, the start-up strategies and reactor performance were investigated to analyze changes in feedstock adaption, biodegradability, and methanogen activity. The effect of the domesticated inoculum was evaluated by testing batch un-pretreated corn stover with a dewatered sludge (DS)-domesticated inoculum as a control...
April 8, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy, Khaled G Abdel-Wahhab, Fathia A Mannaa, Ayman A Farghaly, Ahmed M A El-Bondkly
This investigation aimed to study the in vivo harmful effects of the subcutaneous injection of different methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus extracts (MRSA2, MRSA4, MRSA10, MRSA69, MRSA70, MRSA76, and MRSA78). Such strains represented the highest minimum inhibition concentration toward methicillin with various multidrug-resistant patterns. The obtained results revealed that rats injected with the MRSA4 extract died immediately after the last dose indicating the high cytotoxicity of MRSA4 strain (100% mortality)...
April 7, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Stefano Cianchetta, Luca Bregoli, Stefania Galletti
Giant reed, miscanthus, and switchgrass are considered prominent lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The bioconversion into sugars requires a delignifying pre-treatment step followed by hydrolysis with cellulase and other accessory enzymes like xylanase, especially in the case of alkali pre-treatments, which retain the hemicellulose fraction. Blends richer in accessory enzymes than commercial mix can be obtained growing fungi on feedstock-based substrates, thus ten selected Trichoderma isolates, including the hypercellulolytic strain Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30, were grown on giant reed, miscanthus, or switchgrass-based substrates...
April 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xinping Lin, Sasa Liu, Ruiqi Bao, Ning Gao, Sufang Zhang, Rongqian Zhu, Zongbao Kent Zhao
Oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi, a promising strain of great biotechnical importance, is able to accumulate over 60% of its cell biomass as triacylglycerols (TAGs). It is promising to directly produce the derivatives of TAGs, such as long-chain fatty acid methyl esters and alkanes, in L. starkeyi. However, techniques for genetic modification of this oleaginous yeast are lacking, thus, further research is needed to develop genetic tools and functional elements. Here, we used two exogenous promoters (pGPD and pPGK) from oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides to establish a simpler Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) method for L...
April 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Panyu Li, Yi Xie, Yu Zeng, Wanrong Hu, Yan Kang, Xiang Li, Yabo Wang, Tonghui Xie, Yongkui Zhang
Kitchen waste (KW) is a worldwide issue, which can lead to environment pollution. Nevertheless, it is also a low-cost and sustainable resource for bio-production. Meanwhile, welan gum (WG) is one kind of the most important exopolysaccharide but with high material cost. The aim of this study was to adopt two-step enzymatic hydrolysis to improve the release and recovery of both sugar and protein in KW for subsequent WG production. As the results, the recovery rates of sugar and protein reached 81.07 and 77.38%, which were both satisfactory...
April 1, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Balakrishnan Kunasundari, Takamitsu Arai, Kumar Sudesh, Rokiah Hashim, Othman Sulaiman, Natra Joseph Stalin, Akihiko Kosugi
The availability of fermentable sugars in high concentrations in the sap of felled oil palm trunks and the thermophilic nature of the recently isolated Bacillus coagulans strain 191 were exploited for lactic acid production under non-sterile conditions. Screening indicated that strain 191 was active toward most sugars including sucrose, which is a major component of sap. Strain 191 catalyzed a moderate conversion of sap sugars to lactic acid (53%) with a productivity of 1.56 g/L/h. Pretreatment of oil palm sap (OPS) using alkaline precipitation improved the sugar fermentability, providing a lactic acid yield of 92% and productivity of 2...
March 30, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Leping Zeng, Yaojia He, Liangcheng Jiao, Kai Li, Yunjun Yan
To reduce industrial production cost, cheap and easily available rapeseed oil deodorizer distillates were used as feedstock to prepare biodiesel in this study. As a result, liquid forms of Candida rugosa lipase and Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) were functioned as new and effective catalysts with biodiesel yield of 92.63% for 30 h and 94.36% for 9 h, respectively. Furthermore, the synergetic effect between the two lipases was employed to enhance biodiesel yield with a result of 98.16% in 6 h under optimized conditions via response surface methodology...
March 29, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xiaomei Wan, Susu Tang, Xinran Xiang, He Huang, Yi Hu
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were modified by imidazole-based ionic liquids with different alkyl groups. The modified support samples were characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectra, thermogravimetric analyses, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The samples were used to immobilize Candida antarctic lipase (CALB) and the influence of alkyl chain length of ionic liquids on enzymatic properties was investigated by the hydrolysis reaction of triacetin. The results revealed that functionalized ionic liquids modification did not destroy the structure of MWNTs...
March 29, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mallaiah Putakala, Sudhakara Gujjala, Srinivasulu Nukala, Saralakumari Desireddy
Insulin resistance (IR) is a characteristic feature of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that the high-fructose consumption is a potential and important factor responsible for the rising incidence of IR. The present study investigates the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PAAE) on IR and oxidative stress in high-fructose (HF) fed male Wistar rats. HF diet (66% of fructose) and PAAE (200 mg/kg body weight/day) were given concurrently to the rats for a period of 60 days...
March 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Chao Cai, Lingling Hou, Jingsi Zhang, Diandian Zhao, Ziling Wang, Honggang Hu, Jinsheng He, Weijun Guan, Yuehui Ma
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can migrate to the tumor site and integrate into the tumor tissue. As a delivery vehicle of antitumor factors, MSCs have been tried in various tumor therapies. NK4 can both inhibit the growth, metastasis, and invasion of tumor cells induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and suppress tumor angiogenesis that is independent on HGF/cellular-mesenchymal-to-transition factor pathway. Adenovirus can directly deliver NK4 for tumor treatment but may induce immunological rejection. We combined MSCs with an adenovirus vector to deliver NK4 for liver tumor treatment...
March 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Thiago B Cahú, Rodrigo A Silva, Raquel P F Silva, Milena M Silva, Isabel R S Arruda, Janilson F Silva, Romero M P B Costa, Suzan D Santos, Helena B Nader, Ranilson S Bezerra
In this work, chitosan-based films containing gelatin and chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) with and without ZnO particles were produced and tested in vitro to investigate their potential wound healing properties. Chitosans were produced from shrimp-head processing waste by alkaline deacetylation of chitin to obtain chitosans differing in molecular weight and degree of deacetylation (80 ± 0.5%). The film-forming solutions (chitosan, C4S and gelatin) and ZnO suspension showed no toxicity towards fibroblasts or keratinocytes...
March 27, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xingxuan Chen, Yiyun Xue, Jiajun Hu, Yiu Fai Tsang, Min-Tian Gao
In this study, we found that p-coumaric acid (p-CA), ferulic acid (FA), and condensed tannins were released from rice straw during saccharification. The presence of polyphenols prolonged the lag phase and lowered the productivity of lactic acid. p-CA was identified as a key inhibitor. Tannins had a lower inhibitory effect than p-CA; FA had little inhibitory effect. Acid, alkaline, and ball milling pretreatments elicited different levels of polyphenol release from rice straw. Due to the different levels of polyphenol release in the pretreatment step, the enzymatic hydrolysates contained different concentrations of polyphenols...
March 27, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Fan Zhang, Nan Huang, Li Zhou, Wenjing Cui, Zhongmei Liu, Longbao Zhu, Yi Liu, Zhemin Zhou
Phenylalanine ammonia lyase from Anabaena variabilis (Av-PAL) is a candidate for the treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU). However, Av-PAL shows its optimal pH at 8.5 and maintains only 70% of its highest activity when pH decreases to 7.3-7.4 (the condition of human plasma). The objective of the study was to shift its optimal pH by mutating surface amino acid residues which interact with the general base Tyr78. Based on the crystal structure and the online program GETAREA, we selected five sites: Asn69, Glu72, Glu75, Asn89, and Val90...
March 25, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Takahiro Tanaka, Kazuyoshi Takagi, Hossain Md Saddam, Yoichi Takeda, Mamoru Wakayama
Valyl-glycine (Val-Gly) is useful as a synthetic substrate of γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine (γ-Glu-Val-Gly), which exhibits a strong taste of "kokumi." For efficient enzymatic synthesis of Val-Gly from valine methylester and glycine using L-amino acid esterase (LAE), we screened microorganisms producing LAE with synthetic activity toward Val-Gly. Among 17 isolates showing LAE activity, Elizabethkingia sp. TT1, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, showed the highest synthetic activity toward Val-Gly...
March 24, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Helberth Júnnior Santos Lopes, Lucas Rodrigues Ramos, Edson Luiz Silva
This study evaluated the production of hydrogen and propionic acid in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor by co-fermentation of cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG). The reactor was operated at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h by changing the CW/CG ratio from 5:1 to 5:2, 5:3, 5:4, and 5:5. At the ratio of 5:5, HRT was reduced from 8 to 0.5 h. The maximum hydrogen yield of 0.120 mmol H2 g COD(-1) was observed at the CW/CG ratio of 5:1. Increasing the CG concentration repressed hydrogen production in favor of propionic acid, with a maximum yield of 6...
March 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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