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Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Pankajkumar A Vekariya, Parag S Karia, Bhupesh S Bhatt, Mohan N Patel
Half sandwich complexes of the type [(η5-C5 Me5 )M(L1-3 )Cl]Cl.2H2 O were synthesized using [{(η5 -C5 Me5 )M(μ-Cl)Cl}2 ], where M = Rh(III)/Ir(III) and L1-3  = pyrimidine-based ligands. The complexes were characterized by spectral analysis. DNA interaction studies by absorption titration and hydrodynamic measurement and suggest intercalative mode of binding of complexes with CT-DNA. The molecular docking study also supports intercalation of the complexes between the stacks of nucleotide base pairs...
July 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hongjie Lei, Li Feng, Fei Peng, Huaide Xu
The effects of different wort gravity or ethanol concentration in initial wort on the fermentation performance of lager yeast and assimilation of free amino acids (FAAs) were studied. Results showed that compared with high wort gravity (24°P), high ethanol concentration (10%, v/v) decreased yeast growth, cell viability, and wort fermentability significantly. The assimilation of FAAs was changed dramatically by high ethanol toxicity, and positive correlations between the assimilation amounts of 10 FAAs (Asp, Ser, Gly, Arg, Tyr, Val, Met, Lys, Ile, and Leu) and fermentation performance (cell viability, fermentability, and ethanol production) were identified, especially for Arg and Lys exhibiting extremely significant positive correlations...
July 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Priyanka Chandra, Daljit Singh Arora, Mamta Pal, Rakesh Kumar Sharma
Selective lignin degrading white rot fungi viz. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phlebia brevispora, and Phlebia floridensis were selected to evaluate antioxidant potential and auxin (indole acetic acid) production in complex and synthetic medium. Antioxidant potential of these fungi was tested against different free radicals including 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, ferrous ion, and ferric ion along with total phenolic content. All the fungal strains produce phenolics ranging from 5.2 to 16...
July 11, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Niti B Jadeja, Prachiti Moharir, Atya Kapley
Microbial genomics facilitates the analysis of microbial attributes, which can be applied in bioremediation of pollutants and oil recovery process. The biosurfactants derived from microbes can replace the chemical surfactants, which are ecologically detrimental. The aim of this work was to study the genetic organization responsible for biodegradation of aromatics and biosurfactant production in potential microbes isolated from polluted soil. Bacterial isolates were tested for biosurfactant production, wherein Bacillus sp...
July 10, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Huseyin Yilmaz, Bonto Faburay, Nuri Turan, Maira Cotton-Caballero, Burhan Cetinkaya, Aydin Gurel, Aysun Yilmaz, Utku Y Cizmecigil, Ozge Aydin, Eda Altan Tarakci, Erhan Bayraktar, Juergen A Richt
The avian coronavirus-infectious bronchitis virus (AvCoV-IBV) is recognized as an important avian pathogen, and new viral variants are a continuous threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Sensitive diagnostics and efficacious vaccines are necessary to combat IBV infections in chickens. The aim of this study was to produce recombinant N protein of IBV in the baculovirus system to use in ELISA diagnostic tests in order to enable the assessment of the sero-prevalence and risk of IBV infections in chickens in Turkey...
July 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Saeed Zanganeh, Hamideh Rouhani Nejad, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi, Razieh Hosseini, Bahareh Shahi, Zahra Tavassoli, Asieh Aramvash
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), is one of the most potent bacterial superantigens with profound toxic effects on the immune system. It is associated with food poisoning, toxic shock, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and nasal polyps in humans. The current diagnostic methods for staphylococcal enterotoxin are mainly based on traditional monoclonal antibodies which hardly meet the requirements for clinical applications, and hybridoma clones lose their ability to secrete antibodies during time...
July 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Maharaja Pounsamy, Swarnalatha Somasundaram, Saravanan Palanivel, Sekaran Ganesan
The present investigation was carried out for the degradation of fatty components in high TDS containing wastewater (soak liquor) discharged from leather industry, and the degradation was achieved by saline-tolerant lipase-immobilized functionalized nanoporous-activated carbon (STLNPAC). The lipase was extracted from the halophilic organism, Bacillus cereus. The optimum conditions for lipase production such as time, 60 h; temperature, 50 °C; pH, 10; and substrate concentration, 2.5% (w/v) were determined through response surface methodology (RSM)...
July 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mariana G Brondi, Vanessa M Vasconcellos, Roberto C Giordano, Cristiane S Farinas
A potential strategy to mitigate problems related to unproductive adsorption of enzymes onto lignin during the saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass is the addition of lignin-blocking agents to the hydrolysis reaction medium. However, there is a clear need to find more cost-effective additives for use in large-scale processes. Here, selected alternative low-cost additives were evaluated in the saccharification of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse using a commercial enzymatic cocktail. The addition of soybean protein, tryptone, peptone, and maize zein had positive effects on glucose release during the hydrolysis, with gains of up to 36% when 8% (w/w) soybean protein was used...
July 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Badal C Saha, Gregory J Kennedy, Michael J Bowman, Nasib Qureshi, Robert O Dunn
Itaconic acid (IA; a building block platform chemical) is currently produced industrially from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. In order to expand the use of IA, its production cost must be lowered. Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as low-cost source of sugars for IA production. It was found that the fungus cannot produce IA from dilute acid pretreated and enzymatically saccharified wheat straw hydrolysate even at 100-fold dilution. The effects of typical compounds (acetic acid, furfural, HMF and Mn2+ , enzymes, CaSO4 ), culture conditions (initial pH, temperature, aeration), and medium components (KH2 PO4 , NH4 NO3 , CaCl2 ·2H2 O, FeCl3 ·6H2 O) on growth and IA production by A...
July 4, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Zhengfei Yang, Xiaolin Pei, Gang Xu, Jianping Wu, Lirong Yang
2,6-Difluorobenzamide is an important intermediate with many applications in pesticide industries. Through screening a library of recombinant nitrile hydratases, the nitrile hydratase from Aurantimonas manganoxydans ATCC BAA-1229 was selected for production of 2,6-difluorobenzamide from 2,6-difluorobenzonitrile. Key parameters of the biocatalytic process, including temperature, pH, substrate loading, and substrate feeding mode, were optimized. Finally, 314 g/L of 2,6-difluorobenzamide was produced in a simple batch process within 11 h without formation of any by-product in an economical non-buffer system and similar result was obtained when scaled up to 30 L...
July 4, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Xuanxuan Li, Jia Guo, Yimin Hu, Yumeng Yang, Junwei Jiang, Fang Nan, Shenglu Wu, Zhihong Xin
A cosmid metagenomic library containing 1.3 × 105 clones was created from a soil sample. A novel gene (fae-xuan) encoding a feruloyl esterase was identified through functional screening. Primary sequence analysis showed that the gene consisted of 759 base pairs and encoded a protein of 252 amino acids. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the corresponding purified recombinant enzyme exhibited a molecular weight of 29 kDa. The FAE-Xuan showed high activity (40.0 U/mg) toward methyl ferulate with an optimal temperature and pH of 30 °C and 5...
July 3, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Aymn Abdulrahman, G Peter van Walsum, Byung-Hwan Um
Pre-pulping extraction is a means of deriving a hemicellulose-rich process stream from the front end of a kraft pulp mill. When the extraction is carried out using green liquor, pulp quality and quantity can be retained while still releasing hemicelluloses and acetic acid (HAc) for recovery as bioprocessing feedstock or chemical products. The HAc that is present in the wood extraction is inhibitory to microorganisms and can hinder fermentation. HAc is also a commodity chemical that may provide sufficient value to justify recovery and purification...
July 2, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Sancharini Das, Prabudhha Dey, Debasis Roy, Mrinal Kumar Maiti, Ramkrishna Sen
Chitin is a linear homo-polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose. Several industries rely on the bioprocesses for waste chitin recycle and hydrolysis by chitinase (EC for potential healthcare applications through the production of its monomeric subunit, GlcNAc. In the present study, a chitinase-producing fungus (named as MFSRK-S42) was isolated from the marine water sample of North Bay of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It was identified as Aspergillus terreus by morphological and molecular characterization methods leveraging the internal transcribed spacer between 18S rRNA and 5...
July 2, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Rou Cao, Yong Xu
Preparation of xylonic acid from xylonate fermentation broth was studied in a four-chamber bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) setup. The effects of metal-ion size, current density, and xylonate concentration on BMED were evaluated principally with respect to acid yield and partially with respect to efficiency and energy consumption. Sodium xylonate was more successful than potassium xylonate because of its smaller size and easier membrane penetrability for BMDE. Efficient electrodialysis was achieved using 50 mA/cm2 current density for 14 min; thus, we obtained 92% xylonic acid from 100 g/L sodium xylonate fermentation broth...
July 2, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Tong Zhou, Wanqiang Niu, Zhen Yuan, Shuli Guo, Yang Song, Chunhong Di, Xiaoling Xu, Xiaohua Tan, Lei Yang
Arsenic is one of the most widespread global environmental toxicants associated with endemic poisoning. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are transmembrane channels that transport and dispose of lipids and metabolic products across the plasma membrane. The majority of ABC family members (including ABCB1 and ABCC1) are reported to play a role in the development of arsenic and drug resistance in mammals. Previously, we established a human arsenic-resistant ECV-304 (AsRE) cell line and identified ABCA1 as a novel arsenic resistance gene...
June 28, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Shabanali Khodashenas Limoni, Mehdi Forouzandeh Moghadam, Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni, Hosna Gomari, Fatemeh Salimi
Exosomes are the best options for gene targeting, because of their natural, nontoxic, non-immunogenic, biodegradable, and targetable properties. By engineering exosome-producing cells, ligands can be expressed fusing with exosomal surface proteins for targeting cancer cell receptors. In the present study, HER2-positive breast cancer cells were targeted with a modified exosome producing engineered HEK293T cell. For this purpose, the HEK293T cells were transduced by a lentiviral vector bearing-LAMP2b-DARPin G3 chimeric gene...
June 28, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Junwei Dou, Yanmeng Huang, Haiwei Ren, Zhizhong Li, Qin Cao, Xiaofeng Liu, Dong Li
To recover a nitrogen resource from high-ammonia-nitrogen wastewater, two amphitrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (HOB), Paracoccus denitrificans Y5 and P. versutus D6, capable of nitrogen assimilation for single-cell protein (SCP) production were isolated. These two HOB strains could grow autotrophically with H2 as an electron donor, O2 as an electron acceptor, CO2 as a carbon source, and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 + -N) as a nitrogen source. The cell molecular formulas of strains Y5 and D6 determined by autotrophic cultivation were C3...
June 27, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ling Kou, Mingzhao Du, Peijing Liu, Baohai Zhang, Yizhi Zhang, Ping Yang, Mengyuan Shang, Xiaodong Wang
Grifola frondosa is an edible fungus with a variety of potential pharmacological activities. This study investigates the hypoglycemic, anti-diabetic nephritic, and antioxidant properties of G. frondosa polysaccharides in diet-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After a 4-week treatment with 100 mg/kg of metformin and 200 mg/kg of one of four different G. frondosa polysaccharide mixtures (especially GFPS3 and GFPS4), diabetic rats had enhanced body weight and suppressed plasma glucose, indicating the hypoglycemic activities of the G...
June 26, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Haruka Nagai, Kanji Tomioka, Shiro Okumura
We have been developing quick and simple system for detecting food-poisoning bacteria using a combination of an asymmetric PCR and a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The system would be suitable for point-of-care detection of food-poisoning bacteria in the field of food industry. In this study, we established a novel method for quantifying the amplified forward (F) and reverse (R) chains of Staphylococcus aureus separately by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration of single-stranded DNA amplicon excessively amplified, which is crucial for the system, could be calculated as the difference between those of the F- and R-chains...
June 26, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Valentina Echeverría, Jaime Eyzaguirre
The fungus Penicillium purpurogenum grows on a variety of natural carbon sources and secretes a large number of enzymes which degrade the polysaccharides present in lignocellulose. In this work, the gene coding for a novel endoxylanase has been identified in the genome of the fungus. This gene (xynd) possesses four introns. The cDNA has been expressed in Pichia pastoris and characterized. The enzyme, XynD, belongs to family 10 of the glycoside hydrolases. Mature XynD has a calculated molecular weight of 40,997...
June 25, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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