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Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149442/assessment-of-the-relative-contribution-of-volume-and-concentration-changes-in-yttrium-90-labelled-resin-microspheres-on-ionization-chamber-measurements
#1
Nicholas Forwood, Kathy P Willowson, Michael Tapner, Dale L Bailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143909/design-of-an-optimum-poincar%C3%A3-plane-for-extracting-meaningful-samples-from-eeg-signals
#2
Babak Sharif, Amir Homayoun Jafari
Biosignals are considered as important sources of data for diagnosing and detecting abnormalities, and modeling dynamics in the body. These signals are usually analyzed using features taken from time and frequency domain. In theory' these dynamics can also be analyzed utilizing Poincaré plane that intersects system's trajectory. However' selecting an appropriate Poincaré plane is a crucial part of extracting best Poincaré samples. There is no unique way to choose a Poincaré plane' because it is highly dependent to the system dynamics...
November 16, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098601/optimization-of-a-shorter-variable-acquisition-time-for-legs-to-achieve-true-whole-body-pet-ct-images
#3
Takuro Umeda, Kenta Miwa, Taisuke Murata, Noriaki Miyaji, Kei Wagatsuma, Kazuki Motegi, Takashi Terauchi, Mitsuru Koizumi
The present study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate PET images as a function of acquisition time for various leg sizes, and to optimize a shorter variable-acquisition time protocol for legs to achieve better qualitative and quantitative accuracy of true whole-body PET/CT images. The diameters of legs to be modeled as phantoms were defined based on data derived from 53 patients. This study analyzed PET images of a NEMA phantom and three plastic bottle phantoms (diameter, 5.68, 8.54 and 10.7 cm) that simulated the human body and legs, respectively...
November 2, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098600/a-model-based-on-the-pennes-bioheat-transfer-equation-is-valid-in-normal-brain-tissue-but-not-brain-tissue-suffering-focal-ischaemia
#4
Thomas Lillicrap, Murat Tahtalı, Andrew Neely, Xiaofei Wang, Andrew Bivard, Christian Lueck
Ischaemic stroke is a major public health issue in both developed and developing nations. Hypothermia is believed to be neuroprotective in cerebral ischaemia. Conversely, elevated brain temperature is associated with poor outcome after ischaemic stroke. Mechanisms of heat exchange in normally-perfused brain are relatively well understood, but these mechanisms have not been studied as extensively during focal cerebral ischaemia. A finite element model (FEM) of heat exchange during focal ischaemia in the human brain was developed, based on the Pennes bioheat equation...
November 2, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090419/assessment-for-facial-nerve-paralysis-based-on-facial-asymmetry
#5
Song Anping, Xu Guoliang, Ding Xuehai, Song Jiaxin, Xu Gang, Zhang Wu
Facial nerve paralysis (FNP) is a loss of facial movement due to facial nerve damage, which will lead to significant physical pain and abnormal function in patients. Traditional FNP grading methods are solely based on clinician's judgment and are time-consuming and subjective. Hence, an accurate, quantitative and objective method of evaluating FNP is proposed for constructing a standard system, which will be an invaluable tool for clinicians who treat the patient with FNP. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for quantitative assessment of FNP which combines an effective facial landmark estimation (FLE) algorithm and facial asymmetrical feature (FAF) by processing facial movement image...
October 31, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086179/investigating-the-impact-of-treatment-delivery-uncertainties-on-treatment-effectiveness-for-lung-sabr
#6
Samuel J Blake, Sankar Arumugam, Lois Holloway, Shalini Vinod, Cesar Ochoa, Penny Phan, Christian Rønn Hansen, David I Thwaites
To quantify the impact of treatment delivery uncertainties on lung stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) plans for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (ssIMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Baseline ssIMRT and VMAT treatment plans were generated for a cohort of 18 lung SABR patients. Modified plans were generated for each baseline plan by systematically varying gantry and collimator angles between - 5 and + 5 degrees, as well as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position errors of magnitude between 1 and 5 mm in both directions (i...
October 30, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075993/grid-mapping-a-novel-method-of-signal-quality-evaluation-on-a-single-lead-electrocardiogram
#7
Yanjun Li, Xiaoying Tang
Diagnosis of long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) calls for automatic and accurate methods of ECG signal quality estimation, not only to lighten the burden of the doctors but also to avoid misdiagnoses. In this paper, a novel waveform-based method of phase-space reconstruction for signal quality estimation on a single lead ECG was proposed by projecting the amplitude of the ECG and its first order difference into grid cells. The waveform of a single lead ECG was divided into non-overlapping episodes (Ts = 10, 20, 30 s), and the number of grids in both the width and the height of each map are in the range [20, 100] (NX = NY = 20, 30, 40, … 90, 100)...
October 26, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058222/accuracy-of-the-garmin-920-xt-hrm-to-perform-hrv-analysis
#8
Johan Cassirame, Romain Vanhaesebrouck, Simon Chevrolat, Laurent Mourot
Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is widely used to investigate autonomous cardiac drive. This method requires periodogram measurement, which can be obtained by an electrocardiogram (ECG) or from a heart rate monitor (HRM), e.g. the Garmin 920 XT device. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the accuracy of RR time series measurements from a Garmin 920 XT HRM as compared to a standard ECG, and to verify whether the measurements thus obtained are suitable for HRV analysis. RR time series were collected simultaneously with an ECG (Powerlab system, AD Instruments, Castell Hill, Australia) and a Garmin XT 920 in 11 healthy subjects during three conditions, namely in the supine position, the standing position and during moderate exercise...
October 20, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030753/successful-implementation-of-virtual-environment-for-radiotherapy-training-vert-in-medical-physics-education-the-university-of-sydney-s-initial-experience-and-recommendations
#9
Yobelli A Jimenez, Christian Rønn Hansen, Prabhjot Juneja, David I Thwaites
This report outlines the University of Sydney's initial experience with the Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) system in the Master of Medical Physics program. VERT is a commercially available system, simulating linear accelerators, patient computed tomography (CT) sets, plans and treatment delivery. It was purpose built for radiation therapy (RT) education and offers learners the opportunity to gain knowledge and skills within an interactive, risk-free environment. The integration of VERT into the RT physics module of the Master of Medical Physics program was intended to enhance student knowledge and skills relevant to the curriculum's learning objectives, and to alleviate some of the burden associated with student access to clinical equipment...
October 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027125/a-survey-of-modulated-radiotherapy-use-in-australia-new-zealand-in-2015
#10
Jeffrey Barber, Philip Vial, Paul White, Nick Menzies, Shrikant Deshpande, Regina Bromley, Nick Bennie, Shan Yau, Kristie Harrison
A survey of radiation oncology medical physics departments across Australia and New Zealand was conducted to assess the usage, commissioning and quality assurance of modulated radiotherapy techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. Survey responses were collected in April-May 2015 to snapshot current practice and historical implementation. The survey asked 142 questions, and is the most detailed survey of its kind published to date. Analysis of results at overall department level, as well as sub-analysis for different equipment and techniques in use, was performed...
October 12, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986757/proposed-patient-motion-monitoring-system-using-feature-point-tracking-with-a-web-camera
#11
Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa, Takaaki Matsuura, Kiyoshi Yamada, Yasushi Nagata
Patient motion monitoring systems play an important role in providing accurate treatment dose delivery. We propose a system that utilizes a web camera (frame rate up to 30 fps, maximum resolution of 640 × 480 pixels) and an in-house image processing software (developed using Microsoft Visual C++ and OpenCV). This system is simple to use and convenient to set up. The pyramidal Lucas-Kanade method was applied to calculate motions for each feature point by analysing two consecutive frames. The image processing software employs a color scheme where the defined feature points are blue under stable (no movement) conditions and turn red along with a warning message and an audio signal (beeping alarm) for large patient movements...
October 6, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983885/shielding-of-medical-imaging-x-ray-facilities-a-simple-and-practical-method
#12
Giovanni Bibbo
The most widely accepted method for shielding design of X-ray facilities is that contained in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report 147 whereby the computation of the barrier thickness for primary, secondary and leakage radiations is based on the knowledge of the distances from the radiation sources, the assumptions of the clinical workload, and usage and occupancy of adjacent areas. The shielding methodology used in this report is complex. With this methodology, the shielding designers need to make assumptions regarding the use of the X-ray room and the adjoining areas...
October 5, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971344/the-effect-of-beam-interruption-during-fff-vmat-plans-for-sbrt
#13
Seongjong Oh, Benjamin Lewis, Amy Watson, Siyong Kim, Taeho Kim
To investigate the dosimetric effect of intended beam interruption during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with flattening filter free (FFF) beam for exploring the possibility of deep inspiration breath hold stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A total of ten SBRT plans with 6 and 10 MV FFF beams were retrospectively selected. All plans consisted of four partial arcs, except one plan with six partial arcs. We delivered the plans using a Varian Truebeam™ with three different scenarios; without interruption (0int), with one intentional interruption (1int), or with two intentional interruptions (2int), per each partial arc...
October 2, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971313/validating-an-image-segmentation-program-devised-for-staging-lymphoma
#14
Anthony Slattery
Hybrid positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging systems are an important tool for assessing the progression of lymphoma. PET-CT systems offer the ability to quantitatively assess lymphocytic bone involvement throughout the body. There is no standard methodology for staging lymphoma patients using PET-CT images. Automatic image segmentation algorithms could offer medical specialists a means to evaluate bone involvement from PET-CT images in a consistent manner. To devise and validate an image segmentation program that may assist staging lymphoma by determining the degree of bone involvement based from PET-CT studies...
October 2, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887765/heartbeat-detection-in-multimodal-physiological-signals-using-signal-quality-assessment-based-on-sample-entropy
#15
Omkar Singh, Ramesh Kumar Sunkaria
This paper presents a novel technique to identify heartbeats in multimodal data using electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals. Multiple physiological signals such as ECG, ABP, and Respiration are often recorded in parallel from the activity of heart. These signals generally possess related information as they are generated by the same physical system. The ECG and ABP correspond to the same phenomenon of contraction and relaxation activity of heart. Multiple signals acquired from various sensors are generally processed independently, thus discarding the information from other measurements...
September 8, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887746/diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-from-eeg-signals-using-nonlinear-methods
#16
Ali Torabi, Mohammad Reza Daliri, Seyyed Hojjat Sabzposhan
EEG signals have essential and important information about the brain and neural diseases. The main purpose of this study is classifying two groups of healthy volunteers and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients using nonlinear features of EEG signals while performing cognitive tasks. EEG signals were recorded when users were doing two different attentional tasks. One of the tasks was based on detecting a desired change in color luminance and the other task was based on detecting a desired change in direction of motion...
September 8, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871513/winning-images-from-the-photography-in-medical-physics-pimp-competition
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861861/gate-monte-carlo-simulation-of-dose-distribution-using-mapreduce-in-a-cloud-computing-environment
#18
Yangchuan Liu, Yuguo Tang, Xin Gao
The GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform has good application prospects of treatment planning and quality assurance. However, accurate dose calculation using GATE is time consuming. The purpose of this study is to implement a novel cloud computing method for accurate GATE Monte Carlo simulation of dose distribution using MapReduce. An Amazon Machine Image installed with Hadoop and GATE is created to set up Hadoop clusters on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). Macros, the input files for GATE, are split into a number of self-contained sub-macros...
August 31, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914430/position-paper-recommendations-for-a-digital-mammography-quality-assurance-program%C3%A2-v4-0
#19
J C P Heggie, P Barnes, L Cartwright, J Diffey, J Tse, J Herley, I D McLean, F J Thomson, R K Grewal, L T Collins
In 2001 the ACPSEM published a position paper on quality assurance in screen film mammography which was subsequently adopted as a basis for the quality assurance programs of both the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) and of BreastScreen Australia. Since then the clinical implementation of digital mammography has been realised and it has become evident that existing screen-film protocols were not appropriate to assure the required image quality needed for reliable diagnosis or to address the new dose implications resulting from digital technology...
September 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887797/cell-shaped-silicon-on-insulator-microdosimeters-characterization-and-response-to-239-pube-irradiations
#20
Anthony Mazza, Wayne Newhauser, Stephen Pittman, Andrew Halloran, Paul Maggi, Linh Tran, Brent Gila, Anatoly Rosenfeld, James Ziegler
This work tested the feasibility of a silicon-on-insulator microdosimeter, which mimics the size and shape of specific cells within the human body, to determine dose equivalent from neutron irradiation. The microdosimeters were analyzed in terms of their basic diode characteristics, i.e., leakage current as a function of bias voltage. Lineal energy spectra were acquired using two different converter layers placed atop the microdosimeter: a tissue-substitute converter made from high-density polyethylene, and a boron converter consisting of epoxy coated with boron powder...
September 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
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