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Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine

Maryam Babaei, Ruhollah Ghahramani-Asl, Hamid-Reza Sadoughi, Dariush Sardari, Sohrab Shahzadi
Over 90% of craniopharyngeal brain tumors are cystic, which enables the injection of beta emitters such as phosphorus-32 (32 P) radio-colloid into cysts for their treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and theoretical modelling of Bremsstrahlung radiation dose resulting from stereotactic radio-colloid therapy of cystic craniopharyngioma tumors with 32 P. 32 P radio-colloid with appropriate activity concentration was injected to a head phantom, and then the Bremsstrahlung radiation spectrum and planar images were obtained using a gamma camera...
July 9, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Grzegorz Budzik, Paweł Turek
The article presents a comparative study of influence of the Lanczos resampling filter on improving the accuracy of reconstruction of mandible geometries. The research was performed on eight different patients. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were obtained on the Siemens Somatom Sensation Open 40 scanner. At the stage of reconstruction, the same parameters were utilized, while only slice thickness was changed. Modeling with voxel dimensions of 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm × 1.5 mm was chosen as the gold standard over the modeling approach comprising voxel dimensions of 0...
July 5, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Claire Dempsey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Chiara Giulia Fontanella, Veronica Macchi, Emanuele Luigi Carniel, Alessandro Frigo, Andrea Porzionato, Edgardo Enrico Edoardo Picardi, Marta Favero, Pietro Ruggieri, Raffaele de Caro, Arturo N Natali
The Infrapatellar Fat Pad (IFP) lies between patella, femur, meniscus and tibia and properly fills the space between these structures. This fatty structure facilitates distribution of synovial fluid and may act to absorb impulsive actions generated through the joint. In case of Osteoarthritis (OA), IFP is found to be affected by inflammation, hypertrophy and fibrosis. The aim of the present study is to analyze the correlation between microscopic characteristics and mechanical properties of the IFP in healthy and OA conditions...
June 25, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Martin A Ebert, Nicholas Hardcastle, Tomas Kron
This commentary reports on a forum held in October 2017 in Hobart, Tasmania, attended by 20 Australasian medical physicists, to consider the future role of medical physics, as well as non-medical physics and allied disciplines, in oncology research. Attendees identified important areas of oncology research which physicists can be contributing to, with these evaluated in the context of a set of "Provocative Questions" recently generated by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Primary perceived barriers to participation in research were identified, including a "lack of knowledge of cancer science", together with potential solutions...
June 25, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Abbas Haghparast, Fatemeh Amiri, Mehran Yarahmadi, Mohammad Rezaei
Peripheral doses out of field could have short and long terms biological effects on patients treated with electron beams. In this study, peripheral dose outside the applicator was measured using the 6, 10 and 18 MeV beams of an Elekta synergy linac. For these beams dose profiles were measured using EBT3 film at various depths within a solid water phantom. Measurements were performed using 6 × 6, 10 × 10, 14 × 14 and 20 × 20 cm2 applicators at gantryangles of 0°, 10° and 20° and depths of 0, 0...
June 25, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Giovanni Bibbo, Tracy Benger, Victoria Sigalas, Ian Kirkwood
Radioiodine (131 I) therapies on younger children with thyroid cancer and neuroblastoma can be challenging as they are required to be isolated for a period of time due to radiation safety concerns. At our hospital these therapies are performed in a purpose-built child-friendly therapy room. Nursing staff are able to provide personal care during the isolation period with minimum radiation exposure. Patients are provided with various age-appropriate entertainment items such as iPad, X-Box, DVD, craft and books to keep them entertained while in isolation...
June 25, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Mohammad J Tahmasebi Birgani, Maziyar Mahdavi, Mansour Zabihzadeh, Mehrzad Lotfi, Mohammad A Mosleh-Shirazi
Relative electron densities of body tissues (ρe ) for radiotherapy treatment planning are normally obtained by CT scanning of tissue substitute materials (TSMs) and producing a Hounsfield Unit-ρe calibration curve. Aiming for more accurate, simultaneous characterization of ρe and effective atomic number (Zeff ) of real tissues, an in-house phantom (including 10 water solutions plus composite cork as TSMs) was constructed and scanned at 4 kVps. Dual-energy algorithms were applied to 80-140 and 100-140 kVp combination scans, for better differentiation of tissues with same attenuation coefficient at 120 kVp but different ρe and Zeff ...
June 22, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Martin Caon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Kamal M Ahmed, Shaimaa M Eldeighdye, Tarek M Allam, Walaa F Hassanin
In this paper, the plasma power density and corresponding plasma dose of a low-cost air non-thermal plasma jet (ANPJ) device are estimated at different axial distances from the nozzle. This estimation is achieved by measuring the voltage and current at the substrate using diagnostic techniques that can be easily made in laboratory; thin wire and dielectric probe, respectively. This device uses a compressed air as input gas instead of the relatively-expensive, large-sized and heavy weighed tanks of Ar or He gases...
June 14, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Raheel Zafar, Nidal Kamel, Mohamad Naufal, Aamir Saeed Malik, Sarat C Dass, Rana Fayyaz Ahmad, Jafri M Abdullah, Faruque Reza
Neuroscientists have investigated the functionality of the brain in detail and achieved remarkable results but this area still need further research. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is considered as the most reliable and accurate technique to decode the human brain activity, on the other hand electroencephalography (EEG) is a portable and low cost solution in brain research. The purpose of this study is to find whether EEG can be used to decode the brain activity patterns like fMRI. In fMRI, data from a very specific brain region is enough to decode the brain activity patterns due to the quality of data...
June 13, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Angel Kennedy, Jason Dowling, Peter B Greer, Martin A Ebert
Linear scaling is used to convert raw computed tomography (CT) pixel values into Hounsfield units corresponding to different tissue values. Analysis of a benchmarking study, presented here, where the same CT scan was imported into and then exported from multiple radiotherapy treatment planning systems, found inconsistencies in HU scaling parameter values exported along with the images, particularly when images were exported using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group format. Several methods of estimating conversion parameters, based on estimating pixel values corresponding to air and water within the image, for pelvic CT images from a large multi-centre trial were compared against original Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine export parameters...
June 7, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Pandeng Zhang, Quanli Qiu, Yanxia Zhou
Generalized transfer functions (GTFs) are available to compute the more relevant proximal blood pressure (BP) waveform from a more easily measured peripheral BP waveform. However, GTFs are based on the black box model. This paper presents a practical approach to reconstruct brachial artery pressure (BAP) distally from finger artery pressure (FAP). We assume that continuous BAP can be simply approximated by summing two halves of the continuous FAP shifted by the time delay. We firstly showed that the pressure wave in the finger artery can be considered twice as much as the forward/backward wave in the finger...
June 7, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Geethanjali Purushothaman, Raunak Vikas
This paper focuses on identification of an effective pattern recognition scheme with the least number of time domain features for dexterous control of prosthetic hand to recognize the various finger movements from surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. Eight channels EMG from 8 able-bodied subjects for 15 individuals and combined finger activities have been considered in this work. In this work, an attempt has been made to recognize a number of classes with the least number of features. Therefore, EMG signals are pre-processed using dual tree complex wavelet transform to improve the discriminating capability of features and time domain features such as zero crossing, slope sign change, mean absolute value, and waveform length is extracted from the pre-processed data...
May 9, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Małgorzata Wrzesień
The production of the 18 F isotope-the marker of deoxyglucose (18 F-FDG)-the radiopharmaceutical most commonly used in the oncological diagnostic technique of positron emission tomography, requires a cyclotron device. At present, there are nine facilities working in Poland that are equipped with cyclotrons used for producing the short-lived isotopes. The aim of the paper is to determine the hand exposure of workers employed in the two 18 F-FDG production centres taking in to account the production procedures and work system in those facilities...
May 7, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Serife Gokce Caliskan, Mehmet Dincer Bilgin, Mehmet Polatli
It is known that signals recorded from physiological systems represent nonlinear features. Several recent studies report that quantitative information about signal complexity is obtained by using nonlinear analysis algorithms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the causes of mortality worldwide with an increasing prevalence. This study aims to investigate nonlinear parameters such as largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and correlation dimension of electrodermal activity signals recorded from healthy subjects and patients with COPD...
June 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Xinxin Liu, Jian Yang, Shuang Song, Hong Song, Danni Ai, Jianjun Zhu, Yurong Jiang, Yongtian Wang
Liver metabolic information is considered as a crucial diagnostic marker for the diagnosis of fever of unknown origin, and liver recognition is the basis of automatic diagnosis of metabolic information extraction. However, the poor quality of PET and CT images is a challenge for information extraction and target recognition in PET-CT images. The existing detection method cannot meet the requirement of liver recognition in PET-CT images, which is the key problem in the big data analysis of PET-CT images. A novel texture feature descriptor called multi-layer cube sampling (MLCS) is developed for liver boundary detection in low-dose CT and PET images...
June 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
M Rejab, J H D Wong, Z Jamalludin, W L Jong, R A Malik, W Z Wan Ishak, N M Ung
This study investigates the characteristics and application of the optically-stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) in cobalt-60 high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, and compares the results with the dosage produced by the treatment planning system (TPS). The OSLD characteristics comprised linearity, reproducibility, angular dependence, depth dependence, signal depletion, bleaching rate and cumulative dose measurement. A phantom verification exercise was also conducted using the Farmer ionisation chamber and in vivo diodes...
June 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Seyed Milad Vahabi, Mostean Bahreinipour, Mojtaba Shamsaie Zafarghandi
The SAVI has gained widespread use for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) brachytherapy. Treatments with SAVI produce inherent heterogeneities including variable backscatter due to proximity to the tissue-air interface and variable cavity contents, causing inaccuracy in the dose calculation. In this study, a model of SAVI with sources of 169 Yb developed recently was defined and simulations with MCNP4C code of Monte Carlo were performed through different scenarios to assess the effects of these heterogeneities on the dose distribution...
June 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
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