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Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425075/technical-note-real-time-web-based-wireless-visual-guidance-system-for-radiotherapy
#1
Danny Lee, Siyong Kim, Jatinder R Palta, Taeho Kim
Describe a Web-based wireless visual guidance system that mitigates issues associated with hard-wired audio-visual aided patient interactive motion management systems that are cumbersome to use in routine clinical practice. Web-based wireless visual display duplicates an existing visual display of a respiratory-motion management system for visual guidance. The visual display of the existing system is sent to legacy Web clients over a private wireless network, thereby allowing a wireless setting for real-time visual guidance...
April 19, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409335/multichannel-interictal-spike-activity-detection-using-time-frequency-entropy-measure
#2
Palani Thanaraj, B Parvathavarthini
Localization of interictal spikes is an important clinical step in the pre-surgical assessment of pharmacoresistant epileptic patients. The manual selection of interictal spike periods is cumbersome and involves a considerable amount of analysis workload for the physician. The primary focus of this paper is to automate the detection of interictal spikes for clinical applications in epilepsy localization. The epilepsy localization procedure involves detection of spikes in a multichannel EEG epoch. Therefore, a multichannel Time-Frequency (T-F) entropy measure is proposed to extract features related to the interictal spike activity...
April 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409334/investigation-of-x-ray-focal-spot-alignment-using-a-jig-of-novel-design
#3
Lockie Yuen, Cameron McLucas
The X-ray focal spot and the centre of the flattening filter should be placed as close as possible to the central axis (CAX) on a linear accelerator (linac) to produce a radially symmetric beam. The aim of this study is to devise a method to easily optimise the focal spot position of Varian linac photon beams generated with a flattening filter. A simple and robust jig was designed and built to be inserted into the largest electron applicator. Accessory and jaw position interlocks were overridden to enable photon beam operation...
April 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397061/a-neural-controller-for-online-laser-power-adjustment-during-the-heat-therapy-process-in-the-presence-of-nanoparticles
#4
S Ehsan Razavi
The present research evaluated the efficiency of a control approach to control the temperature of a breast tumor mass in the presence of nanoparticles exposed to laser radiation. However, if the radiation is carried out in open loop manner it may result in excessive temperature rise healthy cells that exist in the vicinity of tumor's cells. This may lead to the death of healthy cells. So, using closed loop control methods is necessary to guarantee the preservation of healthy cells during the period of radiation...
April 10, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397060/monte-carlo-simulation-of-the-rbe-of-i-131-radiation-using-dna-damage-as-biomarker
#5
Ahad Ollah Ezzati, Ali Mahmoud-Pashazadeh, Matthew T Studenski
In general, a weighting factor of one is applied for low linear energy transfer radiations. However, several studies indicate that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low energy photons and electrons is greater than one. The aim of this current study was calculating the RBE of I-131 radiation relative to Co-60 gamma photons in 100 μm spheroid cells using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. These calculations were compared to experimentally measured results. MCNPX2.6 was used to simulate the I-131 and Co-60 irradiation setups and calculate the secondary electron spectra at energies higher than 1 keV with varying oxygen concentrations...
April 10, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397059/winning-images-from-the-photography-in-medical-physics-pimp-competition
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378320/the-impact-of-smart-metal-artefact-reduction-algorithm-for-use-in-radiotherapy-treatment-planning
#7
Connor Guilfoile, Peter Rampant, Michael House
The presence of metal artefacts in computed tomography (CT) create issues in radiation oncology. The loss of anatomical information and incorrect Hounsfield unit (HU) values produce inaccuracies in dose calculations, providing suboptimal patient treatment. Metal artefact reduction (MAR) algorithms were developed to combat these problems. This study provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the "Smart MAR" software (General Electric Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA), determining its usefulness in a clinical setting...
April 4, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378319/gaming-the-impact-factor-where-who-cites-what-whom-and-when
#8
EDITORIAL
Martin Caon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361478/commissioning-a-hobby-cutting-device-for-radiochromic-film-preparation
#9
Somayeh Zolfaghari, Kirby E Francis, Tanya Kairn, Scott B Crowe
In addition to a high spatial resolution and well characterised dose response, one of the major advantages of radiochromic film as a dosimeter is that sheets of film can be cut into pieces suitable for use as calibration films, and for in vivo and phantom measurements. The cutting of film is typically done using scissors or a guillotine, and this process can be time-consuming, limited in precision, requires extensive handling and does not allow holes to be cut from the film without cutting from an existing edge...
March 30, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342027/a-comparative-evaluation-of-ac225-vs-bi213-as-therapeutic-radioisotopes-for-targeted-alpha-therapy-for-cancer
#10
Barry J Allen
The Ac225:Bi213 generator is the mainstay for preclinical and clinical studies of targeted alpha therapy for cancer. Both Ac225 (four alpha decays) and Bi213 (one alpha decay) are being used to label targeting vectors to form the alpha immunoconjugate for cancer therapy. This paper considers the radiobiological and economic aspects of Ac225 vs Bi213 as the preferred radioisotope for preclinical and clinical TAT. The in vitro and in vivo evidence and the role of DNA repair processes is examined. The maximum tolerance dose and therapeutic gain are endpoints for comparison...
March 24, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342026/high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-source-measurement-intercomparison
#11
Joel Poder, Ryan L Smith, Nikki Shelton, May Whitaker, Duncan Butler, Annette Haworth
This work presents a comparison of air kerma rate (AKR) measurements performed by multiple radiotherapy centres for a single HDR (192)Ir source. Two separate groups (consisting of 15 centres) performed AKR measurements at one of two host centres in Australia. Each group travelled to one of the host centres and measured the AKR of a single (192)Ir source using their own equipment and local protocols. Results were compared to the (192)Ir source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer by means of a ratio of measured to certified AKR...
March 24, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321636/the-effect-of-cement-on-hip-stem-fixation-a-biomechanical-study
#12
Talip Çelik, İbrahim Mutlu, Arif Özkan, Yasin Kişioğlu
This study presents the numerical analysis of stem fixation in hip surgery using with/without cement methods since the use of cement is still controversial based on the clinical studies in the literature. Many different factors such as stress shielding, aseptic loosening, material properties of the stem, surgeon experiences etc. play an important role in the failure of the stem fixations. The stem fixation methods, cemented and uncemented, were evaluated in terms of mechanical failure aspects using computerized finite element method...
March 20, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321635/relative-biological-effectiveness-in-a-proton-spread-out-bragg-peak-formed-by-pencil-beam-scanning-mode
#13
Anna Michaelidesová, Jana Vachelová, Monika Puchalska, Kateřina Pachnerová Brabcová, Vladimír Vondráček, Lembit Sihver, Marie Davídková
In recent years, there is an increased interest in using scanning modes in proton therapy, due to the more conformal dose distributions, thanks to the spot-weighted dose delivery. The dose rate in each spot is however much higher than the dose rate when using passive irradiation modes, which could affect the cell response. The purpose of this work was to investigate how the relative biological effectiveness changes along the spread-out Bragg peak created by protons delivered by the pencil beam scanning mode...
March 20, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290068/eeg-based-alpha-neurofeedback-training-for-mood-enhancement
#14
Swee Wu Phneah, Humaira Nisar
The aim of this paper is to develop a preliminary neurofeedback system to improve the mood of the subjects using audio signals by enhancing their alpha brainwaves. Assessment of the effect of music on the human subjects is performed using three methods; subjective assessment of mood with the help of a questionnaire, the effect on brain by analysing EEG signals, and the effect on body by physiological assessment. In this study, two experiments have been designed. The first experiment was to determine the short-term effect of music on soothing human subjects, whereas the second experiment was to determine its long-term effect...
March 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290067/expert-system-classifier-for-adaptive-radiation-therapy-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Gabriele Guidi, Nicola Maffei, Claudio Vecchi, Giovanni Gottardi, Alberto Ciarmatori, Grazia Maria Mistretta, Ercole Mazzeo, Patrizia Giacobazzi, Frank Lohr, Tiziana Costi
A classifier-based expert system was developed to compare delivered and planned radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients. Its aim is to automatically identify patients that can benefit from an adaptive treatment strategy. The study predominantly addresses dosimetric uncertainties and critical issues caused by motion of hollow organs. 1200 MVCT images of 38 prostate adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed. An automatic daily re-contouring of structures (i.e. rectum, bladder and femoral heads), rigid/deformable registration and dose warping was carried out to simulate dose and volume variations during therapy...
March 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258484/corpuls-cpr-resuscitation-device-generates-superior-emulated-flows-and-pressures-than-lucas-ii-in-a-mechanical-thorax-model
#16
S Eichhorn, A Mendoza Garcia, M Polski, J Spindler, A Stroh, M Heller, R Lange, M Krane
The provision of sufficient chest compression is among the most important factors influencing patient survival during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). One approach to optimize the quality of chest compressions is to use mechanical-resuscitation devices. The aim of this study was to compare a new device for chest compression (corpuls cpr) with an established device (LUCAS II). We used a mechanical thorax model consisting of a chest with variable stiffness and an integrated heart chamber which generated blood flow dependent on the compression depth and waveform...
March 3, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255824/performance-of-epileptic-single-channel-scalp-eeg-classifications-using-single-wavelet-based-features
#17
Suparerk Janjarasjitt
Classification of epileptic scalp EEGs are certainly ones of the most crucial tasks in diagnosis of epilepsy. Rather than using multiple quantitative features, a single quantitative feature of single-channel scalp EEG is applied for classifying its corresponding state of the brain, i.e., during seizure activity or non-seizure period. The quantitative features proposed are wavelet-based features obtained from the logarithm of variance of detail and approximation coefficients of single-channel scalp EEG signals...
March 2, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243923/risks-and-benefits-of-reducing-target-volume-margins-in-breast-tangent-radiotherapy
#18
Deepak Basaula, Alexandra Quinn, Amy Walker, Vikneswary Batumalai, Shivani Kumar, Geoff P Delaney, Lois Holloway
This study investigates the potential benefits of planning target volume (PTV) margin reduction for whole breast radiotherapy in relation to dose received by organs at risk (OARs), as well as reductions in radiation-induced secondary cancer risk. Such benefits were compared to the increased radiation-induced secondary cancer risk attributed from increased ionizing radiation imaging doses. Ten retrospective patients' computed tomography datasets were considered. Three computerized treatment plans with varied PTV margins (0, 5 and 10 mm) were created for each patient complying with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 1005 protocol requirements...
February 27, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243922/quantification-of-intrafraction-prostate-motion-and-its-dosimetric-effect-on-vmat
#19
Prabhjot Juneja, Emma Colvill, Andrew Kneebone, Thomas Eade, Jin A Ng, David I Thwaites, Paul Keall, Ramandeep Kaur, Per Poulsen, Jeremy T Booth
Intrafraction prostate motion degrades the accuracy of radiation therapy (RT) delivery. Whilst a number of metrics in the literature have been used to quantify intrafraction prostate motion, it has not been established whether these metrics reflect the effect of motion on the RT dose delivered to the patients. In this study, prostate motion during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment of 18 patients and a total of 294 fractions was quantified through novel metrics as well as those available in the literature...
February 27, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236175/how-many-physicists-does-it-take-to-test-a-mammography-unit
#20
EDITORIAL
Jennifer Diffey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
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