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Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523470/short-tangential-arcs-in-vmat-based-breast-and-chest-wall-radiotherapy-lead-to-conformity-of-the-breast-dose-with-lesser-cardiac-and-lung-doses-a-prospective-study-of-breast-conservation-and-mastectomy-patients
#1
Anusheel Munshi, Biplab Sarkar, Anbu Sateeshkumar, Upendra K Giri, Harpreet Kaur, Kanan Jassal, Tharmar Ganesh, Bidhu Kalyan Mohanti
Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is modern rotational intensity modulated therapy used for treatment of several sites. The study aimed to analyze partial tangential arc VMAT treatment planning and delivery, including analyzing the cardiac and contralateral breast doses resulting from this technique. A total of 153 consecutively treated breast cancer (conservation as well as mastectomy) patients were taken for this dosimetric study. All patients were planned using partial arc VMAT in the Monaco treatment planning system using two partial arc beams...
May 18, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523469/system-for-automatic-heart-rate-calculation-in-epileptic-seizures
#2
Marcin Kołodziej, Andrzej Majkowski, Remigiusz J Rak, Bartosz Świderski, Andrzej Rysz
This article presents a comprehensive system for automatic heart rate (HR) detection. The system is robust and resistant to disturbances (noise, interferences, artifacts) occurring mainly during epileptic seizures. ECG signal filtration (IIR) and normalization due to skewness and standard deviation were used as preprocessing steps. A key element of the system is a reference QRS complex pattern calculated individually for each ECG recording. Next, a cross-correlation of the reference QRS pattern with short, normalized ECG windows is calculated and the maxima of the correlation are found (R-wave locations)...
May 18, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523468/development-of-a-novel-radiotherapy-motion-phantom-using-a-stepper-motor-driver-circuit-and-evaluation-using-optical-surface-scanning
#3
Michael Lempart, Malin Kügele, Jonatan Snäll, Lee Ambolt, Sofie Ceberg
Recent developments in radiotherapy have focused on the management of patient motion during treatment. Studies have shown that significant gains in treatment quality can be made by 'gating' certain treatments, simultaneously keeping target coverage, and increasing separation to nearby organs at risk (OAR). Motion phantoms can be used to simulate patient breathing motion and provide the means to perform quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) of gating functionality as well as to assess the dosimetric impact of motion on individual patient treatments...
May 18, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509080/evaluation-of-dose-enhancement-in-presence-of-gold-nanoparticles-in-eye-brachytherapy-by-103-pd-source
#4
Hadi Rezaei, Mansour Zabihzadeh, Mahdi Ghorbani, Foad Goli Ahmadabad, Hesameddin Mostaghimi
In recent years, the use of gold nanoparticles in radiation therapy has been introduced as a new approach in radiotherapy. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in plaque brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. MCNPX code was used for simulation of human eye, (103)Pd (model 200) brachytherapy source and the 20 mm COMS eye plaque that was loaded with 24 (103)Pd seeds and standardized by Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS). The tumour was defined from the inner surface of choroid with 0...
May 16, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477321/the-abdominal-radiation-doses-for-paediatric-patients-undergoing-x-ray-examinations-at-southern-saudi-arabia
#5
Jobran Miree Alqahtani
This study aims to estimate radiation doses for paediatric patients undergoing abdominal X-ray examinations in Najran, Saudi Arabia, through evaluation of the entrance surface doses using DoseCal software. Two X-ray units were used at a paediatric referral hospital. A total of 216 patients were examined with an age range between 0 and 7 years. The mean ESDs were found to be 0.042 and 0.101 mGy, for abdomen anteroposterior (AP) and posteroanterior (PA) respectively. The results are useful to the National Centre for Radiation Protection in Saudi Arabia and other professional organizations elsewhere, to set up safety protocols to prevent paediatric patients from needless radiation and to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs)...
May 5, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466444/a-pilot-study-on-geometrical-uncertainties-for-intra-ocular-cancers-in-radiotherapy
#6
Rachitha Antony, Alan Herschtal, Stephen Todd, Claire Phillips, Annette Haworth
A system for stabilising and monitoring eye movements for linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy associated with the mobile eye, the Eye Tracker, was developed. Whilst the Eye Tracker design is based on a previously reported system, the purpose of this study was to confirm that the modified version can be used with clinically acceptable treatment margins. We report the estimates of the margin required to account for inter- and intra-fraction eye motion based on data from 12 consecutive patients treated with the Eye Tracker system in place...
May 2, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425075/technical-note-real-time-web-based-wireless-visual-guidance-system-for-radiotherapy
#7
Danny Lee, Siyong Kim, Jatinder R Palta, Taeho Kim
Describe a Web-based wireless visual guidance system that mitigates issues associated with hard-wired audio-visual aided patient interactive motion management systems that are cumbersome to use in routine clinical practice. Web-based wireless visual display duplicates an existing visual display of a respiratory-motion management system for visual guidance. The visual display of the existing system is sent to legacy Web clients over a private wireless network, thereby allowing a wireless setting for real-time visual guidance...
April 19, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409335/multichannel-interictal-spike-activity-detection-using-time-frequency-entropy-measure
#8
Palani Thanaraj, B Parvathavarthini
Localization of interictal spikes is an important clinical step in the pre-surgical assessment of pharmacoresistant epileptic patients. The manual selection of interictal spike periods is cumbersome and involves a considerable amount of analysis workload for the physician. The primary focus of this paper is to automate the detection of interictal spikes for clinical applications in epilepsy localization. The epilepsy localization procedure involves detection of spikes in a multichannel EEG epoch. Therefore, a multichannel Time-Frequency (T-F) entropy measure is proposed to extract features related to the interictal spike activity...
April 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409334/investigation-of-x-ray-focal-spot-alignment-using-a-jig-of-novel-design
#9
Lockie Yuen, Cameron McLucas
The X-ray focal spot and the centre of the flattening filter should be placed as close as possible to the central axis (CAX) on a linear accelerator (linac) to produce a radially symmetric beam. The aim of this study is to devise a method to easily optimise the focal spot position of Varian linac photon beams generated with a flattening filter. A simple and robust jig was designed and built to be inserted into the largest electron applicator. Accessory and jaw position interlocks were overridden to enable photon beam operation...
April 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397061/a-neural-controller-for-online-laser-power-adjustment-during-the-heat-therapy-process-in-the-presence-of-nanoparticles
#10
S Ehsan Razavi
The present research evaluated the efficiency of a control approach to control the temperature of a breast tumor mass in the presence of nanoparticles exposed to laser radiation. However, if the radiation is carried out in open loop manner it may result in excessive temperature rise healthy cells that exist in the vicinity of tumor's cells. This may lead to the death of healthy cells. So, using closed loop control methods is necessary to guarantee the preservation of healthy cells during the period of radiation...
April 10, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397060/monte-carlo-simulation-of-the-rbe-of-i-131-radiation-using-dna-damage-as-biomarker
#11
Ahad Ollah Ezzati, Ali Mahmoud-Pashazadeh, Matthew T Studenski
In general, a weighting factor of one is applied for low linear energy transfer radiations. However, several studies indicate that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low energy photons and electrons is greater than one. The aim of this current study was calculating the RBE of I-131 radiation relative to Co-60 gamma photons in 100 μm spheroid cells using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. These calculations were compared to experimentally measured results. MCNPX2.6 was used to simulate the I-131 and Co-60 irradiation setups and calculate the secondary electron spectra at energies higher than 1 keV with varying oxygen concentrations...
April 10, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397059/winning-images-from-the-photography-in-medical-physics-pimp-competition
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378320/the-impact-of-smart-metal-artefact-reduction-algorithm-for-use-in-radiotherapy-treatment-planning
#13
Connor Guilfoile, Peter Rampant, Michael House
The presence of metal artefacts in computed tomography (CT) create issues in radiation oncology. The loss of anatomical information and incorrect Hounsfield unit (HU) values produce inaccuracies in dose calculations, providing suboptimal patient treatment. Metal artefact reduction (MAR) algorithms were developed to combat these problems. This study provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the "Smart MAR" software (General Electric Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA), determining its usefulness in a clinical setting...
April 4, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378319/gaming-the-impact-factor-where-who-cites-what-whom-and-when
#14
EDITORIAL
Martin Caon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361478/commissioning-a-hobby-cutting-device-for-radiochromic-film-preparation
#15
Somayeh Zolfaghari, Kirby E Francis, Tanya Kairn, Scott B Crowe
In addition to a high spatial resolution and well characterised dose response, one of the major advantages of radiochromic film as a dosimeter is that sheets of film can be cut into pieces suitable for use as calibration films, and for in vivo and phantom measurements. The cutting of film is typically done using scissors or a guillotine, and this process can be time-consuming, limited in precision, requires extensive handling and does not allow holes to be cut from the film without cutting from an existing edge...
March 30, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342027/a-comparative-evaluation-of-ac225-vs-bi213-as-therapeutic-radioisotopes-for-targeted-alpha-therapy-for-cancer
#16
Barry J Allen
The Ac225:Bi213 generator is the mainstay for preclinical and clinical studies of targeted alpha therapy for cancer. Both Ac225 (four alpha decays) and Bi213 (one alpha decay) are being used to label targeting vectors to form the alpha immunoconjugate for cancer therapy. This paper considers the radiobiological and economic aspects of Ac225 vs Bi213 as the preferred radioisotope for preclinical and clinical TAT. The in vitro and in vivo evidence and the role of DNA repair processes is examined. The maximum tolerance dose and therapeutic gain are endpoints for comparison...
March 24, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342026/high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-source-measurement-intercomparison
#17
Joel Poder, Ryan L Smith, Nikki Shelton, May Whitaker, Duncan Butler, Annette Haworth
This work presents a comparison of air kerma rate (AKR) measurements performed by multiple radiotherapy centres for a single HDR (192)Ir source. Two separate groups (consisting of 15 centres) performed AKR measurements at one of two host centres in Australia. Each group travelled to one of the host centres and measured the AKR of a single (192)Ir source using their own equipment and local protocols. Results were compared to the (192)Ir source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer by means of a ratio of measured to certified AKR...
March 24, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321636/the-effect-of-cement-on-hip-stem-fixation-a-biomechanical-study
#18
Talip Çelik, İbrahim Mutlu, Arif Özkan, Yasin Kişioğlu
This study presents the numerical analysis of stem fixation in hip surgery using with/without cement methods since the use of cement is still controversial based on the clinical studies in the literature. Many different factors such as stress shielding, aseptic loosening, material properties of the stem, surgeon experiences etc. play an important role in the failure of the stem fixations. The stem fixation methods, cemented and uncemented, were evaluated in terms of mechanical failure aspects using computerized finite element method...
March 20, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321635/relative-biological-effectiveness-in-a-proton-spread-out-bragg-peak-formed-by-pencil-beam-scanning-mode
#19
Anna Michaelidesová, Jana Vachelová, Monika Puchalska, Kateřina Pachnerová Brabcová, Vladimír Vondráček, Lembit Sihver, Marie Davídková
In recent years, there is an increased interest in using scanning modes in proton therapy, due to the more conformal dose distributions, thanks to the spot-weighted dose delivery. The dose rate in each spot is however much higher than the dose rate when using passive irradiation modes, which could affect the cell response. The purpose of this work was to investigate how the relative biological effectiveness changes along the spread-out Bragg peak created by protons delivered by the pencil beam scanning mode...
March 20, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290068/eeg-based-alpha-neurofeedback-training-for-mood-enhancement
#20
Swee Wu Phneah, Humaira Nisar
The aim of this paper is to develop a preliminary neurofeedback system to improve the mood of the subjects using audio signals by enhancing their alpha brainwaves. Assessment of the effect of music on the human subjects is performed using three methods; subjective assessment of mood with the help of a questionnaire, the effect on brain by analysing EEG signals, and the effect on body by physiological assessment. In this study, two experiments have been designed. The first experiment was to determine the short-term effect of music on soothing human subjects, whereas the second experiment was to determine its long-term effect...
March 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
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