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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589335/individual-differences-in-verbal-short-term-memory-and-reading-aloud-semantic-compensation-for-weak-phonological-processing-across-tasks
#1
Nicola Savill, Piers Cornelissen, Junior Whiteley, Anna Woollams, Elizabeth Jefferies
According to contemporary accounts, linguistic behavior reflects the interaction of distinct representations supporting word meaning and phonology. However, there is controversy about the extent to which this interaction occurs within task-specific systems, specialized for reading and short-term memory (STM), as opposed to between components that support the full range of linguistic tasks. We examined whether individual differences in the efficiency of phonological processing would relate to the application of lexical-semantic knowledge to support verbal STM, single word reading and repetition...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589334/the-role-of-working-memory-for-syntactic-formulation-in-language-production
#2
Iva Ivanova, Victor S Ferreira
Four picture-description experiments investigated if syntactic formulation in language production can proceed with only minimal working memory involvement. Experiments 1-3 compared the initiation latencies, utterance durations, and errors for syntactically simpler picture descriptions (adjective-noun phrases, e.g., the red book ) to those of more complex descriptions (relative clauses, e.g., the book that is red). In Experiment 4, the syntactically more complex descriptions were also lexically more complex (e...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589332/assessing-the-temporal-learning-account-of-the-list-wide-proportion-congruence-effect
#3
Emily R Cohen-Shikora, Jihyun Suh, Julie M Bugg
In this article, we assess an alternative account of a key experimental pattern thought to index top-down control. The list-wide proportion congruence effect is the well-documented pattern whereby the congruency effect (i.e., Stroop effect) is attenuated in lists containing mostly incongruent trials relative to lists containing mostly congruent trials. This pattern has typically been interpreted as a signature of a top-down control mechanism that modulates attention to the word dimension based on the global probability of encountering conflict between the word and color...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30589333/visual-working-memory-for-letters-varies-with-familiarity-but-not-complexity
#4
William X Q Ngiam, Kimberley L C Khaw, Alex O Holcombe, Patrick T Goodbourn
Visual working memory (VWM) is limited in both the capacity of information it can retain and the rate at which it encodes that information. We examined the influence of stimulus complexity on these 2 limitations of VWM. Observers performed a change-detection task with English letters of various fonts or letters from unfamiliar alphabets. Average perimetric complexity (κ)-an objective correlate of the number of features comprising each letter-differed among the fonts and alphabets. Varying the time between the memory array and mask, we used change-detection performance to estimate the number of items held in VWM (K) as a function of encoding time...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30570326/two-routes-to-memory-benefits-of-guessing
#5
Katarzyna Zawadzka, Maciej Hanczakowski
Attempting to guess an answer to a memory question has repeatedly been shown to benefit memory for the answer compared to merely reading what the answer is, even when the guess is incorrect. In this study, we investigate 2 potential explanations for this effect in a single experimental procedure. According to the semantic explanation, the benefits of guessing require a clear semantic relationship between the cue, the guess, and the target, and these benefits arise at the stage of guessing. The attentional explanation places the locus of the effect at the stage of feedback presentation and ignores the issue of semantic relatedness...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30570325/word-context-associations-in-episodic-memory-are-learned-at-the-conceptual-level-word-frequency-bilingual-proficiency-and-bilingual-status-effects-on-source-memory
#6
Wendy S Francis, E Natalia Strobach, Renee M Penalver, Michelle Martínez, Bianca V Gurrola, Amaris Soltero
Three source-memory experiments were conducted with Spanish-English bilinguals and monolingual English speakers matched on age, education, nonverbal cognitive ability and socioeconomic status. Bilingual language proficiency and dominance were assessed using standardized objective measures. In Experiment 1, source was manipulated visuo-spatially, in Experiment 2, source was manipulated temporally, and in Experiment 3, source was manipulated by presenting stimuli in different modalities. Bilingual source discrimination was more accurate for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, but it did not differ for the more fluent and less fluent languages (L1 and L2, respectively)...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30570324/learning-faces-as-concepts-rather-than-percepts-improves-face-recognition
#7
Linoy Schwartz, Galit Yovel
Our ability to recognize familiar faces is remarkable. During the process of becoming familiar with new people we acquire both perceptual and conceptual information about them. Which of these two types of information contributes to our ability to recognize a person in future encounters? Previously, we showed that associating faces with person-related conceptual information (e.g., name, occupation) during learning improves face recognition. Here, we provide further evidence and assess several possible accounts to the conceptual encoding benefit in face recognition...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30570323/eye-position-reflects-the-spatial-coding-of-numbers-during-magnitude-comparison
#8
Samuel Salvaggio, Nicolas Masson, Michael Andres
Behavioral studies have reported interactions between number processing and spatial attention, suggesting that number processing involves shifting attention along a mental continuum on which numbers are represented in ascending order. However, direct evidence for attention shifts remains scarce, the respective contribution of the horizontal and vertical axes is unclear, and little is known about the time course of attention shifts during mental manipulation of numbers. In the present study, we used an eye-tracking device with a high spatiotemporal resolution to measure gaze patterns in a task that required participants to compare number words (20 to 70) to a fixed reference (45) while looking at a blank screen (Experiment 1) or at colorful pictures (Experiment 2)...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30570322/enter-sandman-compound-processing-and-semantic-transparency-in-a-compositional-perspective
#9
Fritz Günther, Marco Marelli
Effects of semantic transparency, reflected in processing differences between semantically transparent ( teabag ) and opaque ( ladybird ) compounds, have received considerable attention in the investigation of the role of constituents in compound processing. However, previous studies have yielded inconsistent results. In the present article, we argue that this is due to semantic transparency's often being conceptualized only as the semantic relatedness between the compound and constituent meanings as separate units...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550318/training-articulation-sequences-a-first-systematic-modulation-of-the-articulatory-in-out-effect
#10
Anita Körner, Giti Bakhtiari, Sascha Topolinski
People prefer words with consonant articulation locations moving inward, from the front to the back of the mouth (e.g., menika ), over words with consonant articulation locations moving outward, from the back to the front of the mouth (e.g., kemina ). Here, we modulated this in-out effect by increasing the fluency of one consonant direction. Participants (total N = 735) memorized either inward or outward moving words. Afterward they evaluated different inward and outward words. In Experiment 1, training 60 outward (compared to inward) words led to a marginally significant attenuation of the in-out effect...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550317/motion-fluency-and-object-preference-robust-perceptual-but-fragile-memory-effects
#11
Jonathan C Flavell, Bryony McKean, Steven P Tipper, Alexander J Kirkham, Tim Vestner, Harriet Over
In 8 experiments, we investigated motion fluency effects on object preference. In each experiment, distinct objects were repeatedly seen moving either fluently (with a smooth and predictable motion) or disfluently (with sudden and unpredictable direction changes) in a task where participants were required to respond to occasional brief changes in object appearance. Results show that (a) fluent objects are preferred over disfluent objects when ratings follow a moving presentation, (b) there is some evidence that object-motion associations can be learned with repeated exposures, (c) sufficiently potent motions can yield preference for fluent objects after a single viewing, and (d) learned associations do not transfer to situations where ratings follow a stationary presentation, even after deep levels of encoding...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407025/dual-task-costs-in-working-memory-an-adversarial-collaboration
#12
Jason M Doherty, Clement Belletier, Stephen Rhodes, Agnieszka Jaroslawska, Pierre Barrouillet, Valerie Camos, Nelson Cowan, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Robert H Logie
Theories of working memory often disagree on the relationships between processing and storage, particularly on how heavily they rely on an attention-based limited resource. Some posit separation and specialization of resources resulting in minimal interference to memory when completing an ongoing processing task, while others argue for a greater overlap in the resources involved in concurrent tasks. Here, we present four experiments that investigated the presence or absence of dual-task costs for memory and processing...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394768/effects-of-biased-hypothesis-generation-on-self-directed-category-learning
#13
Douglas B Markant
Psychologists and educators have long pointed to myriad benefits of self-directed learning. Yet evidence of its efficacy in real-world domains is mixed and it remains unclear how it is constrained by basic perceptual and cognitive processes. Previous work suggests that, in particular, self-directed learning is affected by the way that people generate hypotheses as they learn. This study examines how biased hypothesis generation affects the learning of categorical rules, a basic building block of concept learning, through self-directed selection of training data...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359054/examining-the-hierarchical-nature-of-scene-representations-in-memory
#14
Monica S Castelhano, Suzette Fernandes, Jordan Theriault
How are scene representations stored in memory? Researchers have often posited that scene representations have a hierarchical structure with background elements providing a scaffold for more detailed foreground elements. To further investigate scene representation and the role of background and foreground information, we introduced a new stimulus set: chimera scenes, which have the central block of objects belonging to one scene category (foreground), and the surrounding structure belonging to another (background)...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359053/context-dependent-sensitivity-to-losses-range-and-skew-manipulations
#15
Lukasz Walasek, Neil Stewart
The assumption that losses loom larger than gains is widely used to explain many behavioral phenomena in judgment and decision-making. It is also generally accepted that loss aversion is a stable, traitlike individual difference characterizing people's sensitivity to gains and losses. This interpretation was recently challenged by Walasek and Stewart (2015), who showed that by manipulating the range of the gains and losses used in the accept-reject task it is possible to find loss aversion, loss neutrality, and a reversal of loss aversion...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359052/can-response-congruency-effects-be-obtained-in-masked-priming-lexical-decision
#16
María Fernández-López, Ana Marcet, Manuel Perea
In past decades, researchers have conducted a myriad of masked priming lexical decision experiments aimed at unveiling the early processes underlying lexical access. A relatively overlooked question is whether a masked unrelated wordlike/unwordlike prime influences the processing of the target stimuli. If participants apply to the primes the same instructions as to the targets, one would predict a response congruency effect (e.g., book-TRUE faster than fiok-TRUE). Critically, the Bayesian Reader model predicts that there should be no effects of response congruency in masked priming lexical decision, whereas interactive-activation models offer more flexible predictions...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346212/neurofunctional-correlates-of-geometry-and-feature-use-in-a-virtual-environment
#17
Martha R Forloines, Meredith A Reid, Andie M Thompkins, Jennifer L Robinson, Jeffrey S Katz
There are mixed results regarding the differentiation of neurofunctional correlates of spatial abilities. Previous studies employed complex environments or alternate memory tasks which could potentially add to inconsistencies across studies of navigation. To help elucidate the existing mixed findings, we conducted a study in a simplistic environment without a supplemental memory task in order to examine navigationally relevant neural function using fMRI. Participants completed a virtual navigation task where they learned the relationship between landmarks, environmental features, and a goal...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346211/modeling-memory-dynamics-in-visual-expertise
#18
Jeffrey Annis, Thomas J Palmeri
The development of visual expertise is accompanied by enhanced visual object recognition memory within an expert domain. We aimed to understand the relationship between expertise and memory by modeling cognitive mechanisms. Participants with a measured range of birding expertise were recruited and tested on memory for birds (expert domain) and cars (novice domain). Participants performed an old-new continuous recognition memory task whereby on each trial an image of a bird or car was presented that was either new or had been presented earlier with lag j...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346210/when-numbers-are-not-exact-ambiguity-and-prediction-in-the-processing-of-sentences-with-bare-numerals
#19
Maria Spychalska, Jarmo Kontinen, Ira Noveck, Ludmila Reimer, Markus Werning
It is generally assumed that bare numerals (e.g., three) have two readings: the exactly and the at least reading. It has been a matter of debate whether one of these two readings is derived from the other pragmatically. To shed light on this question research has aimed at characterizing the processing demands associated with these alternative interpretations. Here we use a sentence-picture verification paradigm where participants are asked to judge whether "N pictures contain Xs" is true in a situation where (a) exactly N, (b) fewer than N, or (c) more than N pictures contain Xs...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698051/the-variability-puzzle-in-human-memory
#20
Michael J Kahana, Eash V Aggarwal, Tung D Phan
Memory performance exhibits a high level of variability from moment to moment. Much of this variability may reflect inadequately controlled experimental variables, such as word memorability, past practice and subject fatigue. Alternatively, stochastic variability in performance may largely reflect the efficiency of endogenous neural processes that govern memory function. To help adjudicate between these competing views, the authors conducted a multisession study in which subjects completed 552 trials of a delayed free-recall task...
December 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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