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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745682/time-in-causal-structure-learning
#1
Neil R Bramley, Tobias Gerstenberg, Ralf Mayrhofer, David A Lagnado
A large body of research has explored how the time between two events affects judgments of causal strength between them. In this article, we extend this work in 4 experiments that explore the role of temporal information in causal structure induction with multiple variables. We distinguish two qualitatively different types of information: The order in which events occur, and the temporal intervals between those events. We focus on one-shot learning in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, we explore how people integrate evidence from multiple observations of the same causal device...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708370/uninformative-contexts-support-word-learning-for-high-skill-spellers
#2
Michael A Eskenazi, Natascha K Swischuk, Jocelyn R Folk, Ashley N Abraham
The current study investigated how high-skill spellers and low-skill spellers incidentally learn words during reading. The purpose of the study was to determine whether readers can use uninformative contexts to support word learning after forming a lexical representation for a novel word, consistent with instance-based resonance processes. Previous research has found that uninformative contexts damage word learning; however, there may have been insufficient exposure to informative contexts (only one) prior to exposure to uninformative contexts (Webb, 2007; Webb, 2008)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708369/automaticity-of-access-to-numerical-magnitude-and-its-spatial-associations-the-role-of-task-and-number-representation
#3
Alexandra A Cleland, Rebecca Bull
Generally, people respond faster to small numbers with left-sided responses and large numbers with right-sided responses, a pattern known as the SNARC (spatial numerical association of response codes) effect. The SNARC effect is interpreted as evidence for amodal automatic access of magnitude and its spatial associations, because it occurs in settings where number is task-irrelevant and for different number formats. We report five studies designed to establish the degree to which activation of magnitude and its spatial associations is truly automatic and amodal...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698052/reward-based-motor-adaptation-can-generalize-across-actions
#4
Katinka van der Kooij, Jeroen B J Smeets
Recently it has been shown that rewarded variability can be used to adapt visuomotor behavior. However, its relevance seems limited because adaptation to binary rewards has been demonstrated only when the same movement is repeated throughout the experiment. We therefore investigated whether the adaptation is action-specific and whether the amount of exploration depends on spatial complexity. Participants pointed to 3-D visual targets without seeing their hand and could use only binary reward feedback to adapt their movements...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698051/the-variability-puzzle-in-human-memory
#5
Michael J Kahana, Eash V Aggarwal, Tung D Phan
Memory performance exhibits a high level of variability from moment to moment. Much of this variability may reflect inadequately controlled experimental variables, such as word memorability, past practice and subject fatigue. Alternatively, stochastic variability in performance may largely reflect the efficiency of endogenous neural processes that govern memory function. To help adjudicate between these competing views, the authors conducted a multisession study in which subjects completed 552 trials of a delayed free-recall task...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698050/metamemory-and-memory-for-a-wide-range-of-font-sizes-what-is-the-contribution-of-perceptual-fluency
#6
Monika Undorf, Malte F Zimdahl
Words printed in a larger 48-point font are judged to be more memorable than words printed in a smaller 18-point font, although font size does not affect actual memory. To clarify the basis of this font size effect on metamemory and memory, 4 experiments investigated how presenting words in 48 (Experiment 1) or 4 (Experiments 2 to 4) font sizes between 6 point and 500 point affected judgments of learning (JOLs) and recall performance. Response times in lexical decision tasks were used to measure perceptual fluency...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698049/feature-highlighting-enhances-learning-of-a-complex-natural-science-category
#7
Toshiya Miyatsu, Reshma Gouravajhala, Robert M Nosofsky, Mark A McDaniel
Learning naturalistic categories, which tend to have fuzzy boundaries and vary on many dimensions, can often be harder than learning well defined categories. One method for facilitating the category learning of naturalistic stimuli may be to provide explicit feature descriptions that highlight the characteristic features of each category. Although this method is commonly used in textbooks and classrooms, theoretically it remains uncertain whether feature descriptions should advantage learning complex natural-science categories...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698048/how-the-tracking-of-habitual-rate-influences-speech-perception
#8
Merel Maslowski, Antje S Meyer, Hans Rutger Bosker
Listeners are known to track statistical regularities in speech. Yet, which temporal cues are encoded is unclear. This study tested effects of talker-specific habitual speech rate and talker-independent average speech rate (heard over a longer period of time) on the perception of the temporal Dutch vowel contrast /ɑ/-/a:/. First, Experiment 1 replicated that slow local (surrounding) speech contexts induce fewer long /a:/ responses than faster contexts. Experiment 2 tested effects of long-term habitual speech rate...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698047/lexical-gaps-and-morphological-decomposition-evidence-from-german
#9
Swetlana Schuster, Aditi Lahiri
On the evidence of four lexical-decision tasks in German, we examine speakers' sensitivity to internal morphological composition and abstract morphological rules during the processing of derived words, real and novel. In a lexical-decision task with delayed priming, speakers were presented with two-step derived nouns such as Heilung "healing" derived from the adjective heil "intact" via the verb heilen "to heal." These were compared with two sets of derived novel words, one with and the other without an intermediate verb; for example, *Spitzung "sharpening" from spitz "sharp" via spitzen "sharpen" (Experiment 1) and *Hübschung "beautifying" from hübsch "pretty" via *hübschen "beautify" (Experiment 2)...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698046/simulation-false-memories-and-the-planning-of-future-events
#10
Stephen A Dewhurst, Rachel J Anderson, Lydia Grace, David Howe
Three experiments investigated the relationship between future thinking and false memories. In Experiment 1, participants remembered familiar events (e.g., a holiday) from their past, imagined planning the same events in the future, or took part in a control condition in which they visualized typical events. They then rated a series of schema-related and schema-unrelated nouns for how likely they were to be encountered within those events. In a surprise recognition test, participants in the future condition falsely recognized more schema-related items than participants in the past and control conditions...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698045/how-does-chunking-help-working-memory
#11
Mirko Thalmann, Alessandra S Souza, Klaus Oberauer
Chunking is the recoding of smaller units of information into larger, familiar units. Chunking is often assumed to help bypassing the limited capacity of working memory (WM). We investigate how chunks are used in WM tasks, addressing three questions: (a) Does chunking reduce the load on WM? Across four experiments chunking benefits were found not only for recall of the chunked but also of other not-chunked information concurrently held in WM, supporting the assumption that chunking reduces load. (b) Is the chunking benefit independent of chunk size? The chunking benefit was independent of chunk size only if the chunks were composed of unique elements, so that each chunk could be replaced by its first element (Experiment 1), but not when several chunks consisted of overlapping sets of elements, disabling this replacement strategy (Experiments 2 and 3)...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698044/recollection-is-fast-and-slow
#12
C J Brainerd, K Nakamura, W-F A Lee
We implemented a new approach to measuring the relative speeds of different cognitive processes, one that extends multinomial models of memory and reasoning from discrete decisions to latencies. We applied it to the dual-process prediction that familiarity is faster than recollection. Relative to prior work on this prediction, the advantages of the new approach are that it jointly measures specific retrieval processes and their latencies, provides separate sets of latency-retrieval parameters for list items and related distractors, and supplies latency parameters for bias processes as well as retrieval processes...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698043/flexible-egocentricity-asymmetric-switch-costs-on-a-perspective-taking-task
#13
Steven Samuel, Karen Roehr-Brackin, Sarah Jelbert, Nicola S Clayton
We gave 40 participants a task in which they needed to select target objects from an array according to the instructions of either an informed director (who shared their perspective of the array) or an ignorant director (whose view of the array was restricted due to barriers). Importantly, sometimes only one of the directors was visible, and on some trials when both directors were present, participants were required to switch between perspectives. We found that participants were faster to select items from the informed director's perspective than the ignorant director's perspective, but that they slowed when there was a visible but inactive second director...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698042/sleep-reduces-the-testing-effect-but-not-after-corrective-feedback-and-prolonged-retention-interval
#14
Magdalena Abel, Valerie Haller, Hanna Köck, Sarah Pötschke, Dominik Heib, Manuel Schabus, Karl-Heinz T Bäuml
Retrieval practice relative to restudy of learned material typically attenuates time-dependent forgetting. A recent study examining this testing effect across 12-h delays filled with nocturnal sleep versus daytime wakefulness, however, showed that sleep directly following encoding benefited recall of restudied but not of retrieval practiced items, which reduced, and even eliminated, the testing effect after sleep (Bäuml, Holterman, & Abel, 2014). The present study investigated, in 4 experiments, whether this modulating role of sleep for the testing effect is influenced by two factors that have previously been shown to increase the testing effect: corrective feedback and prolonged retention intervals...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698041/adaptation-in-pronoun-resolution-evidence-from-brazilian-and-european-portuguese
#15
Eunice G Fernandes, Paula Luegi, Eduardo Correa Soares, Israel de la Fuente, Barbara Hemforth
Previous research accounting for pronoun resolution as a problem of probabilistic inference has not explored the phenomenon of adaptation, whereby the processor constantly tracks and adapts, rationally, to changes in a statistical environment. We investigate whether Brazilian (BP) and European Portuguese (EP) speakers adapt to variations in the probability of occurrence of ambiguous overt and null pronouns, in two experiments assessing resolution toward subject and object referents. For each variety (BP, EP), participants were faced with either the same number of null and overt pronouns (equal distribution), or with an environment with fewer overt (than null) pronouns (unequal distribution)...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698040/children-learn-spurious-associations-in-their-math-textbooks-examples-from-fraction-arithmetic
#16
David W Braithwaite, Robert S Siegler
Fraction arithmetic is among the most important and difficult topics children encounter in elementary and middle school mathematics. Braithwaite, Pyke, and Siegler (2017) hypothesized that difficulties learning fraction arithmetic often reflect reliance on associative knowledge-rather than understanding of mathematical concepts and procedures-to guide choices of solution strategies. They further proposed that this associative knowledge reflects distributional characteristics of the fraction arithmetic problems children encounter...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698039/reading-direction-influences-lateral-biases-in-letter-processing
#17
Kim Ransley, Patrick T Goodbourn, Elizabeth H L Nguyen, Ahmed A Moustafa, Alex O Holcombe
Humans have a limited capacity to identify concurrent, briefly presented targets. Recent experiments using concurrent rapid serial visual presentation of letters in horizontally displaced streams have documented a deficit specific to the stream in the right visual field. The cause of this deficit might be either prioritization of the left item based on participants' experience reading from left to right, or a right-hemisphere advantage specific to dual stimulation. Here we test the reading-experience hypothesis by using participants who have experience reading both a language written left-to-right (English) and one written right-to-left (Arabic)...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698038/remembering-what-was-said-and-done-the-activation-and-facilitation-of-memory-for-gesture-as-a-consequence-of-retrieval
#18
Acacia L Overoye, Benjamin C Storm
The gestures that occur alongside speech provide listeners with cues that both improve and alter memory for speech. The present research investigated the interplay of gesture and speech by examining the influence of retrieval on memory for gesture. In three experiments, participants watched video clips of an actor speaking a series of statements with or without gesture before being asked to retrieve the speech portions of half of those statements. Participants were then tested on their ability to recall whether the actor had gestured during each statement and, if so, to recall the nature of the gesture that was produced...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698037/effects-of-phrase-and-word-frequencies-in-noun-phrase-production
#19
Zeshu Shao, Jeroen van Paridon, Fenna Poletiek, Antje S Meyer
There is mounting evidence that the ease of producing and understanding language depends not only on the frequencies of individual words but also on the frequencies of word combinations. However, in two picture description experiments, Janssen and Barber (2012) found that French and Spanish speakers' speech onset latencies for short phrases depended exclusively on the frequencies of the phrases but not on the frequencies of the individual words. They suggested that speakers retrieved phrase-sized units from the mental lexicon...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698036/persistent-structural-priming-during-online-second-language-comprehension
#20
Hang Wei, Julie E Boland, Zhenguang G Cai, Fang Yuan, Min Wang
We report 2 self-paced reading experiments investigating the longevity of structural priming effects in comprehending reduced relative clauses among adult Chinese-speaking learners of English. Experiment 1 showed that structural priming occurred both when prime and target sentences were immediately adjacent and when they were separated by 1 or 2 filler sentences of unrelated structures. Moreover, the magnitude of the priming effect held constant across different lag conditions. Experiment 2 replicated the persistent priming effect and ruled out the possibility that the effect was due to verb repetition priming...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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