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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407025/dual-task-costs-in-working-memory-an-adversarial-collaboration
#1
Jason M Doherty, Clement Belletier, Stephen Rhodes, Agnieszka Jaroslawska, Pierre Barrouillet, Valerie Camos, Nelson Cowan, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Robert H Logie
Theories of working memory often disagree on the relationships between processing and storage, particularly on how heavily they rely on an attention-based limited resource. Some posit separation and specialization of resources resulting in minimal interference to memory when completing an ongoing processing task, while others argue for a greater overlap in the resources involved in concurrent tasks. Here, we present four experiments that investigated the presence or absence of dual-task costs for memory and processing...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394768/effects-of-biased-hypothesis-generation-on-self-directed-category-learning
#2
Douglas B Markant
Psychologists and educators have long pointed to myriad benefits of self-directed learning. Yet evidence of its efficacy in real-world domains is mixed and it remains unclear how it is constrained by basic perceptual and cognitive processes. Previous work suggests that, in particular, self-directed learning is affected by the way that people generate hypotheses as they learn. This study examines how biased hypothesis generation affects the learning of categorical rules, a basic building block of concept learning, through self-directed selection of training data...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359054/examining-the-hierarchical-nature-of-scene-representations-in-memory
#3
Monica S Castelhano, Suzette Fernandes, Jordan Theriault
How are scene representations stored in memory? Researchers have often posited that scene representations have a hierarchical structure with background elements providing a scaffold for more detailed foreground elements. To further investigate scene representation and the role of background and foreground information, we introduced a new stimulus set: chimera scenes, which have the central block of objects belonging to one scene category (foreground), and the surrounding structure belonging to another (background)...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359053/context-dependent-sensitivity-to-losses-range-and-skew-manipulations
#4
Lukasz Walasek, Neil Stewart
The assumption that losses loom larger than gains is widely used to explain many behavioral phenomena in judgment and decision-making. It is also generally accepted that loss aversion is a stable, traitlike individual difference characterizing people's sensitivity to gains and losses. This interpretation was recently challenged by Walasek and Stewart (2015), who showed that by manipulating the range of the gains and losses used in the accept-reject task it is possible to find loss aversion, loss neutrality, and a reversal of loss aversion...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359052/can-response-congruency-effects-be-obtained-in-masked-priming-lexical-decision
#5
María Fernández-López, Ana Marcet, Manuel Perea
In past decades, researchers have conducted a myriad of masked priming lexical decision experiments aimed at unveiling the early processes underlying lexical access. A relatively overlooked question is whether a masked unrelated wordlike/unwordlike prime influences the processing of the target stimuli. If participants apply to the primes the same instructions as to the targets, one would predict a response congruency effect (e.g., book-TRUE faster than fiok-TRUE). Critically, the Bayesian Reader model predicts that there should be no effects of response congruency in masked priming lexical decision, whereas interactive-activation models offer more flexible predictions...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346212/neurofunctional-correlates-of-geometry-and-feature-use-in-a-virtual-environment
#6
Martha R Forloines, Meredith A Reid, Andie M Thompkins, Jennifer L Robinson, Jeffrey S Katz
There are mixed results regarding the differentiation of neurofunctional correlates of spatial abilities. Previous studies employed complex environments or alternate memory tasks which could potentially add to inconsistencies across studies of navigation. To help elucidate the existing mixed findings, we conducted a study in a simplistic environment without a supplemental memory task in order to examine navigationally relevant neural function using fMRI. Participants completed a virtual navigation task where they learned the relationship between landmarks, environmental features, and a goal...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346211/modeling-memory-dynamics-in-visual-expertise
#7
Jeffrey Annis, Thomas J Palmeri
The development of visual expertise is accompanied by enhanced visual object recognition memory within an expert domain. We aimed to understand the relationship between expertise and memory by modeling cognitive mechanisms. Participants with a measured range of birding expertise were recruited and tested on memory for birds (expert domain) and cars (novice domain). Participants performed an old-new continuous recognition memory task whereby on each trial an image of a bird or car was presented that was either new or had been presented earlier with lag j...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346210/when-numbers-are-not-exact-ambiguity-and-prediction-in-the-processing-of-sentences-with-bare-numerals
#8
Maria Spychalska, Jarmo Kontinen, Ira Noveck, Ludmila Reimer, Markus Werning
It is generally assumed that bare numerals (e.g., three) have two readings: the exactly and the at least reading. It has been a matter of debate whether one of these two readings is derived from the other pragmatically. To shed light on this question research has aimed at characterizing the processing demands associated with these alternative interpretations. Here we use a sentence-picture verification paradigm where participants are asked to judge whether "N pictures contain Xs" is true in a situation where (a) exactly N, (b) fewer than N, or (c) more than N pictures contain Xs...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299131/properties-of-familiar-face-representations-only-contrast-positive-faces-contain-all-information-necessary-for-efficient-recognition
#9
Holger Wiese, Chelsea Y X Chan, Simone C Tüttenberg
It is difficult to recognize the identity of a face presented in negative contrast. This difficulty, however, is substantially reduced when only the eye region is contrast positive in an otherwise negative face image, and recognition of these so-called contrast chimeras approaches performance with full positive faces. This apparently similar accuracy has led researchers to suggest that familiar face representations are built around the eye region. The present study used the N250r, an event-related brain potential correlate of repetition priming, to examine whether chimera recognition is similarly efficient as positive face recognition...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299130/does-semantic-long-term-memory-impact-refreshing-in-verbal-working-memory
#10
Valérie Camos, Gérôme Mora, Anne-Laure Oftinger, Stéphanie Mariz Elsig, Philippe Schneider, Evie Vergauwe
Attentional refreshing allows the maintenance of information in working memory and has received growing interest in recent years. However, it is still ill-defined and several proposals have been put forward to account for its functioning. Among them, some proposals suggest that refreshing relies on the retrieval of knowledge from semantic long-term memory. To examine such a proposal, the present study examined the impact on refreshing of two effects known to affect the retrieval from semantic long-term memory: word frequency and lexicality...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284870/unexpected-conflict-signals-loom-larger-in-a-positive-context-evidence-from-context-specific-control-adjustments
#11
Gesine Dreisbach, Kerstin Fröber, Anja Berger, Rico Fischer
One prominent feature of adaptive cognition in humans is the ability to flexibly adjust to changing task demands. In this respect, context-specific proportion congruency (CSPC) effects describe the phenomenon that participants learn to adapt to contexts of frequently occurring conflicts even when the upcoming context cannot be anticipated. Here, we aim to provide evidence that such CSPC effects strongly depend on the affective valence of the context. Participants had to categorize pictures as animals versus humans (Experiment 1), words as male versus female (Experiment 2), and food pictures as depicting cold or hot dishes/beverages (Experiment 3)...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284869/referential-processing-in-3-and-5-year-old-children-is-egocentrically-anchored
#12
Ekaterina Ostashchenko, Gaétane Deliens, Philippine Geelhand, Julie Bertels, Mikhail Kissine
An ongoing debate in the literature on language acquisition is whether preschool children process reference in an egocentric way or whether they spontaneously and by-default take their partner's perspective into account. The reported study implements a computerized referential task with a controlled trial presentation and simple verbal instructions. Contrary to the predictions of the partner-specific view, entrained referential precedents give rise to faster processing for 3- and 5-year-old children, independently of whether the conversational partner is the same as in the lexical entrainment phase or not...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284868/the-generation-effect-and-experimental-design
#13
Neil W Mulligan, S Adam Smith, Zachary L Buchin
The generation effect is moderated by experimental design, as are a number of other encoding variables, such that the generation effect recall is typically larger in mixed-list than pure-list designs. In typical experiments on design effects, each study list is followed by its own recall test. Rowland, Littrell-Baez, Sensenig, and DeLosh (2014) found that the testing effect was not moderated by experimental design using a procedures in which multiple study lists were followed by a single, end-of-session recall test over all lists...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265054/is-there-adaptation-of-speech-production-after-speech-perception-in-bilingual-interaction
#14
Wouter P J Broos, Aster Dijkgraaf, Eva Van Assche, Heleen Vander Beken, Nicolas Dirix, Evelyne Lagrou, Robert J Hartsuiker, Wouter Duyck
In dialogue, speakers tend to adapt their speech to the speech of their interlocutor. Adapting speech production to preceding speech input may be particularly relevant for second language (L2) speakers interacting with native (L1) speakers, as adaptation may facilitate L2 learning. Here we asked whether Dutch-English bilinguals adapt pronunciation of the English phonemes /æ/ and coda /b/ when reading aloud sentences after exposure to native English speech. Additionally, we tested whether social context (presence or absence of a native English confederate) and time lag between perception and production of the phoneme affected adaptation...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265053/reassessing-the-token-set-size-effect-on-serial-recall-implications-for-theories-of-auditory-distraction
#15
Raoul Bell, Jan P Röer, Albert-Georg Lang, Axel Buchner
Sequences of auditory objects such as one-syllable words or brief sounds disrupt serial recall of visually presented targets even when the auditory objects are completely irrelevant for the task at hand. The token set size effect is a label for the claim that disruption increases only when moving from a 1-token distractor sequence (e.g., "AAAAAAAA") to a token set size of 2 (e.g., "ABABABAB") but remains constant when moving from a token set size of 2 to a larger token set size (e.g., "ABCABCAB" or "DAGCFBEH")...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265052/encoding-actions-and-verbs-tracking-the-time-course-of-relational-encoding-during-message-and-sentence-formulation
#16
Agnieszka E Konopka
Two experiments tracked the encoding of relational information (actions at the level of the prelinguistic message and verbs at the level of the sentence) during formulation of transitive event descriptions (e.g., The tiger is scratching the photographer). At what point during message and sentence formulation do speakers encode actions and verbs? Participants described pictures of transitive events in response to neutral questions ("What is happening?"), agent questions ("What is [the agent] doing?"), and patient questions ("What is happening with [the patient]?")...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247050/orthographic-and-root-frequency-effects-in-arabic-evidence-from-eye-movements-and-lexical-decision
#17
Ehab W Hermena, Simon P Liversedge, Sana Bouamama, Denis Drieghe
One of the more studied and robust effects in the reading literature is that of word frequency. Semitic words (e.g., in Arabic or Hebrew) contain roots that indicate the core meaning to which the word belongs. The effects of the frequency of these roots on reading as measured by eye movements is much less understood. In a series of experiments, we investigated and replicated traditional word frequency effects in Arabic: Eye movement measures showed the expected facilitation for high- over low-frequency target words embedded in sentences (Experiment 1)...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211591/drawing-enhances-item-information-but-undermines-sequence-information-in-memory
#18
Tanya R Jonker, Jeffrey D Wammes, Colin M MacLeod
Drawing a picture of the referent of a word produces considerably better recall and recognition of that word than does a baseline condition, such as repeatedly writing the word, a phenomenon referred to as the drawing effect. Although the drawing effect has been the focus of much recent research, it is not yet clear what underlies the beneficial effects of drawing to memory. In 3 experiments, we explored the roles of item and order information following drawing versus silent reading and produced 2 important findings...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211590/the-impact-of-text-orientation-on-form-priming-effects-in-four-character-chinese-words
#19
Huilan Yang, Jingjun Chen, Giacomo Spinelli, Stephen J Lupker
Does visuospatial orientation influence repetition and transposed character (TC) priming effects in logographic scripts? According to perceptual learning accounts, the nature of orthographic (form) priming effects should be influenced by text orientation (Dehaene, Cohen, Sigman, & Vinckier, 2005; Grainger & Holcomb, 2009). In contrast, Witzel, Qiao, and Forster's (2011) abstract letter unit account argues that the mechanism responsible for such effects acts at a totally abstract orthographic level (i...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198724/complexity-attention-and-choice-in-games-under-time-constraints-a-process-analysis
#20
Leonidas Spiliopoulos, Andreas Ortmann, Le Zhang
We test empirically the strategic counterpart of the Adaptive Decision Maker hypothesis (Payne, Bettman, & Johnson, 1993), which states that decision makers adapt their attention and decision rules to time pressure in predictable ways. For 29 normal form games, we test whether players adapt to tightening time constraints by reducing their information search and shifting to less computationally demanding heuristics, ultimately leading to systematic changes in choices. We specify process models of each decision rule, thereby allowing us to rank the rules by complexity on the basis of the number of elementary information processing units required to execute each rule...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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