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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095012/how-our-own-speech-rate-influences-our-perception-of-others
#1
Hans Rutger Bosker
In conversation, our own speech and that of others follow each other in rapid succession. Effects of the surrounding context on speech perception are well documented but, despite the ubiquity of the sound of our own voice, it is unknown whether our own speech also influences our perception of other talkers. This study investigated context effects induced by our own speech through 6 experiments, specifically targeting rate normalization (i.e., perceiving phonetic segments relative to surrounding speech rate)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095011/investigating-developmental-trajectories-of-morphemes-as-reading-units-in-german
#2
Jana Hasenäcker, Pauline Schröter, Sascha Schroeder
The developmental trajectory of the use of morphemes is still unclear. We investigated the emergence of morphological effects on visual word recognition in German in a large sample across the complete course of reading acquisition in elementary school. To this end, we analyzed lexical decision data on a total of 1,152 words and pseudowords from a large cross-sectional sample of German children from the beginning of Grade 2 through 6, and a group of adults. We expand earlier evidence by (a) explicitly investigating processing differences between compounds, prefixes and suffixes, (b) taking into account vocabulary knowledge as an indicator for interindividual differences...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095010/test-expectancy-and-memory-for-important-information
#3
Catherine D Middlebrooks, Kou Murayama, Alan D Castel
Prior research suggests that learners study and remember information differently depending upon the type of test they expect to later receive. The current experiments investigate how testing expectations impact the study of and memory for valuable information. Participants studied lists of words ranging in value from 1 to 10 points with the goal being to maximize their score on a later memory test. Half of the participants were told to expect a recognition test after each list, whereas the other half were told to expect a recall test...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095009/cross-lingual-neighborhood-effects-in-generalized-lexical-decision-and-natural-reading
#4
Nicolas Dirix, Uschi Cop, Denis Drieghe, Wouter Duyck
The present study assessed intra- and cross-lingual neighborhood effects, using both a generalized lexical decision task and an analysis of a large-scale bilingual eye-tracking corpus (Cop, Dirix, Drieghe, & Duyck, 2016). Using new neighborhood density and frequency measures, the general lexical decision task yielded an inhibitory cross-lingual neighborhood density effect on reading times of second language words, replicating van Heuven, Dijkstra, and Grainger (1998). Reaction times for native language words were not influenced by neighborhood density or frequency but error rates showed cross-lingual neighborhood effects depending on target word frequency...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080121/hand-matters-left-hand-gestures-enhance-metaphor-explanation
#5
Paraskevi Argyriou, Christine Mohr, Sotaro Kita
Research suggests that speech-accompanying gestures influence cognitive processes, but it is not clear whether the gestural benefit is specific to the gesturing hand. Two experiments tested the "(right/left) hand-specificity" hypothesis for self-oriented functions of gestures: gestures with a particular hand enhance cognitive processes involving the hemisphere contralateral to the gesturing hand. Specifically, we tested whether left-hand gestures enhance metaphor explanation, which involves right-hemispheric processing...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080120/a-goal-bias-in-action-the-boundaries-adults-perceive-in-events-align-with-sites-of-actor-intent
#6
Dani Levine, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Amy Pace, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff
We live in a dynamic world comprised of continuous events. Remembering our past and predicting future events, however, requires that we segment these ongoing streams of information in a consistent manner. How is this segmentation achieved? This research examines whether the boundaries adults perceive in events, such as the Olympic figure skating routine used in these studies, align with the beginnings (sources) and endings (goals) of human goal-directed actions. Study 1 showed that a group of experts, given an explicit task with unlimited time to rewatch the event, identified the same subevents as one another, but with greater agreement as to the timing of goals than sources...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080119/the-role-of-episodic-context-in-retrieval-practice-effects
#7
Joshua W Whiffen, Jeffrey D Karpicke
The episodic context account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances subsequent retention because people must think back to and reinstate a prior learning context. Three experiments directly tested this central assumption of the context account. Subjects studied word lists and then either restudied the words under intentional learning conditions or made list discrimination judgments by indicating which list each word had occurred in originally. Subjects in both conditions experienced all items for the same amount of time, but subjects in the list discrimination condition were required to retrieve details about the original episodic context in which the words had occurred...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080118/photos-that-increase-feelings-of-learning-promote-positive-evaluations
#8
Brittany A Cardwell, Eryn J Newman, Maryanne Garry, Antonia Mantonakis, Randi Beckett
Research shows that when semantic context makes it feel easier for people to bring related thoughts and images to mind, people can misinterpret that feeling of ease as evidence that information is positive. But research also shows that semantic context does more than help people bring known concepts to mind-it also teaches people new concepts. In five experiments, we show that when photos increase these feelings of learning, they also increase positive evaluations. People saw fictitious wine names and evaluated claims about each...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080117/effects-of-learned-episodic-event-structure-on-prospective-duration-judgments
#9
Myrthe Faber, Silvia P Gennari
The field of psychology of time has typically distinguished between prospective timing and retrospective duration estimation: in prospective timing, participants attend to and encode time, whereas in retrospective estimation, estimates are based on the memory of what happened. Prior research on prospective timing has primarily focused on attentional mechanisms to explain timing behavior, but it remains unclear the extent to which memory processes may also play a role. The present studies investigate this issue, and specifically, the role of newly learned encoded event structure...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080116/recognition-memory-for-hue-prototypical-bias-and-the-role-of-labeling
#10
Laura Jane Kelly, Evan Heit
How does the concurrent use of language affect perception and memory for exemplars? Labels cue more general category information than a specific exemplar. Applying labels can affect the resulting memory for an exemplar. Here 3 alternative hypotheses are proposed for the role of labeling an exemplar at encoding: (a) labels distort memory toward the label prototype, (b) labels guide the level of specificity needed in the current context, and (c) labels direct attention to the label's referent among all possible features within a visual scene...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068127/basic-composition-and-enriched-integration-in-idiom-processing-an-eeg-study
#11
Paolo Canal, Francesca Pesciarelli, Francesco Vespignani, Nicola Molinaro, Cristina Cacciari
We investigated the extent to which the literal meanings of the words forming literally plausible idioms (e.g., break the ice) are semantically composed and how the idiomatic meaning is integrated in the unfolding sentence representation. Participants read ambiguous idiom strings embedded in highly predictable, literal, and idiomatic contexts while their EEG was recorded. Control sentences only contained the idiom-final word whose cloze values were as high as in literal and idiomatic contexts. Event-related potentials data showed that differences in the amplitude of a frontal positivity (PNP) emerged at the beginning and at the end of the idiom strings, with the idiomatic context condition associated with more positive voltages...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068126/using-perspective-to-resolve-reference-the-impact-of-cognitive-load-and-motivation
#12
James E Cane, Heather J Ferguson, Ian A Apperly
Research has demonstrated a link between perspective taking and working memory. Here we used eye tracking to examine the time course with which working memory load (WML) influences perspective-taking ability in a referential communication task and how motivation to take another's perspective modulates these effects. In Experiment 1, where there was no reward or time pressure, listeners only showed evidence of incorporating perspective knowledge during integration of the target object but did not anticipate reference to this common ground object during the pretarget-noun period...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068125/our-moral-choices-are-foreign-to-us
#13
Joanna D Corey, Sayuri Hayakawa, Alice Foucart, Melina Aparici, Juan Botella, Albert Costa, Boaz Keysar
Though moral intuitions and choices seem fundamental to our core being, there is surprising new evidence that people resolve moral dilemmas differently when they consider them in a foreign language (Cipolletti et al., 2016; Costa et al., 2014a; Geipel et al., 2015): People are more willing to sacrifice 1 person to save 5 when they use a foreign language compared with when they use their native tongue. Our findings show that the phenomenon is robust across various contexts and that multiple factors affect it, such as the severity of the negative consequences associated with saving the larger group...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068124/cognitive-effort-is-modulated-outside-of-the-explicit-awareness-of-conflict-frequency-evidence-from-pupillometry
#14
Nathaniel T Diede, Julie M Bugg
Classic theories of cognitive control conceptualized controlled processes as slow, strategic, and willful, with automatic processes being fast and effortless. The context-specific proportion compatibility (CSPC) effect, the reduction in the compatibility effect in a context (e.g., location) associated with a high relative to low likelihood of conflict, challenged classic theories by demonstrating fast and flexible control that appears to operate outside of conscious awareness. Two theoretical questions yet to be addressed are whether the CSPC effect is accompanied by context-dependent variation in effort, and whether the exertion of effort depends on explicit awareness of context-specific task demands...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068123/coreference-and-antecedent-representation-across-languages
#15
Sol Lago, Shayne Sloggett, Zoe Schlueter, Wing Yee Chow, Alexander Williams, Ellen Lau, Colin Phillips
Previous studies have shown that speakers of languages such as German, Spanish, and French reactivate the syntactic gender of the antecedent of a pronoun to license gender agreement. As syntactic gender is assumed to be stored in the lexicon, this has motivated the claim that pronouns in these languages reactivate the lexical entry of their antecedent noun. In contrast, in languages without syntactic gender such as English, lexical retrieval might be unnecessary. We used eye-tracking while reading to examine whether antecedent retrieval involves rapid semantic and phonological reactivation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936848/memory-inhibition-as-a-critical-factor-preventing-creative-problem-solving
#16
Carlos J Gómez-Ariza, Francesco Del Prete, Laura Prieto Del Val, Tania Valle, M Teresa Bajo, Angel Fernandez
The hypothesis that reduced accessibility to relevant information can negatively affect problem solving in a remote associate test (RAT) was tested by using, immediately before the RAT, a retrieval practice procedure to hinder access to target solutions. The results of 2 experiments clearly showed that, relative to baseline, target words that had been competitors during selective retrieval were much less likely to be provided as solutions in the RAT, demonstrating that performance in the problem-solving task was strongly influenced by the predetermined accessibility status of the solutions in memory...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936847/reading-aloud-on-the-determinants-of-the-joint-effects-of-stimulus-quality-and-word-frequency
#17
Darcy White, Derek Besner
There are multiple reports, in the context of the time taken to read aloud, that the joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency (a) interact when only words appear in the list but (b) are additive when nonwords are intermixed with words (O'Malley & Besner, 2008). This triple interaction has been explained in terms of the idea that different processing modes are in play in these different contexts. Processing is cascaded when only words appear in the list, allowing the effect of stimulus quality to influence the downstream process(es) affected by word frequency...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936846/the-memorability-of-people-intrinsic-memorability-across-transformations-of-a-person-s-face
#18
Wilma A Bainbridge
When encountering new people for a brief instant, some seem to last in our memories while others are quickly forgotten. Memorability-whether a stimulus is likely to be later remembered-is highly consistent across different group of observers; people tend to remember and forget the same face images. However, is memorability intrinsic to just the picture of a face, or to a person's identity, generalizable across views and emotions? Thousands of participants completed an online experiment testing face identity recognition over five different emotional and viewpoint transformations (neutral, happy, angry, 3/4 view, and profile view)...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936845/dealing-with-prospective-memory-demands-while-performing-an-ongoing-task-shared-processing-increased-on-task-focus-or-both
#19
Jan Rummel, Bridget A Smeekens, Michael J Kane
Prospective memory (PM) is the cognitive ability to remember to fulfill intended action plans at the appropriate future moment. Current theories assume that PM fulfillment draws on attentional processes. Accordingly, pending PM intentions interfere with other ongoing tasks to the extent to which both tasks rely on the same processes. How do people manage the competition between PM and ongoing-task demands? Based on research relating mind wandering and attentional control (Kane & McVay, 2012), we argue that people may not only change the way they process ongoing-task stimuli when given a PM intention, but they may also engage in less off-task thinking than they otherwise would...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936844/self-paced-preparation-for-a-task-switch-eliminates-attentional-inertia-but-not-the-performance-switch-cost
#20
Cai S Longman, Aureliu Lavric, Stephen Monsell
The performance overhead associated with changing tasks (the "switch cost") usually diminishes when the task is specified in advance but is rarely eliminated by preparation. A popular account of the "residual" (asymptotic) switch cost is that it reflects "task-set inertia": carry-over of task-set parameters from the preceding trial(s). New evidence for a component of "task-set inertia" comes from eye-tracking, where the location associated with the previously (but no longer) relevant task is fixated preferentially over other irrelevant locations, even when preparation intervals are generous...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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