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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999403/are-we-attracted-by-losses-boundary-conditions-for-the-approach-and-avoidance-effects-of-losses
#1
Eldad Yechiam, Nathaniel J S Ashby, Guy Hochman
The majority of the literature on the psychology of gains and losses suggests that losses lead to an avoidance response. Several studies, however, have shown that losses can also lead to an approach response, whereby an option is selected more often when it produces losses. In five studies we examine the boundary conditions for these contradictory approach and avoidance effects. The results show that an approach response emerges only when losses are produced by a highly advantageous choice alternative and when participants have ample unbiased direct or vicarious experience with this alternative...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999402/exploring-the-effects-of-knowledge-of-writing-on-reading-chinese-characters-in-skilled-readers
#2
Mingjun Zhai, Simon Fischer-Baum
Knowledge about how characters are written has been argued to play a particularly important role in how children learn to read Chinese. In the current study, we investigate the role that knowledge about writing characters plays in visual word processing in skilled adult readers. While there is clear neuropsychological evidence against the strong version of the hypothesis that reading depends on writing in Chinese even once literacy is acquired, it is still possible that writing could have a modulatory influence on how visually presented Chinese characters are processed in literate readers...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999401/planning-and-coordination-of-utterances-in-a-joint-naming-task
#3
Renske S Hoedemaker, Antje S Meyer
Dialogue requires speakers to coordinate. According to the model of dialogue as joint action, interlocutors achieve this coordination by corepresenting their own and each other's task share in a functionally equivalent manner. In two experiments, we investigated this corepresentation account using an interactive joint naming task in which pairs of participants took turns naming sets of objects on a shared display. Speaker A named the first, or the first and third object, and Speaker B named the second object...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999400/item-to-item-associations-in-typing-evidence-from-spin-list-sequence-learning
#4
Dakota R B Lindsey, Gordon D Logan
Associations are formed among the items in a sequence over the course of learning, but these item-to-item associations are not sufficient to reproduce the order of the sequence (Lashley, 1951). Contemporary theories of serial order tend to omit these associations entirely. The current paper investigates whether item-to-item associations play a role in serial order, specifically focusing on whether these associations influence how typists order their keystrokes. To address this question, participants completed variants of the spin list learning procedure (Ebenholtz, 1963)...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999399/cognate-effects-on-anaphor-processing
#5
Justin Lauro, Ana I Schwartz
There are numerous studies demonstrating facilitated processing of cognates relative to noncognates for bilinguals, providing evidence that bilingual lexical access is language nonselective. We tested whether cross-language activation affects comprehension of larger units of meaning, focusing specifically on comprehension of anaphoric references. Highly proficient, Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences either in English (Experiment 1) or Spanish (Experiment 2) while their eye movements were recorded. Sentences consisted of an initial clause with 2 nouns that were either cognates or noncognates, and a later clause with an anaphor that either referred to the first or second noun...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999398/forced-fixations-trans-saccadic-integration-and-word-recognition-evidence-for-a-hybrid-mechanism-of-saccade-triggering-in-reading
#6
Elizabeth R Schotter, Titus von der Malsburg, Mallorie Leinenger
Recent studies using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm reported a reversed preview benefit -shorter fixations on a target word when an unrelated preview was easier to process than the fixated target (Schotter & Leinenger, 2016). This is explained via forced fixations -short fixations on words that would ideally be skipped (because lexical processing has progressed enough) but could not be because saccade planning reached a point of no return. This contrasts with accounts of preview effects via trans-saccadic integration -shorter fixations on a target word when the preview is more similar to it (see Cutter, Drieghe, & Liversedge, 2015)...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999397/determining-the-developmental-requirements-for-hebb-repetition-learning-in-young-children-grouping-short-term-memory-and-their-interaction
#7
Kaichi Yanaoka, Masataka Nakayama, Christopher Jarrold, Satoru Saito
The Hebb repetition paradigm has recently attracted attention as a measure of serial order learning, which underlies word-form learning abilities. Although children are good vocabulary learners, it is surprising that previous Hebb learning studies with young children show rather weak Hebb effects. In this study, we conducted two experiments to identify developmental factors that drive an increase of the size of the Hebb effect in young children. Motivated by evidence from adult work, we focused on an ability to group a sequence into consistent subsequences and on phonological short-term memory (STM) capacity...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999396/responses-improve-the-accuracy-of-confidence-judgements-in-memory-tasks
#8
Marta Siedlecka, Zuzanna Skóra, Borysław Paulewicz, Sonia Fijałkowska, Bert Timmermans, Michał Wierzchoń
How do we assess what we remember? Previous work on metacognition suggests that confidence judgments are more accurate when given after than before a response to a perceptual task. Here we present two experiments that investigate the influence of decision and response on metacognitive accuracy in a memory task so as to establish what kind of information people use to assess their memory content. Participants were asked to remember lists of words and then to decide which of two target words had previously been presented...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985041/the-impact-of-one-s-own-voice-and-production-skills-on-word-recognition-in-a-second-language
#9
Nikola Anna Eger, Eva Reinisch
Second language (L2) learners often speak with a strong accent, which can make them difficult to understand. However, familiarity with an accent enhances intelligibility. We propose that L2 learners are even more familiar with their own accented speech patterns and may thus understand self-produced L2 words better than others' accented productions, presumably because of adaptation. This hypothesis was tested by asking German learners of English to identify English words from minimal pairs that are distinguished by difficult L2 sound contrasts...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985040/sample-size-weighting-follows-a-curvilinear-function
#10
Natalie A Obrecht
Previous research is mixed regarding whether laypeople are sensitive to sample size. Here the author argues that this is in part because sample size sensitivity follows a curvilinear function with decreasing sensitivity as sample size become larger. This functional form reconciles apparent discrepancies in the literature, accounting for results where sample size is greatly attended to or nearly overlooked. The curvilinear form is found across confidence and estimation tasks that have square-root and linear normative standards...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985039/individual-differences-in-mixing-costs-relate-to-general-executive-functioning
#11
Louisa L Smith, Marie T Banich, Naomi P Friedman
The ability to enact cognitive control under changing environmental demands is commonly studied using set-shifting paradigms. While the control processes required for task set reconfiguration (switch costs) have been studied extensively, less research has focused on the control required during task repetition in blocks containing multiple tasks as compared to those containing a single task (mixing costs). We investigated how individual differences in mixing costs related to other executive functions (EFs) in a large sample (N = 749) of young adults...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985038/eye-movement-evidence-for-the-mental-representation-of-strokes-in-chinese-characters
#12
Lili Yu, Jianping Xiong, Qiaoming Zhang, Denis Drieghe, Erik D Reichle
Although strokes are the smallest identifiable units in Chinese words, the fact that they are often embedded within larger units (i.e., radicals and/or characters that comprise Chinese words) raises questions about how and even if strokes are separately represented in lexical memory. The present experiment examined these questions using a gaze-contingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to manipulate the parafoveal preview of the first of two-character target words. Relative to a normal preview, the removal of whole strokes was more disruptive (i...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985037/a-semantic-mismatch-effect-on-serial-recall-evidence-for-interlexical-processing-of-irrelevant-speech
#13
Jan Philipp Röer, Raoul Bell, Ulrike Körner, Axel Buchner
Short-term memory (STM) for serially presented visual items is disrupted by task-irrelevant, to-be-ignored speech. Five experiments investigated the extent to which irrelevant speech is processed semantically by contrasting the following two hypotheses: (1) semantic processing of irrelevant speech is limited and does not interfere with serial STM or (2) irrelevant speech is routinely processed semantically at an interlexical level to allow for the detection of stimuli that are of potential relevance for the individual...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985036/does-early-active-bilingualism-enhance-inhibitory-control-and-monitoring-a-propensity-matching-analysis
#14
Andree Hartanto, Hwajin Yang
Prior research suggesting that longer bilingual experience benefits inhibitory control and monitoring has been criticized for a lack of control over confounding variables. We addressed this issue by using a propensity-score matching procedure that enabled us to match early and late bilinguals on 18 confounding variables-for example, demographic characteristics, immigration status, fitness, extracurricular training, motivation, and emotionality-that have been shown to influence cognitive control. Before early and late bilinguals were matched ( N = 196), we found early active bilingual advantages in flanker effects (in accuracy), global accuracy, and sensitivity ( d ') on the Attention Network Test for Interaction and Vigilance and global accuracy on the saccade task...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985035/morphological-processing-in-single-word-and-sentence-reading
#15
Petroula Mousikou, Sascha Schroeder
Research on morphological processing has been mainly conducted in the single-word reading domain using the lexical-decision task. Similar research in the sentence reading domain has been conducted using eye-tracking techniques, yet the experimental paradigms used in each domain are not directly comparable. In the present study, we investigated morphological processing in single-word reading using the masked priming paradigm (Experiments 1a, 1b, 3), and in sentence reading using the fast priming paradigm in eye tracking (Experiment 2)...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985034/the-graded-effect-of-valence-on-word-recognition-in-spanish
#16
Javier Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Rob Davies
The influence of emotional content on language processing remains unclear. Previous research conducted in English has obtained contradictory results regarding the effects of valence on word recognition. Whereas some studies indicate that valence predicts recognition latencies such that negative words are processed more slowly than positive words, other studies indicate facilitation of responses to emotional (both positive and negative) compared to neutral words. The authors examined the influence of valence and arousal on word recognition reaction time (RT) using large-scale word naming and lexical decision data-sets in Spanish...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985033/the-dynamic-adjustment-of-saccades-during-chinese-reading-evidence-from-eye-movements-and-simulations
#17
Yanping Liu, Lei Yu, Erik D Reichle
This article reports an eye-movement experiment in which participants scanned continuous sequences of Landolt- C s for target circles to examine the visual and oculomotor constraints that might jointly determine where the eyes move in a task that engages many of the perceptual and motor processes involved in Chinese reading but without lexical or linguistic processing. The lengths of the saccades entering the Landolt- C clusters were modulated by the processing difficulty (i.e., gap sizes) of those clusters...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985032/winners-and-losers-reward-and-punishment-produce-biases-in-temporal-selection
#18
Mike E Le Pelley, Poppy Watson, Daniel Pearson, Ravini S Abeywickrama, Steven B Most
Studies of visual search demonstrate that the 'learned value' of stimuli (the extent to which they signal valued events, such as rewards and punishments) influences whether they will be prioritized by spatial attention. Recent work suggests that learned value also modulates attentional prioritization even when all stimuli are presented in the same location, suggesting an influence on temporal selection wherein value-related stimuli become more capable of disrupting central mechanisms of perceptual awareness...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985031/learning-dependent-evolution-of-spatial-representations-in-large-scale-virtual-environments
#19
Michael J Starrett, Jared D Stokes, Derek J Huffman, Emilio Ferrer, Arne D Ekstrom
An important question regards how we use environmental boundaries to anchor spatial representations during navigation. Behavioral and neurophysiological models appear to provide conflicting predictions, and this question has been difficult to answer because of technical challenges with testing navigation in novel, large-scale, realistic spatial environments. We conducted an experiment in which participants freely ambulated on an omnidirectional treadmill while viewing novel, town-sized environments in virtual reality on a head-mounted display...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985030/systematic-distortions-in-clinicians-memories-for-client-cases-increasing-causal-coherence
#20
Erienne R Weine, Nancy S Kim
In accord with classic schema theory, people are susceptible to forming false memories that align with stored schema representations (Brewer & Treyens, 1981). Furthermore, clinicians schematize mental disorders as causal networks of features (de Kwaadsteniet, Hagmayer, Krol, & Witteman, 2010; Kim & Ahn, 2002). We asked whether one important consequence of this representation is that clinicians tend to misremember client cases as being more causally coherent than they actually are. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating the causal coherence of case descriptions via a well-documented cue-to-causality, the proportionality between features (Einhorn & Hogarth, 1986)...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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