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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283607/retuning-of-lexical-semantic-representations-repetition-and-spacing-effects-in-word-meaning-priming
#1
Hannah N Betts, Rebecca A Gilbert, Zhenguang G Cai, Zainab B Okedara, Jennifer M Rodd
Current models of word-meaning access typically assume that lexical-semantic representations of ambiguous words (e.g., 'bark of the dog/tree') reach a relatively stable state in adulthood, with only the relative frequencies of meanings and immediate sentence context determining meaning preference. However, recent experience also affects interpretation: recently encountered word-meanings become more readily available (Rodd et al., 2016, 2013). Here, 3 experiments investigated how multiple encounters with word-meanings influence the subsequent interpretation of these ambiguous words...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283606/lexical-inhibition-due-to-failed-prediction-behavioral-evidence-and-erp-correlates
#2
Tal Ness, Aya Meltzer-Asscher
During sentence processing, comprehenders form expectations regarding upcoming material, and may even predict a specific word. Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that disconfirmed predictions elicit a post-N400-positivity (PNP) with two distinct distributions. A frontal-PNP (f-PNP) is elicited when an unexpected but congruent word appears instead of a highly predictable word, whereas an anomalous word elicits a posterior-PNP. The current study tested the hypothesis that during the processing of a sentence, the predicted word is inhibited to enable the integration of unexpected but congruent material, and that this inhibitory process is reflected in the f-PNP component...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283605/cognates-facilitate-switches-and-then-confusion-contrasting-effects-of-cascade-versus-feedback-on-language-selection
#3
Chuchu Li, Tamar H Gollan
The current study investigated the hypothesis that cognates (i.e., translation equivalents that overlap in form, e.g., lemon is limón in Spanish) facilitate language switches. Spanish-English bilinguals were cued to switch languages while repeatedly naming pictures with cognate versus noncognate names in separate (Experiment 1) or mixed (Experiments 2 and 3) blocks. In all 3 experiments, on the first presentation of each picture, cognates elicited significantly smaller switch costs and were produced faster than noncognates only on switch trials...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283604/orthographic-effects-in-second-language-spoken-word-recognition
#4
Qingqing Qu, Zhanling Cui, Markus F Damian
Evidence from both alphabetic and nonalphabetic languages has suggested the role of orthography in the processing of spoken words in individuals' native language (L1). Less evidence has existed for such effects in nonnative (L2) spoken-word processing. Whereas in L1 orthographic representations are learned only after phonological representations have long been established, in L2 the sound and spelling of words are often learned in conjunction; this might predict stronger orthographic effects in L2 than in L1 spoken processing...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265829/informed-guessing-in-change-detection
#5
Stephen Rhodes, Nelson Cowan, Kyle O Hardman, Robert H Logie
Provided stimuli are highly distinct, the detection of changes between two briefly separated arrays appears to be achieved by an all-or-none process where either the relevant information is in working memory or observers guess. This observation suggests that it is possible to estimate the average number of items an observer was able to retain across a series of trials, a potentially highly informative cognitive characteristic. For each version of the change detection paradigm, for this estimate to be accurate, it is important to specify how observers use the information available to them...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239625/adaptive-memory-is-there-a-reproduction-processing-effect
#6
Benjamin M Seitz, Cody W Polack, Ralph R Miller
Like all biological systems, human memory is likely to have been influenced by evolutionary processes, and its abilities have been subjected to selective mechanisms. Consequently, human memory should be primed to better remember information relevant to one's evolutionary fitness. Supporting this view, participants asked to rate words based on their relevance to an imaginary survival situation better recall those words (even the words rated low in relevancy) than the same words rated with respect to non-survival situations...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239624/proactive-control-processes-in-event-based-prospective-memory-evidence-from-intraindividual-variability-and-ex-gaussian-analyses
#7
B Hunter Ball, Gene A Brewer
The present study implemented an individual differences approach in conjunction with response time (RT) variability and distribution modeling techniques to better characterize the cognitive control dynamics underlying ongoing task cost (i.e., slowing) and cue detection in event-based prospective memory (PM). Three experiments assessed the relation between proactive control ability, ex-Gaussian parameter estimates (μ and τ), intraindividual variability in responding (coefficient of variation, CoV), and PM cue detection...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239623/environmental-scaling-influences-the-use-of-local-but-not-global-geometric-cues-during-spatial-reorientation
#8
Bradley R Sturz, Z Kade Bell, Kent D Bodily
During spatial reorientation, the use of local geometric cues (e.g., corner angles) and global geometric cues (e.g., principal axis) is differentially influenced by enclosure size. Local geometric cues exert more influence in large enclosures compared to small enclosures, whereas the use of global geometric cues is not influenced by changes in enclosure size. Such effects are suggested to occur because of differences in training enclosures sizes or differences in testing enclosure sizes, but investigations of enclosure-size effects on spatial cue use have been confounded by environmental scaling between training and testing...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130693/putting-bandits-into-context-how-function-learning-supports-decision-making
#9
Eric Schulz, Emmanouil Konstantinidis, Maarten Speekenbrink
The authors introduce the contextual multi-armed bandit task as a framework to investigate learning and decision making in uncertain environments. In this novel paradigm, participants repeatedly choose between multiple options in order to maximize their rewards. The options are described by a number of contextual features which are predictive of the rewards through initially unknown functions. From their experience with choosing options and observing the consequences of their decisions, participants can learn about the functional relation between contexts and rewards and improve their decision strategy over time...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120193/feel-the-way-with-a-vibrotactile-compass-does-a-navigational-aid-aid-navigation
#10
Steven M Weisberg, Daniel Badgio, Anjan Chatterjee
Knowing where north is provides a navigator with invaluable information for learning and recalling a space, particularly in places with limited navigational cues, like complex indoor environments. Although north is effectively used by orienteers, pilots, and military personnel, very little is known about whether nonexpert populations can or will use north to create an accurate representation of an indoor space. In the current study, we taught people 2 nonoverlapping routes through a complex indoor environment, with which they were not familiar-a university hospital with few windows and several turns...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094994/keep-listening-grammatical-context-reduces-but-does-not-eliminate-activation-of-unexpected-words
#11
Julia F Strand, Violet A Brown, Hunter E Brown, Jeffrey J Berg
To understand spoken language, listeners combine acoustic-phonetic input with expectations derived from context (Dahan & Magnuson, 2006). Eye-tracking studies on semantic context have demonstrated that the activation levels of competing lexical candidates depend on the relative strengths of the bottom-up input and top-down expectations (cf. Dahan & Tanenhaus, 2004). In the grammatical realm, however, graded effects of context on lexical competition have been predicted (Magnuson, Tanenhaus, & Aslin, 2008), but not demonstrated...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094993/can-i-order-a-burger-at-rnacdonalds-com-visual-similarity-effects-of-multi-letter-combinations-at-the-early-stages-of-word-recognition
#12
Ana Marcet, Manuel Perea
Previous research has shown that early in the word recognition process, there is some degree of uncertainty concerning letter identity and letter position. Here, we examined whether this uncertainty also extends to the mapping of letter features onto letters, as predicted by the Bayesian Reader (Norris & Kinoshita, 2012). Indeed, anecdotal evidence suggests that nonwords containing multi-letter homoglyphs (e.g., rn→m), such as docurnent, can be confusable with their base word. We conducted 2 masked priming lexical decision experiments in which the words/nonwords contained a middle letter that was visually similar to a multi-letter homoglyph (e...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094992/the-replicability-of-the-negative-testing-effect-differences-across-participant-populations
#13
Neil W Mulligan, Katherine A Rawson, Daniel J Peterson, Kathryn T Wissman
Although memory retrieval often enhances subsequent memory, Peterson and Mulligan (2013) reported conditions under which retrieval produces poorer subsequent recall-the negative testing effect. The item-specific-relational account proposes that the effect occurs when retrieval disrupts interitem organizational processing relative to the restudy condition. Rawson et al. (2015), in contrast, failed to replicate the negative testing effect despite repeated high-powered attempts. This article examines the discrepant results, ruling out differences in procedures, and concludes that differences in participant population produced the varying outcome...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094991/when-shorter-delays-lead-to-worse-memories-task-disruption-makes-visual-working-memory-temporarily-vulnerable-to-test-interference
#14
Benchi Wang, Jan Theeuwes, Christian N L Olivers
Evidence shows that visual working memory (VWM) is strongly served by attentional mechanisms, whereas other evidence shows that VWM representations readily survive when attention is being taken away. To reconcile these findings, we tested the hypothesis that directing attention away makes a memory representation vulnerable to interference from the test pattern, but only temporarily so. When given sufficient time, the robustness of VWM can be restored so that it is protected against test interference. In 5 experiments, participants remembered a single grating for a later memory test...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094990/eye-movements-reveal-persistent-sensitivity-to-sound-symbolism-during-word-learning
#15
Kate Pirog Revill, Laura L Namy, Lynne C Nygaard
Although the relationship between sound and meaning in language is assumed to be largely arbitrary, reliable correspondences between sound and meaning in natural language appear to facilitate word learning. Using a set of independently normed pseudoword and shape stimuli, we examined the real-time effects of sound-to-shape correspondences at initial presentation and throughout an extended learning process resulting in high accuracy. In addition to accuracy and response time (RT) measures, we monitored participants' eye movements to investigate the extent to which visual orienting to objects is influenced by the sound symbolic characteristics of novel labels at initial exposure and throughout learning...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094989/the-efficacy-of-learners-testing-choices
#16
Jonathan G Tullis, Joshua L Fiechter, Aaron S Benjamin
Practice tests provide large mnemonic benefits over restudying, but learners judge practice tests as less effective than restudying. Consequently, learners infrequently utilize testing when controlling their study and often choose to be tested only on well-learned items. In 5 experiments, we examined whether learners' choices about testing and restudying are effective for improving subsequent memory performance. Learners studied a list of word pairs and chose which items to restudy and which to test. Some of learners' choices were honored (by assigning those items to the chosen activity) and some of learners' choices were dishonored (by assigning those items to the opposite study activity)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094988/cue-interaction-between-buildings-and-street-configurations-during-reorientation-in-familiar-and-unfamiliar-outdoor-environments
#17
Lin Wang, Weimin Mou, Peter Dixon
Two experiments investigated how people use buildings and street configurations to reorient in large-scale environments. In immersive virtual environments, participants learned objects' locations in an intersection consisting of 4 streets. The objects' locations were specified by 2 cues: a building and/or the street configuration. During the test, participants localized objects with either or both cues. Participants were divided into a competition group and a no-competition group. The competition group learned both cues whereas the no-competition group learned the single cue for trials with single testing cue...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094987/self-regulated-learning-of-important-information-under-sequential-and-simultaneous-encoding-conditions
#18
Catherine D Middlebrooks, Alan D Castel
Learners make a number of decisions when attempting to study efficiently: they must choose which information to study, for how long to study it, and whether to restudy it later. The current experiments examine whether documented impairments to self-regulated learning when studying information sequentially, as opposed to simultaneously, extend to the learning of and memory for valuable information. In Experiment 1, participants studied lists of words ranging in value from 1-10 points sequentially or simultaneously at a preset presentation rate; in Experiment 2, study was self-paced and participants could choose to restudy...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094986/the-serial-order-of-response-units-in-word-production-the-case-of-typing
#19
Michele Scaltritti, Marieke Longcamp, F-Xavier Alario
The selection and ordering of response units (phonemes, letters, keystrokes) represents a transversal issue across different modalities of language production. Here, the issue of serial order was investigated with respect to typewriting. Following seminal investigations in the spoken modality, we conducted an experiment where participants typed as many times as possible a pair of words during a fixed time-window. The 2 words shared either their first 2 keystrokes, the last 2 ones, all the keystrokes, or were unrelated...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094985/boosting-maintenance-in-working-memory-with-temporal-regularities
#20
Gaën Plancher, Yohana Lévêque, Lison Fanuel, Gaëlle Piquandet, Barbara Tillmann
Music cognition research has provided evidence for the benefit of temporally regular structures guiding attention over time. The present study investigated whether maintenance in working memory can benefit from an isochronous rhythm. Participants were asked to remember series of 6 letters for serial recall. In the rhythm condition of Experiment 1A, a wood block sound was presented 6 times with a regular stimulus-onset-asynchrony during the delay between encoding and recall. In the silent condition, no sound was presented...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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