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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910129/how-is-the-serial-order-of-a-visual-sequence-represented-insights-from-transposition-latencies
#1
Mark J Hurlstone, Graham J Hitch
A central goal of research on short-term memory (STM) over the past 2 decades has been to identify the mechanisms that underpin the representation of serial order, and to establish whether these mechanisms are the same across different modalities and domains (e.g., verbal, visual, spatial). A fruitful approach to addressing this question has involved comparing the transposition error latency predictions of models built from different candidate mechanisms for representing serial order. Experiments involving the output-timed serial recall of sequences of verbal (Farrell & Lewandowsky, 2004) and spatial (Hurlstone & Hitch, 2015) items have revealed an error latency profile consistent with the prediction of a competitive queuing mechanism within which serial order is represented via a primacy gradient of activations over items, associations between items and position markers, with suppression of items following recall...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782969/a-switch-is-not-a-switch-syntactically-driven-bilingual-language-control
#2
Tamar H Gollan, Matthew Goldrick
The current study investigated the possibility that language switches could be relatively automatically triggered by context. Single-word switches, in which bilinguals switched languages on a single word in midsentence and then immediately switched back, were contrasted with more complete whole-language switches, in which bilinguals completed a full phrase (or more) in the switched to language before switching back. Speech production was elicited by asking Spanish-English bilinguals to read aloud mixed-language paragraphs that manipulated switch type (single word, whole language), part of speech (switches on function or content words), and default language (dominant language English or nondominant Spanish)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782968/the-longevity-of-statistical-learning-when-infant-memory-decays-isolated-words-come-to-the-rescue
#3
Ferhat Karaman, Jessica F Hay
Research over the past 2 decades has demonstrated that infants are equipped with remarkable computational abilities that allow them to find words in continuous speech. Infants can encode information about the transitional probability (TP) between syllables to segment words from artificial and natural languages. As previous research has tested infants immediately after familiarization, infants' ability to retain sequential statistics beyond the immediate familiarization context remains unknown. Here, we examine infants' memory for statistically defined words 10 min after familiarization with an Italian corpus...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782967/the-effect-of-background-noise-on-the-word-activation-process-in-nonnative-spoken-word-recognition
#4
Odette Scharenborg, Juul M J Coumans, Roeland van Hout
This article investigates 2 questions: (1) does the presence of background noise lead to a differential increase in the number of simultaneously activated candidate words in native and nonnative listening? And (2) do individual differences in listeners' cognitive and linguistic abilities explain the differential effect of background noise on (non-)native speech recognition? English and Dutch students participated in an English word recognition experiment, in which either a word's onset or offset was masked by noise...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758778/the-articulatory-in-out-effect-resists-oral-motor-interference
#5
Berit Lindau, Sascha Topolinski
People prefer words with inward directed consonantal patterns (e.g., MENIKA) compared to outward patterns (KENIMA), because inward (outward) articulation movements resemble positive (negative) mouth actions such as swallowing (spitting). This effect might rely on covert articulation simulations, or subvocalizations, since it occurs also under silent reading. We tested to what degree these underlying articulation simulations are disturbed by oral motor interference. In 3 experiments (total N = 465) we interfered with these articulation simulations by employing concurrent oral exercises that induce oral motor noise while judging inward and outward words (chewing gum, Experiment 1; executing meaningless tongue movements, Experiment 2; concurrent verbalizations, Experiment 3)...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758777/reading-dilemmas-in-a-foreign-language-reduces-both-deontological-and-utilitarian-response-tendencies
#6
Rafał Muda, Paweł Niszczota, Michał Białek, Paul Conway
Moral dilemmas entail deciding whether to cause harm to maximize overall outcomes, such as killing 1 person to save 5. Past work has demonstrated that people are more willing to accept causing such outcome-maximizing harm when they read dilemmas in a foreign language they speak rather than their native language. Presumably this effect is due to foreign dilemmas inducing reduced emotional impact, rather than increased cognitive processing, but previous work cannot distinguish between these possibilities because it treats them as diametric opposites...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758776/cognitive-and-contextual-correlates-of-spontaneous-and-deliberate-mind-wandering
#7
Matthew K Robison, Nash Unsworth
Individuals with greater cognitive abilities generally show reduced rates of mind-wandering when completing relatively demanding tasks (Randall, Oswald, & Beier, 2014). However, it is yet unclear whether elevated rates of mind-wandering among low-ability individuals are manifestations of deliberate, intentional episodes of mind-wandering because of task disengagement or lack of motivation, or to spontaneous, unintentional failures to maintain task-oriented attention. The present study examined this issue by measuring working memory capacity (WMC), mind-wandering during 3 relatively demanding attention control tasks, and contextual variables (e...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758775/near-independent-capacities-and-highly-constrained-output-orders-in-the-simultaneous-free-recall-of-auditory-verbal-and-visuo-spatial-stimuli
#8
Cathleen Cortis Mack, Kevin Dent, Geoff Ward
Three experiments examined the immediate free recall (IFR) of auditory-verbal and visuospatial materials from single-modality and dual-modality lists. In Experiment 1, we presented participants with between 1 and 16 spoken words, with between 1 and 16 visuospatial dot locations, or with between 1 and 16 words and dots with synchronized onsets. We found that for dual-modality lists (a) overall performance, initial recalls, and serial position curves were largely determined by the within-modality list lengths, (b) there was only a small degree of dual-task trade-off (that was limited to the visuospatial items), and (c) there were strongly constrained output orders: participants tended to alternate between words and dots from equivalent or neighboring serial positions...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758774/the-acquisition-of-simple-associations-as-observed-in-color-word-contingency-learning
#9
Olivia Y-H Lin, Colin M MacLeod
Three experiments investigated the learning of simple associations in a color-word contingency task. Participants responded manually to the print colors of 3 words, with each word associated strongly to 1 of the 3 colors and weakly to the other 2 colors. Despite the words being irrelevant, response times to high-contingency stimuli and to low-contingency stimuli quickly diverged. This high-low difference remained quite constant over successive blocks of trials, evidence of stable contingency learning. Inclusion of a baseline condition-an item having no color-word contingency-permitted separation of the contingency learning effect into 2 components: a cost due to low contingency and a benefit due to high contingency...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661179/what-are-the-costs-of-degraded-parafoveal-previews-during-silent-reading
#10
Martin R Vasilev, Timothy J Slattery, Julie A Kirkby, Bernhard Angele
It has been suggested that the preview benefit effect is actually a combination of preview benefit and preview costs. Marx et al. (2015) proposed that visually degrading the parafoveal preview reduces the costs associated with traditional parafoveal letter masks used in the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), thus leading to a more neutral baseline. We report 2 experiments of skilled adults reading silently. In Experiment 1, we found no compelling evidence that degraded previews reduced processing costs associated with traditional letter masks...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661178/retrieval-practice-makes-procedure-from-remembering-an-automatization-account-of-the-testing-effect
#11
Mihály Racsmány, Ágnes Szőllősi, Dorottya Bencze
The "testing effect" refers to the striking phenomenon that repeated retrieval practice is one of the most effective learning strategies, and certainly more advantageous for long-term learning, than additional restudying of the same information. How retrieval can boost the retention of memories is still without unanimous explanation. In 3 experiments, focusing on the reaction time (RT) of retrieval, we showed that RT of retrieval during retrieval practice followed a power function speed up that typically characterizes automaticity and skill learning...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661177/attending-globally-or-locally-incidental-learning-of-optimal-visual-attention-allocation
#12
Melissa R Beck, Rebecca R Goldstein, Amanda E van Lamsweerde, Justin M Ericson
Attention allocation determines the information that is encoded into memory. Can participants learn to optimally allocate attention based on what types of information are most likely to change? The current study examined whether participants could incidentally learn that changes to either high spatial frequency (HSF) or low spatial frequency (LSF) Gabor patches were more probable and to use this incidentally learned probability information to bias attention during encoding. Participants detected changes in orientation in arrays of 6 Gabor patches: 3 HSF and 3 LSF...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661176/can-the-first-letter-advantage-be-shaped-by-script-specific-characteristics
#13
Heather Winskel, Theeraporn Ratitamkul, Manuel Perea
We examined whether the first letter advantage that has been reported in the Roman script disappears, or even reverses, depending on the characteristics of the orthography. We chose Thai because it has several "nonaligned" vowels that are written prior to the consonant but phonologically follow it in speech (e.g., แฟน <ε:fn> is spoken as /fɛ:n/) whereas other "aligned" vowels are written and spoken in a corresponding order, as occurs in English (e.g., ฟาก <fa:k> is spoken as /fa:k/)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661175/primacy-and-recency-effects-for-taste
#14
Thomas A Daniel, Jeffrey S Katz
Historically, much of what we know about human memory has been discovered in experiments using visual and verbal stimuli. In two experiments, participants demonstrated reliably high recognition for nonverbal liquids. In Experiment 1, participants showed high accuracy for recognizing tastes (bitter, salty, sour, sweet) over a 30-s delay in a recognition task, even when the probe stimulus was only a different concentration within the same taste. In Experiment 2, participants tasted three liquids and showed both primacy and recency effects in a serial-position recognition task with varying delay lengths (15, 30, 45, 60 s)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252990/ignoring-memory-hints-the-stubborn-influence-of-environmental-cues-on-recognition-memory
#15
Diana Selmeczy, Ian G Dobbins
Recognition judgments can benefit from the use of environmental cues that signal the general likelihood of encountering familiar versus unfamiliar stimuli. While incorporating such cues is often adaptive, there are circumstances (e.g., eyewitness testimony) in which observers should fully ignore environmental cues in order to preserve memory report fidelity. The current studies used the explicit memory cueing paradigm to examine whether participants could intentionally ignore reliable environmental cues when instructed...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383955/event-segmentation-improves-event-memory-up-to-one-month-later
#16
Shaney Flores, Heather R Bailey, Michelle L Eisenberg, Jeffrey M Zacks
When people observe everyday activity, they spontaneously parse it into discrete meaningful events. Individuals who segment activity in a more normative fashion show better subsequent memory for the events. If segmenting events effectively leads to better memory, does asking people to attend to segmentation improve subsequent memory? To answer this question, participants viewed movies of naturalistic activity with instructions to remember the activity for a later test, and in some conditions additionally pressed a button to segment the movies into meaningful events or performed a control condition that required button-pressing but not attending to segmentation...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639800/working-memory-capacity-and-the-antisaccade-task-a-microanalytic-macroanalytic-investigation-of-individual-differences-in-goal-activation-and-maintenance
#17
Matt E Meier, Bridget A Smeekens, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil, Michael J Kane
The association between working memory capacity (WMC) and the antisaccade task, which requires subjects to move their eyes and attention away from a strong visual cue, supports the claim that WMC is partially an attentional construct (Kane, Bleckley, Conway, & Engle, 2001; Unsworth, Schrock, & Engle, 2004). Specifically, the WMC-antisaccade relation suggests that WMC helps maintain and execute task goals despite interference from habitual actions. Related work has recently shown that mind wandering (McVay & Kane, 2009, 2012a, 2012b) and reaction time (RT) variability (Unsworth, 2015) are also related to WMC and they partially explain WMC's prediction of cognitive abilities...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639799/aging-and-confidence-judgments-in-item-recognition
#18
Chelsea Voskuilen, Roger Ratcliff, Gail McKoon
We examined the effects of aging on performance in an item-recognition experiment with confidence judgments. A model for confidence judgments and response time (RTs; Ratcliff & Starns, 2013) was used to fit a large amount of data from a new sample of older adults and a previously reported sample of younger adults. This model of confidence judgments allows us to distinguish between changes evidence from memory and changes in decision-related components and it accounts for both RT distributions and response proportions...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569527/pseudocontingencies-and-choice-behavior-in-probabilistic-environments-with-context-dependent-outcomes
#19
Thorsten Meiser, Jan Rummel, Hanna Fleig
Pseudocontingencies are inferences about correlations in the environment that are formed on the basis of statistical regularities like skewed base rates or varying base rates across environmental contexts. Previous research has demonstrated that pseudocontingencies provide a pervasive mechanism of inductive inference in numerous social judgment tasks (Fiedler, Freytag, & Meiser, 2009). The present research extended the analysis of pseudocontingencies from social judgment to actual choice behavior in a decision scenario of personal relevance...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557487/how-memory-is-tested-influences-what-is-measured-reply-to-wyble-and-chen-2017
#20
Khena M Swallow, Yuhong V Jiang, Deborah H Tan
In this response to Wyble and Chen's (2017) commentary on attribute amnesia, we hope to achieve several goals. First, we clarify how our view diverges from that described by Wyble and Chen. We argue that because the surprise memory test is disruptive, it is an insensitive tool for measuring the persistence of recently attended target attributes in memory. Second, we identify points of agreement between our view and that of Wyble and Chen. Like them, we believe that the strength of a mental representation is a critical factor in determining whether the representation persists long enough to be used in a surprise recognition task...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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