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Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211591/drawing-enhances-item-information-but-undermines-sequence-information-in-memory
#1
Tanya R Jonker, Jeffrey D Wammes, Colin M MacLeod
Drawing a picture of the referent of a word produces considerably better recall and recognition of that word than does a baseline condition, such as repeatedly writing the word, a phenomenon referred to as the drawing effect. Although the drawing effect has been the focus of much recent research, it is not yet clear what underlies the beneficial effects of drawing to memory. In 3 experiments, we explored the roles of item and order information following drawing versus silent reading and produced 2 important findings...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211590/the-impact-of-text-orientation-on-form-priming-effects-in-four-character-chinese-words
#2
Huilan Yang, Jingjun Chen, Giacomo Spinelli, Stephen J Lupker
Does visuospatial orientation influence repetition and transposed character (TC) priming effects in logographic scripts? According to perceptual learning accounts, the nature of orthographic (form) priming effects should be influenced by text orientation (Dehaene, Cohen, Sigman, & Vinckier, 2005; Grainger & Holcomb, 2009). In contrast, Witzel, Qiao, and Forster's (2011) abstract letter unit account argues that the mechanism responsible for such effects acts at a totally abstract orthographic level (i...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198724/complexity-attention-and-choice-in-games-under-time-constraints-a-process-analysis
#3
Leonidas Spiliopoulos, Andreas Ortmann, Le Zhang
We test empirically the strategic counterpart of the Adaptive Decision Maker hypothesis (Payne, Bettman, & Johnson, 1993), which states that decision makers adapt their attention and decision rules to time pressure in predictable ways. For 29 normal form games, we test whether players adapt to tightening time constraints by reducing their information search and shifting to less computationally demanding heuristics, ultimately leading to systematic changes in choices. We specify process models of each decision rule, thereby allowing us to rank the rules by complexity on the basis of the number of elementary information processing units required to execute each rule...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179037/memory-for-navigable-space-is-flexible-and-not-restricted-to-exclusive-local-or-global-memory-units
#4
Marianne Strickrodt, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Tobias Meilinger
Objects learned within single enclosed spaces (e.g., rooms) can be represented within a single reference frame. Contrarily, the representation of navigable spaces (multiple interconnected enclosed spaces) is less well understood. In this study we examined different levels of integration within memory (local, regional, global), when learning object locations in navigable space. Participants consecutively learned two distinctive regions of a virtual environment that eventually converged at a common transition point and subsequently solved a pointing task...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160503/perceived-duration-increases-not-only-with-physical-but-also-with-implicit-size
#5
Teresa Birngruber, Rolf Ulrich
When people judge the duration of stimuli, judgments are influenced by the physical size of these stimuli. Specifically, people tend to judge the duration of large stimuli longer than the duration of small stimuli. However, some authors (Bottini & Casasanto, 2010; Ma, Yang, & Zhang, 2012) have reported that even implicit size can affect duration estimates. The present study extends the results of these studies. Specifically, we examined whether the imagined size of objects would also influence duration estimates...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124311/a-new-argument-for-co-active-parses-during-language-comprehension
#6
Brian Dillon, Caroline Andrews, Caren M Rotello, Matthew Wagers
One perennially important question for theories of sentence comprehension is whether the human sentence processing mechanism is parallel (i.e., it simultaneously represents multiple syntactic analyses of linguistic input) or serial (i.e., it constructs only a single analysis at a time). Despite its centrality, this question has proven difficult to address for both theoretical and methodological reasons (Gibson & Pearlmutter, 2000; Lewis, 2000). In the present study, we reassess this question from a novel perspective...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124310/acquisition-and-transfer-of-spatial-knowledge-during-wayfinding
#7
Qiliang He, Timothy P McNamara, Bobby Bodenheimer, Alexander Klippel
In the current study, we investigated the ways in which the acquisition and transfer of spatial knowledge were affected by (a) the type of spatial relations predominately experienced during learning (routes determined by walkways vs. straight-line paths between locations); (b) environmental complexity; and (c) the availability of rotational body-based information. Participants learned the layout of a virtual shopping mall by repeatedly searching for target storefronts located in 1 of the buildings. We created 2 novel learning conditions to encourage participants to use either route knowledge (paths on walkways between buildings) or survey knowledge (straight-line distances and directions from storefront to storefront) to find the target, and measured the development of route and survey knowledge in both learning conditions...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113207/representation-and-selection-of-determiners-with-phonological-variants
#8
Audrey Bürki, Tea Besana, Gaëlle Degiorgi, Romane Gilbert, F-Xavier Alario
The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of cross-linguistic differences in the time course of determiner selection during language production. In Germanic languages, participants are slower at naming a picture using a determiner + noun utterance (die Katze "the cat") when a superimposed distractor is of a different gender (gender congruency effect). In Romance languages in which the pronunciation of the determiner also depends on the phonology of the next word, there is no such effect...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113206/the-role-of-retrieval-in-answering-multiple-choice-questions
#9
Jeri L Little, Elise A Frickey, Alexandra K Fung
Taking a test improves memory for that tested information, a finding referred to as the testing effect. Multiple-choice tests tend to produce smaller testing effects than do cued-recall tests, and this result is largely attributed to the different processing that the two formats are assumed to induce. Specifically, it is generally assumed that the multiple-choice format bypasses the need to retrieve information. Research suggests, however, that multiple-choice questions can be constructed to induce retrieval of information pertaining to the incorrect alternatives...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113205/introspection-is-not-always-blind-to-the-costs-of-multitasking-the-case-of-task-switching
#10
Daniel Bratzke, Donna Bryce
Previous studies have provided evidence that introspection about dual-task performance in the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is severely limited. The present study investigated introspection at the other pole of the multitasking continuum, namely task switching. In 2 experiments, participants provided estimates of their response times (i.e., introspective RTs) after each trial in modified versions of the alternating-runs and the task-cuing paradigm, which included only 2 tasks in a trial. In contrast to the previously observed unawareness of dual-task costs in the PRP paradigm, participants reported their switch costs in introspective RTs...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070565/where-working-memory-meets-long-term-memory-the-interplay-of-list-length-and-distractors-on-memory-performance
#11
Vanessa M Loaiza, Sindre C Halse
Previous work regarding a counterintuitive benefit of increasing distractors on episodic long-term memory (LTM) has suggested that retrieval of memoranda in working memory (WM) after attention has been distracted may confer benefits to episodic LTM. The current study investigated 2 conceptions of how this may occur: either as an attentional refreshing of active memoranda within the focus of attention or as retrieval of a cohesive chunk of memoranda from outside the central component of WM. Given the literature suggesting that increasing the number of items to maintain in WM, or list length, incurs an attentional cost, the current study investigated whether increasing list length may reduce the beneficial impact of distractors on episodic LTM...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070564/holistic-processing-of-numerical-arrays
#12
Naama Katzin, Moti Salti, Avishai Henik
At the early stages of concept acquisition, physical properties are inseparable of the concepts they form. With development, the concept seems to depart from the physical entities from which it emerged and seems to exist beyond its physical attributes. Numerosity is an abstract concept; however, physical properties such as diameter, area, and density have been shown to affect its perception in nonsymbolic comparison tasks. It remains unclear how these properties interact with numerosity and which property is most influential...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070563/action-goal-changes-caused-by-agents-and-patients-both-induce-global-updating-of-event-models
#13
Frank Papenmeier, Annika Boss, Anne-Kathrin Mahlke
Observers represent everyday actions in event models along multiple dimensions such as space, time, or goals. Whenever new information along those dimensions is perceived, the event model is updated accordingly. In 3 experiments, we investigated event model updating associated with goal changes during ongoing actions that involved both an agent performing the action and a patient receiving the action. We presented short action clips showing goal-directed actions-such as handing over a book-as self-paced slideshows...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047772/cueing-color-imagery-a-critical-analysis-of-imagery-perception-congruency-effects
#14
Brett A Cochrane, Shailee Siddhpuria, Bruce Milliken
The relation between mental imagery and visual perception is a long debated topic in experimental psychology. In a recent study, Wantz, Borst, Mast, and Lobmaier (2015) demonstrated that color imagery could benefit color perception in a task that involved generating imagery in response to a cue prior to a forced-choice color discrimination task. Here, we scrutinized whether the method of Wantz et al. warrants strong inferences about the role of color imagery in color perception. In Experiments 1-3, we demonstrate that the imagery effect reported by Wantz et al...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047771/prominence-sensitive-pronoun-resolution-new-evidence-from-the-speed-accuracy-tradeoff-procedure
#15
Dave Kush, Clinton L Johns, Julie A Van Dyke
Past studies have shown that antecedent prominence affects the processing of a pronoun, but these studies have used experimental methodologies that do not make it possible to determine at what stage(s) of pronominal resolution these effects occur. We used the speed-accuracy tradeoff procedure to investigate whether antecedent prominence affects the accuracy of antecedent retrieval, the speed of resolution, or both. Consistent with previous results, we find that accuracy is higher when antecedents are prominent than when they are not (cf...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047770/spatial-memory-for-vertical-locations
#16
Thomas Hinterecker, Caroline Leroy, Maximilian E Kirschhock, Mintao Zhao, Martin V Butz, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Tobias Meilinger
Most studies on spatial memory refer to the horizontal plane, leaving an open question as to whether findings generalize to vertical spaces where gravity and the visual upright of our surrounding space are salient orientation cues. In three experiments, we examined which reference frame is used to organize memory for vertical locations: the one based on the body vertical, the visual-room vertical, or the direction of gravity. Participants judged interobject spatial relationships learned from a vertical layout in a virtual room...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047769/survival-analyses-reveal-how-early-phonological-processing-affects-eye-movements-during-reading
#17
Mallorie Leinenger
Numerous studies have provided evidence that readers generate phonological codes while reading. However, a central question in much of this research has been how early these codes are generated. Answering this question has implications for the roles that phonological coding might play for skilled readers, especially whether phonological codes affect the identification of most words, which can only be the case if these codes are generated rapidly. To investigate the time course of phonological coding during silent reading, the present series of experiments examined survival analyses of first-fixation durations on phonologically related (homophones, pseudohomophones) and orthographic control (orthographically matched words and nonwords) stimuli that were either embedded in sentences in place of correct targets (Experiments 1 and 2) or presented as parafoveal previews for correct targets using the boundary paradigm (Experiments 3 and 4)...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047768/are-cognitive-control-processes-reliable
#18
Peter S Whitehead, Gene A Brewer, Chris Blais
Recent work on cognitive control focuses on the conflict-monitoring hypothesis , which posits that a performance monitoring mechanism recruits regions in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to ensure that goal-directed behavior is optimal. Critical to this theory is that a single performance monitoring mechanism explains a large number of behavioral effects including the sequential congruency effect (SCE) and the error-related slowing (ERS) effect. This leads to the prediction that the size of these effects should correlate across cognitive control tasks...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047767/the-effects-of-comprehension-test-expectancies-on-metacomprehension-accuracy
#19
Thomas D Griffin, Jennifer Wiley, Keith W Thiede
A set of four experiments assessed the effects of establishing a comprehension-test expectancy (in contrast to a memory-test expectancy) on relative metacomprehension accuracy. Typically readers show poor relative metacomprehension accuracy while learning from text (i.e., they are unable to discriminate topics they have understood well from topics they have understood poorly). In the first experiment, both readers who were given no test expectancy and those who were given a memory-test expectancy made judgments that were more predictive of performance on memory tests than inference tests...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047766/belief-bias-is-response-bias-evidence-from-a-two-step-signal-detection-model
#20
Rachel G Stephens, John C Dunn, Brett K Hayes
When asked to determine whether a syllogistic argument is deductively valid, people are influenced by their prior beliefs about the believability of the conclusion. Recently, two competing explanations for this belief bias effect have been proposed, each based on signal detection theory (SDT). Under a response bias explanation, people set more lenient decision criteria for believable than for unbelievable arguments. Under the alternative argument strength explanation, believability affects the reasoning stage of processing an argument, with believable and unbelievable arguments differing in subjective strength for both valid and invalid items...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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