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Food and Chemical Toxicology

I E Dueñas-García, M E Heres-Pulido, M R Arellano-Llamas, J De la Cruz-Núñez, V Cisneros-Carrillo, C S Palacios-López, L Acosta-Anaya, L F Santos-Cruz, L Castañeda-Partida, A Durán-Díaz
4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) is a pro-oxidant carcinogen bioactivated by xenobiotic metabolism (XM). We investigated if antioxidants lycopene [0.45, 0.9, 1.8 μM], resveratrol [11, 43, 172 μM], and vitamin C [5.6 mM] added or not with FeSO4 [0.06 mM], modulate the genotoxicity of 4-NQO [2 mM] with the Drosophila wing spot test standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses, with inducible and high levels of cytochromes P450, respectively. The genotoxicity of 4-NQO was higher when dissolved in an ethanol - acetone mixture...
February 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ricardo N Alves, Ana L Maulvault, Vera L Barbosa, Sara Cunha, Christiaan J A F Kwadijk, Diana Álvarez-Muñoz, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, Òscar Aznar-Alemany, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló, Margarita Fernandez-Tejedor, Alice Tediosi, António Marques
A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, α-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylparaben and UV-filter OC) was performed in seafood species available in the European markets. Additionally, the effect of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility was also investigated for the first time. Overall, steaming affected differentially contaminants' concentrations, for instance, decreasing PFOS levels in flounder, but increasing both BDE47 and BDE100...
February 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Rie Romme Rasmussen, Annette Bøge Søndergaard, Niels Bøknæs, Tommy Licht Cederberg, Jens Jørgen Sloth, Kit Granby
Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p < 0...
February 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Andrey S Marchev, Petya Dimitrova, Ivanka K Koycheva, Milen I Georgiev
Rhodiola rosea L. extracts have shown neuroprotective, anti-fatigue, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. However, the studies on their effect on T cell function are rather scarce. We examined the potential of R. rosea extract and its major constituents - salidroside, rosarin, rosavin and rosin to alter cell growth of human Jurkat T cells, apoptosis of splenic mouse CD3 T cells and expression of the surface markers and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The initial screening for cell viability in Jurkat T cells and for apoptosis of mouse T cells showed the strongest activity for rosavin and rosarin...
February 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Lolita Vilavert, Ferran Borrell, Martí Nadal, Silke Jacobs, Fien Minnens, Wim Verbeke, António Marques, José Luis Domingo
It is well known that due to the content in omega-3 fatty acids, consumption of fish and shellfish is beneficial for human cardiovascular health. However, a number of recent studies have shown that fish consumption may be also a potential dietary source of exposure to various environmental pollutants with well-known potential adverse effects on human health. Moreover, there is still a lack of information regarding levels of emerging contaminants in fish and shellfish, in particular among consumers and stakeholders...
February 5, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Blanca Laffon, Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Eduardo Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Cell cultures from neuronal and glial origin have proven to be powerful tools for elucidating cellular and molecular mechanisms of nervous system development and physiology, and as neurotoxicity models to evaluate in vitro the possible effects of chemicals. But cellular heterogeneity of nervous system is considerable and these cells have been shown to respond diversely to neurotoxic insults, leading to disparate results from different studies. To shed more light on suitability of cellular models of nervous origin for neurotoxicity screening, the objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity to genetic damage induction of two nervous cell lines...
February 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ana Clara Aprotosoaie, Daniela Elena Zavastin, Cosmin-Teodor Mihai, Gabriela Voichita, Daniela Gherghel, Mihaela Silion, Adriana Trifan, Anca Miron
Ramaria largentii Marr & D. E. Stuntz (orange coral mushroom) is a wild edible mushroom whose chemical composition and bioactivity have not been investigated. Herein, we present a study on the phenolic constituents, antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of a hydromethanolic extract of the fruiting bodies. Total phenolic content, estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, was found to be 42.33 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g. Protocatechuic and vanillic acids were detected by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. The extract showed good free radical scavenging and reducing capacities (EC50 = 64...
February 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Bruno Limonti Cano Luiz, Monique Rodrigues Moreira, Mirian Oliveira Goulart, Natália Dos Santos Gonçalves, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Raquel Alves Dos Santos
The diterpene kaurenoic acid (KA) has vasorelaxant, antimicrobial, anti-tumoural and anti-leishmanial effects. Semi-synthetic derivatives were obtained to achieve more satisfactory responses. The assessment of genotoxicity is part of the toxicological evaluation of therapeutic compound candidates. The present study investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of KA and its semi-synthetic derivatives methoxy kaurenoic acid (MKA) and kaurenol (KRN) using the CHO-K1 cell line. The cytotoxicity evaluation demonstrated that treatments with 200 and 400 μM KA reduced cellular proliferation to 36...
February 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Melissa Van Bossuyt, Els Van Hoeck, Giuseppa Raitano, Serena Manganelli, Els Braeken, Gamze Ates, Tamara Vanhaecke, Sabine Van Miert, Emilio Benfenati, Birgit Mertens, Vera Rogiers
Over the last years, more stringent safety requirements for an increasing number of chemicals across many regulatory fields (e.g. industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food, cosmetics, …) have triggered the need for an efficient screening strategy to prioritize the substances of highest concern. In this context, alternative methods such as in silico (i.e. computational) techniques gain more and more importance. In the current study, a new prioritization strategy for identifying potentially mutagenic substances was developed based on the combination of multiple (quantitative) structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) tools...
February 2, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Washim Khan, Shreesh Gupta, Sayeed Ahmad
Due to lack of scientific evidence for the safety of Butea monosperma (Fabaceae), our study aimed to carry out its toxicological profile and to identify its metabolic pattern in yeast cell. The effect of aqueous extract of B. monosperma flower on glucose uptake in yeast cell was evaluated through optimizing pH, temperature, incubation time, substrate concentration and kinetic parameters. Further, the metabolic pattern of extract as such and in yeast cell were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
February 2, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Patrícia Anacleto, Freek H M van den Heuvel, C Oliveira, Rie R Rasmussen, José O Fernandes, Jens J Sloth, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo N Alves, António Marques, Sara C Cunha
The presence of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems can cause serious problems to the environment and marine organisms. This study aims to evaluate the phycoremediation capacity of macroalgae Laminaria digitata for pesticides (diflubenzuron and lindane) and toxic elements (cadmium and copper) in seawater in the presence or absence of mussels. The photosynthetic activity was monitored in the macroalgae to assess its "physiological status". The results showed that the presence of algae decreased diflubenzuron concentration in mussels by 70% after 120 h of exposure...
February 1, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mi-Yeon Shin, Sunggyu Lee, Hyeyoung Choi, Da-In Jeong, Hyo-Bang Moon, Sungkyoon Kim
Although several studies have conducted maternal transfer of individual PBDE congener in experimental animals, there is a paucity of research on differences in maternal transfer of PBDE congeners. The purpose of the study was to investigate and compare placental and lactational transfer of BDE 47, -209 and its metabolites in rat dam-offspring pairs following repeated administration of BDE 47 and -209. (13)C-BDE 47, BDE 209 and its debrominated congeners were detected both in dam serum and offspring body, which indicates that PBDEs can be maternally transferred...
January 31, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sudip Bhattacharyya, Sharmistha Banerjee, Chirajyoti Guha, Shatadal Ghosh, Parames C Sil
The present study has been conducted to explore a novel strategy to modulate the unfavourable effects of indomethacin by Phyllanthus niruri protein (PNP) and the underlying mechanism PNP exploits for the amelioration of that pathophysiology. In hepatocytes, indomethacin enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced intracellular antioxidant capacity, up regulated mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPKs), disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, activated apoptotic pathways and there by reduced the viability of the hepatocytes...
January 31, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Aishah Albalawi, Reem Hasaballah A Alhasani, Lincoln Biswas, James Reilly, Xinhua Shu
Acrylamide is a substance that can be neurotoxic in humans and experimental animals. It is formed at different rates in starchy foods cooked at temperatures above 120 °C as a result of interaction between monosaccharides and the amino acid asparagine. Carnosic acid accounts for over 90% of the antioxidant properties of rosemary extract and is a powerful inhibitor of lipid peroxidation in microsomal and liposomal systems. Carnosic acid has been shown to protect against oxidative and inflammatory effects. In order to investigate the protective properties of carnosic acid against acrylamide-induced toxicity in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, ARPE-19 cells were pre-treated with 10 μM CA for 24 h followed by treatment with acrylamide (0...
January 31, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Maria Grazia Ammendolia, Francesca Iosi, Francesca Maranghi, Roberta Tassinari, Francesco Cubadda, Federica Aureli, Andrea Raggi, Fabiana Superti, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara De Berardis
The present study investigated potential modulatory effects of low doses of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) on intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro. After short-term exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles in rats, histopathological analysis of intestinal tissues indicated a gender-specific effect with increased length of intestinal villi in male rats only. Moreover the intestinal tissue showed nanoparticle deposition as revealed by ICP-MS determination of titanium. Increased serum testosterone levels were also detected...
January 31, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Risa Kamae, Shoko Nojima, Kenji Akiyoshi, Shoki Setsu, Sari Honda, Toshiya Masuda, Yasuo Oyama
Hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) is generated during coffee bean roasting. A cup of coffee contains 0.1-1.7 mg of HHQ. The actions of HHQ on mammalian DNA were examined because HHQ is a metabolite of benzene, which causes leukemia. Currently, information on the cellular actions of HHQ is limited. We examined the effects of sublethal levels of HHQ on the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) in rat thymic lymphocytes by using a flow cytometric technique with fluorescent probes. HHQ at 10 μM or more significantly elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels by increasing the membrane permeability of divalent cations, resulting in hyperpolarization via the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels...
January 30, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
José M Alvarez-Suarez, Estefanía Carrillo-Perdomo, Angel Aller, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Lien González-Pérez, Pablo Beltrán-Ayala, Maurizio Battino
Capuli cherry (Prunus serotina Ehr. subsp. capuli (Cav.) McVaugh) fruits from the inter-Andean region of Ecuador were analysed to determine their bioactive compounds content, total antioxidant capacity, radical scavenging activity and their anti-inflammatory and protective effects against the cytotoxic damage mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Capuli fruits proved to be a natural source of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, vitamin C and β-carotene as well as to present an important total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging activities...
January 28, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Liang Li, Hong-Yang Sun, Wei Liu, Hong-Yu Zhao, Mei-Li Shao
Silymarin (SM) is a well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer compound extracted from the milk thistle. Here, we investigated the protective effect of SM against acrylamide (AA)-induced neurotoxicity, mainly caused by oxidative stress, via activation of the nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway in PC12 cells. The MTT reduction assay was used to measure cell viability in various drug-treated groups and demonstrated that SM could increase cell viability in AA-treated PC12 cells...
January 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yongliang Zhuang, Qingyu Ma, Yan Guo, Liping Sun
Rambutan peel phenolic (RPP) extracts were prepared via dynamic separation with macroporous resin. The total phenolic content and individual phenolics in RPP were determined. Results showed that the total phenolic content of RPP was 877.11 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g extract. The content of geranin (122.18 mg/g extract) was the highest among those of the 39 identified phenolic compounds. RPP protected against oxidative stress in H2O2-induced HepG2 cells in a dose-response manner. The inhibitory effects of RPP on cell apoptosis might be related to its inhibitory effects on the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased effects on superoxide dismutase activity...
January 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mengyao Zhao, Pengpu Wang, Daotong Li, Jin Shang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
Neo-formed compounds (NFCs) are commonly found in all kinds of foods due to the complex reaction between components during processing. Acrylamide, benzo(a)pyrene and heterocyclic aromatic amines are the main types of NFCs in foods enriched with carbohydrate, fats and proteins, respectively. They have exhibited diverse toxicity, such as neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, potentially carcinogenic and reproductive toxicity. In recent years, various phytochemicals have been found to be effective in alleviation of their related toxicities both in vitro and in vivo...
January 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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