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Food and Chemical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716444/thiosemicarbazone-derivatives-thiazolyl-hydrazones-effectively-inhibit-leukemic-tumor-cell-growth-down-regulation-of-ribonucleotide-reductase-activity-and-synergism-with-arabinofuranosylcytosine
#1
Geraldine Graser-Loescher, Agnes Schoenhuber, Caroline Ciglenec, Sabine Eberl, Georg Krupitza, Robert M Mader, Surender Singh Jadav, Venkatesan Jayaprakash, Monika Fritzer-Szekeres, Thomas Szekeres, Philipp Saiko
Cellular growth inhibition exerted by thiosemicarbazones is mainly attributed to down-regulation of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) activity, with RNR being responsible for the rate-limiting step of de novo DNA synthesis. In this study, we investigated the antineoplastic effects of three newly synthesized thiosemicarbazone derivatives, thiazolyl hydrazones, in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. The cytotoxicity of compounds alone and in combination with arabinofuranosylcytosine (AraC) was determined by growth inhibition assays...
July 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713048/phytochemical-analysis-and-effects-on-ingestive-behaviour-of-a-caralluma-fimbriata-extract
#2
Annabella Vitalone, Antonella Di Sotto, Caterina Loredana Mammola, Rosemarie Heyn, Selenia Miglietta, Paola Mariani, Fabio Sciubba, Passarelli Francesca, Nativio Paola, Gabriela Mazzanti
Caralluma fimbriata Wall. is currently used as a "natural slimming" food supplement, likely due to its content in pregnane glycosides. In the present study, a commercially available Caralluma fimbriata extract (Slimaluma(®); CFE, 100 mg/kg) has been evaluated for its ability to affect the ingestive behaviour in female rats, also with reference to the modulation of brain neuropeptides NPY and ORX.The interference of CFE with α-amylase and lipase has been investigated in vitro, as possible peripheral mechanism of action...
July 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713047/evidence-against-an-involvement-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-in-polyphenol-inhibition-of-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-oxidative-stress-and-neoplastic-transformation
#3
LETTER
Kosar Omidian, Hossein Rafiei, Brian Bandy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713046/a-90-day-oral-toxicity-study-of-glycolipids-from-dacryopinax-spathularia-in-beagle-dogs
#4
Jens Bitzer, Thomas Henkel, Andrey I Nikiforov, Marisa O Rihner, Kim A Henderson
The subchronic toxicity of glycolipids from Dacryopinax spathularia (herein referred to as "AM-1") was studied in male and female Beagle dogs administered AM-1 by oral capsule at doses of 150, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. AM-1 was well tolerated at all dosages and there were no test article-related effects on survival, clinical observations, neurological screening (functional observational battery) parameters, clinical pathology parameters, organ weights, macroscopic or microscopic evaluations. Test article-related changes were limited to minimal effects on food consumption and body weight changes in the 1000 mg/kg/day group females...
July 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711546/evaluation-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-activation-by-glyphosate-based-herbicide-constituents
#5
Robin Mesnage, Alexia Phedonos, Martina Biserni, Matthew Arno, Sucharitha Balu, J Christopher Corton, Ricardo Ugarte, Michael N Antoniou
The safety, including endocrine disruptive capability, of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) is a matter of intense debate. We evaluated the estrogenic potential of glyphosate, commercial GBHs and polyethoxylated tallowamine adjuvants present as co-formulants in GBHs. Glyphosate (≥10,000 μg/L or 59 μM) promoted proliferation of estrogen-dependent MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Glyphosate also increased expression of an estrogen response element-luciferase reporter gene (ERE-luc) in T47D-KBluc cells, which was blocked by the estrogen antagonist ICI 182,780...
July 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711545/antiulcer-properties-of-fruits-and-vegetables-a-mechanism-based-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Choudhary Harsha, Kishore Banik, Devivasha Bordoloi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Gastric ulcer is the damage caused to mucosal layer of the stomach under the action of various factors like high levels of acid and pepsin, invasion by Helicobacter pylori, etc. Although most cases have been controlled and the rate of ulcer occurrence has reduced over the last few decades, gastric ulcer still holds a prime concern today. A range of palliative medicines comprising proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonists, COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) is widely in use and patients have also been administered with acid suppression therapies...
July 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709971/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-the-toxic-effects-associated-with-arsenic-exposure-and-the-development-of-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Fazlullah Khan, Saeideh Momtaz, Kamal Niaz, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Mohammad Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a major threat to the human health worldwide. The consumption of arsenic in drinking water and other food products is associated with the risk of development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The available experimental evidence indicates that epigenetic alterations may play an important role in the development of diseases that are linked with exposure to environmental toxicants. iAs seems to be associated with the epigenetic modifications such as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and micro RNA (miRNA) abundance...
July 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709970/selective-effects-of-whey-protein-concentrate-on-glutathione-levels-and-apoptosis-in-rats-with-mammary-tumors
#8
Shih-Hsuan Cheng, Yang-Ming Tseng, Szu-Hsien Wu, Shih-Meng Tsai, Li-Yu Tsai
Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in antioxidant defense and regulation of apoptosis. GSH deficiency is related to many diseases, including cancer, and increased GSH levels in cancer cells are associated with chemotherapy resistance because of resistance to apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC), a precursor of GSH, in rats with mammary tumors induced by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). DMBA treatment results in cellular changes that mimic the initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis of breast tissue...
July 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709969/role-of-epigenome-in-tumorigenesis-and-drug-resistance
#9
Qidong Hu, Gyeong Hun Baeg
The last few decades have witnessed a tremendous advancement in understanding the genetic basis of major human diseases such as cancer. Intriguingly, there is also an evergrowing body of evidence that suggest the critical role of epigenetic regulation in pathogenesis. In contrast to genetic mechanisms often associated with changes in DNA sequence, epigenetics generally refers to the regulation of gene expression featuring alterations in histone modification, DNA methylation, chromatin conformation and noncoding RNAs, with the first two categories being the best-characterized so far...
July 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705729/nanomedicine-and-epigenome-possible-health-risks
#10
Bozena Smolkova, Maria Dusinska, Alena Gabelova
Nanomedicine is an emerging field that combines knowledge of nanotechnology and material science with pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences, aiming to develop nanodrugs with increased efficacy and safety. Compared to conventional therapeutics, nanodrugs manifest higher stability and circulation time, reduced toxicity and improved targeted delivery. Despite the obvious benefit, the accumulation of imaging agents and nanocarriers in the body following their therapeutic or diagnostic application generates concerns about their safety for human health...
July 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698155/in-silico-approach-to-safety-of-botanical-dietary-supplement-ingredients-utilizing-constituent-level-characterization
#11
Jason G Little, Daniel S Marsman, Timothy R Baker, Catherine Mahony
Botanicals used in dietary supplements industry can have toxicology concerns related to endpoint gaps that cannot be fully resolved by a history of use, or existence of conflicting safety data. However, traditional toxicological studies on botanicals are scientifically and pragmatically challenging due to testing of complex mixtures of constituents, cost, time, and animal usage. Alternatively, we developed an in silico decision-tree approach to address data gaps and inform need for further studies by toxicologically evaluating the chemical composition of botanicals...
July 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698154/panax-ginseng-and-panax-quinquefolius-from-pharmacology-to-toxicology
#12
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
The use of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius in traditional Chinese medicine dates back to about 5000 years ago thanks to its several beneficial and healing properties. Over the past few years, extensive preclinical and clinical evidence in the scientific literature worldwide has supported the beneficial effects of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius in significant central nervous system, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic diseases. There has been growing research on ginseng because of its favorable pharmacokinetics, including the intestinal biotransformation which is responsible for the processing of ginsenosides - contained in the roots or extracts of ginseng - into metabolites with high pharmacological activity and how such principles act on numerous cell targets...
July 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698153/curcumin-prevents-cisplatin-induced-renal-alterations-in-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-dynamic
#13
Bibiana Ortega-Domínguez, Omar Emiliano Aparicio-Trejo, Fernando E García-Arroyo, Juan Carlos León-Contreras, Edilia Tapia, Eduardo Molina-Jijón, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Diana Barrera-Oviedo, José Pedraza-Chaverri
Cisplatin is widely used as chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of diverse types of cancer, however, acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important side effect of this treatment. Diverse mechanisms have been involved in cisplatin-induced AKI, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. On the other hand, curcumin is a polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Previous studies have shown that curcumin protects against the cisplatin-induced AKI; however, it is unknown whether curcumin can reduce alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamic in this model...
July 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694083/impact-of-surface-functionalization-on-the-uptake-mechanism-and-toxicity-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-hepg2-cells
#14
Lada Brkić Ahmed, Mirta Milić, Igor M Pongrac, Ana Marija Marjanović, Hrvoje Mlinarić, Ivan Pavičić, Srećko Gajović, Ivana Vinković Vrček
Safe and successful bioapplications of metallic nanoparticles depend on their physicochemical characteristics, in particular their surface properties. This study aimed to investigate how different surface functionalization of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) affect their interaction with mammalian liver cells with regard to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mechanism of cellular uptake. Differentially coated AgNP were prepared by surface functionalization using sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)-sulfosuccinate (AOTAgNP), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABAgNP), poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVPAgNP), poly-l-lysine (PLLAgNP), and bovine serum albumin (BSAAgNP)...
July 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694082/interest-of-metabonomic-approach-in-environmental-nephrotoxicants-application-to-aristolochic-acid-exposure
#15
M Duquesne, A-E Declèves, E De Prez, J Nortier, J M Colet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689919/cytotoxic-effects-of-gastrodin-extracted-from-the-rhizome-of-gastrodia-elata-blume-in-glioblastoma-cells-but-not-in-normal-astrocytes-via-the-induction-of-oxidative-stress-associated-apoptosis-that-involved-cell-cycle-arrest-and-p53-activation
#16
Wei-Zhe Liang, Chung-Ren Jan, Shu-Shong Hsu
Researches have been conducted to explore the biological effect of gastrodin, a natural compound extracted from the rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume, in different models. However, the effects of gastrodin on cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and oxidative stress in glia cells have not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effect of gastrodin and its mechanisms in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells and CTX TNA2 rat astrocytes. In DBTRG-05MG cells but not in CTX TNA2 cells, gastrodin (20-30 μM) induced cytotoxicity, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis...
July 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689918/the-effects-of-deoxyelephantopin-on-the-cardiac-delayed-rectifier-potassium-channel-current-ikr-and-human-ether-a-go-go-related-gene-herg-expression
#17
Yi Fan Teah, Muhammad Asyraf Abduraman, Azimah Amanah, Mohd Ilham Adenan, Shaida Fariza Sulaiman, Mei Lan Tan
Elephantopus scaber Linn and its major bioactive component, deoxyelephantopin are known for their medicinal properties and are often reported to have various cytotoxic and antitumor activities. This plant is widely used as folk medicine for a plethora of indications although its safety profile remains unknown. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac IKr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. The hERG potassium channel is an important antitarget in cardiotoxicity evaluation...
July 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689917/dioscin-a-potent-itga5-inhibitor-reduces-the-synthesis-of-collagen-against-liver-fibrosis-insights-from-silac-based-proteomics-analysis
#18
Lina Xu, Lianhong Yin, Xufeng Tao, Yan Qi, Xu Han, Youwei Xu, Shasha Song, Lei Li, Pengyuan Sun, Jinyong Peng
Inhibiting collagen generation is one effective method to treat liver fibrosis. Dioscin showed protective effect against liver fibrosis in our previous studies, and in the present work, SILAC-based proteomics was employed to test the underlying mechanism. A total of 121 differentially expressed proteins caused by dioscin in LX-2 cells were found, and dioscin significantly decreased the expression levels of FN, FAK1, ITGA5, p-PI3K/PI3K, p-Akt/Akt, p-mTOR/mTOR, Col1a1, Col1a2, Col2a1, Col5a1, Col6a1, and increased 2ABB level in vivo and in vitro...
July 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689916/molecular-mechanism-of-anti-cancerous-potential-of-morin-extracted-from-mulberry-in-hela-cells
#19
Qi Zhang, Fang Zhang, Kiran Thakur, Jun Wang, Hao Wang, Fei Hu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wei
The flavonoids are of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-cancerous potential. The present study investigated the Morin extracted from mulberry leaves and its anti-cancerous mechanism via cell inhibition, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, mRNA expression and antioxidant mechanism through reactive oxygen species generation. Morin inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells at IC50 of 214.28 μM and led to morphological changes, followed by induction of cell cycle arrest in G2/M-phase and ultimately resulted into apoptosis...
July 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689061/%C3%AE-cryptoxanthin-ameliorates-metabolic-risk-factors-by-regulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nrf2-pathways-in-insulin-resistance-induced-by-high-fat-diet-in-rodents
#20
Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Fatih Akdemir, Mehmet Tuzcu, Nurhan Sahin, Ismet Yılmaz, Vijaya Juturu
The aim of this experiment was to determine the effects of β-cryptoxanthin (BCX) on the cardiometabolic health risk factors and NF-κB and Nrf2 pathway in insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in rodents. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into four groups: (1) Control, rats fed a standard diet for 12 weeks; (2) BCX, rats fed a standard diet and supplemented with BCX (2.5 mg/kg BW) for 12 weeks; (3) HFD, rats fed a HFD for 12 weeks, (4) HFD + BCX, rats fed a HFD and supplemented with BCX for 12 weeks...
July 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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