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Food and Chemical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811114/determination-of-acrylamide-levels-in-potato-crisps-and-other-snacks-and-exposure-risk-assessment-through-a-margin-of-exposure-approach
#1
Francesco Esposito, Antonio Nardone, Evelina Fasano, Maria Triassi, Teresa Cirillo
Potato crisps, corn-based extruded snacks and other savoury snacks are very popular products especially among younger generations. These products could be a potential source of acrylamide (AA), a toxic compound which could develop during frying and baking processes. The purpose of this study was the assessment of the dietary intake to AA across six groups of consumers divided according to age through the consumption of potato crisps and other snacks, in order to eventually evaluate the margin of exposure (MOE) related to neurotoxic and carcinogenic critical endpoints...
August 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811113/acrylamide-forming-potential-of-cereals-legumes-and-roots-and-tubers-analyzed-by-uplc-uv
#2
Y J H Galani, N J Patel, J G Talati
For directing scientists, consumers, industry and stakeholders on mitigation strategies, there is a need to understand the acrylamide-forming potential of important Indian foods. Flour obtained from total 16 varieties of 9 Indian cereals, legumes and roots and tubers was heated at 160 °C for 20 min, acrylamide was extracted and quantified by UPLC-UV. Acrylamide level was above the European Commission indicative value in potato- and cereal-based food products, it ranged from 3436.13 to 5562.56 μg/kg in roots and tubers (potato and sweet potato)...
August 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807876/molecular-insights-on-xenoestrogenic-potential-of-zearalenone-14-glucoside-through-a-mixed-in-vitro-in-silico-approach
#3
Luca Dellafiora, Roberta Ruotolo, Alessio Perotti, Martina Cirlini, Gianni Galaverna, Pietro Cozzini, Annamaria Buschini, Chiara Dall'Asta
The mycotoxin zearalenone may contaminate food and feed worldwide upon infections by Fusarium spp. of plants and raw materials intended for human and animal consumption. Currently, contamination by zearalenone and congeners pose concern for health due to xenoestrogenic effects. However, while zearalenone and the main reduced metabolites are well-known xenoestrogens, some plant metabolites that may enter the food chain have been observed aside. Among them, zearalenone-14-glucoside may be abundant in the edible parts of infected plants, thereby entering significantly the human diet and animal feeding...
August 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807875/bioactive-isoflavones-from-pueraria-lobata-root-and-starch-different-extraction-techniques-and-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibition
#4
Andrei Mocan, Simone Carradori, Marcello Locatelli, Daniela Secci, Stefania Cesa, Adriano Mollica, Simona Riga, Andrea Angeli, Claudiu T Supuran, Christian Celia, Luisa Di Marzio
Kudzu, the dried root of an important edible plant (Pueraria lobata), is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the important nutritional value strictly related to its isoflavone derivatives. These compounds characterize the quality of kudzu contained in different preparations, as pharmaceutical ingredient as well as dietary/food supplement (e.g. starch). The optimization of the isoflavones recovery, monitored by HPLC-PDA, through different innovative and conventional extraction techniques, e.g. microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted and conventional extraction, represented a suitable challenge in food industry and natural products evaluation...
August 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807874/docosahexaenoic-acid-increases-the-expression-of-oxidative-stress-induced-growth-inhibitor-1-through-the-pi3k-akt-nrf2-signaling-pathway-in-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Chia-Han Tsai, You-Cheng Shen, Haw-Wen Chen, Kai-Li Liu, Jer-Wei Chang, Pei-Yin Chen, Chen-Yu Lin, Hsien-Tsung Yao, Chien-Chun Li
Oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1 (OSGIN1), a tumor suppressor, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death. N-6 and n-3 PUFAs protect against breast cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of this effect are not clear. We investigated the effect of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs on OSGIN1 expression and whether OSGIN1 is involved in PUFA-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We used 100 μM of n-6 PUFAs including arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and gamma-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFAs including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
August 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802948/modelling-the-toxicity-of-a-large-set-of-metal-and-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-using-the-ochem-platform
#6
Vasyl Kovalishyn, Natalia Abramenko, Iryna Kopernyk, Larysa Charochkina, Larysa Metelytsia, Igor V Tetko, Willie Peijnenburg, Leonid Kustov
Inorganic nanomaterials have become one of the new areas of modern knowledge and technology and have already found an increasing number of applications. However, some nanoparticles show toxicity to living organisms, and can potentially have a negative influence on environmental ecosystems. While toxicity can be determined experimentally, such studies are time consuming and costly. Computational toxicology can provide an alternative approach and there is a need to develop methods to reliably assess Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships for nanomaterials (nano-QSPRs)...
August 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797651/biological-effects-and-chemical-characterization-of-iris-schachtii-markgr-extracts-a-new-source-of-bioactive-constituents
#7
Andrei Mocan, Gokhan Zengin, Adriano Mollica, Ahmet Uysal, Erdogan Gunes, Gianina Crișan, Abdurrahman Aktumsek
This study gathers information about the effects of different extracts (methanol and water) from rhizomes and aerial parts of Iris schachtii on selected enzymes (cholinesterases, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, tyrosinase and lipase) as well as on their antioxidant capacities and antimutagenic properties in relation with their phenolic composition. The chemical composition was assessed by determining total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD. Moreover, antioxidant abilities of the investigated extracts were tested by using different assays including free radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS), reducing power (CUPRAC and FRAP), phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating, overall rhizomes being indicated as a superior source of antioxidant compounds...
August 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797650/hepatoprotective-effect-of-10-ethanolic-extract-from-curdrania-tricuspidata-leaves-against-ethanol-induced-oxidative-stress-through-suppression-of-cyp2e1
#8
Yanghee You, Seoyoung Min, Yoo-Hyun Lee, Kwontack Hwang, Woojin Jun
The hepatoprotective effect of 10% ethanolic extract of Curdrania tricuspidata (CTE) was investigated in HepG2/2E1 cells and C57BL/6 J mice. When compared ethanol-only treated HepG2/2E1 cells, pretreatment of CTE prevented increased intra-cellular reactive oxygen species levels and decreased antioxidant activities by ethanol-induced oxidative stress. In C57BL/6 J mice, CTE at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day was administered for 10 days, with ethanol (5 g/kg/day) administered for the final 3 days. Pretreatment with CTE prevented the elevated activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase caused by ethanol-induced hepatic damage...
August 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789951/hepatoprotective-activities-of-rosmarinic-acid-against-extrahepatic-cholestasis-in-rats
#9
Shih-Yi Lin, Ya-Yu Wang, Wen-Ying Chen, Su-Lan Liao, Su-Tze Chou, Ching-Ping Yang, Chun-Jung Chen
Though rosmarinic acid possesses nutritional, pharmaceutical, and toxic properties and shows therapeutic potential on liver diseases, its therapeutic effects against cholestatic liver diseases have not been proven. Using an extrahepatic cholestasis rat model by bile-duct ligation (BDL), daily oral administration of rosmarinic acid showed improvement effects on liver histology, serum biochemicals, ductular reaction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Rosmarinic acid alleviated BDL-induced transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) production and hepatic collagen deposition, and the anti-fibrotic effects were accompanied by reductions in matrix-producing cells and Smad2/3...
August 5, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782567/ix-th-international-symposium-on-natural-products-chemistry-and-its-applications-ix-isnpca-termas-de-chillan-chillan-chile
#10
EDITORIAL
Carlos L Cespedes-Acuña, Julio E Alarcon-Enos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780157/evaluation-of-ocular-irritancy-of-coal-tar-dyes-used-in-cosmetics-employing-reconstructed-human-cornea-like-epithelium-and-short-time-exposure-tests
#11
Miri Lee, Ki Taek Nam, Jungah Kim, Song E Lim, Sang Hyeon Yeon, Buhyun Lee, Joo Young Lee, Kyung-Min Lim
Coal-tar dyes in cosmetics may elicit adverse effects in the skin and eyes. Countries, like the US, have banned the use of coal-tar dyes in cosmetics for the eye area due to the potential for ocular irritation. We evaluated the eye irritation potential of 15 coal-tar dyes permitted as cosmetic ingredients in reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium (RhCEs [EpiOcular™ and MCTT HCE™]) tests and the short time exposure (STE) test. Eosin YS, phloxine B, tetrachlorotetrabromofluorescein, and tetrabromofluorescein were identified as irritants in RhCEs; dibromofluorescein and uranine yielded discrepant results...
August 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780156/assessing-and-reporting-uncertainties-in-dietary-exposure-analysis-part-ii-application-of-the-uncertainty-template-to-a-practical-example-of-exposure-assessment
#12
David Tennant, Diána Bánáti, Marc Kennedy, Jürgen König, Cian O'Mahony, Susanne Kettler
A previous publication described methods for assessing and reporting uncertainty in dietary exposure assessments. This follow-up publication uses a case study to develop proposals for representing and communicating uncertainty to risk managers. The food ingredient aspartame is used as the case study in a simple deterministic model (the EFSA FAIM template) and with more sophisticated probabilistic exposure assessment software (FACET). Parameter and model uncertainties are identified for each modelling approach and tabulated...
August 2, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780155/oxyresveratrol-improves-tight-junction-integrity-through-the-pkc-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-caco-2%C3%A2-cells
#13
HyunA Jo, Dahyun Hwang, Jeong-Keun Kim, Young-Hee Lim
Strengthening intestinal tight junctions (TJ) provides an effective barrier from the external environment and is important for recovery from inflammatory bowel disease. Oxyresveratrol (OXY), an isomer of hydroxylated resveratrol, is isolated from many plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of OXY on intestinal TJ and to elucidate the mechanism underlying the OXY-mediated increase in TJ integrity in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. OXY-treated Caco-2 cell monolayers showed decreased monolayer permeability as evaluated by paracellular transport assay...
August 2, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778749/exposure-of-amateur-gardeners-to-pesticides-via-the-non-gloved-skin-per-day
#14
Martina Beránková, Jarmila Hojerová, Linda Melegová
To predict a risk to gardeners not wearing protective gloves, the dermal absorption of three active insecticides was assessed in vitro using porcine ear-skin simulating 1-h handling of diluted plant protection products. Acetamiprid and Pirimicarb were found in the receptor fluid immediately after 1-h skin exposure, whereas Chlorpyrifos-methyl absorbed in the skin was not released into the receptor fluid even after 23 hours. The Estimated Gardener Exposure Level (EGEL) at 23 hours after 1-h exposure for two worst-case scenarios (i) non-gloved hands; (ii) non-gloved hands/uncovered forearms, was (i) 0...
August 2, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774741/histopathological-evaluation-and-redox-assessment-in-blood-and-kidney-tissues-in-a-rabbit-contrast-induced-nephrotoxicity-model
#15
Maria-Malvina Tsamouri, Maria Rapti, Paraskevi Kouka, Charitini Nepka, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Anestis Soumelidis, George Koukoulis, Aristides Tsatsakis, Demetrios Kouretas, Christina Tsitsimpikou
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury as a result of iodinated contrast-media use for diagnostic purposes. Pathophysiology remains unclear. In the present study iopromide was administered to New Zealand white rabbits without any prior intervention. Oxidative stress was assessed in blood and tissue level at three anatomical kidney areas (medullary, cortical, juxtamedullary). Histopathological evaluation was also performed. Serum creatinine and urea increased in the CIN groups over 25% at two hours after administration and returned to baseline at 48 h...
July 31, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774740/cadmium-inhibits-placental-trophoblast-cell-migration-via-mirna-regulation-of-the-transforming-growth-factor-beta-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway
#16
Samira A Brooks, Rebecca C Fry
Preeclampsia (PE), a condition during pregnancy that involves high blood pressure and proteinuria, is potentially fatal to both mother and child. PE currently has no etiology or cure but has been tied to poor placental trophoblast migration. Increased levels of the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) have been associated with increased risk of developing PE, as well as miRNA-associated regulation of the transforming growth factorbeta (TGF-β) pathway. Signal reprogramming of the TGF-β pathway via epigenetic mechanisms is hypothesized to modify placental trophoblast function...
July 31, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764905/comparison-of-short-and-long-term-exposure-effects-of-cruciferous-and-apiaceous-vegetables-on-carcinogen-metabolizing-enzymes-in-wistar-rats
#17
Jae Kyeom Kim, Noemia Strapazzon, Cynthia M Gallaher, Dwight R Stoll, William Thomas, Daniel D Gallaher, Sabrina P Trudo
Cruciferous and apiaceous vegetables may be chemopreventive due to their ability to modulate carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes but whether the effects on such enzymes are sustained over time is unknown. To examine the short- and long-term effects of the vegetables, rats were fed one of four diets for 7, 30, or 60 d: AIN-93G, CRU (21% cruciferous vegetables-fresh broccoli, green cabbage, watercress), API (9% apiaceous vegetables - fresh parsnips, celery), or API + CRU (10.5% CRU + 4.5% API). Although CRU increased activity and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2 after 7 d, only activity was sustained after 30 and 60 d...
July 29, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764904/photosensitized-methyl-paraben-induces-apoptosis-via-caspase-dependent-pathway-under-ambient-uvb-exposure-in-human-skin-cells
#18
Divya Dubey, Deepti Chopra, Jyoti Singh, Ajeet K Srivastav, Smita Kumari, Ankit Verma, Ratan Singh Ray
Methyl paraben (MP), is a widely used preservative in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic products. Its molecular mechanism under ambient ultraviolet radiation is not well understood. We investigated photosensitizing mechanism of MP under ambient UVB (0.6 mW/cm(2)) intensity. MP showed dose dependent decrease in cell viability of human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) by MTT and NRU assays. Study showed 40% reduction in antimicrobial activity of UVB irradiated MP through E. coli culture. Photosensitized MP (25 μg/ml) significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS generation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane integrity...
July 29, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760545/reactive-carbonyl-compounds-impair-wound-healing-by-vimentin-collapse-and-loss-of-the-primary-cilium
#19
Lara Rodríguez-Ribera, Craig Slattery, Tara Mc Morrow, Ricard Marcos, Susana Pastor
In renal pathologies tubulo-interstitial fibrosis results from an aberrant wound-healing ability where the normal epithelial tissue is substituted for scar tissue caused by accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM). During the wound-healing process, epithelial cells may undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) acquiring a mesenchymal-like phenotype that allows cells to migrate and re-epithelialize the wound site. It has been reported that chronic inflammation and uremic milieu are involved in wound-healing and enhanced kidney damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
July 29, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760544/the-potential-of-ganoderma-lucidum-extracts-as-bioactive-ingredients-in-topical-formulations-beyond-its-nutritional-benefits
#20
Oludemi Taofiq, Sandrina A Heleno, Ricardo C Calhelha, Maria José Alves, Lillian Barros, Ana M González-Paramás, Maria F Barreiro, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Ganoderma lucidum was characterized in terms of nutritional value and chemical composition. Thereafter, ethanolic Soxhlet extracts were evaluated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antityrosinase, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects, and further characterized in terms of phenolic acids, polysaccharides and triterpenoids. Finally, the obtained extracts were tested as cosmeceutical ingredients. G. lucidum proved to be a source of macronutrients and important bioactive compounds such as terpenoids, specially triterpenoids, and polysaccharides...
July 29, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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