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Food and Chemical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158197/modified-mycotoxins-an-updated-review-on-their-formation-detection-occurrence-and-toxic-effects
#1
REVIEW
Luísa Freire, Anderson S Sant'Ana
Modified mycotoxins are metabolites that normally remain undetected during the testing for parent mycotoxin. These modified forms of mycotoxins can be produced by fungi or generated as part of the defense mechanism of the infected plant. In some cases, they are formed during food processing. The various processing steps greatly affect mycotoxin levels present in the final product (free and modified), although the results are still controversial regarding the increase or reduction of these levels, being strongly related to the type of process and the composition of the food in question...
November 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155359/4-methylthio-3-butenyl-isothiocyanate-mediates-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-activation-by-regulating-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-human-esophageal-epithelial-cells
#2
Tadashi Hirata, Young-Man Cho, Isamu Suzuki, Takeshi Toyoda, Jun-Ichi Akagi, Yasushi Nakamura, Satoshi Numazawa, Kumiko Ogawa
4-Methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) extracted from daikon (Raphanus sativus), which shows antimutagenicity, may have applications as an effective chemopreventive agent in several cancers; however, few reports have described the associated mechanisms. We investigated whether MTBITC induced cytoprotective genes, including phase II enzymes, in Het-1A human esophageal epithelial cells. HMOX1, NQO1, and GCLC mRNA levels and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) protein levels were increased in Het-1A cells exposed to 10 μM MTBITC...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155358/criticism-of-efsa-s-scientific-on-combinatorial-effects-of-stacked-gm-plants
#3
Thomas Bøhn
Recent genetically modified plants tend to include both insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits. Some of these 'stacked' GM plants have multiple Cry toxins expressed as well as tolerance to several herbicides. This means that non-target organisms in the environment (biodiversity) will be co-exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously. A similar co-exposure may happen to consumers through chemical residues in the food chain. EFSA, the responsible unit for minimizing risk of harm in European food chains, has expressed its scientific interest in combinatorial effects...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155357/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-cyclohexanecarboxylic-acid-1-4-dimethyl-methyl-ester-trans-cas-registry-number-23250-42-2
#4
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, D Browne, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, K Joshi, S L A Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'brien, R Parakhia, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, Y Thakkar, E H Theophilus, A K Tiethof, Y Tokura, S Tsang, J Wahler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155356/refined-assessment-and-perspectives-on-the-cumulative-risk-resulting-from-the-dietary-exposure-to-pesticide-residues-in-the-danish-population
#5
Martin Olof Larsson, Vibe Sloth Nielsen, Niels Bjerre, Frank Laporte, Nina Cedergreen
Relatively few studies are available on realistic cumulative risk assessments for dietary pesticide exposure. Despite available studies showing low risk, public concern remains. A method to estimate realistic residue levels based on information from spraying journals and supervised residue trials was described in a previous publication. The present article proposes a new method to estimate average residue levels in imported foods based on residue monitoring data and knowledge about agronomic practices. The two methods were used in combination to estimate average pesticide residue levels in 47 commodities on the Danish market...
November 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154952/in-vitro-mechanisms-of-beauvericin-toxicity-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Beatriz Mallebrera, Alessandra Prosperini, Guillermina Font, Maria-Jose Ruiz
Beauvericin (BEA) is a mycotoxin produced by many species of fungus Fusarium and by Beauveria bassiana; BEA is a natural contaminant of cereals and cereals based products and possesses a wide variety of biological properties. The mechanism of action seems to be related to its ionophoric activity, that increases ion permeability in biological membranes. As a consequence, BEA causes cytotoxicity in several cell lines and is capable to produce oxidative stress at molecular level. Moreover, BEA is genotoxic (produces DNA fragmentation, chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus) and causes apoptosis with the involvement of mitochondrial pathway...
November 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154797/caryophyllane-sesquiterpenes-inhibit-dna-damage-by-tobacco-smoke-in-bacterial-and-mammalian-cells
#7
Silvia Di Giacomo, Lorena Abete, Rossana Cocchiola, Gabriela Mazzanti, Margherita Eufemi, Antonella Di Sotto
In the present study, the ability of the natural sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene (CRY) and its metabolite β-caryophyllene oxide (CRYO) to inhibit the genotoxicity of a condensate of cigarette smoke (CSC) was evaluated both in bacterial and mammalian cells. Also, the inhibition of the CSCmediated STAT3 phosphorylation and intracellular oxidative stress was evaluated as potential chemopreventive mechanism. Under our experimental conditions, both the sesquiterpenes exhibited antimutagenic properties, being CRY the most potent compound...
November 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138022/to-which-mixtures-are-french-pregnant-women-mainly-exposed-a-combination-of-the-second-french-total-diet-study-with-the-eden-and-elfe-cohort-studies
#8
T Traoré, A Forhan, V Sirot, M Kadawathagedara, B Heude, M Hulin, B de Lauzon-Guillain, J Botton, M A Charles, A Crépet
Pregnant women and their unborn child are exposed to a large number of substances during pregnancy. Some of these substances may cross the placenta, resulting in exposure of the foetus. There is growing evidence that certain substances could interact to produce a mixture effect. It is therefore essential to identify the main mixtures mothers are exposed to. This study aimed to identify the major mixtures French pregnant women included in EDEN and ELFE cohorts were exposed to, on the basis of the 441 substances analysed in the second French total diet study...
November 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129665/intravasation-of-sw620-colon-cancer-cell-spheroids-through-the-blood-endothelial-barrier-is-inhibited-by-clinical-drugs-and-flavonoids-in-vitro
#9
Silvio Holzner, Stefan Brenner, Atanas Georgiev Atanasov, Daniel Senfter, Serena Stadler, Chi Huu Nguyen, Adryan Fristiohady, Daniela Milovanovic, Nicole Huttary, Sigurd Krieger, Zsuzsanna Bago-Horvath, Oliver de Wever, Ioannis Tentes, Ali Özmen, Walter Jäger, Helmut Dolznig, Verena Maria Dirsch, Robert Michael Mader, Liselotte Krenn, Georg Krupitza
Mechanisms how colorectal cancer (CRC) cells penetrate blood micro-vessel endothelia and metastasise is poorly understood. To study blood endothelial cell (BEC) barrier breaching by CRC emboli, an in vitro assay measuring BEC-free areas underneath SW620 cell spheroids, so called "circular chemorepellent induced defects" (CCIDs, appearing in consequence of endothelial retraction), was adapted and supported by Western blotting, EIA-, EROD- and luciferase reporter assays. Inhibition of ALOX12 or NF-κB in SW620 cells or BECs, respectively, caused attenuation of CCIDs...
November 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129664/hemistepsin-a-ameliorates-acute-inflammation-in-macrophages-via-inhibition-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-activation-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2
#10
Jae Kwang Kim, Ji Eun Lee, Eun Hye Jung, Ji Yun Jung, Dae Hwa Jung, Sae Kwang Ku, Il Je Cho, Sang Chan Kim
Hemistepsin A (HsA) is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Hemistepta lyrata (Bunge) Bunge. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of HsA and sought to determine its mechanisms of action in macrophages. HsA pretreatment inhibited nitric oxide production, and reduced the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in Toll-like receptor ligand-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, HsA decreased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Kupffer cells as well as in RAW 264...
November 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109044/target-vs-non-target-analysis-to-determine-pesticide-residues-in-fruits-from-saudi-arabia-and-influence-in-potential-risk-associated-with-exposure
#11
Yolanda Picó, Mohamed A El-Sheikh, Ahmed H Alfarhan, Damià Barceló
The occurrence of pesticide residues in fruits was determined by a target method for 62 analytes and a wide scope screening method against a database of 500 pesticides. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were from 0.5 to 6.3 μg kg(-1) for the target method and from 0.5 to 119 μg kg(-1) for the non-target. Thirty samples: dates, apples, oranges, tangerines, lemons and grapefruits were selected because their high consumption, except lemons and grapefruits that were to cover all citrus fruits. Using the target method, 15 compounds (mostly insecticides and fungicides) out of 62 pesticides (organophosphorus, carbamates, pyrethroids, chloroacetanilides, triazines, triazoles, imidazoles, etc...
November 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128616/di-n-octylphthalate-acts-as-a-proliferative-agent-in-murine-cell-hepatocytes-by-regulating-the-levels-of-tgf-%C3%AE-and-pro-apoptotic-proteins
#12
Shelby L Buckner, Allison N Pruitt, Cecilia N Thomas, Monisha Y Amin, Laurence L Miller, Faith E Wiley, Maria Eugenia Sabbatini
Di-n-octylphthalate (DNOP) is a phthalate used in the manufacturing of a wide variety of polyvinyl chloride-containing medical and consumer products. A study on chronic exposure to DNOP in rodents showed the development of pre-neoplastic hepatic lesions following exposure to a tumor initiator. The objective of this study was to identify the mechanisms by which DNOP leads to pre-neoplastic hepatic lesions. Mouse hepatocyte AML-12 and FL83B cells were treated with DNOP. The rate of cell proliferation was increased in treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner...
November 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128615/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-ethyl-2-3-6-trimethylcyclohexyl-carbonate-cas-registry-number-93981-50-1
#13
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, D Browne, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'brien, R Parakhia, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, Y Thakkar, E H Theophilus, A K Tiethof, Y Tokura, S Tsang, J Wahler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128614/gene-expression-profiling-in-colon-of-mice-exposed-to-food-additive-titanium-dioxide-e171
#14
Héloïse Proquin, Marlon J Jetten, Marloes C M Jonkhout, Luis G Garduño-Balderas, Jacob J Briedé, Theo M de Kok, Yolanda I Chirino, Henk van Loveren
Dietary factors that may influence the risks of colorectal cancer, including specific supplements, are under investigation. Previous studies showed the capacity of food additive titanium dioxide (E171) to induce DNA damage in vitro and facilitate growth of colorectal tumours in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these effects after E171 exposure. BALB/c mice were exposed by gavage to 5 mg/kgbw/day of E171 for 2, 7, 14, and 21 days. Transcriptome changes were studied by whole genome mRNA microarray analysis on the mice's distal colons...
November 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128613/submicromolar-bisphenol-a-induces-proliferation-and-dna-damage-in-human-hepatocyte-cell-lines-in-vitro-and-in-juvenile-rats-in-vivo
#15
Seoyoung Kim, Gil-Im Mun, Eun Choi, Minjeong Kim, Ji Seong Jeong, Keon Wook Kang, Sunha Jee, Kyung-Min Lim, Yun-Sil Lee
An association between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and hepatic tumors was suggested, but the employment of high-dose levels raises questions about its relevance to human health. Here, we demonstrate that submicromolar concentrations of BPA induce the proliferation and DNA damage in human hepatocyte cell lines. In HepG2 and NKNT-3, undifferentiated and differentiated hepatocyte cell lines, respectively, submicromolar BPA concentrations promoted the cell proliferation, as indicated by enhanced DNA synthesis and elevated expression of cell-cycle proteins...
November 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128612/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-oxacyclohexadecane-2-13-dione-cas-registry-number-38223-29-9
#16
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, D Browne, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, R Parakhia, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, Y Thakkar, E H Theophilus, A K Tiethof, Y Tokura, S Tsang, J Wahler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126800/nanoencapsulated-illicium-verum-hook-f-essential-oil-as-an-effective-novel-plant-based-preservative-against-aflatoxin-b1-production-and-free-radical-generation
#17
Abhishek Kumar Dwivedy, Vipin Kumar Singh, Bhanu Prakash, Nawal Kishore Dubey
The study reports efficacy of Illicium verum essential oil (IvEO) against food borne moudls and its nanoencapsulation for enhancing antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic potency. Chemical characterization of the IvEO showed anethole (89.12%) as major compound followed by estragole (4.859%). The IvEO showed broad fungitoxic spectrum against common food borne moulds. It's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum aflatoxin B1 inhibitory concentration (MAIC) against aflatoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus LHP-PV-1 were 0...
November 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126803/sex-differences-in-ochratoxin-a-toxicity-in-f344-rats-after-7-and-21-days-of-daily-oral-administration
#18
Laura Pastor, Ariane Vettorazzi, Jose Manuel Enciso, Elena González-Peñas, J A García-Jalón, J I Monreal, Adela López de Cerain
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent renal carcinogen in male rats but not in females. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. The sex-dependent response of F344 rats after a repeated OTA oral administration for 7 (0.50 mg/kg bw) or 21 days (0.21 and 0.50 mg/kg bw) was evaluated. General toxicity, sex and thyroid hormones and histopathology were studied. OTA was quantified (HPLC-FLD) in plasma, kidney and liver and the expression of kidney transporters (RT-qPCR) was studied. After 7 days, kidney histopathology showed more pronounced signs of toxicity in males than in females...
November 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126802/gamma-irradiated-black-ginseng-extract-inhibits-mast-cell-degranulation-and-suppresses-atopic-dermatitis-like-skin-lesions-in-mice
#19
Jung Ae Kang, Ha-Yeon Song, Eui-Hong Byun, Nam-Geun Ahn, Hye-Min Kim, You Ree Nam, Gyeong Hee Lee, Beom-Su Jang, Dae Seong Choi, Dong-Eun Lee, Eui-Baek Byun
Gamma irradiation is able to affect various structural modification and an increase of the biological properties of biomaterials. This study was conducted to investigate the anti-allergenic effect of γ-irradiated black ginseng extract (BGE) using in vitro and in vivo experiments. IgEantigen complex-induced degranulation was measured in RBL-2H3 mast cells. In addition, an anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) test was carried out by spreading γ-irradiated BGE on the dorsal skin of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced BALB/c mice...
November 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126801/species-differences-between-rat-and-human-in-vitro-metabolite-profile-in-vivo-predicted-clearance-cyp450-inhibition-and-cyp450-isoforms-that-metabolize-benzanthrone-implications-in-risk-assessment
#20
Isha Taneja, Kajal Karsauliya, Mamunur Rashid, Ashish Kumar Sonkar, Kanumuri Siva Rama Raju, Sandeep Kumar Singh, Mukul Das, Muhammad Wahajuddin, Sheelendra Pratap Singh
Benzanthrone (BNZ) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in industrial effluent causing skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, nervous and hemopoietic toxicity. While its toxicity has been well studied, its metabolism in humans has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize species differences in the in vitro metabolism of BNZ in rat and human liver microsomes and to identify the CYP isoforms involved in its metabolism. Upon incubation in liver microsomes, BNZ was found to be a direct substrate of phase I metabolism in both rat and human, undergoing oxidation and reduction...
November 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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