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Food and Chemical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414961/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-guaiyl-acetate-cas-registry-number-134-28-1
#1
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, L Jones, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414960/differential-effects-of-metformin-glycinate-and-hydrochloride-in-glucose-production-ampk-phosphorylation-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-hepatocytes-from-non-diabetic-and-diabetic-mice
#2
Patricia Rada, Alejandra Mosquera, Jordi Muntané, Francisco Ferrandiz, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, Flora de Pablo, Jorge González-Canudas, Ángela M Valverde
The liver is a main target tissue of the biguanide metformin which activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We have previously reported that administration of metformin glycinate showed a greater decrease in glycated hemoglobin A1c than placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Herein, we have compared the effects of metformin hydrochloride, the oral antidiabetic drug of first choice, with those of metformin glycinate in hepatocytes from non-diabetic, diabetic mice and humans. Both formulations were equally potent in the reduction of basal and glucagon-induced glucose production and mRNA levels of gluconeogenic enzymes (Pck1 and G6pc) in hepatocytes from C57/Bl6 mice and humans...
November 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414959/tobacco-heating-system-2-2-has-a-limited-impact-on-dna-methylation-of-candidate-enhancers-in-mouse-lung-compared-with-cigarette-smoke
#3
Mohamed-Amin Choukrallah, Nicolas Sierro, Florian Martin, Karine Baumer, Jerome Thomas, Sonia Ouadi, Julia Hoeng, Manuel C Peitsch, Nikolai V Ivanov
Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure has been shown to correlate with changes in DNA methylation levels, however, the impact of CS on DNA methylation at genome-wide scale is missing. Here, we used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to assess the effects of CS extract and aerosol from the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, a candidate modified risk tobacco product, on DNA methylation in lung and liver tissues from apolipoprotein E-deficient mice during an eight-month period of exposure. We found that in lung tissue, CS mainly induced hypermethylation of candidate enhancers at late time points, while promoters were less affected...
November 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414466/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-benzeneacetaldehyde-3-4-dimethyl-cas-registry-number-68844-97-3
#4
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, L Jones, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408543/an-overview-of-epigenetic-agents-and-natural-nutrition-products-targeting-dna-methyltransferase-histone-deacetylases-and-micrornas
#5
REVIEW
Deyu Huang, LuQing Cui, Saeed Ahmed, Fatima Zainab, Qinghua Wu, Xu Wang, Zonghui Yuan
Several humans' diseases such as; cancer, heart disease, diabetes retain an etiology of epigenetic, and a new therapeutic option termed as "epigenetic therapy" can offer a potential way to treat these diseases. A numbers of epigenetic agents such as; inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) have grew an intensive investigation, and many of these agents are currently being tested in a clinical trial, while some of them have been approved for the use by the authorities...
November 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408542/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-4-methylnonanoic-acid-cas-registry-number-45019-28-1
#6
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, L Jones, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408541/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-2-10-pinen-3-ol-cas-registry-number-5947-36-4
#7
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, L Jones, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408540/3-nop-mutagenicity-and-genotoxicity-assessment
#8
A Thiel, A C M Schoenmakers, I A J Verbaan, E Chenal, S Etheve, P Beilstein
3-NOP (3-nitroxy-propanol) is a new development compound which reduces methane emission from ruminating animals. For registration purposes with emphasis on EU and North America data requirements, mutagenic and genotoxic potential was assessed following OECD protocols and respective guidance documents. 3-NOP mutagenicity and genotoxicity testing raised no flags with regard to these endpoints. In silico assessment of 3-NOP and its major plasma metabolite NOPA (3-nitroxy-propionic acid) were predicted negative with regard to the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test...
November 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408539/the-functional-role-of-bax-bak-in-palmitate-induced-lipoapoptosis
#9
Enxiang Zhang, Xiaotong Lu, Shutao Yin, Mingzhu Yan, Shangyun Lu, Lihong Fan, Hongbo Hu
Induction of programmed cell death, mainly apoptosis (lipoapoptosis) is a major cellular consequence of the lipotoxicity, a harmful effect resulting from the overload of lipids. Both Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy have been suggested to play important role in the regulation of lipoapoptosis. However, the exact mechanisms underlying lipoapoptosis remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the functional role of Bax/Bak in lipoapoptosis using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) cell culture model...
November 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408538/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-1-oxaspiro-4-5-decan-2-one-8-ethyl-trans-cas-registry-number-91069-40-8
#10
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, L Jones, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408537/evaluation-of-rubus-grandifolius-l-wild-blackberries-activities-targeting-management-of-type-2-diabetes-and-obesity-using-in-vitro-models
#11
Vítor Spínola, Joana Pinto, Eulogio J Llorent-Martínez, Helena Tomás, Paula C Castilho
Rubus grandifolius Lowe (wild blackberries) is an endemic species from Madeira Archipelago (Portugal) used in folk medicine for alleviating diabetic complications. In this work, R. grandifolius methanolic extracts were analysed for in vitro inhibitory effect on digestive enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes, as well as aldose reductase activity and protein glycation. The phenolic composition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were also determined. Methanolic extracts exhibited strong inhibition of glucosidases (α- and β), but were less potent for α-amylase and pancreatic lipase when compared to current pharmaceutical drugs...
November 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408536/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-pentyl-benzoate-cas-registry-number-2049-96-9
#12
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, L Jones, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403969/assessing-the-relevance-of-exposure-time-in-differentiated-caco-2-ht29-cocultures-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles
#13
Miriam Saez-Tenorio, Josefa Domenech, Alba García-Rodríguez, Antonia Velázquez, Alba Hernández, Ricard Marcos, Constanza Cortés
In vitro models of the intestinal barrier are being increasingly used to evaluate nanoparticles (NPs) exposure risk. Nevertheless, most of these studies have focused on short-term exposures lasting no more than 24 h of duration, which could underestimate the toxic effects of a given compound under a more realistic setting. Since the assessment of longer exposure time-points is crucial to evaluate the risk of cumulative exposure to NPs, we have analyzed the effects of AgNPs at different exposure time-points between 6 h and 4 days on the barrier model system constituted by Caco-2/HT29 cells...
November 4, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399386/platycodi-radix-and-its-active-compounds-ameliorate-against-house-dust-mite-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-and-er-stress-and-ros-by-enhancing-anti-oxidation
#14
Hwa-Young Lee, Geum-Hwa Lee, Hye-Kyung Kim, Han-Jung Chae
Allergic airway inflammation is an increasing global health problem, and novel strategies to prevent or ameliorate the condition are needed. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in protein synthesis and maturation, and is a susceptible to sub-organelle stress including inflammation and ROS-amplifying signaling. Here, the effects of Platycodi Radix extracts (PRE) on house dust mite (HDM) extract (Dematophagoides pteronyssius)-induced asthma were investigated. Following 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg-PRE-treatment, the infiltration of inflammatory cells, ER stress, and NF-κB signaling were controlled...
November 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391273/silk-sericin-induced-pro-oxidative-stress-leads-to-apoptosis-in-human-cancer-cells
#15
Jadi Praveen Kumar, Biman B Mandal
Pro-oxidative stress induced by dietary polyphenols elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cancer cells, which subsequently leads to oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. Sericin, a principal component of silk is associated with a mixture of polyphenols and flavonoids, possesses various biomedical attributes including anticancer activity. In the present study, we have evaluated the pro-oxidative effect of Bombyx mori sericin (BMS), Antheraea assamensis sericin (AAS), and Philosamia ricini sericin (PRS) against different cancer cells...
October 31, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389585/monoterpenes-modulating-cytokines-a-review
#16
Jullyana S S Quintans, Saravanan Shanmugam, Luana Heimfarth, Adriano Antunes S Araújo, Jackson R G da S Almeida, Laurent Picot, Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior
Inflammatory response can be driven by cytokine production and is a pivotal target in the management of inflammatory diseases. Monoterpenes have shown that promising profile as agents which reduce the inflammatory process and also modulate the key chemical mediators of inflammation, such as pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The main interest focused on monoterpenes were to develop the analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs. In this review, we summarized current knowledge on monoterpenes that produce anti-inflammatory effects by modulating the release of cytokines, as well as suggesting that which monoterpenoid molecules may be most effective in the treatment of inflammatory disease...
October 30, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389584/excitotoxicity-and-compensatory-upregulation-of-gad67-in-fetal-rat-hippocampus-caused-by-prenatal-nicotine-exposure-are-associated-with-inhibition-of-the-bdnf-pathway
#17
Yun Pei, Zhexiao Jiao, Wanting Dong, Linguo Pei, Xia He, Hui Wang, Dan Xu
Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) can cause hypersensitivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in offspring with intrauterine growth retardation. The purpose of this study was to explore the original mechanism of intrauterine development that mediates hypersensitivity of the HPA axis in offspring due to PNE. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with 2 mg/kg·d of nicotine on the 9th to the 20th gestational day (GD9-GD20) and the fetuses were extracted at GD20. Compared with the control group, fetal rats by PNE showed increased hippocampal apoptosis, reduced synaptic plasticity and downregulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway, whereas glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression was upregulated...
October 30, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30385190/evaluation-of-the-enantioselective-in-vitro-metabolism-of-the-chiral-pesticide-fipronil-employing-a-human-model-risk-assessment-through-in-vitro-in-vivo-correlation-and-prediction-of-toxicokinetic-parameters
#18
Daniel Blascke Carrão, Isabel Cristina Dos Reis Gomes, Fernando Barbosa Junior, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes de Oliveira
The chiral pesticide fipronil is employed as a racemic mixture to control pests. Although there are no enantioselective differences in the fipronil enantiomer activities toward target organisms, fipronil enantiomers may exhibit enantioselective differences in their bioaccumulation, toxicity, and metabolism toward non-target organisms, including humans. The present work aims to provide significant reliable enantioselective information concerning fipronil risk assessment in humans. For that, the in vitro metabolism of rac-fipronil, S-fipronil, and R-fipronil by human liver microsomes was evaluated, the in vivo enantioselective toxicokinetic parameters were predicted and the main CYP450 isoforms involved in the enantioselective metabolism were determined...
October 30, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401639/risks-associated-with-fat-burners-a-toxicological-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Žiga Jakopin
Dietary supplements "fat burners", freely available on the market, are intended to promote weight loss and reduce fat accumulation, either via stimulation of lipolysis or by inhibition of lipogenesis. Proponents claim that fat burners can increase fat metabolism, although their usefulness remains controversial. Fat burners are usually claimed to be of natural origin and viewed as being inherently safe. This review focuses on the most common ingredients of natural origin usually found in the fat burners, their molecular mechanisms of action and the toxicological profiles of these compounds in order to gain an insight into their safety...
October 26, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393115/exposure-to-environmental-concentrations-of-hexachlorobenzene-induces-alterations-associated-with-endometriosis-progression-in-a-rat-model
#20
Florencia Chiappini, Marcela Sánchez, Noelia Miret, Claudia Cocca, Elsa Zotta, Leandro Ceballos, Carolina Pontillo, Mariela Bilotas, Andrea Randi
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a dioxin-like compound widely distributed and is a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Endometriosis is a disease characterized by growth of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites. Our aim was to investigate the impact of HCB on the endocrine, invasion and inflammatory parameters in a rat endometriosis model surgically induced. Female rats were exposed to HCB (1, 10 and 100 mg/kg b.w.) during 30 days. Results showed that HCB increases endometriotic like-lesions (L) volume in a dose-dependent manner...
October 26, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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