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Food and Chemical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330761/quantification-of-4-methylimidazole-in-soft-drinks-sauces-and-vinegars-of-greek-market-using-two-liquid-chromatography-techniques
#1
Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Elena Vakonaki, Sofia Moti, Alegakis Athanasios, Christina Tsitsimpikou, Ioannis Tsakiris, Marina Goumenou, Alexander E Nosyrev, Apostolos K Rizos, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
The substance 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) has raised several concerns regarding its toxicity to humans, although no harmonized classification has yet been decided. The regulatory limits for food products set by various authorities in Europe and the USA differ considerably. The purpose of the present study is to compare two liquid chromatography techniques in order to determine the levels of 4-MEI in food products from the Greek market and roughly estimate the possible exposure and relevant health risk for the consumers...
March 19, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322968/echinodorus-grandiflorus-ethnobotanical-phytochemical-and-pharmacological-overview-of-a-medicinal-plant-used-in-brazil
#2
André M Marques, D William Provance, Maria Auxiliadora C Kaplan, Maria Raquel Figueiredo
Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli is a native Brazilian species used in traditional practices for the treatment of several conditions such as inflammatory diseases, arthritis and hypertension. Through a systematic review of the accumulated knowledge about the species E. grandiflorus, the botanical, phytochemistry, ethnobotanical and pharmacological properties of this medicinal plant demonstrates its potential to naturally provide anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant with a special emphasis on anti-hypertensive and cardioprotective effects...
March 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322969/arsenic-cadmium-mercury-sodium-and-potassium-concentrations-in-common-foods-and-estimated-daily-intake-of-the-population-in-valdivia-chile-using-a-total-diet-study
#3
Ociel Muñoz, Pedro Zamorano, Olga Garcia, José Miguel Bastías
This study was designed to estimate the dietary intake of total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, cadmium, mercury, sodium, and potassium by the general adult population (aged 18-65) of Valdivia, Chile. Calculations were based on a 24-h dietary recall survey. The highest dietary intake of t-As (73.0 μg/day), i-As (20.0 μg/day), Cd (18.0 μg/day), Hg (5.8 μg/day), Na(+) (3112.8 mg/day), and K(+) (2077.5 mg/day) were for 70-kg adults. Estimating carcinogenic risk (CR > 4 × 10(-4)) due to exposure to i-As indicated that consumers remain at low risk for cancer...
March 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315776/cleistocalyx-nervosum-var-paniala-berry-fruit-protects-neurotoxicity-against-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-apoptosis
#4
Monruedee Sukprasansap, Pithi Chanvorachote, Tewin Tencomnao
Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses cause neuronal damage leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala (CNP) berry fruit has been shown to possess powerful antioxidant properties. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of CNP extract against glutamate-mediated oxidative/ER stress-induced cell death in mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells. CNP extract was clarified for its radical scavenging activities, total phenolic and anthocyanin contents. The key anthocyanin cyanidin-3-glucoside was used as a marker to standardize the extract used in the study...
March 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315369/resveratrol-as-mdr-reversion-molecule-in-breast-cancer-an-overview
#5
REVIEW
Nafiseh Sadat Alamolhodaei, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Mohammad Ramezani, A Wallace Hayes, Gholamreza Karimi
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide; therefore, a strategy to defeat breast cancer is an extremely important medical issue. One of the major challenges in this regard is multidrug resistance (MDR). Resveratrol, a well-known phytoestrogen, may be helpful as part of an overall strategy to defeat breast cancer. The mixed agonist and antagonist role of resveratrol for the estrogen receptor makes it a controversial but interesting molecule in cancer therapy, especially in hormone dependent cancers...
March 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302478/molecular-mechanisms-of-discrotophos-induced-toxicity-in-hepg2-cells-the-role-of-csa-in-oxidative-stress
#6
You-Cheng Hseu, Tung-Wei Hsu, Heng-Dao Lin, Chin Hui Chen, Ssu Ching Chen
Dicrotophos (Dic), an insecticide and acaricide, is used against a variety of sucking, boring and chewing pests. It was proven that Dic induced oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of this compound were still unclear. First of all, the cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage were confirmed. Next, using RNA-seq for detecting differential expressed genes (DEGs) in cells treated with 50 μM Dic for 24 h, we showed that the dysregulation of these genes, irrespective of up (1298 genes) or down (2125 genes) regulation, could be attributed to some diverse pathways/metabolisms using KEGG analysis, particularly in DNA damage responses (DDRs) such as oxidative phosphorylation, nucleotide excision repair and cell cycle arrest...
March 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302477/toxicological-features-of-maleilated-polyflavonoids-from-pinus-radiata-d-don-as-potential-functional-additives-for-biomaterials-design
#7
Danny E García, Paulina A Medina, Valentina I Zúñiga
Polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) are an abundant natural oligomers highly desirable as renewable chemicals. However, structural modification of polyflavonoids is a viable strategy in order to use such polyphenols as macrobuilding-blocks for biomaterial design. Polyflavonoids were esterified with three five-member cyclic anhydrides (maleic, itaconic, and citraconic) at 20 °C during 24 h in order to diversify physicochemical-, and biological-properties for agricultural, and food-packaging applications...
March 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300632/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-isoamyl-propionate-cas-registry-number-105-68-0
#8
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, D Browne, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, P Calow, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, A D Fryer, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, R Parakhia, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, Y Thakkar, S Tsang, J Wahler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300631/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-6-acetyl-1-1-2-4-4-7-hexamethyltetraline-cas-registry-number-21145-77-7
#9
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, P Calow, M L Dagli, W Dekant, A D Fryer, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'brien, R Parakhia, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, D Salvito, T W Schultz, J Shen, I G Sipes, J Wahler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288929/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-isotridecyl-acetate-cas-registry-number-69103-23-7
#10
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, D Browne, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, P Calow, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, A D Fryer, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, R Parakhia, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, Y Thakkar, S Tsang, J Wahler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288933/effect-of-lyophilized-prune-extract-on-hyperhomocysteinemia-in-mice
#11
Hayate Haddadi-Guemghar, Asma Tlili, Julien Dairou, Jean-Louis Paul, Khodir Madani, Nathalie Janel
Altered homocysteine metabolism defined as hyperhomocysteinemia is implicated as pathogenic factor in several cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of prune extract, a good source of phenolic antioxidants, on lowering plasma homocysteine level in male hyperhomocysteinemic mice from average weight of 28 g. The administration of lyophilized prune extract was carried out by intraperitoneal injection one day preceding and one hour before sacrifice of mice...
March 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288932/inhibition-of-jnk-by-pi-class-of-glutathione-s-transferase-through-pka-creb-pathway-is-associated-with-carnosic-acid-protection-against-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-apoptosis
#12
Chia-Yuan Lin, Ru-Huei Fu, Ruey-Hwang Chou, Jing-Hsien Chen, Chi-Rei Wu, Shu-Wei Chang, Chia-Wen Tsai
Pi class of glutathione S-transferase (GST) is known to suppress c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-related apoptosis through protein-protein interactions. Moreover, signaling by PKA/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is necessary for GSTP up-regulation. This study explored whether carnosic acid (CA) from rosemary prevents 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity by inhibition of JNK through GSTP via PKA/CREB signaling. Results indicated that the GSTP protein was increased in SH-SY5Y cells treated with CA for 18 and 24 h...
March 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288931/pouteria-torta-epicarp-as-a-useful-source-of-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibitor-in-the-control-of-type-2-diabetes
#13
Paloma Michelle de Sales, Paula Monteiro de Souza, Mariana Dartora, Inês Sabioni Resck, Luiz Alberto Simeoni, Yris Maria Fonseca-Bazzo, Pérola de Oliveira Magalhães, Dâmaris Silveira
Type 2 diabetes plays a major role in public health, affecting about 400 million adults. One of the used strategies to control type 2 diabetes is the inhibition of α-amylase activity to reduce post-prandial blood glucose levels. Therefore, in past decades, the search of new α-amylase inhibitors has led to the evaluation of natural products as a source of these compounds. Pouteria torta (Sapotaceae) is widespread in Brazil and bears edible fruits. Epicarp and pulp crude extracts of fresh fruits were studied for in vitro α-amylase inhibition activity...
March 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288930/assessing-the-effect-of-oral-exposure-to-paenibacillus-alvei-a-potential-biocontrol-agent-in-male-non-pregnant-pregnant-animals-and-the-developing-rat-fetus
#14
Robert L Sprando, Thomas Black, Nicholas Olejnik, Zachary Keltner, Vanessa Topping, Martine Ferguson, Darcy Hanes, Eric Brown, Jie Zheng
Paenibacillus alvei, a naturally occurring soil microorganism, may be used in the control and/or elimination of human/animal pathogens present on/within produce commodities associated with human consumption. The safety of oral exposure to P. alvei in male, nulliparous females, the pregnant dam and developing fetus was assessed. Adult male and female rats received a single oral dose (gavage) of P. alvei and tissues were collected at post exposure days 0, 3 and 14. To evaluate the effect of the test organism on fetal development, sperm positive female rats received the test organism every 3 days thereafter throughout gestation...
March 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288928/in%C3%A2-vitro-cytotoxicity-evaluation-of-resveratrol-loaded-nanoparticles-focus-on-the-challenges-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-methodologies
#15
V Rocha, C Marques, J L Figueiredo, A R Gaio, P C Costa, J M Sousa Lobo, I F Almeida
Assessment of toxic effects is mandatory before market placement of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Nanotoxicology is an emerging regulatory concern and still a challenging field. Topical application of resveratrol (RSV) has been extensively studied owing to its multi-mechanistic skin anti-aging effects. Nanoencapsulation has been suggested as a promising solution to overcome RSV stability issues. In this work RSV-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were prepared using a homogenization/sonication technique...
March 10, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286311/toxic-effects-of-perfluorinated-compounds-at-human-cellular-level-and-on-a-model-vertebrate
#16
Sandra Rainieri, Nadia Conlledo, Tomaž Langerholc, Eneko Madorran, Martin Sala, Alejandro Barranco
This work aims at deepening the understanding of the mode of action of some of the most prominent perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by detecting in a realistic way their effects. To this end, after adjusting the exposure media taking into account the biological model employed and the physico-chemical properties of PFCs, we evaluated the toxic effects of PFOA, PFOS and PFNA in a human macrophage cell line (TLT cells) and in zebrafish embryos. We performed such evaluation on individual compounds and mixtures. Acute toxicity was greater for PFOS in zebrafish; however, it was greater for PFNA in TLT cells...
March 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286310/joint-toxicity-of-chlorpyrifos-and-cadmium-on-the-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-damage-in-neuronal-cells
#17
Ming-Yuan Xu, Pan Wang, Ying-Jian Sun, Lin Yang, Yi-Jun Wu
Pesticides and heavy metals can be easily biomagnified in food chains and bioaccumulated in individuals, thus pose significant threat to human health. However, their joint toxicity for long-term exposure at low dose has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we investigated the oxidative damages in brain of rats exposed subchronically to organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and heavy metal cadmium (Cd), and their mixtures at the environmentally relevant doses. Rats were given different doses of CPF and Cd by oral gavage for three months...
March 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286309/pteryxin-a-promising-butyrylcholinesterase-inhibiting-coumarin-derivative-from-mutellina-purpurea
#18
Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Fatma Sezer Senol, Suhaib Shekfeh, Krystyna Skalicka-Wozniak, Erden Banoglu
Pteryxin is a dihydropyranocoumarin derivative found in Apiaceae family. In this study, pteryxin, which was previously isolated from the fruits of Mutellina purpurea, was investigated for its inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are the key enzymes in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The compound was tested in vitro using ELISA microplate reader at 100 μg/ml and found to cause 9.30 ± 1.86% and 91.62 ± 1.53% inhibition against AChE and BChE, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284730/developmental-and-reproductive-toxicological-evaluation-of-arachidonic-acid-ara-rich-oil-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-rich-oil
#19
Michael C Falk, Xiaohui Zheng, Dieling Chen, Yue Jiang, Zeshen Liu, Kara D Lewis
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive and developmental toxicity of dietary exposure to DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina. In a developmental toxicity study, pregnant Wistar rats were untreated (control) or administered corn oil (vehicle control), 1,000, 2,500, or 5000 mg/kg bw/day of DHA-rich oil or ARA-rich oil via gavage from gestation days 6 through day 20. In the reproductive toxicity study, male and female Wistar rats were administered vehicle control (corn oil), or 1,000, 2,500, or 5000 mg/kg bw/day of DHA- or ARA-rich oil via gavage throughout the mating period, pregnancy, and the nursing and lactation period...
March 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284729/effects-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-on-1-2-dimethyhydrazine-induced-colon-tumor-promotion-in-rats
#20
Hsin-Pao Chen, Min-Hsiung Pan, Yuan-Yi Chou, Chieh Sung, Kuo-Hsin Lee, Chung-Man Leung, Ping-Chi Hsu
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause carcinogenicity in the liver; however, few have detailed on the potential effects of DEHP exposure on colorectal cancer. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received i.p. injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) once-a-week for the first 4 weeks, and rats in each group were treated with DEHP through oral gavage daily for either 7, 10 or 15 weeks; after which, all rats were euthanized and their colons were assessed (a) morphologically for aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or tumors, (b) cytologically for mitotic index (MI), and (c) immunohistochemically for the expression of β-catenin, cyclooygenase (COX)-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, and c-myc...
March 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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