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Food and Chemical Toxicology

Yishu Peng, Ruidong Yang, Tao Jin, Jun Chen, Jian Zhang
We investigated potentially toxic metal (loid)s (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; copper, Cu; mercury, Hg; lead, Pb; selenium, Se; and zinc, Zn) in agricultural samples (i.e., Solanum tuberosum L. tubers (potatoes) and their planting media) in the indigenous zinc smelting area of northwestern Guizhou Province, China. Based on the pollution index values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn, the order of the samples was as follow: slag > planting soil with slag > planting soil without slag, and the order of the samples in terms of the bioconcentration factor was the opposite...
July 14, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Nunziatina Russo, Cinzia Caggia, Alessandra Pino, Teresa M Coque, Stefania Arioli, Cinzia L Randazzo
In the present study, 110 enterococci were isolated from two Sicilian cheese types, Ragusano PDO and Pecorino Siciliano. Isolates, firstly identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and a multiplex PCR assay, were tested for susceptibility to the most relevant clinical antibiotics. Clonal relationships among isolates were evaluated by pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis and the presence of vanA and vanB genes, in vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE), was investigated. Overall, E. faecalis, E. durans (35% for each species) and E...
July 14, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Milad Iranshahy, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Seyed Reza Abtahi, Gholamreza Karimi
Internal metabolism and environmental toxicant exposure can be caused to generate reactive oxygen species in human organelles which lead to oxidative stress. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a basic leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor, controls the expression of antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent genes to regulate cellular resistance to oxidants. Nrf2 is an essential factor for hepatoprotection against drugs and xenobiotics. The key role of Nrf2 in hepatoprotection has been highlighted since Nrf2 knockout mice showed high sensitivity to xenobiotic-induced hepatotoxicity...
July 14, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Rui Yang, Qi Zhao, Dan-Dan Hu, Xue-Rong Xiao, Jian-Feng Huang, Fei Li
Cholestasis is characterized by the obstruction of bile duct, including primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The complicated etiology and injury mechanism greatly limits the development of new drugs for its treatment. To better understand the mechanism of cholestatic liver damage, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-linked electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS) and multivariate data analysis were used to determine the metabolic changes in three recognized mouse cholestasis models...
July 14, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jens Bitzer, Thomas Henkel, Andrey I Nikiforov, Marisa O Rihner, Mark T Herberth
The developmental and reproduction toxicity potential of jelly mushroom glycolipids from Dacryopinax spathularia was studied in Crl:CD (SD) rats by daily oral gavage administration at doses of 150, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day. Pregnant female rats in the developmental study received the test article from Gestation Days 6-19. F0 and F1 parental animals in the 2-generation reproduction toxicity study were dosed for a minimum of 70 days prior to mating and throughout mating, gestation, and lactation, until the day prior to euthanasia (following weaning of litters on postnatal day 21)...
July 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, L Jones, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ying-Zhi Zhang, Yu-Zhu Zuo, Zheng-Hai Du, Jun Xia, Cong Zhang, Hui Wang, Xue-Nan Li, Jin-Long Li
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely distributed pollutant that is of great concern due to its negative health effects. However, whether DEHP exposure causes liver toxicity in birds remains unclear. To clarify the potential hepatotoxicity of DEHP, quails were exposed to 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg BW/day DEHP by gavage treatment for 45 days. The livers of DEHP-exposed quails showed histomorphological changes. DEHP exposure induced a significant increase in cytochrome P450 enzyme system (CYP450s) activity (including aniline-4-hydroxylase (AH), aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and NADPH-cytochrome C reductase (NCR)) and in the contents of total cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and cytochrome b5 (Cyt b5) in quail liver...
July 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Tania Gómez-Sierra, Dianelena Eugenio-Pérez, Argelia Sánchez-Chinchillas, José Pedraza-Chaverri
Cancer is a relevant public health problem, that represents the second leading cause of death. In this regard, cisplatin is a highly effective antineoplastic drug used in treatment of several types of cancer, such as head and neck, testicular, ovarian, gastric, lung and breast cancer. Nevertheless, treatment with this compound leads to nephrotoxicity, which limits its use. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in cisplatin-induced renal damage and several dietary antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate this secondary effect...
July 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
M Leonor Fernández-Murga, Petar D Petrov, Isabel Conde, Jose V Castell, M José Goméz-Lechón, Ramiro Jover
Despite growing research, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a serious issue of increasing importance to the medical community that challenges health systems, pharmaceutical industries and drug regulatory agencies. Drug-induced cholestasis (DIC) represents a frequent manifestation of DILI in humans, which is characterised by an impaired canalicular bile flow resulting in a detrimental accumulation of bile constituents in blood and tissues. From a clinical point of view, cholestatic DILI generates a wide spectrum of presentations and can be a diagnostic challenge...
July 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ying-Shuo Zhang, Yi-Long Ma, Kiran Thakur, Sayed Sajid Hussain, Jun Wang, Qi Zhang, Jian-Guo Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wei
Dioscin has been known for its anti-cancer activity; however, its detailed molecular mechanisms have not been studied so far. Herein, we evaluated the anti-cancer activity of dioscin for proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in HepG2 cancer cells. Initially, dioscin was purified and identified from Polygonatum sibiricum by HPLC, MS, and NMR analysis, respectively. Dioscin inhibited the cell multiplication at IC50 of 8.34 μM, altered the cell morphology, arrested the cell cycle in G2/M phase and led to considerable programmed cell death...
July 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Marcello Locatelli, Serife Yerlikaya, Mehmet Cengiz Baloglu, Gokhan Zengin, Yasemin Celik Altunoglu, Francesco Cacciagrano, Cristina Campestre, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally, Adriano Mollica
This study aims to establish the biological and chemical profile of Asphodeline liburnica (Scop.) Rchb. root. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, enzyme inhibitory, DNA protection, apoptotic DNA ladder fragmentation analysis, and anti-proliferative of A. liburnica were established using standard assays. In silico study was also performed to understand interactions between quantified anthraquinones and key enzymes of clinical relevance. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were found to be 9.67 mgGAE/g and 1.48 mgRE/g extract, respectively...
July 6, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ester López-Gallardo, Sonia Emperador, Carmen Hernández-Ainsa, Julio Montoya, M Pilar Bayona-Bafaluy, Eduardo Ruiz-Pesini
Mitochondrial DNA mutations in genes encoding respiratory complex I polypeptides can cause Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Toxics affecting oxidative phosphorylation system can also cause mitochondrial optic neuropathy. Some complex I inhibitors found in edible plants might differentially interact with these pathologic mutations and modify their penetrance. To analyze this interaction, we have compared the effect of rotenone, capsaicin and rolliniastatin-1 on cybrids harboring the most frequent Leber hereditary optic neuropathy mutations and found that m...
July 6, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
David Álvarez-Cilleros, María Ángeles Martín, Sonia Ramos
Glucotoxicity (high levels of glucose) is a major cause in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Evidences indicate that (-)-epicatechin (EC) and colonic metabolites derived from flavonoid intake could possess antidiabetic effects, but the mechanisms for their preventive activities related to glucose homeostasis and insulin signalling in the kidney remain largely unknown. This work is aimed to investigate the effect of EC and main colonic phenolic acids derived from flavonoid intake, i.e. 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic-acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic-acid (DHPAA) and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic-acid, on insulin signalling, and glucose production and uptake in renal tubular proximal NRK-52E cells treated with high glucose...
July 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sara Maisanaba, Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Rocío Valderrama, Giuseppe Meca, Guillermina Font, Ángeles Jos, Ana M Cameán
Research on the human exposure to Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) via consumption of contaminated food is of great interest for risk assessment purposes. The aim of this work is to evaluate for the first time the CYN bioaccessibility in contaminated vegetables (uncooked lettuce and spinach, and boiled spinach) after an in vitro digestion model, including the salivar, gastric and duodenal phases and, colonic fermentation under lactic acid bacteria. The results obtained showed that the digestion processes are able to diminish CYN levels, mainly in the colonic phase, especially in combination with the boiling treatment, decreasing CYN levels in a significant way...
July 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mikael M Egebjerg, Pelle T Olesen, Folmer D Eriksen, Gitte Ravn-Haren, Lea Bredsdorff, Kirsten Pilegaar
New Nordic Food has within the last decade received much media coverage with chefs of top restaurants using wild plants for foods. As part of a control campaign, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration visited 150 restaurants and local food producers from May-October 2016 and investigated their use of plants picked from the wild, cultivated in private gardens or market gardens. Among the species used were the flowers from 23 plants. Here we present a safety evaluation of these flowers based on published phytochemical investigations and toxicological data in humans, farm animals, pets, or experimental animals...
July 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Marina Sampaio Cruz, Julio Alejandro Navoni, Luíza Araújo da Costa Xavier, Maria Madalena Rocha Silva Teles, José Maria Barbosa-Filho, Jailma Almeida-Lima, Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira Rocha, Viviane Souza do Amaral
Yam roots and other plants from Dioscorea genus have cultural, nutritional and economic importance to tropical and subtropical regions and have a great amount of diosgenin in its composition. In the present study the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of diosgenin on HepG2 cells was investigated. Cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT and clonogenic assay. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects were performed using single cell gel electrophoresis and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay, respectively. A reduction on cell viability was observed due to diosgenin treatment at concentrations higher than 30 μM...
July 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Maria Bastaki, Michel Aubanel, Mark Bauter, Thierry Cachet, Jan Demyttenaere, Maodo Malick Diop, Christie L Harman, Shim-Mo Hayashi, Gerhard Krammer, Xiaodong Li, Craig Llewellyn, Odete Mendes, Kevin J Renskers, Jürgen Schnabel, Benjamin P C Smith, Sean V Taylor
β-Myrcene is a flavoring substance that occurs naturally in a large variety of foods. At the request of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for additional toxicological data on β-myrcene, groups of Sprague Dawley rats (10/sex/group) were administered diets containing 0, 700, 2100, or 4200 ppm of β-myrcene designed to provide nominal doses of 0, 50, 150, or 300 mg/kg bw/day in a 90-day GLP-compliant study. Based on body weights, feed consumption, and substance stability data, final estimated daily intakes of β-myrcene were calculated to be 20...
July 4, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Devesh Tewari, Saeideh Momtaz, Sandro Argüelles, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Numerous chemicals, such as phenolic compounds are strong radical scavengers, capable of alleviating oxidative stress associated neurodegeneration. Dietary antioxidants, especially flavonoids, are being considered as a promising approach to prevent or slow the pathological development of neurological illness and aging. One of the major advantage of natural products is that of their anti-amyloid effects over synthetic counterpart, however a healthy diet provides these beneficial natural substances as nutraceuticals...
July 4, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Kamil Piska, Agnieszka Galanty, Paulina Koczurkiewicz, Paweł Żmudzki, Joanna Potaczek, Irma Podolak, Elżbieta Pękala
Usnic acid is a lichen compound which is extensively studied due to its cytotoxic, antiproliferative, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiprotozoal, and anti-inflammatory activities. Despite a broad spectrum of biological properties, usnic acid is a hepatotoxic agent, thus its potential use as a drug is limited. Certain hepatotoxic drugs may act by generating reactive metabolites that damage the liver. The aim of the study was to predict the biotransformation of usnic acid enantiomers to reactive products using a trapping assay with glutathione in human, rat, and mice liver microsomes...
July 4, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Fatma Zohra Ameur, Nabila Mehedi, Omar Kheroua, Djamel Saïdi, Gines M Salido, Antonio Gonzalez
We studied the effects of the tartrazine-metabolite sulfanilic acid on the physiology of pancreatic AR42J cells. Sulfanilic acid (1 μM-1 mM) induced a slow and progressive increase in intracellular free-calcium concentration that reached a plateau. The effect of sulfanilic acid was not concentration-dependent. Stimulation of cells with thapsigargin (1 μM) after treatment with sulfanilic acid (1 mM) induced a smaller Ca2+ response compared with that obtained with thapsigargin alone. Sulfanilic acid induced a concentration-dependent production of reactive oxygen species; however, this effect was not Ca2+ -dependent...
July 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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