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Food and Chemical Toxicology

Jinfeng Cui, Juan Wang, Shujuan Huang, Xiujuan Jiang, Yuehong Li, Wenxin Wu, Xianghong Zhang
Sterigmatocystin (ST), being a precursor of aflatoxin, is categorized as Group 2B carcinogen. Our previous studies found that both mismatch repair (MMR) pathways and p53 signaling pathway were involved in ST-induced G2 cell cycle arrest in human esophageal squamous epithelial cell line, HET-1A, in vitro. Studies showed that ERK, JNK and p38 signaling pathways played important roles in cell cycle arrest induced by several other carcinogens. However, the role of MAPK pathway and the links between the MMR and p53 signaling pathways in ST induced G2 phase arrest is still not clarified...
March 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Iram Iqbal Hejazi, Rashmin Khanam, Syed Hassan Mehdi, Abdul Roouf Bhat, M Moshahid Alam Rizvi, Sonu Chand Thakur, Fareeda Athar
Plant phytoconstituents have been a valuable source of clinically important anticancer agents. Antioxidant and anticancerous activity of plant Curculigo orchioides Gaertn were explored In vitro antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity of oxidatively stressed tissue, and cell culture studies on human cancer cell lines HepG2, HeLa and MCF-7 were carried out. Active plant fractions were subjected to GC-MS analysis and compounds selected on the basis of their abundance were screened in silico with the help of Auto Dock 4...
March 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Bjoern Titz, Ulrike Kogel, Florian Martin, Walter K Schlage, Yang Xiang, Catherine Nury, Sophie Dijon, Karine Baumer, Dariusz Peric, David Bornand, Remi Dulize, Blaine Phillips, Patrice Leroy, Gregory Vuillaume, Stefan Lebrun, Ashraf Elamin, Emmanuel Guedj, Keyur Trivedi, Nikolai V Ivanov, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) have the potential to reduce smoking-related health risks. The Carbon Heated Tobacco Product 1.2 (CHTP1.2) is a potential MRTP that uses a pressed carbon heat source to generate an aerosol by heating tobacco. Here, we report the results from the systems toxicology arm of a 90-day rat inhalation study (OECD test guideline 413) to assess the effects of CHTP1.2 aerosol compared with cigarette smoke (CS). Transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics analyses complemented the standard endpoints...
March 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Andrew J Lutkewitte, George G Schweitzer, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Melissa M Clemens, Laura P James, Hartmut Jaeschke, Brian N Finck, Mitchell R McGill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sandra Ventura, Márcio Rodrigues, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
Paullinia cupana-containing preparations are being consumed worldwide for weight reduction. As obesity and epilepsy are common comorbidities and lamotrigine (LTG) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug, it is likely to find epilepsy patients taking P. cupana and LTG simultaneously. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the potential interaction between P. cupana extract and LTG in rats. In a study, rats were orally co-administered with a single-dose of P. cupana extract (821 mg/kg) and LTG (10 mg/kg). In another study, rats were orally pre-treated for 14 days with P...
March 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Dan-Dan Hu, Xing-Long Chen, Xue-Rong Xiao, Yi-Kun Wang, Fang Liu, Qi Zhao, Xian Li, Xiu-Wei Yang, Fei Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
L Manyes, L Escrivá, M J Ruiz, A Juan-García
Several mycotoxins exert their effect on the immunological system; some are classified as immunotoxic. Jurkat T-cells were used to study toxic effects of beauvericin (BEA) and enniatin B (ENN B). Both are not legislated mycotoxins with increasing presence in feed and food. Concentrations studied were from 1 to 15 μM at 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell death by increasing the percentage of apoptotic/necrotic cells was: BEA > ENN B. IC50 values ranged from 3 to 7.5 μM for BEA. ENN B 15 μM decreased viability (21-29%)...
March 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ming-Qing Gao, Ruiqi Zhang, Yange Yang, Yuru Luo, Ming Jiang, Yingli Zhang, Yong Zhang, Suzhu Qing
Bovine mastitis is an infectious disease of the mammary gland which has been generally treated by antibiotic delivery. While the increasing drug-resistant bacteria and the high consumption of the antibiotic had become a noticeable concern. In a previous study, a mammary special vector expressing human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts to produce mastitis-resistant bovine. This investigation focused on potential unintended effects of transgenic milk containing hBD3 produced by these mastitis-resistant bovine on the reproductive system of C57BL/6J mice...
March 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Nathan C Twaddle, Michelle Vanlandingham, Frederick A Beland, Daniel R Doerge
Arsenic is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, and human diseases are linked with exposures that are similar to dietary intake estimates. Metabolic methylation of inorganic arsenic facilitates excretion of pentavalent metabolites and decreases acute toxicity; however, tissue binding of trivalent arsenic intermediates is evidence for concomitant metabolic activation. Pregnant and fetal CD-1 mice comprise a key animal model for arsenic carcinogenesis since adult-only exposures have minimal effects. This study evaluated inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in pentavalent and trivalent states in blood and tissues from maternal and fetal CD-1 mice after repeated administration of arsenite through drinking water...
March 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
David Álvarez-Cilleros, Sonia Ramos, Luis Goya, María Ángeles Martín
Oxidative stress is involved in endothelial dysfunction, the key player in the development of vascular events. Flavanols, the major antioxidants in cocoa have been related to vascular protection and lower cardiovascular risk. However, the bioavailability of cocoa flavanols is very low and their bioactivity in vivo seems to be greatly mediated by the derived phenolic metabolites formed by intestinal microbiota. Hence, we investigated whether microbial-derived flavanol metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DHPAA), 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (HPPA) and a mix of them could influence endothelial function and prevent oxidative stress in human endothelial cells (Ea...
March 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Birgit Dusemund, Nicole Nowak, Christine Sommerfeld, Oliver Lindtner, Bernd Schäfer, Alfonso Lampen
Acute liver toxicity, specifically in the form of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (HVOD), is known from reports on human poisonings following ingestions of 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) containing herbs. Recently PA exposure via common foods contaminated via PA-producing plants raised concern, especially regarding the potential of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The health risks related to the estimated exposures to PAs from food were assessed. With respect to common foods, herbal teas and teas are the main sources through which consumers can be exposed to PAs...
March 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Rafa S Almeer, Sahar M Mahmoud, Hatem K Amin, Ahmed E Abdel Moneim
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of Ziziphus spina-christi fruit extract (ZFE) against acetic acid (AcOH)-induced colitis in rats. Before a single AcOH instillation, ZFE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) was administered for 5 days by oral gavage. Pretreatment with ZFE at different doses suppressed the spread of inflammation and inhibited mucosal damage; in addition, it reduced ulcer size and mitigated colitis markers. Administration of ZFE (400 mg/kg) resulted in a greater reduction of inflammatory colonic injury than that after reference drug, mesalazine (MLZ), administration...
March 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jessica M Hummel, Erin P Madeen, Lisbeth K Siddens, Sandra L Uesugi, Tammie McQuistan, Kim A Anderson, Kenneth W Turteltaub, Ted J Ognibene, Graham Bench, Sharon K Krueger, Stuart Harris, Jordan Smith, Susan C Tilton, William M Baird, David E Williams
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is a known human carcinogen. In non-smoking adults greater than 95% of BaP exposure is through diet. The carcinogenicity of BaP is utilized by the U.S. EPA to assess relative potency of complex PAH mixtures. PAH relative potency factors (RPFs, BaP = 1) are determined from high dose animal data. We employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine pharmacokinetics of [14 C]-BaP in humans following dosing with 46 ng (an order of magnitude lower than human dietary daily exposure and million-fold lower than animal cancer models)...
March 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mauro Mozael Hirsch, Iohanna Deckmann, Mellanie Fontes-Dutra, Guilherme Bauer-Negrini, Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Walquiria Nunes, Bruna Rabelo, Rudimar Riesgo, Rogerio Margis, Victorio Bambini-Junior, Carmem Gottfried
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and language, and restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The etiology of ASD remains unknown and no clinical markers for diagnosis were identified. Environmental factors, including prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), may contribute to increased risk of developing ASD. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression and are frequently linked to biological processes affected in neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Dragana Dekanski, Biljana Spremo-Potparević, Vladan Bajić, Lada Živković, Dijana Topalović, Dušan N Sredojević, Vesna Lazić, Jovan M Nedeljković
The acute toxicity of surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with caffeic acid (CA) was compared with those of its separate constituents (free CA and bare TiO2 NPs) upon their oral administration in laboratory mice. Prior to in vivo experiments, the interfacial charge transfer (ICT) complex between surface Ti atoms and CA is thoroughly characterized. Composition and stability constants of ICT complex were determined using Job's method and Banesi-Hildebrand analysis, respectively. The experimental data were supported with quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT)...
March 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
H-M Burger, S Abel, W C A Gelderblom
Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ), a group 2B natural occurring carcinogenic mycotoxin, modulated lipid and fatty acid (FA) constituents of lipid rafts isolated from primary hepatocytes following exposure to a cytotoxic concentration of FB1 (250 μM). The major effects observed in rafts, included a significant (p < 0.05) increase in raft cholesterol (CHOL) and glycerophospholipid such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), whereas sphingomyelin (SM) decreased (p < 0.05). Changes in lipid constituents resulted in the disruption of important membrane fluidity parameters represented as a decreased (p < 0...
March 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Chiara Copat, Alfina Grasso, Maria Fiore, Antonio Cristaldi, Pietro Zuccarello, Salvatore Santo Signorelli, Gea Oliveri Conti, Margherita Ferrante
Fish and shellfish belonging to five different species among pelagic, benthonic and molluscs, were collected from the Gulf of Catania in 2017 to evaluate arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn). Risk of developing chronic systemic effects derived from seafood consumption was evaluated with the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and compared with the results obtained from the same area and the species, collected in 2012. Hg, Cd and Pb concentrations were found below the limits set by European Community for human consumption in all the analyzed species...
March 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Filippo Zanetti, Alain Sewer, Elena Scotti, Bjoern Titz, Walter K Schlage, Patrice Leroy, Athanasios Kondylis, Gregory Vuillaume, Anita R Iskandar, Emmanuel Guedj, Keyur Trivedi, Thomas Schneider, Ashraf Elamin, Florian Martin, Nikolai V Ivanov, Stefan Frentzel, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Cigarette smoke (CS) is affecting considerably the oral mucosa. Heating, instead of burning, tobacco reduces consistently the amount of toxic compounds and may exert a lower impact on oral health than combusted cigarettes. The carbon-heated tobacco product 1.2 (CHTP1.2) is a potential modified risk tobacco product (MRTP) based on heat-not-burn technology. Using a systems toxicology assessment framework, we compared the effects of exposure to CHTP1.2 aerosol with those of CS from a reference cigarette (3R4F)...
March 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yangfei Zhao, Yanyan Li, Yufeng Gao, Mengke Yuan, Ram Kumar Manthari, Jinming Wang, Jundong Wang
It is well known that excess fluoride intake can result in fluorosis, which is a serious public health problem. TGF-β1 affects a wide variety of cellular activities and plays an important role in fluorosis. Recent literature proved that fluoride induces autophagy, however, the mechanism is still unclear, and the role of TGF-β1 in the fluoride-induced autophagy should be further illustrated. Therefore, in this study, plasmids and small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to overexpress and silence the TGF-β1 expression in the osteoblasts cells...
March 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Anita R Iskandar, Florian Martin, Patrice Leroy, Walter K Schlage, Carole Mathis, Bjorn Titz, Kondylis Athanasios, Thomas Schneider, Grégory Vuillaume, Alain Sewer, Emmanuel Guedj, Keyur Trivedi, Ashraf Elamin, Stefan Frentzel, Nikolai V Ivanov, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
The biological impact of an aerosol of a potential modifiedrisk tobacco product, carbon heated tobacco product 1.2 (CHTP1.2), was comprehensively assessed for the first time in vitro using human small airway and nasal epithelial models following a systems toxicology approach. The potentially reduced effects of CHTP1.2 aerosol exposure were benchmarked against those of 3R4F cigarette smoke at similar nicotine concentrations. Experimental repetitions were conducted for which new batches of small airway and nasal cultures were exposed to CHTP1...
March 1, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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