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Food and Chemical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450127/carcinogenicity-of-consumption-of-red-meat-and-processed-meat-a-review-of-scientific-news-since-the-iarc-decision
#1
REVIEW
José L Domingo, Martí Nadal
In October 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) issued a press release on the results of the evaluation of the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat. Based on the accumulated scientific literature, the consumption of red meat was classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and processed meat as "carcinogenic to humans". Given the importance of this topic, this review was aimed at revising the current state-of-the-art on the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat, some time after the IARC decision...
April 24, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442411/evaluation-of-the-bioactive-extract-of-actinomyces-isolated-from-the-egyptian-environment-against-aflatoxin-b1-induce-cytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-liver-of-rats
#2
Aziza A El-Nekeety, Asmaa S Salman, Amal S Hathout, Bassem A Sabry, Sekena H Abdel-Aziem, Nabila S Hassan, Mosaad A Abdel-Wahhab
This study aimed to determine the bioactive compounds of actinomyces (ACT) isolated from the Egyptian environment (D-EGY) and to evaluate their protective activity against AFB1 in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Six groups of animals were treated orally for 3 weeks included: C, the control group, T1, AFB1-treated group (80 μg/kg b.w), T2 and T3, the groups received ACT extract at low (25 mg/kg b.w) or high (50 mg/kg b.w) doses, T4 and T5, the groups received AFB1 plus the low or high dose of ACT extract. Blood, bone marrow and tissue samples were collected for different analyses and histological examination...
April 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442413/cytoprotective-action-against-oxidative-stress-in-astrocytes-and-neurons-by-bactris-guineensis-l-h-e-moore-corozo-fruit-extracts
#3
Sergio López, Mitchell Martá, Luis Gonzalo Sequeda, Crispin Celis, Jhon Jairo Sutachan, Sonia Luz Albarracín
Neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are characterized by having a significant increase in oxidative stress that can lead to the cellular damage of both neurons and astrocytes. Therefore, the search for molecules that can modulate oxidative stress in these diseases has recently gain interest, especially for those non-traditional antioxidants that can be gained from diet. In the present work, pulp and seed extracts from the fruit of the palm, Bactris guineensis were obtained by hydro-alcoholic solution and by a solid-liquid phase using solvents with different polarities and evaluated for their capacity to protect both neurons and astrocytes against rotenone-induced oxidative stress...
April 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442412/hsccc-separation-and-enantiomeric-distribution-of-key-volatile-constituents-of-piper-claussenianum-miq-c-dc-piperaceae
#4
André M Marques, Catharina E Fingolo, Maria Auxiliadora C Kaplan
High Speed Countercurrent Chromatography (HSCCC) technique was used for the preparative isolation of the major leishmanicidal compounds from the essential oils of Piper claussenianum species in Brazil. The essential oils from inflorescences of P. claussenianum were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The enantiomeric ratio of the major constituents of the P. claussenianum essential oils were determined using a Rt-DEXsm chiral capillary column by GC-FID analysis. It was found an enantiomeric excess of (+)-(E)-nerolidol in the leaves, and (+)-linalool and (+)-(E)-nerolidol in the inflorescences essential oil...
April 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442410/subchronic-feeding-study-of-high-free-lysine-transgenic-rice-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
Qing-Qing Yang, Xiao-Yun He, Hong-Yu Wu, Chang-Quan Zhang, Shi-Ying Zou, Tian-Qi Lang, Samuel Sai-Ming Sun, Qiao-Quan Liu
Lysine is considered to be the first essential amino acid in rice. An elite High-Free-Lysine transgenic line HFL1 was previously produced by metabolic engineering to regulate lysine metabolism. In this study, a 90-day toxicology experiment was undertaken to investigate the potential health effect of feeding different doses of HFL1 rice to Sprague-Dawley rats. During the trial, body weight gain, food consumption and food efficiency were recorded, and no adverse effect was observed in rats fed transgenic (T) rice diets compared with non-transgenic (N) or control diets...
April 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428086/evaluation-of-garlic-oil-in-nano-emulsified-form-optimization-and-its-efficacy-in-high-fat-diet-induced-dyslipidemia-in-wistar-rats
#6
Gokulakannan Ragavan, Yuvashree Muralidaran, Badrinathan Sridharan, Rajesh Nachiappa Ganesh, Pragasam Viswanathan
Garlic oil nanoemulsion was formulated using ultrasonic emulsification and the optimized garlic oil nanoemulsion ratio (1:2) of oil: surfactant showed spherical, with tiny droplet size 24.9 ± 1.11 nm. It was observed that the prepared nanoemulsion has the zeta potential of -42.63 ± 1.58 mV and a low polydispersity index of 0.2 ± 0.09 with excellent stability. The formulation was subjected to in vivo acute and sub-acute toxicity. In acute toxicity study, single oral administration of 18.63 ml of garlic oil nanoemulsion/kg resulted in immediate mortality...
April 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428085/galloylation-of-polyphenols-alters-their-biological-activity
#7
REVIEW
Daniel Karas, Jitka Ulrichová, Kateřina Valentová
Polyphenols form one of the largest groups of natural compounds and possess a wide range of biological properties. These activities can be influenced by the galloyl moiety within their structures. A multitude of galloylated polyphenolic compounds occurs in nature, but galloylated phenols are also produced synthetically to influence their biological properties. This review provides a comprehensive summary of current knowledge about natural (galloylated catechins, theaflavins and proanthocyanidins, penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, gallotannins, ellagitannins, ellagic acid and flavonols) and semisynthetic gallates with a focus on their biological activity and toxicity issues...
April 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428084/metabolomics-of-fescue-toxicosis-in-grazing-beef-steers
#8
Ryan S Mote, Nicholas S Hill, Karan Uppal, ViLinh T Tran, Dean P Jones, Nikolay M Filipov
Fescue toxicosis (FT) results from consumption of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with an endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) that produces ergot alkaloids (EA), which are considered key etiological agents of FT. Decreased weight gains, hormonal imbalance, circulating cholesterol disruption, and decreased volatile fatty acid absorption suggest toxic (E+) fescue-induced metabolic perturbations. Employing untargeted high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) to analyze E+ grazing-induced plasma and urine metabolome changes, fescue-naïve Angus steers were placed on E+ or non-toxic (Max-Q) fescue pastures and plasma and urine were sampled before, 1, 2, 14, and 28 days after pasture assignment...
April 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428088/modulatory-effect-of-curcumin-against-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-cisplatin-and-methotrexate-in-male-mice
#9
Noha Ibrahim Said Salem, Magda Mohammad Noshy, Azza Ali Said
The use of dietary antioxidants to modulate the toxic side effects induced by the anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy is currently eliciting considerable interest. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective role of the antioxidant curcumin (CMN) against genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by cisplatin and methotrexate. Male mice were administered CMN orally in the dosages of 60, 90, and 120 mg/kg for three consecutive days before a single intraperitoneal injection of either cisplatin (6...
April 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428087/searching-for-new-sources-of-innovative-products-for-the-food-industry-within-halophyte-aromatic-plants-in-vitro-antioxidant-activity-and-phenolic-and-mineral-contents-of-infusions-and-decoctions-of-crithmum-maritimum-l
#10
Catarina Guerreiro Pereira, Luísa Barreira, Nuno da Rosa Neng, José Manuel Florêncio Nogueira, Cátia Marques, Tamára F Santos, João Varela, Luísa Custódio
Aromatic halophyte plants are an outstanding source of bioactive compounds and natural products with potential use in the food industry. This work reports the in vitro antioxidant activity, toxicity, polyphenolic profile and mineral contents of infusions and decoctions from stems, leaves and flowers of Crithmum maritimum L., an aromatic and edible maritime halophyte (sea fennel). Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) Dahlg. (rooibos) herbal tea was used as a reference. Sea fennel's tisanes, particularly from leaves, were rich in phenolic compounds and five of them (p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids, epicatechin, pyrocatechol and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) were here described in C...
April 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419849/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-isoamyl-formate-cas-registry-number-110-45-2
#11
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, D Browne, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, P Calow, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, A D Fryer, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, R Parakhia, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, Y Thakkar, S Tsang, J Wahler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416272/biocidal-effects-of-piper-hispidinervum-piperaceae-essential-oil-and-synergism-among-its-main-components
#12
M F Andrés, G E Rossa, E Cassel, R M F Vargas, O Santana, C E Díaz, A González-Coloma
In this study we evaluated the effect of a pressure gradient (1-2 atm) in the extraction and composition of the essential oil (EO) of Piper hispidinervum by steam distillation. We also evaluated the insect antifeedant effects (Spodoptera littoralis, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi) and nematicidal activity (Meloidogyne javanica) of the oils, their major components and their synergistic interactions. Safrole was the major component (78-81%) followed by terpinolene (5-9%). The EOs tested were effective insect antifeedants...
April 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414122/rifm-fragrance-ingredient-safety-assessment-isononyl-propionate-cas-registry-number-65155-45-5
#13
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, D Browne, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, P Calow, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, A D Fryer, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, R Parakhia, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, Y Thakkar, S Tsang, J Wahler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414124/roles-of-pirnas-in-microcystin-leucine-arginine-mc-lr-induced-reproductive-toxicity-in-testis-on-male-offspring
#14
Ling Zhang, Hui Zhang, Huan Zhang, Mikael Benson, Xiaodong Han, Dongmei Li
In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects on the testis of the male offspring of MC-LR exposure during fetal and lactational periods. Pregnant females were distributed into two experimental groups: control group and MC-LR group which were exposed to 0 and 10 μg/L of MC-LR, respectively, through drinking water separately during fetal and lactational periods. At the age of 30 days after birth, the male offspring were euthanized. The body weight, testis index, and histomorphology change were observed and the global changes of piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) expression were evaluated...
April 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414123/anti-factor-xa-activities-of-zingerone-with-anti-platelet-aggregation-activity
#15
Wonhwa Lee, Sae-Kwang Ku, Mi-Ae Kim, Jong-Sup Bae
Zingerone (ZGR), a phenolic alkanone found in Zingiber officinale, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and protecting myocardial infarction and irritable bowel disorder. The aim was to identify the unreported bioactive anti-factor Xa (FXa) and anti-platelet activities of ZGR. ZGR was evaluated for their anti-FXa and anti-platelet aggregation properties by monitoring clotting time, platelet aggregation, FXa activity and production, and thrombus formation...
April 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412404/development-of-human-biotransformation-qsars-and-application-for-pbt-assessment-refinement
#16
Ester Papa, Alessandro Sangion, Jon A Arnot, Paola Gramatica
Toxicokinetics heavily influence chemical toxicity as the result of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism (Biotransformation) and Elimination (ADME) processes. Biotransformation (metabolism) reactions can lead to detoxification or, in some cases, bioactivation of parent compounds to more toxic chemicals. Moreover, biotransformation has been recognized as a key process determining chemical half-life in an organism and is thus a key determinant for bioaccumulation assessment for many chemicals. This study addresses the development of QSAR models for the prediction of in vivo whole body human biotransformation (metabolism) half-lives measured or empirically-derived for over 1000 chemicals, mainly represented by pharmaceuticals...
April 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412406/chemical-toxicity-prediction-for-major-classes-of-industrial-chemicals-is-it-possible-to-develop-universal-models-covering-cosmetics-drugs-and-pesticides
#17
Vinicius M Alves, Eugene N Muratov, Alexey Zakharov, Nail N Muratov, Carolina H Andrade, Alexander Tropsha
Computational models have earned broad acceptance for assessing chemical toxicity during early stages of drug discovery or environmental safety assessment. The majority of publicly available QSAR toxicity models have been developed for datasets including mostly drugs or drug-like compounds. We have evaluated and compared chemical spaces occupied by cosmetics, drugs, and pesticides, and explored whether current computational models of toxicity endpoints can be universally applied to all these chemicals. Our analysis of the chemical space overlap and applicability domain (AD) of models built previously for twenty different toxicity endpoints showed that most of these models afforded high coverage (>90%) for all three classes of compounds analyzed herein...
April 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412405/consumption-and-exposure-assessment-to-cosmetic-products-for-children-under-2-years-old
#18
Marie-Pierre Gomez-Berrada, Anne-Sophie Ficheux, Sonia Guillou, Carole Berge, Dominique de Javel, Alain-Claude Roudot, Pierre-Jacques Ferret
Today, the use of personal care products is an integral part of daily life. Little information about children's consumption and exposure to cosmetic products is available. The aim of the study was to assess the consumption and the exposure of French babies aged 0-23 months old to seven common baby care products: shampoo, shower gel, cleansing water, cleansing milk, moisturizing cream, bottom cream and wipes. Consumption and exposure were assessed using small age intervals in order to identify any differences...
April 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412403/a-further-development-of-the-qnar-model-to-predict-the-cellular-uptake-of-nanoparticles-by-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#19
Feng Luan, Lili Tang, Lihong Zhang, Shuang Zhang, Maykel Cruz Monteagudo, M Natália D S Cordeiro
Nanotechnology has led to the development of new nanomaterials with unique properties and a wide variety of applications. In the present study, we focused on the cellular uptake of a group of nanoparticles with a single metal core by pancreatic cancer cells, which has been studied by Yap et al. (Rsc Advances, 2012, 2 (2):8489-8496) using classification models. In this work, the development of a further Quantitative Nanostructure-Activity Relationship (QNAR) model was performed by linear multiple linear regression (MLR) and nonlinear artificial neural network (ANN) techniques to accurately predict the cellular uptake values of these compounds by dividing them into three groups...
April 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412402/flavonoid-composition-of-orange-peel-extract-ameliorates-alcohol-induced-tight-junction-dysfunction-in-caco-2-monolayer
#20
Xiu-Min Chen, David D Kitts
Dry citrus peels, also known as "chenpi", have been traditionally used to treat and relieve intestinal inflammation. Recently we have reported that orange peel extracts (OPE) which contain relatively greater polymethoxylated flavone (PMF) content exhibit superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. Moreover, these bioactivities were notably greater than an equivalent flavonoid mixture (FM). The present study compares the effects of different OPE sources with distinct PMF composition on tight junction (TJ) dysfunction induced by ethanol...
April 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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