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Food and Chemical Toxicology

Bahareh Ghasemidehkordi, Ali Akbar Malekirad, Habibollah Nazem, Mohammad Fazilati, Hossein Salavati, Nabi Shariatifar, Mohammad Rezaei, Yadolah Fakhri, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, L Jones, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Daniel O Carvalho, Jaime Freitas, Patrícia Nogueira, Sónia N Henriques, Alexandre M Carmo, Mónica A Castro, Luís F Guido
The cell growth inhibitory potential of xanthohumol (XN), a natural prenylflavonoid present in hops and beer, on human papillary thyroid cancer cells is reported. We demonstrate that XN decreases the proliferation of TPC-1 cancer cells in a dose and time dependent manners. At low concentration (10 μM) XN was shown to significantly inhibit carcinogenesis by a mechanism that stops or slows down cell division, preserving the viability of the cells. At higher concentration (100 μM) a decrease of cell viability was observed by induction of apoptosis...
September 18, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, L Jones, K Joshi, S La Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, N Sadekar, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, G Sullivan, Y Thakkar, Y Tokura, S Tsang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
María Puerto, Ana I Prieto, Sara Maisanaba, Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena, Pilar Mellado-García, Ángeles Jos, Ana M Cameán
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin with an increasing world-wide occurrence. The main route of human exposure is through the ingestion of contaminated food and water. The European Food Safety Authority has identified the need to further characterize the toxicological profile of cyanotoxins and in this regard the genotoxicity is a key toxicological effect. The data available in the scientific literature show contradictory results. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of pure CYN using a battery of different in vitro assays including: the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test) (0-10 μg/mL), the mammalian cell micronucleus (MN) test (0-1...
September 18, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Soo-Min Kim, Kyung-A Hwang, Dal-Woong Choi, Kyung-Chul Choi
Cigarette smoke (CS) causes about 480,000 deaths each year worldwide and is well-known to have harmful effects on the human body, leading to heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and cardiovascular problems. In the present study, the effects of acrylonitrile (AN), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), formaldehyde (FOR), isoprene (ISO), nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), which are the main components of CS, on the proliferation, invasion, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of human Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cells were investigated...
September 17, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yong Tian, Yao Li, Fuhua Li, Qi Zhi, Fuxiang Li, Yu Tang, Yaxuan Yang, Ran Yin, Jian Ming
Coreopsis tinctoria flowers, a well-known medicinal and edible plant, have been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its protective effects and underlying mechanisms on liver injury remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which Coreopsis tinctoria flowers phenolic extract (CTP) alleviated D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS) induced acute liver injury in mice. Our results showed that pretreatment with CTP improved liver histology while decreased levels of serum aminotransferase and malondialdehyde...
September 17, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hyun-Dong Cho, Kwang-Deog Moon, Ki-Hun Park, Yong-Suk Lee, Kwon-Il Seo
Angiogenesis plays an important role in various pathological conditions such as cancer via excessive delivery of oxygen and nutrients. Recent studies have demonstrated that understanding the molecular basis of natural agents in angiogenesis is critical for the development of promising cancer therapeutics. In this study, auriculasin, an active component from Flemingia philippinensis, was found to exert strong anti-angiogenesis activity. Treatment with auriculasin suppressed proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by modulating expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL , and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
September 17, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hui Zhi, Jiang-Ping Wu, Lin-Ming Lu, Yan Li, Xiao-Yun Chen, Jun Tao, Bi-Xian Mai
Growing epidemiological evidence is substantiating an association between exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and incidence of atherosclerosis. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is a new POP which presents extensively in human populations; whether this contaminant is potentially arteriosclerotic remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of BDE-209 on macrophage-derived foam cell formation, a hallmark of early atherosclerosis, using THP-1-derived macrophages incubated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) as a foam cell model...
September 16, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
M Alonso-Garrido, L Escrivá, L Manyes, G Font
Enniatin B is a ionophoric and lipophilic mycotoxin which reaches the bloodstream and has the ability to penetrate into cellular membranes. The purpose of this study was to reveal changes in the gene expression profile caused by enniatin B in human Jurkat lymphoblastic T-cells after 24 h of exposure at 1.5, 3 and 5 μM by next generation sequencing. It was found that up to 27% of human genome expression levels were significantly altered (5750 genes for both down-regulation and up-regulation). In the three enniatin B concentrations studied 245 differentially expressed genes were found to be overlapped, 83 were down and 162 up-regulated...
September 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ahmed R G, A W El-Gareib
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gestational administrations of arsenic trioxide (ATO; As2 O3 ) on fetal neuroendocrine development (the thyroid-cerebrum axis). 5 or 10 mg ATO/kg was administered to pregnant rats (Rattus norvegicus) by gavage from gestation day (GD) 1-20. Both doses of ATO showed diminished free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels, and augmented thyrotropin (TSH) level in both dams and fetuses at GD 20. Also, the maternofetal hypothyroidism in both groups resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-II at embryonic day (ED) 20...
September 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ana Peropadre, Paloma Fernández Freire, María José Hazen
Perfluorooctanoic acid has been used widespread, during the last decades, in a number of consumer and industrial products. Although this compound has been subjected to extensive epidemiological and toxicological studies, limited data are available concerning its potential dermal toxicity in mammalian cells. In this study, we used a two-stage approach with relevant cytotoxicity endpoints including cell viability and proliferation, oxidative stress, DNA damage and cell senescence to assess the immediate and the long-lasting or delayed cytotoxicity caused by the compound in HaCaT keratinocytes...
September 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hanseul Park, Jee-Hyun Hwang, Ji-Seok Han, Byoung-Seok Lee, Yong-Bum Kim, Kyung-Mi Joo, Min-Seok Choi, Sun-A Cho, Bae-Hwan Kim, Kyung-Min Lim
Permanent oxidative hair dyes are widely used but their toxicity is not well-established. Here we aimed to evaluate the skin sensitization and irritation of nine hair dye substances (MAP, MRP-N, RS, PAOX, 2,4-DAPE, 2,6-PYR, PPD, Grey HED and PM) permitted for use in EU and Korea, using in vitro and in chemico and in silico test methods. Skin sensitization was evaluated by the KeratinoSens™ assay, Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) and DEREK. Six of nine dyes tested were determined as sensitizers in common...
September 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Paula Moyano, José Manuel García, Margarita Lobo, María José Anadón, Emma Sola, Adela Pelayo, Jimena García, María Teresa Frejo, Javier Del Pino
Cadmium, a neurotoxic environmental compound, produces cognitive disorders, although the mechanism remains unknown. Cadmium induces a more pronounced cell death on cholinergic neurons from basal forebrain (BF), mediated, in part, by increase in Aβ and total and phosphorylated Tau protein levels, which may explain cadmium effects on learning and memory processes. Cadmium downregulates the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) HSP 90, HSP70 and HSP27, and of HSF1, the master regulator of the HSP pathway. HSPs proteins reduce the production of Aβ and phosphorylated Tau proteins and avoid cell death pathways induction...
September 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Oana Stanciu, Cristina Juan, Doina Miere, Houda Berrada, Felicia Loghin, Jordi Mañes
In this study, a dietary exposure assessment of mycotoxins was conducted for the Romanian population using the contamination data of a various categories of wheat-based products for direct human consumption. Wheat-based foods (n = 181) commercialized in Romania, including flour, bread, biscuits, breakfast cereals and pasta, were evaluated by GC-QqQ-MS/MS for the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3AcDON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15AcDON), fusarenon-X, nivalenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxins, diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol and zearalenone (ZEA)...
September 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Eugenie Nepovimova, Kamil Kuca
The Cold War period is characterized by the infighting between the Western countries and the USSR in diverse areas. One of such fields was development of the weapons of mass destruction. Within various programs on both sides, a wide scale of different agents have been developed. However, information about some of them are still protected under the designation "top secret". Notwithstanding, in history several cases are known when such information beheld the daylight. One of such cases was the program FOLIANT and NOVICHOK...
September 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
C Sieke
Cumulative dietary risks for the German population owing to pesticide residues in foods were assessed using food monitoring and consumption data. Based on grouping principles for cumulative assessment groups (CAG) as defined by the European Food Safety Authority, probabilistic modelling gave cumulative long- and short-term dietary exposures relevant to the nervous and thyroid system. Compound specific toxicological reference values were considered to assess the total margins of exposure (MoEs) for each CAG, allowing an assessment of the cumulative dietary consumer risk...
September 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Marta Oliveira, Filipa Gomes, Álvaro Torrinha, Maria João Ramalhosa, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Simone Morais
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent pollutants that have been raising global concern due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. A total of 18 PAHs (16 USEPA priority compounds, benzo(j)fluoranthene and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene) were assessed in the edible tissues of raw octopus (Octopus vulgaris, Octopus maya, and Eledone cirrhosa) from six geographical origins available to Portuguese consumers. Inter- and intra-species comparison was statistically performed. The concentrations of total PAHs (∑PAHs) ranged between 8...
September 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Love Sharma, Nazir A Lone, Rachel M Knott, Adil Hassan, Tasduq Abdullah
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often linked with impaired hepatic autophagy. Here, we studied the alterations in hepatocellular autophagy by high cholesterol and high-fat diet (HC-HF) diet in C57BL/6J mice, and by palmitic acid (PA), in AML-12 and HepG2 cells. Further, we analysed role of Trigonelline (TG), a plant alkaloid, in preventing NAFLD, by modulating autophagy. For this, C57BL/6J mice were fed with Standard Chow (SC) or HC-HF diet, with and without TG for 16 weeks. In-vitro; AML-12 cells and HepG2 cells, were exposed to PA with and without TG, for 24 h...
September 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Suck Hoon Oh, Yong Pil Hwang, Jae Ho Choi, Sun Woo Jin, Gi Ho Lee, Eun Hee Han, Young Ho Chung, Young Chul Chung, Hye Gwang Jeong
Kahweol is a coffee-specific diterpene found in the beans of Coffea arabica and has been reported to demonstrate various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and apoptotic properties. In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanism of kahweol in human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Kahweol preferentially inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death through the induction of a caspase 3-dependent pathway in HER2-overexpression breast cancer cell lines...
September 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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