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Suman Chakraborty
Microfluidics based lab-on-a-chip technology holds tremendous promises towards point-of-care diagnosis of diseases as well was for developing engineered devices aimed towards replicating the intrinsic functionalities of human bodies as mediated by blood vessel-mimicking circulatory networks. While the analysis of transport of blood including its unique cellular constituents has remained to be the focus of many reported studies, a progressive interest on understanding the interplay between electric field and blood flow dynamics has paved a new way towards further developments from scientific, engineering as well as clinical viewpoint...
September 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
Yanjuan Wang, Junsheng Wang, Xudong Wu, Zong Jiang, Wei Wang
The composition of the ship's ballast water is complex and contains a large number of microalgae cells, bacterial, microplastics and other microparticles. To increase the accuracy and efficiency of detection of the microalgae cells in ballast water, a new microfluidic chip for continuous separation of microalgae cells based on AC dielectrophoresis was proposed. In this microfluidic chip, one piece of 3-dimensional electrode is embedded in one side of the microchannel and 8 discrete electrodes are arranged on the other side of the microchannel...
September 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
Shengyun Huang, Erwin Adams, Ann Van Schepdael
A separation method for O6 -benzylguanine (O6 -BG) and 8-Oxo-O6 -Benzylguanine (8-Oxo-O6 -BG) is developed by using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). This study includes the optimization of separation and incubation parameters for both off-line and on-line procedures. The background electrolyte (BGE) consisted of 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer-methanol (70:30, v/v), apparent pH 7.4, in which sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin were dissolved yielding final concentrations of 50 mM and 15 mM, respectively...
September 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
Praveen Maurye, Arpita Basu, Malay Naskar, Tapas Kumar Bandyopadhyay, Jayanta Kumar Biswas
Recent advancements in biochemical sciences have facilitated researchers to explore the structure and function of macro molecules in a cell. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is one of the most favored and adapted laboratory techniques. Due to its simple and economical procedures, several variants or new modifications are routinely observed in the basic electrophoresis technique that comprises gel casting, electrophoresis, staining, and imaging process which consequently necessitates additional apparatuses/components in the laboratory...
September 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
Rachel Houston, Carrie Mayes, Jonathan L King, Sheree Hughes-Stamm, David Gangitano
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is an emerging technology in the field of forensic genetics that provides distinct advantages compared to capillary electrophoresis CE. This study offers a proof of concept that MPS technologies can be applied to genotype autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) in Cannabis sativa. A custom panel for MPS was designed to interrogate 12 cannabis-specific STR loci by sequence rather than size. A simple workflow was implemented to integrate the custom PCR multiplex into a workflow compatible with the Ion Plus Fragment Library Kit, Ion™ Chef, and Ion™ S5 System...
September 16, 2018: Electrophoresis
Maddalena Cagnone, Roberta Salvini, Anna Bardoni, Marco Fumagalli, Paolo Iadarola, Simona Viglio
Detection of proteins which may be potential biomarkers of disorders represents a big step forward in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie pathological processes. In this context proteomics plays the important role of opening a path for the identification of molecular signatures that can potentially assist in early diagnosis of several clinical disturbances. Aim of this report is to provide an overview of the wide variety of proteomic strategies that have been applied to the investigation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a severe disorder that causes an irreversible damage to the lungs and for which there is no cure yet...
September 14, 2018: Electrophoresis
Jingren Deng, Fumio Ikenishi, Nicole Smith, Iulia M Lazar
Modern high-throughput and high-content biological research is performed with advanced instrumentation and complex and time-consuming protocols, which, as a whole, pose a challenge for routine implementation in a research laboratory. In support of a "bioanalytical toolbox" with potential utility for exploring cellular functions mediated via protein phosphorylation-a postranslational modification (PTM) with essential regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes-in this work, we describe the development of a simple, integrated microfluidic chip that can perform targeted, quantitative analysis of phosphopeptides involved in cancer-relevant signaling pathways...
September 14, 2018: Electrophoresis
Jessica S Creamer, Maria F Mora, Peter A Willis
The search for biosignatures on spaceflight missions requires in situ instrumentation capable of highly selective and sensitive organic analyses. To this end, capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) is a uniquely promising technique, capable of determining the type, abundance, and chirality of amino acids present in environmental samples at nanomolar concentrations. However, this type of assay requires several reagents that have not yet been used on spaceflight missions...
September 14, 2018: Electrophoresis
S Thompson, Dimitri Pappas
This review focuses on fluorescence spectroscopy techniques for the investigation of electrophoretic separations. Fluorescence has been used as a sensitive detector for capillary, gel, and microchip electrophoresis for decades. However, advanced fluorescence methods can be used to study transport, interfacial phenomena, intermolecular and affinity interactions, and other processes that occur during separation. This so-called spectroscopic toolkit can be implemented to understand fundamental behavior in electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography...
September 12, 2018: Electrophoresis
Aiying Yu, Jingfu Zhao, Wenjing Peng, Alireza Banazadeh, Seth D Williamson, Mona Goli, Yifan Huang, Yehia Mechref
Protein glycosylation, an important post-translational modification, plays an essential role in a wide range of biological processes such as immune response, intercellular signaling, inflammation, and host-pathogen interaction. Aberrant glycosylation has been correlated with various diseases. However, studying protein glycosylation remains challenging because of low abundance, microheterogeneities of glycosylation sites and poor ionization efficiency of glycopeptides. Therefore, the development of sensitive and accurate approaches to characterize protein glycosylation is crucial...
September 11, 2018: Electrophoresis
Xue Dong, Yifan Huang, Byeong G Cho, Jieqiang Zhong, Sakshi Gautam, Wenjing Peng, Seth D Williamson, Alireza Banazadeh, Katya Y Torres-Ulloa, Yehia Mechref
The diversification of the chemical properties and biological functions of proteins is attained through posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Glycans, which are covalently attached to proteins, play a vital role in cell activities. The microheterogeneity and complexity of glycan structures associated with proteins make comprehensive glycomics analysis challenging. However, recent advancements in mass spectrometry (MS), separation techniques, and sample preparation methods have primarily facilitated structural elucidation and quantitation of glycans...
September 10, 2018: Electrophoresis
Xiaobo Gao, Yuxiao Li
In this paper, we numerically investigated a multifunctional AC electrothermal (ACET) micropump embedded with an asymmetric spiral microelectrode pair in a cylindrical microchannel for simultaneous pumping and mixing in high-conductivity fluids, which makes the pump useful for biofluid applications. When an AC signal was applied to the asymmetric spiral electrode pair, the vortices induced on the electrode surfaces with centerlines along the corresponding spiral electrode length exhibit a spiral distribution, and the net flow in the cylindrical microchannel is generated by the ACET effect...
September 8, 2018: Electrophoresis
Deying Kong, Zilin Chen
Because of unique properties like permanent porosity, low density and large surface area, covalent organic frameworks are attractive microporous materials as stationary phase for CEC. Among them, COF-TpPa-1 possesses extraordinary chemical stability and common features of covalent organic frameworks. So, COF-TpPa-1 could be a promising material as stationary phase to enhance separation selectivity and tolerate the acid or alkaline electrochromatographic separation conditions. Here, we report the preparation of COF-TpPa-1 modified capillary column by in situ growth for electrochromatographic separation...
September 8, 2018: Electrophoresis
Anil Koklu, Amin Mansoorifar, Ali Beskok
Electrode polarization (EP) is inevitable in high conductivity buffers at low AC frequencies due to the accumulation of free charges at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Electrode miniaturization increases EP effect on impedance measurements. In this paper, six gold planar (GP) electrodes having different diameters (100 µm ≤ ϕ ≤ 4000 µm) were used to investigate the size effect on EP with parallel plate electrode geometry. GP electrode surface was electrochemically deposited with gold nanostructures (GNs) to minimize the EP effect...
September 8, 2018: Electrophoresis
Cihan Demir, Çiğdem Kip, Ali Tuncel
Organosilicon monoliths carrying chromatographic ligands with different alkyl chain lengths were obtained by thiol-methacrylate photopolymerization. The use of thiol-ene chemistry in the presence of a main monomer with a series of methacrylate functionality (i.e. methacrylate substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, POSS-MA) allowed the synthesis of organosilicon monoliths with high crosslinking density and carrying hydrophobic alkyl-chain ligands by a one-pot process. In the synthesis runs, 1-butanethiol (BT), 1-octanethiol (OT) and 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) were used as the hydrophobic thiol ligands with the number of methylene units between 4-18...
September 8, 2018: Electrophoresis
Christian Willberger, Samer Amayri, Tobias Reich
The rate constants k of the reduction of 5  ×  10-5  M Np(V) to Np(IV) by hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HAHCl) in 1 M HCl have been determined by CE-ICP-MS in the temperature range of ϑ  = 30-70°C and with varying concentrations of HAHCl from 1 M to 7.2 M. The reaction was found to have (pseudo)first order kinetics with respect to HAHCl. The experimental results for k ranged from 0.0029(1) min-1 (ϑ  =  40°C, c(HAHCl)  =  3 M) to 0.039(7) min-1 (ϑ  =  60°C, c(HAHCl)  =  7.2 M). The activation energy of the reaction was determined as EA   =  (72 ± 10) kJ/mol...
September 7, 2018: Electrophoresis
Rui Liu, Qiong Huang, Zhenhua Zhu, Yan Zhang, Dawei Qian, Jin-Ao Duan
In the present study, a quantitative proteomic approach was used to analyse and compare the proteome in horns from endangered species (rhinoceros, Saiga antelope, and Tibetan antelope) and common species (yak, water buffalo, and goat) based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. In total, 591 proteins were identified, and 321 were quantified and categorised based on molecular function, cellular component, and biological process. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) results based on differences in the amount of protein identified three major clusters, and proteins including transglutaminase, desmocollin, and elongation factors were selected as trait components from proteomic patterns of horn samples from different species...
September 7, 2018: Electrophoresis
Xu Ziyi, Fu Taotao, Zhu Chunying, Jiang Shaokun, Ma Youguang, Wang Kai, Luo Guangsheng
For revealing the dynamics of partially obstructed breakup of bubbles in microfluidic Y-junctions, the combination of dimensionless power-law and geometric model was applied to study the effects of capillary number, bubble length and channel angle on the bubble rupture process. In the squeezing process, the gas-liquid interface curve follows the parabolic model. For the evolution of the bubble neck during breakup, the increase of the bubble length, the channel angle and the capillary number leads to the decrease of the focus distance α...
September 6, 2018: Electrophoresis
Jakub Tuček, Zdeněk Slouka, Michal Přibyl
Motion of liquid droplets with a surface electric charge can be efficiently controlled by dc electric field. Here, we show that the surface of a dielectric kerosene droplet can be charged by the addition of ionic surfactants to a surrounding aqueous electrolyte. The direction of droplet motion is determined by the polarity of the surfactant charge and the orientation of the imposed electric field. We have found that the effective electrophoretic mobility of dielectric droplets in a confined channel is directly proportional to the logarithm of the surfactant concentration even for values significantly exceeding critical micelle concentration (CMC)...
September 5, 2018: Electrophoresis
Hai Jiang, Xu Yang, Na Fan, Bei Peng, Xuan Weng
Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) is commonly used in microfluidics to control and manipulate the fluid. Though there are studies on the rotation flow in suspended films, the thin film liquid is easily broken and cannot last long hence not applicable in specific applications. Here, we established a three-dimensional (3D) microchamber embedded with two pairs of microelectrodes to investigate the rotation phenomenon of bulk of liquid which we called 'water fan' effect based on the EHD force. When proper voltages were applied on these microelectrodes electrodes, the tornado-like rotation would be generated...
September 5, 2018: Electrophoresis
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