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Ralf Kautenburger, Jonas M Sander, Christina Hein
For the safe long-term storage of high level radioactive waste (HLW), detailed information about geo-chemical behavior of radioactive and toxic metal ions under environmental conditions is important. Natural organic matter (NOM) can play a crucial role in the immobilization or mobilization of these metal ions due to its complexation and colloid formation tendency. In this study, the complexation of europium (as chemical homologue of trivalent actinides like americium) and uranium (as main component of HLW) by ten humic acids (HA) from different sources and Suwannee NOM river extract has been analyzed...
December 6, 2016: Electrophoresis
Baljinder Singh, Ashwini Kumar, Ashok Kumar Malik
Flavonoids represent an important bioactive component in plants. Accumulation of flavonoids often occurs in plants subjected to abiotic stresses including the adaptation of plants to the environment and in overcoming their stress conditions. This fact makes their analysis and determination an attractive field in food science since they can give interesting information on the quality and safety of foods. In this review we discuss reports on plants flavonoids biosynthesis against abiotic stresses and advances in analytical capillary electrophoresis used for their identification and quantification in plants...
December 6, 2016: Electrophoresis
Ioannis J Stavrou, Eliana A Agathokleous, Constantina P Kapnissi-Christodoulou
This report, which is a sequence of a series of reviews, records the most important chiral selectors (CSs) applied in CE. It highlights the CSs that were used during the period 2014 to mid 2016. In this review, method developments, validations, and pharmaceutical along with biomedical applications are presented. The different CSs include cyclodextrins, antibiotics, cyclofructants, linear and branched oligo- and polysaccharides and polymeric surfactants. In addition, the advantages of these CSs, along with their chiral recognition mechanisms, and their performance, are discussed...
December 6, 2016: Electrophoresis
William J Arries, Andreas G J Tredoux, Dalene de Beer, Elizabeth Joubert, André de Villiers
Rooibos and honeybush are popular herbal teas produced from the shrubs of Aspalathus linearis and Cyclopia spp., respectively, which are indigenous to South Africa. Both herbal teas are rich in polyphenols and their consumption is associated with several health benefits, partly ascribed to their phenolic constituents. Quantification of phenolics in extracts and teas for quality control and research purposes is generally performed using HPLC, although dedicated and often species-specific methods are required...
December 6, 2016: Electrophoresis
Harshad Gaikwad, Pranab Kumar Mondal
We investigate the slip driven transport of a Newtonian fluid through porous media under electrical double layer effect. We employ a semi-analytical framework to obtain the underlying electro-hydrodynamics for different configurations of porous media. We bring out an alteration in flow dynamics, stemming from interplay among the geometrical feature of the models and the interfacial slip as modulated by the electrical forcing. Further, we show the consequent effects of the underlying flow dynamics on the volumetric transport rate through different models...
December 6, 2016: Electrophoresis
Guang Chen, Siddhartha Das
In this paper, we study the thermodynamics, electrostatics, and an external electric field driven ionic current in a pH-responsive, end-charged polyelectrolyte (PE) brush grafted nanochannel. By employing a mean field theory, we unravel a highly non-intuitive interplay of pH and electrolyte salt concentration in dictating the height of the end-charged PE brush. Larger pH or weak hydrogen ion concentration leads to maximum ionization of the charge-producing group - as a consequence, the resulting the electric double layer (EDL) energy get maximized causing a maximum deviation of the brush height from the value (d0 ) of the uncharged brush...
November 29, 2016: Electrophoresis
Hongyun Ji, Yu Wu, Zhijuan Duan, Feng Yang, Hongyan Yuan, Dan Xiao
A new detector, silvering detection window and in-capillary optical fiber light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detector (SDW-ICOF-LED-IFD), is introduced for capillary electrophoresis (CE). The strategy of the work was that half surface of the detection window was coated with silver mirror, which could reflect the undetected fluorescence to the photomultiplier tube to be detected, consequently enhancing the detection sensitivity. Sulfonamides (SAs) are important antibiotics that achieved great applications in many fields...
November 28, 2016: Electrophoresis
Jens Hühner, Kevin Jooß, Neusüß Christian
CIEF represents an elegant technique especially for the separation of structural similar analytes, whereas MS is a state of the art instrumentation for the identification and characterization of biomolecules. The combination of both techniques can be realized by hyphenating CIEF with CZE-ESI-MS applying a mechanical valve. During the CZE step, the remaining ESI-interfering components of the CIEF electrolyte are separated from the analytes prior to MS detection. In this work, a multiple heart-cut approach is presented expanding our previous single heart-cut concept resulting in a dramatical reduction of analysis time...
November 25, 2016: Electrophoresis
Jaesool Shim, Kisoo Yoo, Prashanta Dutta
The determination of an analytical solution to find the steady state protein concentration distribution in isoelectric focusing (IEF) is very challenging due to the nonlinear coupling between mass and charge conservation equations. In this study, approximate analytical solutions are obtained for steady state protein distribution in carrier ampholyte-based IEF. Similar to the work of Svensson, the final concentration profile for proteins is assumed to be Gaussian, but appropriate expressions are presented in order to obtain the effective electric field and pH gradient in the focused protein band region...
November 22, 2016: Electrophoresis
Claudia Cano-Ramírez, Alejandro Santiago-Hernández, Flor Nohemí Rivera-Orduña, Rosa María Pineda-Mendoza, Gerardo Zúñiga, María Eugenia Hidalgo-Lara
Here, we describe a zymographic method for the simultaneous detection of enzymatic activity and molecular weight (MW) estimation, following a single electrophoresis step. This involved separating cellulase and xylanase activities from bacteria and fungi, obtained from different sources, such as commercial extracts, crude extract and purified proteins, under denaturing conditions, by 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, using polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with 1% (w/v) carboxymethylcellulose or beechwood xylan as substrates...
November 22, 2016: Electrophoresis
Julie R McGettrick, Nathan H Williamson, Adam T Sutton, Christopher P Palmer
Electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) is a powerful analytical technique that uses an ionic pseudo-stationary phase (PSP) to separate neutral compounds. Although anionic surfactants are the most common choice for PSP, cationic latex nanoparticles are an attractive alternative. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was used to synthesize several types of diblock copolymers that self-assemble into latex nanoparticles, which were characterized by a variety of techniques including diffusion NMR...
November 21, 2016: Electrophoresis
Jaesool Shim, Kisoo Yoo, Prashanta Dutta
In this study, we systematically investigate the validity and applicability of an analytical model developed for carrier ampholyte-based isoelectric focusing (IEF). Three different IEF cases are considered in order to evaluate the efficacy of the approximate analytical results by comparison with high-resolution computer simulations. In the first case, three proteins are separated in a narrow pH range (6-9) using 50 carrier ampholytes. In the second and third cases, the separation of proteins is studied in broad pH range (3-10) IEF using 100 carrier ampholytes...
November 21, 2016: Electrophoresis
Britta Vortmann-Westhoven, Constantin Lürenbaum, Martin Winter, Sascha Nowak
In this work we present a novel electrophoretic method that was developed for the determination of lithium and transition metals in LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NCM) cathode material after microwave digestion. The cations in the digested NCM material was separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and the element content was determined by UV/Vis detection. To characterize the precision of the measurements, the relative standard deviations (RSD) and concentrations were calculated and compared to those obtained with inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)...
November 21, 2016: Electrophoresis
Hervé Cottet, Hengfu Wu, Stuart A Allison
Determining the charge and the nature (small ion, nanoparticle or polyelectrolyte) of an unknow solute from its electrophoretic characteristics remains a challenging issue. In this work, we demonstrate that, if the knowledge of the effective electrophoretic mobility (μep ) at a given ionic strength is not sufficient to characterize a given solute, the combination of this parameter with (i) the relative decrease of the electrophoretic mobility with the ionic strength (S), and (ii) the hydrodynamic radius (Rh ), is sufficient (in most cases) to deduce the nature of the solute and its charge...
November 18, 2016: Electrophoresis
Mena E Tawfik, Francisco J Diez
In generating high electroosmotic flows (EO) for use in microfluidic pumps, a limiting factor is faradaic reactions which are more pronounced at high electric fields. These reactions lead to bubble generation at the electrodes and pump efficiency reduction. The onset of gas generation for high current density EO pumping depends on many parameters including applied voltage, working fluid and pulse duration. The onset of gas generation can be delayed and optimized for maximum volume pumped in the minimum time possible...
November 17, 2016: Electrophoresis
Hefu Li, Weixing Yu, Taisheng Wang, Zhenyu Liu, M P Y Desmulliez
This article reports the numerical study of the one-step faithful replication of micro/nano-scale structures on a fiber surface using the electrohydrodynamic instability patterning (EHDIP) process. By employing a rigorous numerical analysis method, conditions are revealed under which the faithful replication of a pattern can be achieved from a curved master electrode. It is found that the radius of curvature of the fiber plays an important role in determining the final morphology of the pattern when the destabilizing electric field is dominant in both the flat and patterned template cases...
November 14, 2016: Electrophoresis
William M Penny, Harmen B Steele, J B Alexander Ross, Chistopher P Palmer
Phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine and synthetic maleic acid-styrene copolymer belts have been introduced as a pseudostationary phase (PSP) in electrokinetic chromatography and demonstrated good performance. The nanodiscs provide a suitable migration range and high theoretical plate counts. Using this nanodisc PSP, the affinity of the bilayer structure for probe solutes was determined and characterized. Good correlation is observed between retention factors and octanol water partition coefficients for particular categories of solutes, but the general correlation is weak primarily because the nanodiscs show stronger affinity than octanol for hydrogen bond donors...
November 14, 2016: Electrophoresis
Zhenbin Zhang, Thomas Albanetti, Travis Linkous, Christopher J Larkin, Ronald Schoner, James B McGivney, Norman J Dovichi
Four methods were compared for analysis of host-cell protein (HCP) impurities in a recombinant monoclonal antibody. First, capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) was used to analyze the digest of a host-cell protein sample following extraction of the monoclonal antibody with Protein A and Protein L affinity columns; 220 protein groups and 976 peptides were identified from the depleted HCP digest. Second, a nanoACQUITY UltraPerformance LCH system was also used to analyze the depleted HCP digest; 34 protein groups and 53 peptides from 50 ng of the depleted HCP digest and 290 protein groups and 1011 peptides were identified from 1 μg of the depleted HCP digest...
November 12, 2016: Electrophoresis
Virginia Pérez Fernández, Salvatore Ventura, Pierpaolo Tomai, Roberta Curini, Alessandra Gentili
This paper describes an analytical approach, based on liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS), for characterizing the fat-soluble micronutrient fraction in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Two different procedures were applied to isolate the analytes from liver and muscle tissue: overnight cold saponification to hydrolyze bound forms and to simplify the analysis; matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) to avoid artifacts and to maintain unaltered the naturally occurring forms...
November 12, 2016: Electrophoresis
Brian D Plouffe, Shashi K Murthy
With the recent worldwide changes in the legalization of marijuana, there is a significant need for rapid, road-side screening test for driving under the influence of drugs. A robust, sensitive, lateral flow assay has been developed to detect recent use via oral-fluid testing for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This proof-of-concept assay uses a fluorescent-based immunoassay detection of polymeric beads, conjugated to antibodies against native THC. The fluorescent technique allows for significantly lower limits of detection and higher precision determination of recent marijuana use without the use of urine or blood sampling - thus allowing for roadside identification...
November 10, 2016: Electrophoresis
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