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Maria F Mora, Steve M Jones, Jessica Creamer, Peter A Willis
Ocean worlds like Europa and Enceladus in the outer solar system are prime targets in the search for life beyond Earth. Enceladus is particularly interesting due to the presence of a water plume ejecting from the south polar region. The recent discovery of H2 in the plume, in addition to the presence of previously observed organic compounds, highlights the possibility of life in this moon. The plume provides materials from the underlying ocean that could be collected simply by flying through it. The presence of the plume means that material from the ocean is available for collection during a flyby, without the need for landing or complex sample handling operations such as scooping or drilling...
November 14, 2017: Electrophoresis
Y M Nuwan D Y Bandara, Jonathan W Nichols, Buddini Iroshika Karawdeniya, Jason R Dwyer
Solid-state nanopores are nanoscale channels through otherwise impermeable membranes. Single molecules or particles can be passed through electrolyte-filled nanopores by, e.g. electrophoresis, and then detected through the resulting physical displacement of ions within the nanopore. Nanopore size, shape, and surface chemistry must be carefully controlled, and on extremely challenging <10 nm-length scales. We previously developed a framework to characterize nanopores from the time-dependent changes in their conductance as they are being formed through solution-phase nanofabrication processes with the appeal of ease and accessibility...
November 13, 2017: Electrophoresis
Mona Mozafari, Sami El Deeb, Friederike Krull, Robert Wildgruber, Gerhard Weber, Christian G Reiter, Hermann Wätzig
A fast and precise affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) method has been applied to investigate the interactions between two serum albumins (HSA and BSA) and heparinoids. Furthermore, different free flow electrophoresis methods were developed to separate the species which appears owing to interaction of albumins with pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) under different experimental conditions. For ACE experiments, the normalized mobility ratios (∆R/Rf ), which provided information about the binding strength and the overall charge of the protein-ligand complex, were used to evaluate the binding affinities...
November 13, 2017: Electrophoresis
Mohammad R Hossan, Diganta Dutta, Nazmul Islam, Prashanta Dutta
Pumping of fluids with precise control is one of the key components in a microfluidic device. The electric field has been used as one of the most popular and efficient nonmechanical pumping mechanism to transport fluids in microchannels from the very early stage of microfluidic technology development. This review presents fundamental physics and theories of the different microscale phenomena that arise due to the application of an electric field in fluids, which can be applied for pumping of fluids in microdevices...
November 11, 2017: Electrophoresis
Jung Soo Lee, Bin Peng, Ahmet Can Sabuncu, Seungjin Nam, Chi Won Ahn, Moon J Kim, Min Jun Kim
Solid-state nanopore sensors have been used to measure the size of a nanoparticle by applying a resistive pulse sensing technique. Previously, the size distribution of the population pool could be investigated utilizing data from a single translocation, however, the accuracy of the distribution is limited due to the lack of repeated data. In this study, we characterized polystyrene nanobeads utilizing single particle recapture techniques, which provide a better statistical estimate of the size distribution than that of single sampling techniques...
November 10, 2017: Electrophoresis
Charlotte Pushparajan, Shailesh K Goswami, Christopher J McAdam, Lyall R Hanton, Peter K Dearden, Stephen C Moratti, Andrew G Cridge
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a universal tool in a biochemist's toolkit for protein and nucleic acid separation and subsequent visualisation and analysis. The standard formulation of polyacrylamide gels consists of acrylamide (ACM) monomer crosslinked with bisacrylamide (MBA) which creates a gel with excellent sieving properties but which is mechanically fragile and prone to tearing during post-electrophoresis manipulations involved in visualisation and analysis. By adding a poly(ethylene oxide) macro-crosslinker to the standard gel formulation, we have created a tough gel matrix that can be used to fractionate proteins and nucleic acids by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
November 10, 2017: Electrophoresis
Gema Rodríguez-Moro, Tamara García-Barrera, Chiara Trombini, Julián Blasco, José Luis Gómez-Ariza
Arsenic is a toxic element extensively studied in the marine environment due to differential toxicological effects of inorganic and organic species. In the present work, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana was exposed to As(V) (10 and 100 μg·L(-1) ) for 14 days to evaluate the metabolic perturbations caused by this element. Arsenic speciation and metabolomic analysis were performed in the digestive gland of the bivalve using two complementary analytical platforms based on inorganic and organic mass spectrometry...
November 10, 2017: Electrophoresis
Damian Dąbrowski, Katarzyna Lech, Maciej Jarosz
Development of the identification method of alkaloid compounds in Amur cork tree as well as not examined so far Oregon grape and European Barberry shrubs is presented. The novel approach to separation of alkaloids was applied and the capillary-high-performance liquid chromatography (capillary-HPLC) system was used, which has never previously been reported for alkaloid-based dyestuffs analysis. Its optimization was conducted with three different stationary phases (unmodified octadecylsilane-bonded silica, octadecylsilane modified with polar groups and silica-bonded pentaflourophenyls) as well as with different solvent buffers...
November 10, 2017: Electrophoresis
Víctor González-Ruiz, Santiago Codesido, Serge Rudaz, Julie Schappler
Although several interfaces for CE-MS hyphenation are commercially available, the development of new versatile, simple and yet efficient and sensitive alternatives remains an important field of research. In a previous work, a simple low sheath-flow interface was developed from inexpensive parts. This interface features a design easy to build, maintain, and adapt to particular needs. The present work introduces an improved design of the previous interface. By reducing the diameter of the separation capillary and the emitter, a smaller Taylor cone is spontaneously formed, minimizing the zone dispersion while the analytes go through the interface and leading to less peak broadening associated to the ESI process...
November 10, 2017: Electrophoresis
David Moreno-González, Markéta Krulišová, Laura Gámiz-Gracia, Ana M García-Campaña
A sensitive method using CZE-UV detection has been developed for the determination of five tetracycline antibiotics in human urine samples. To improve the sensitivity of the method, an on-line preconcentration strategy, named field-amplified sample injection, has been developed, based on the electrokinetic injection of the sample, which requires only a 1:100 dilution with sample solvent before injection. Under optimum conditions, sensitivity enhancement factors ranged from 450 to 800 for the studied compounds...
November 9, 2017: Electrophoresis
Debashis Dutta
The use of an electric field in free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) automatically leads to Joule heating yielding a higher temperature at the center of the separation chamber relative to that around the channel walls. For small amounts of heat generated, this thermal effect introduces a variation in the equilibrium position of the analyte molecules due to the dependence of liquid viscosity and analyte diffusivity on temperature leading to a modification in the position of the analyte stream as well as the zone width...
November 8, 2017: Electrophoresis
Yukun Ren, Xianyu Liu, Weiyu Liu, Ye Tao, Yankai Jia, Likai Hou, Wenying Li, Hongyuan Jiang
We report herein a novel microfluidic particle concentrator that utilizes constriction microchannels to enhance the flow-focusing performance of induced-charge electroosmosis (ICEO), where viscous hemi-spherical oil droplets are embedded within the mainchannel to form deformable converging-diverging constriction structures. The constriction region between symmetric oil droplets partially coated on the electrode strips can improve the focusing performance by inducing a granular wake flow area at the diverging channel, which makes almost all of the scattered sample particles trapped within a narrow stream on the floating electrode ...
November 8, 2017: Electrophoresis
Dimitri A Bikos, Thomas G Mason
When determining the electric field E acting on charged objects in gel electrophoresis, the electrical conductivity of the buffer solution is often overlooked; E is typically calculated by dividing the applied voltage by a separation distance between electrodes. However, as a consequence of electrolytic reactions, which occur at the electrodes, gradients in the ionic content of the buffer solution and its conductivity can potentially develop over time, thereby impacting E and affecting propagation velocities of charged objects, v, directly...
November 8, 2017: Electrophoresis
Anna S Pavlova, Evgeniya S Dyudeeva, Maxim S Kupryushkin, Nariman V Amirkhanov, Dmitrii V Pyshnyi, Inna A Pyshnaya
SDS-PAGE is considered to be a universal method for size-based separation and analysis of proteins. In this study, we applied the principle of SDS-PAGE to the analysis of new entirely uncharged nucleic acid (NA) analogues, - phosphoryl guanidine oligonucleotides (PGOs). The procedure was also shown to be suitable for morpholino oligonucleotides (PMOs) and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs). It was demonstrated that SDS can establish hydrophobic interactions with these types of synthetic NAs, giving them a net negative charge and thus making these molecules mobile in polyacrylamide slab gels under the influence of an electric field...
November 7, 2017: Electrophoresis
Juan Pablo Cattalini, Viviana Silvia Mouriño, Silvia Edith Lucangioli
A simple, highly sensitive and robust CE method applied to the determination of alendronate (ALN) was developed from matrices for tissue engineering, characterized by being highly complex systems. The novel method was based on the ALN derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol for direct ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. The BGE consisted of 20 mM sodium borate buffer at pH 10, and the electrophoretic parameters were optimized.The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, precision, accuracy and robustness...
November 7, 2017: Electrophoresis
Hana Nevídalová, Lenka Michalcová, Zdeněk Glatz
Plasma protein-drug binding assays are routinely performed during the early stages of drug discovery and development, which creates demand for an automated high-throughput screening assay to increase laboratory efficiency. A comprehensive comparison of the four methods typically used for determining the binding parameters is presented in this study with respect to the above demand. Capillary electrophoresis-frontal analysis, isothermal titration calorimetry, circular dichroism and equilibrium dialysis were used to study the affinity of human serum albumin for diclofenac and lidocaine...
November 7, 2017: Electrophoresis
João Pedro Souza Andrade, Caroline Pacheco Oliveira, Ana Maria Freire Tovar, Paulo Antonio de Souza Mourão, Eduardo Vilanova
Cationic dyes such as toluidin blue are commonly employed to visualize Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on electrophoresis gels; however, the carbocyanine based dye Stains-all has been increasingly used to stain the non-sulfated hyaluronic acid and other GAGs in submicrogram quantities. In this short communication, we demonstrate that Stains-all is able to stain the most common GAGs on polyacrylamide gels with distinct and contrasting colors in a reproducible manner. We also show that this staining method is useful to identify GAGs present both in mixtures and in submicrogram quantities...
November 6, 2017: Electrophoresis
Saara Mikkonen, Jitka Caslavska, Vlastimil Hruška, Wolfgang Thormann
The enantiomeric separation of methadone in the presence of multiple isomer mixtures of sulfated β-cyclodextrin (S-β-CD) was studied experimentally with CZE and theoretically using computer simulation. Experiments were performed over many years with several lots of S-β-CD from the same manufacturer with a specified degree of substitution of 7-11. Large differences in the migration patterns were observed between certain lots and it was concluded that the extent of labelling in lots released after a transition time was higher than originally specified...
November 1, 2017: Electrophoresis
Ons Rekik, Amir Ben Mansour, Mohamed Bouaziz
Olive fruit and leaves have been extensively studied for their chemical compositions and biological activities. However, less attention has been given to its flowers. The present research was achieved on Tunisian olive flowers. It aimed at studying the effects of flower development on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The extracts were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC/DAD) and coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The HPLC/DAD analysis indicated that oleuropein aglycon (from 1...
October 30, 2017: Electrophoresis
Honggu Chun
Ion-permselective nanochannel-based sample preconcentration or electropreconcentration has been demonstrated as an effective technique for concentrating charged analytes at the interface between a micro- and nanochannel. The anion-selective electropreconcentration involves extraction of hydroxide in the preconcentrated sample plug, resulting in pH decrease. We investigated the pH change in a microchannel using charged pH indicators with different conditions including running buffer pH, sample channel electric field, and salt concentration...
October 27, 2017: Electrophoresis
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