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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

Holly Stefen, Amin Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Merryn Brettle, Sandra Fok, Alexandra K Suchowerska, Nicodemus Tedla, Tracie Barber, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani, Thomas Fath
Overcoming neurite inhibition is integral for restoring neuronal connectivity after CNS injury. Actin dynamics are critical for neurite growth cone formation and extension. The tropomyosin family of proteins is a regarded as master regulator of actin dynamics. This study investigates tropomyosin isoform 3.1 (Tpm3.1) as a potential candidate for overcoming an inhibitory substrate, as it is known to influence neurite branching and outgrowth. We designed a microfluidic device that enables neurons to be grown adjacent to an inhibitory substrate, Nogo-66...
September 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Sen Shang, Leilei Wang, Yali Zhang, Haixia Lu, Xiaoyun Lu
Activation of inflammasome leads to the formation of an inflammatory microenvironment which plays an important role in the process of cancer development. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is a ketone body that has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Here, we investigated the potential influence of BHB on the in vitro migration of C6 glioma cells and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results indicated that administration of BHB suppressed C6 cells migration and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, reducing the levels of activated cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase 1 (caspase-1) and mature Interleukin 1β (IL-1β)...
September 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Svetlana S Lazuko, Olga P Kuzhel, Lyudmila E Belyaeva, Eugenia B Manukhina, H Fred Downey, Olga B Tseilikman, Maria V Komelkova, Vadim E Tseilikman
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the co-author name.
September 11, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Susana Laura González, Laurence Meyer, María Celeste Raggio, Omar Taleb, María Florencia Coronel, Christine Patte-Mensah, Ayikoe Guy Mensah-Nyagan
In the last decades, an active and stimulating area of research has been devoted to explore the role of neuroactive steroids in pain modulation. Despite challenges, these studies have clearly contributed to unravel the multiple and complex actions and potential mechanisms underlying steroid effects in several experimental conditions that mimic human chronic pain states. Based on the available data, this review focuses mainly on progesterone and its reduced derivative allopregnanolone (also called 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone) which have been shown to prevent or even reverse the complex maladaptive changes and pain behaviors that arise in the nervous system after injury or disease...
September 5, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Sergiu Dalm, Adriaan M Karssen, Onno C Meijer, Joseph K Belanoff, E Ronald de Kloet
Psychotic depression is characterized by elevated circulating cortisol, and high daily doses of the glucocorticoid/progesterone antagonist mifepristone for 1 week are required for significant improvement. Using a rodent model, we find that such high doses of mifepristone are needed because the antagonist is rapidly degraded and poorly penetrates the blood-brain barrier, but seems to facilitate the entry of cortisol. We also report that in male C57BL/6J mice, after a 7-day treatment with a high dose of mifepristone, basal blood corticosterone levels were similar to that of vehicle controls...
September 1, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Guiling Chen, Sisi Liu, Rui Pan, Guangming Li, Haijie Tang, Mingliang Jiang, Yanyan Xing, Fujun Jin, Liqing Lin, Jun Dong
Microglial inflammation plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. A previous study indicated that curcumin relieved microglial inflammatory responses. However, the mechanism of this process remained unclear. Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated cell content-dependent degradation pathway, and uncontrolled autophagy leads to enhanced inflammation. The role of autophagy in curcumin-attenuating BV2 cell inflammation caused by gp120 was investigated with or without pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA and blockers of NF-κB, IKK, AKT, and PI3K, and we then detected the production of the inflammatory mediators monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL17 using ELISA, and autophagy markers ATG5 and LC3 II by Western Blot...
August 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Ying Xing, Man-Man Wang, Ya-Shuo Feng, Fang Dong, Feng Zhang
As a traditional therapeutic method, electroacupuncture (EA) has been adopted as an alternative therapy for stroke recovery. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether EA therapy at points of Quchi (LI11) and Zusanli (ST36) alleviated neuronal apoptosis by PTEN signaling pathway after ischemic stroke. A total of 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups, including sham group, MCAO group, and EA group. EA was initiated after 24 h of reperfusion for 3 consecutive days. At 72 h following ischemia/reperfusion, neurological deficits, infarct volumes, and TUNEL staining were evaluated and the PTEN pathway-related proteins together with apoptosis-related proteins were detected...
August 22, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Maria Elvira Brocca, Luciana Pietranera, Edo Ronald de Kloet, Alejandro Federico De Nicola
Worldwide, raised blood pressure is estimated to affect 35-40% of the adult population and is a main conditioning factor for cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Animal models of hypertension have provided great advances concerning the pathophysiology of human hypertension, as already shown for the deoxycorticosterone-salt treated rat, the Dahl-salt sensitive rat, the Zucker obese rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). SHR has been widely used to study abnormalities of the brain in chronic hypertension...
August 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Silvia Giatti, Silvia Diviccaro, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease where improper glycaemic control may induce severe complications in different organs. In this review, we will discuss alterations occurring in peripheral and central nervous system of patients with type 1 (i.e., insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,) or type 2 diabetes (i.e., non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus), as well as related experimental models. A particular focus will be on the role exerted by neuroactive steroids (i.e., important regulators of nervous functions) in the nervous damage induced by diabetes...
August 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Maria Elvira Brocca, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura
The modulation of brain function and behavior by steroid hormones was classically associated with their secretion by peripheral endocrine glands. The discovery that the brain expresses the enzyme aromatase, which produces estradiol from testosterone, expanded this traditional concept. One of the best-studied roles of brain estradiol synthesis is the control of reproductive behavior. In addition, there is increasing evidence that estradiol from neural origin is also involved in a variety of non-reproductive functions...
August 6, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Coral M Capó-Vélez, Manuel Delgado-Vélez, Carlos A Báez-Pagán, José A Lasalde-Dominicci
Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a threat to global health. Since its discovery, many efforts have been directed at understanding the mechanisms and consequences of infection. Although there have been substantial advances since the advent of antiretroviral therapy, there are still complications that significantly compromise the health of infected patients, particularly, chronic inflammation and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In this review, a new perspective is addressed in the field of HIV, where the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is the protagonist...
July 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Souvik Kar, Kiran Kumar Bali, Arpita Baisantry, Robert Geffers, Christian Hartmann, Amir Samii, Helmut Bertalanffy
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular malformations associated with abnormally dilated blood vessels and leaky capillaries that often result in hemorrhages. Despite recent advances, precise understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanism leading to the pathogenesis of CCM remains elusive. Emerging evidence indicates that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), belonging to the class of non-coding RNAs, may play a significant role as diagnostic markers in human diseases. However, there is no report till date that studied the role of snoRNAs in CCM biology...
July 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
María Del Carmen Rubio Osornio, Verónica Custodio Ramírez, Daniela Calderón Gámez, Carlos Paz Tres, Karla G Carvajal Aguilera, Bryan V Phillips Farfán
Caloric restriction (CR) has anti-epileptic effects in different animal models, at least partially due to inhibition of the mechanistic or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits mTOR cascade function if energy levels are low. Since hyper-activation of mTOR participates in epilepsy, its inhibition results in beneficial anti-convulsive effects. A way to attain this is to activate AMPK with metformin. The effects of metformin, alone or combined with CR, on the electrical kindling epilepsy model and the mTOR cascade in the hippocampus and the neocortex were studied...
October 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Mazen M Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa
This review aims to elucidate the different mechanisms of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption that may occur due to invasion by different types of bacteria, as well as to show the bacteria-host interactions that assist the bacterial pathogen in invading the brain. For example, platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) is responsible for brain invasion during the adhesion of pneumococci to brain endothelial cells, which might lead to brain invasion. Additionally, the major adhesin of the pneumococcal pilus-1, RrgA is able to bind the BBB endothelial receptors: polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), thus leading to invasion of the brain...
October 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Liliana H Méndez-Barredo, Jessica G Rodríguez-Meléndez, Karen S Gómez-Coronado, Raquel Guerrero-Alba, Eduardo E Valdez-Morales, Rosa Espinosa-Luna, Alma Barajas-Espinosa, Carlos Barajas-López
We, hereby, characterize the pharmacological effects of physiological concentrations of Zinc on native myenteric P2X receptors from guinea-pig small intestine and on P2X2 isoforms present in most myenteric neurons. This is the first study describing opposite effects of Zinc on these P2X receptors. It was not possible to determine whether both effects were concentration dependent, yet the inhibitory effect was mediated by competitive antagonism and was concentration dependent. The potentiating effect appears to be mediated by allosteric changes induced by Zinc on P2X myenteric channels, which is more frequently observed in myenteric neurons with low zinc concentrations...
October 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Tongyu Zhang, Pei Wu, John H Zhang, Yuchen Li, Shancai Xu, Chunlei Wang, Ligang Wang, Guang Zhang, Jiaxing Dai, Shiyi Zhu, Yao Liu, Binbing Liu, Cesar Reis, Huaizhang Shi
Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered a crucial therapeutic target for early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Emerging evidence indicates that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 fatty acid, protects mitochondria in various chronic diseases. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DHA on mitochondrial dynamic dysfunction after EBI using in vivo and in vitro approaches. For in vivo experiments, the rat endovascular perforation SAH model was performed, whereby DHA was administered intravenously 1 h after induction of SAH...
October 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Jonas Tjaden, Lukas Pieczora, Frederique Wach, Carsten Theiss, Verena Theis
Primary neurons are difficult to cultivate because they are often part of a complex tissue, and synaptically connected to numerous other cell types. These circumstances often prevent us from unveiling molecular and metabolic mechanisms of distinct cells, as functional signals or assays cannot clearly be correlated with them due to interfering signals from other parts of the culture. We therefore present an up-to-date method for obtaining a highly purified neuronal culture of Purkinje cells. In the past, Purkinje cells were successfully isolated from young mouse cerebella, but this protocol was never adapted to other mammals...
October 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
V S Suvanish Kumar, Etheresia Pretorius, G K Rajanikant
Ischemic stroke is a debilitating multi-factorial cerebrovascular disorder, representing an area of tremendous unmet medical need. Combination treatment has been proposed as a promising therapeutic approach towards combating ischemic stroke. The present study employs in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model to evaluate the post-ischemic neuroprotective efficacy of Everolimus and Paroxetine, alone and in combination. Post-OGD treatment with Everolimus and Paroxetine, alone or in combination, significantly improved the cell survival (~ 80%) when compared to the cells subjected to ischemic injury alone...
October 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Esmat Amiri, Rasoul Ghasemi, Maryam Moosavi
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the unit of agmatine doses. The agmatine doses were erroneously written in nanomolar in the published article. The correct effective doses of agmatine were 150 and 250 µM.
October 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Lei Ye, Lu Gao, Hongwei Cheng
Cerebral hemorrhage is a series of devastating cerebrovascular diseases with high mortality, morbidity and recurrence rate. Localized and systemic immuno-reactions are involved. Aggregation of immunocytes, which were both recruited from the peripheral circulation and resident in the central nervous system, is induced and activated by hematoma-related blood components. Subsequently, various cytokines, chemokines, free radicals and toxic chemicals are secreted to participant host defense responses. Among these, neuro-inflammation plays critical roles in both the pathologic processes of secondary injuries and recovery of neural damages...
October 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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