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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

Dah Ihm Kim, Ki Hoon Lee, Ji Young Oh, Jun Sung Kim, Ho Jae Han
Mitochondria as dynamic organelles undergo morphological changes through the processes of fission and fusion which are major factors regulating their functions. A disruption in the balance of mitochondrial dynamics induces functional disorders in mitochondria such as failed energy production and the generation of reactive oxygen species, which are closely related to pathophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics and impaired mitochondrial function, clarifying the effects of morphofunctional aberrations which promote neuronal cell death in AD...
October 20, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Chenran Zhang, Wei Meng, Jiajia Wang, Yicheng Lu, Guohan Hu, Liuhua Hu, Jie Ma
Retinoblastoma protein-interacting zinc-finger gene 1 (RIZ1), a strong tumor suppressor, is silenced in many human cancers. Our previous studies showed that RIZ1 expression was negatively correlated with the grade of glioma and was a key predictor of patient survival. Therefore, RIZ1 could be a potential tumor suppressor during glioma pathogenesis, although the mechanism underlying RIZ1 gene inactivation in gliomas is unknown. We investigated the methylation status of the RIZ1 promoter in human glioma tissues and four glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines, and verified the effect of the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) on RIZ1 transcription and cell proliferation...
October 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Hui Shen, Jie Wang, Dan Jiang, Pei Xu, Xiaolu Zhu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xing Yu, Moo-Ho Won, Pei Qing Su, Bing Chun Yan
Some anticonvulsant drugs are associated with cognitive ability in patients; Topiramate (TPM) is well known as an effective anticonvulsant agent applied in clinical settings. However, the effect of TPM on the cognitive function is rarely studied. In this study, we aimed to observe the effects of TPM on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the D-galactose-induced aging mice by Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. The study is divided into four groups including control, D-galactose-treated group, 25 and 50 mg/kg TPM-treated plus D-galactose-treated groups...
October 12, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta Hadem, Ramesh Sharma
Time-dependent alterations in several biological processes of an organism may be characterized as aging. One of the effects of aging is the decline in cognitive functions. Dietary restriction (DR), an intervention where the consumption of food is lessened but without malnutrition, is a well-established mechanism that has a wide range of important outcomes including improved health span, delayed aging, and extension of lifespan of various species. It also plays a beneficial role in protecting against age-dependent deterioration of cognitive functions, and has neuroprotective properties against neurodegenerative diseases...
October 7, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Bin Zhang, Ning Yang, Shao-Peng Lin, Feng Zhang
Cerebral infarction (CI) is a common clinical cerebrovascular disease, and to explore the pathophysiological mechanisms and seek effective treatment means are the hotspot and difficult point in medical research nowadays. Numerous studies have confirmed that uric acid plays an important role in CI, but the mechanism has not yet been clarified. When treating HT22 and BV-2 cells with different concentrations of uric acid, uric acid below 450 μM does not have significant effect on cell viability, but uric acid more than 500 μM can significantly inhibit cell viability...
October 5, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Lei-Lei Mao, Hui Yuan, Wen-Wen Wang, Yu-Jing Wang, Ming-Feng Yang, Bao-Liang Sun, Zong-Yong Zhang, Xiao-Yi Yang
The CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), an innate immunomodulator, suppress cerebral inflammation and maintain immune homeostasis in multiple central nervous system injury, but its role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been fully characterized. This study investigated the effect of Tregs on brain injury using the mouse ICH model, which is established by autologous blood infusion. The results showed that tail intravenous injection of Tregs significantly reduced brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation of perihematoma at day (1, 3 and 7), and improved short- and long-term neurological deficits following ICH in mouse model...
September 27, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Harleen S Basrai, Alisa Turbic, Kimberly J Christie, Ann M Turnley
Overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (SOCS2) has been shown to promote hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and promote neurite outgrowth of neurons in vitro. In the adult mouse brain, SOCS2 is most highly expressed in the hippocampal CA3 region and at lower levels in the dentate gyrus, an expression pattern that suggests a role in adult neurogenesis. Herein we examine generation of neuroblasts and their maturation into more mature neurons in SOCS2 null (SOCS2KO) mice. EdU was administered for 7 days to label proliferative neural precursor cells...
September 21, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Yuanqi Bei, Qingfeng Huang, Jianhong Shen, Jinlong Shi, Chaoyan Shen, Peng Xu, Hao Chang, Xiaojie Xia, Li Xu, Bin Ji, JianGuo Chen
The insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), as an inhibitor of IGF-II actions, plays an important role in inhibiting survival and migration of tumor cells. In our study, we intended to demonstrate the biological function of IGFBP6 in the development of glioma and its clinical significance. Firstly, Western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of IGFBP6 inversely correlated with glioma grade. Secondly, multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that IGFBP6 could be an independent prognostic factor for the survival of glioma patients...
September 21, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Tuane Bazanella Sampaio, Marcel Henrique Marcondes Sari, Ana Paula Pesarico, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an inducible heme peroxidase responsive to some stress situations. It is already known that its activity is stimulated in neurodegenerative disorders and in the animal model of parkinson's disease (PD) induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). By contrast, the role of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), an essential enzyme for heme synthesis, has not been investigated in the MPTP model. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of striatal δ-ALA-D activity in an acute model of PD, induced by MPTP, in C57Bl/6 mice and its correlation with MPO activity...
September 21, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Ying-Chun Liu, Xiao-Xiao Gao, Zhi-Guang Zhang, Zhao-Hua Lin, Qi-Lian Zou
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of metabolism, cell growth, and protein synthesis. Since decreased mTOR activity has been found to slow aging in many species, the aim of this study was to examine the activity of mTOR and its phosphorylated form in in vitro and in vivo models mimicking Alzheimer's disease (AD), and investigate the potential pathway of PGC-1β in regulating mTOR expression. Primary neurons and N2a cells were treated with Aβ25-35, while untreated cells served as controls...
September 15, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Yanke Zhang, Baobing Gao, Yan Xiong, Fangshuo Zheng, Xin Xu, Yong Yang, Yida Hu, Xuefeng Wang
SH3 and multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeat domain 3 (SHANK3) is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. SHANK3 plays an important role in the formation and maturation of excitatory synapses. In the brain, SHANK3 directly or indirectly interacts with various synaptic molecules including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR), and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor. Previous studies have shown that Autism spectrum disorder is a result of mutations of the main SHANK3 isoforms, which may be due to deficit in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity...
September 3, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Shruti Pandey, Debapriya Garabadu
Piracetam exhibits anti-amnesic activity in several animal models of dementia. However, its anti-amnesic potential has yet to be evaluated in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced encephalopathy. Therefore, in the present study, piracetam (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was screened for anti-amnesic and anti-diabetic activity in T2DM-induced encephalopathic male rats. Subsequently, anti-amnesic and anti-diabetic activities were evaluated for piracetam, metformin and their combination in T2DM-induced encephalopathic animals...
September 1, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Guo-Ying Feng, Jia Liu, You-Cui Wang, Zhen-Yu Wang, Yue Hu, Qing-Jie Xia, Yang Xu, Fei-Fei Shang, Mei-Rong Chen, Fang Wang, Xue Zhou, Ting-Hua Wang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes neurological deficits with poor recovery; the treatment, however, is far from satisfaction, and the mechanisms remain unclear. Using immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis, we found α-synuclein (SNCA) was significantly up-regulated in the spinal caudal segment of rats subjected to spinal cord transection at 3 days post-operation. Moreover, the role of SNCA on neuronal growth and apoptosis in vitro was determined by using overexpressing and interfering SNCA recombined plasmid vectors, and the underlying mechanism was detected by QRT-PCR and western blotting...
August 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Gang Liu, Gentao Fan, Guodong Guo, Wenbo Kang, Dongsheng Wang, Bin Xu, Jianning Zhao
FK-506 (Tacrolimus) is a very commonly used immunomodulatory agent that plays important roles in modulating the calcium-dependent phosphoserine-phosphothreonine protein phosphatase calcineurin and thus inhibits calcineurin-mediated secondary neuronal damage. The biological function of FK-506 in the spinal cord has not been fully elucidated. To clarify the anti-inflammatory action of FK-506 in spinal cord injury (SCI), we performed an acute spinal cord contusion injury model in adult rats and hypoxia-treated primary spinal cord microglia cultures...
August 29, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Xing Chen, Hongmei Wang, Weibing Yu, Fen Chen, Guiyun Wang, Jiajia Shi, Chunying Zhou
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), one member of the IDH family can convert isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) via oxidative decarboxylation. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations have been identified in multiple tumor types and the mutations confer neomorphic activity in the mutant protein, resulting in the conversion of α-KG to the oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). The subsequent accumulation of 2-HG results in epigenetic dysregulation via inhibition of α-KG-dependent histone and DNA demethylase. And the glutamate levels are reduced in IDH mutant cells compared to wild-type...
August 27, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Josi Maria Zimmermann-Peruzatto, Virgínia Meneghini Lazzari, Grasiela Agnes, Roberta Oriques Becker, Ana Carolina de Moura, Renata Padilha Guedes, Aldo Bolten Lucion, Silvana Almeida, Márcia Giovenardi
Social relations are built and maintained from the interaction among individuals. The oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), estrogen, dopamine, and their receptors are involved in the modulation of sexual behavior in females. This study aimed to analyze the impact of OT gene knockout (OTKO) on sexual behavior and the gene expression of oxytocin (OTR), estrogen alpha (ERα), estrogen beta (ERβ), vasopressin (V1aR), and dopamine (D2R) receptors in the olfactory bulb (OB), prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC), and hypothalamus (HPT), as well as in the synthesis of VP in the HPT of female mice...
August 24, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Kinga Gzielo, Michal Kielbinski, Jakub Ploszaj, Krzysztof Janeczko, Stefan P Gazdzinski, Zuzanna Setkowicz
Obesity in humans is associated with cognitive decline and elevated risk of neurodegenerative diseases of old age. Variations of high-fat diet are often used to model these effects in animal studies. However, we previously reported improvements in markers of memory and learning, as well as larger hippocampi and higher metabolite concentrations in Wistar rats fed high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD, 60 % energy from fat, 28 % from carbohydrates) for 1 year; this diet leads to mild ketonemia (Setkowicz et al...
August 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Katarína Ondáčová, Dana Jurkovičová, Ľubica Lacinová
Acute injury of central nervous system (CNS) starts a cascade of morphological, molecular, and functional changes including formation of a fibrotic scar, expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and expression of extracellular matrix proteins leading to arrested neurite outgrowth and failed regeneration. We assessed alteration of electrophysiological properties of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) in two in vitro models of neuronal injury: (i) model of fibrotic scar created from coculture of meningeal fibroblasts and cerebral astrocytes with addition of TGF-β1; (ii) a simplified model based on administration of TGF-β1 to CGCs culture...
August 12, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Fernanda Rosene Melo, Raul Bardini Bressan, Stefânia Forner, Alessandra Cadete Martini, Michele Rode, Priscilla Barros Delben, Giles Alexander Rae, Claudia Pinto Figueiredo, Andrea Gonçalves Trentin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurologic disorder with significant impacts on quality of life, life expectancy, and economic burden. Although there are no fully restorative treatments yet available, several animal and small-scale clinical studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of cellular interventions for SCI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-which are conventionally isolated from the bone marrow-recently emerged as promising candidates for treating SCI and have been shown to provide trophic support, ameliorate inflammatory responses, and reduce cell death following the mechanical trauma...
August 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Raluca Armeanu, Mikael Mokkonen, Bernard Crespi
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) centrally mediates growth, differentiation and survival of neurons, and the synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. Recent meta-analyses have reported significantly lower peripheral BDNF among individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, compared with controls. To evaluate the role of BDNF in autism, and to compare autism to psychotic-affective disorders with regard to BDNF, we conducted a meta-analysis of BDNF levels in autism. Inclusion criteria were met by 15 studies, which included 1242 participants...
August 8, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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