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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904994/rapamycin-protects-sepsis-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mouse-hippocampus-by-enhancing-autophagy
#1
Wenyu Liu, Jia'nan Guo, Jie Mu, Linyu Tian, Dong Zhou
The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway might mediate neuroprotection in a mouse model of septic encephalopathy and also to identify the role of autophagy. Mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or a sham operation, and all 50 mice were randomly assigned to five groups: sham, CLP+ saline, CLP+ rapamycin (1, 5, 10 mg/kg) groups. Two weeks after the operation, Morris water maze was conducted for behavioral test; Nissl staining was used for observing glia infiltration; immunohistochemical staining and biochemical measures in hippocampi were performed to detect mTOR targets and autophagy indicators...
December 1, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896629/remote-limb-ischemic-preconditioning-protects-rats-against-cerebral-ischemia-via-hif-1%C3%AE-ampk-hsp70-pathway
#2
Ming Xia, Qian Ding, Zhidan Zhang, Qinggen Feng
Remote limb ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a clinically feasible strategy to protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the knowledge concerning the mechanism underlying RIPC is scarce. This study was performed to examine the effect of RIPC on brain tissue suffering from ischemia challenge and explore its underlying mechanism in a rat model. The animals were divided into four groups: Sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), RIPC, and MCAO+RIPC. We found that previous exposure to RIPC significantly attenuated neurological dysfunction and lessened brain edema in MCAO+RIPC group...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891557/exogenous-expression-of-nt-3-and-trkc-genes-in-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-elevated-the-survival-rate-of-the-cells-in-the-course-of-neural-differentiation
#3
Houri Edalat, Zahra Hajebrahimi, Vahid Pirhajati, Mahmoud Tavallaei, Mansoureh Movahedin, Seyed Javad Mowla
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are attractive cellular sources for cell therapy of many diseases, specifically neurodegenerative ones. The potential capability of BMSCs could be further augmented by enhancing their neuroprotective property, differentiation potential, and survival rate subsequent to transplantation. Therefore, a concurrent upregulation of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its high affinity receptor, tyrosin kinase C (TrkC), was utilized in our study. BMSCs were cotransfected with pDsRed1-N1-NT-3 and pCMX-TrkC plasmids before induction of neural differentiation...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873129/expression-of-dixdc1-and-its-role-in-astrocyte-proliferation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Hongjian Lu, Rui Jiang, Xuelei Tao, Chengwei Duan, Jie Huang, Wei Huan, Yunfen He, Jianbin Ge, Jianbing Ren
DIX domain containing 1 (Dixdc1), a positive regulator of Wnt signaling pathway, is recently reported to play a role in the neurogenesis. However, the distribution and function of Dixdc1 in the central nervous system (CNS) after brain injury are still unclear. We used an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) model in adult rats to investigate whether Dixdc1 is involved in CNS injury and repair. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed a time-dependent up-regulation of Dixdc1 expression in ipsilateral cortex after TBI...
November 21, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866306/low-dose-of-bisphenol-a-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-il-6-signals-to-increase-malignancy-of-neuroblastoma-cells
#5
Shunjun Xiong, Yanjun Wang, Huijuan Li, Xiaofang Zhang
Bisphenol A (BPA) can accumulate in the human body and promote the progression of various cancers. However, its role in the development of neuroblastoma (NB) is largely unknown. Our present study revealed that nanomolar concentrations of BPA can significantly increase the proliferation, migration and invasion of NB SH-SY5Y and SiMa cells, further evidenced by the upregulation of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Bcl-2, vimentin and fibronectin. Real-time PCR and ELISA results suggested that nanomolar BPA can increase the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), but had no effect on the expression of IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 or IL-12...
November 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858287/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-lens-development-and-cataract-formation
#6
REVIEW
Yong Wang, Huaijin Guan
Epigenetics pertains to heritable alterations in genomic structural modifications without altering genomic DNA sequence. The studies of epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs. DNA methylation may contribute to silencing gene expression which is a major mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation. DNA methylation regulatory mechanisms in lens development and pathogenesis of cataract represent exciting areas of research that have opened new avenues for association with aging and environment...
November 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858286/hypoxic-preconditioning-augments-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-in-a-rat-ischemic-stroke-model
#7
Jin Chen, Yuanyuan Yang, Lihua Shen, Wensen Ding, Xiang Chen, Erbing Wu, Kefu Cai, Guohua Wang
Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is a promising therapy for ischemic stroke, but the poor oxygen environment in brain lesions limits the efficacy of cell-based therapies. Here, we tested whether hypoxic preconditioning (HP) could augment the efficacy of BMSC transplantation in a rat ischemic stroke model and investigated the underlying mechanism of the effect of HP. In vitro, BMSCs were divided into five passage (P0, P1, P2, P3, and P4) groups, and HP was applied to the groups by incubating the cells with 1% oxygen for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h, respectively...
November 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858285/the-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
REVIEW
Osigbemhe Iyalomhe, Sabina Swierczek, Ngozi Enwerem, Yuanxiu Chen, Monica O Adedeji, Joanne Allard, Oyonumo Ntekim, Sheree Johnson, Kakra Hughes, Philip Kurian, Thomas O Obisesan
Neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species are thought to mediate the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal stage of AD, may be driven by similar insults. Several studies document that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is neuroprotective in the setting of neuronal insults, since this transcription factor drives the expression of critical genes that diminish neuronal cell death. HIF-1 facilitates glycolysis and glucose metabolism, thus helping to generate reductive equivalents of NADH/NADPH that counter oxidative stress...
November 17, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848060/man1-restricts-bmp-signaling-during-synaptic-growth-in-drosophila
#9
Ulrike Laugks, Marie Hieke, Nicole Wagner
Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling is crucial for coordinated synaptic growth and plasticity. Here, we show that the nuclear LEM-domain protein MAN1 is a negative regulator of synaptic growth at Drosophila larval and adult neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Loss of MAN1 is associated with synaptic structural defects, including floating T-bars, membrane attachment defects, and accumulation of vesicles between perisynaptic membranes and membranes of the subsynaptic reticulum. In addition, MAN1 mutants accumulate more heterogeneously sized vesicles and multivesicular bodies in larval and adult synapses, the latter indicating that MAN1 may function in synaptic vesicle recycling and endosome-to-lysosome trafficking...
November 15, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832395/mitoluhmes-an-engineered-neuronal-cell-line-for-the-analysis-of-the-motility-of-mitochondria
#10
Tomasz M Stępkowski, Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Marcin Kruszewski
Perturbations in the transport of mitochondria and their quality control in neuronal cells underlie many types of neurological pathologies, whereas systems enabling convenient analysis of mitochondria behavior in cellular models of neurodegenerative diseases are limited. In this study, we present a modified version of lund human mesencephalic cells, mitoLUHMES, expressing GFP and mitochondrially targeted DsRed2 fluorescent proteins, intended for in vitro analysis of mitochondria trafficking by real-time fluorescence microscopy...
November 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817168/knockdown-of-dixdc1-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-glioma-cells
#11
Jianguo Chen, Chaoyan Shen, Jinlong Shi, Jianhong Shen, Wenjuan Chen, Jie Sun, Shaocheng Fan, Yuanqi Bei, Peng Xu, Hao Chang, Rui Jiang, Lu Hua, Bin Ji, Qingfeng Huang
DIX domain containing 1 (DIXDC1), the human homolog of coiled-coil-DIX1 (Ccd1), is a positive regulator of Wnt signaling pathway. Recently, it was found to act as a candidate oncogene in colon cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, and gastric cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of DIXDC1 expression in human glioma and its biological function in glioma cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that DIXDC1 was overexpressed in glioma tissues and glioma cell lines...
November 5, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815658/characterization-of-the-expression-of-basigin-gene-products-within-the-pineal-gland-of-mice
#12
Derek Tokar, Leslie van Ekeris, Paul J Linser, Judith D Ochrietor
The expression of Basigin gene products and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) has been investigated within the mammalian neural retina and suggests a role for these proteins in cellular metabolism within that tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of these same proteins in the pineal gland of the mouse brain. Mouse pineal gland and neural retina RNA and protein were subjected to quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In addition, paraffin-embedded sections of each tissue were analyzed for expression of Basigin gene products and MCT1 via immunohistochemistry...
November 4, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815657/immunohistochemical-localization-of-gfap-and-glutamate-regulatory-proteins-in-chick-retina-and-their-levels-of-expressions-in-altered-photoperiods
#13
Kumar Abhiram Jha, Tapas C Nag, Shashi Wadhwa, Tara Sankar Roy
Moderate to intense light is reported to damage the chick retina, which is cone dominated. Light damage alters neurotransmitter pools, such as those of glutamate. Glutamate level in the retina is regulated by glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamine synthetase (GS). We examined immunolocalization patterns and the expression levels of both markers and of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a marker of neuronal stress) in chick retina exposed to 2000 lux under 12-h light:12-h dark (12L:12D; normal photoperiod), 18L:6D (prolonged photoperiod), and 24L:0D (constant light) at post-hatch day 30...
November 4, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812916/gabab-receptors-as-modulating-target-for-inflammatory-responses-of-the-periodontal-ligament
#14
Anna Konermann, Thomas Van Dyke, Alpdogan Kantarci, Andreas Jäger
PDL cells express GABAB1 and GABAB2 receptors, which are regulated by inflammation and thus might be implicated in periodontal immunology. It was the aim of this study to elucidate the functional role of GABAB receptors in immunomodulation regarding activation of proregenerative versus proinflammatory mechanisms. Human PDL cells were exposed to GABA and/or GABAB receptor antagonist CGP-52432 alone or in combination with IL-1β to mimic inflammation. The influence on marker expression for inflammatory tissue destruction was determined via qRT-PCR and Luminex assays...
November 3, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807758/olfactory-ensheathing-cell-conditioned-medium-reverts-a%C3%AE-25-35-induced-oxidative-damage-in-sh-sy5y-cells-by-modulating-the-mitochondria-mediated-apoptotic-pathway
#15
Qing-Qing Fu, Li Wei, Javier Sierra, Jian-Zhang Cheng, María Teresa Moreno-Flores, Hua You, Hua-Rong Yu
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a type of glia from the mammalian olfactory system, with neuroprotective and regenerative properties. β-Amyloid peptides are a major component of the senile plaques characteristic of the Alzheimer brain. The amyloid beta (Aβ) precursor protein is cleaved to amyloid peptides, and Aβ25-35 is regarded to be the functional domain of Aβ, responsible for its neurotoxic properties. It has been reported that Aβ25-35 triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage, altering the structure and function of mitochondria, leading to the activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic pathway...
November 2, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778125/ten-eleven-translocation-1-and-2-confer-overlapping-transcriptional-programs-for-the-proliferation-of-cultured-adult-neural-stem-cells
#16
Koji Shimozaki
Adult neurogenesis originates from neural stem cells (NSCs) in specific regions of the adult brain. The molecular mechanisms that control the self-renewal and multipotency of NSCs have not been fully elucidated. In recent years, emerging evidence has revealed that ten-eleven translocation (TET) family DNA dioxygenases TET1 and TET2 play important roles in the central nervous system. Here, I present evidence that Tet1 and Tet2 are expressed in cultured NSCs derived from adult mouse brain and play an important role in the proliferative self-renewal of NSCs in an undifferentiated state...
October 24, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766447/relationship-between-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-mitochondrial-dynamics
#17
Dah Ihm Kim, Ki Hoon Lee, Ji Young Oh, Jun Sung Kim, Ho Jae Han
Mitochondria as dynamic organelles undergo morphological changes through the processes of fission and fusion which are major factors regulating their functions. A disruption in the balance of mitochondrial dynamics induces functional disorders in mitochondria such as failed energy production and the generation of reactive oxygen species, which are closely related to pathophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics and impaired mitochondrial function, clarifying the effects of morphofunctional aberrations which promote neuronal cell death in AD...
October 20, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757741/methylation-status-of-the-riz1-gene-promoter-in-human-glioma-tissues-and-cell-lines
#18
Chenran Zhang, Wei Meng, Jiajia Wang, Yicheng Lu, Guohan Hu, Liuhua Hu, Jie Ma
Retinoblastoma protein-interacting zinc-finger gene 1 (RIZ1), a strong tumor suppressor, is silenced in many human cancers. Our previous studies showed that RIZ1 expression was negatively correlated with the grade of glioma and was a key predictor of patient survival. Therefore, RIZ1 could be a potential tumor suppressor during glioma pathogenesis, although the mechanism underlying RIZ1 gene inactivation in gliomas is unknown. We investigated the methylation status of the RIZ1 promoter in human glioma tissues and four glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines, and verified the effect of the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) on RIZ1 transcription and cell proliferation...
October 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734244/topiramate-improves-neuroblast-differentiation-of-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-in-the-d-galactose-induced-aging-mice-via-its-antioxidant-effects
#19
Hui Shen, Jie Wang, Dan Jiang, Pei Xu, Xiaolu Zhu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xing Yu, Moo-Ho Won, Pei Qing Su, Bing Chun Yan
Some anticonvulsant drugs are associated with cognitive ability in patients; Topiramate (TPM) is well known as an effective anticonvulsant agent applied in clinical settings. However, the effect of TPM on the cognitive function is rarely studied. In this study, we aimed to observe the effects of TPM on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the D-galactose-induced aging mice by Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. The study is divided into four groups including control, D-galactose-treated group, 25 and 50 mg/kg TPM-treated plus D-galactose-treated groups...
October 12, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718093/differential-regulation-of-hippocampal-igf-1-associated-signaling-proteins-by-dietary-restriction-in-aging-mouse
#20
Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta Hadem, Ramesh Sharma
Time-dependent alterations in several biological processes of an organism may be characterized as aging. One of the effects of aging is the decline in cognitive functions. Dietary restriction (DR), an intervention where the consumption of food is lessened but without malnutrition, is a well-established mechanism that has a wide range of important outcomes including improved health span, delayed aging, and extension of lifespan of various species. It also plays a beneficial role in protecting against age-dependent deterioration of cognitive functions, and has neuroprotective properties against neurodegenerative diseases...
October 7, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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