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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815332/pilot-study-of-whole-blood-micrornas-as-potential-tools-for-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas-detection
#1
Catherine Gozé, Christelle Reynes, Lionel Forestier, Robert Sabatier, Hugues Duffau
Earlier diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) increase overall survival by maximizing surgery efficacy and optimizing time for an adjuvant treatment when resection is incomplete. Presently, only imaging permits the non-invasive detection and monitoring of DLGG, but it lacks sensitivity. Measure of circulating microRNAs levels could represent a non-invasive alternative. We hypothesized that slow-growing DLGG induce overtime a systemic reaction impacting blood cells microRNA profiles, while the intact blood-brain barrier restricts the passage of tumor microRNAs into bloodstream...
August 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801784/prior-repeated-stress-attenuates-cold-induced-immunomodulation-associated-with-browning-in-mesenteric-fat-of-rats
#2
P Vargovic, M Laukova, J Ukropec, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
Continuous exposure to cold leads to activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue but also to induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this work was to investigate whether prior exposure to immobilization (IMO) stress may affect immune response associated with adipocyte "browning" in mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT). In the first experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to acute (3 h) or prolonged (7 days) cold exposure (4 ± 1 °C). 7-day cold stimulated gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other "browning"-associated factors...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795301/organotypic-cultures-from-the-adult-cns-a-novel-model-to-study-demyelination-and-remyelination-ex-vivo
#3
Glaiza A Tan, Kendra L Furber, Merlin P Thangaraj, LaRhonda Sobchishin, J Ronald Doucette, Adil J Nazarali
Experimental models of multiple sclerosis (MS) have significantly advanced our understanding of pathophysiology and therapeutic interventions. Although in vivo rodent models are considered to most closely represent the complex cellular and molecular disease states of the human central nervous system (CNS), these can be costly to maintain and require long timelines. Organotypic slice cultures maintain the cytotypic organization observed in the intact CNS, yet provide many of the experimental advantages of in vitro cell culture models...
August 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786032/haloperidol-affects-plasticity-of-differentiated-ng-108-cells-through-%C3%AF-1r-ip3r1-complex
#4
Jana Kubickova, Lubomira Lencesova, Lucia Csaderova, Tibor Stracina, Sona Hudecova, Petr Babula, Eva Rozborilova, Marie Novakova, Olga Krizanova
Haloperidol is an antipsychotic agent that primarily acts as an antagonist of D2 dopamine receptors. Besides other receptor systems, it targets sigma 1 receptors (σ1Rs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). Aim of this work was to investigate possible changes in IP3Rs and σ1Rs resulting from haloperidol treatment and to propose physiological consequences in differentiated NG-108 cells, i.e., effect on cellular plasticity. Haloperidol treatment resulted in up-regulation of both type 1 IP3Rs (IP3R1s) and σ1Rs at mRNA and protein levels...
August 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786031/lack-of-crh-affects-the-behavior-but-does-not-affect-the-formation-of-short-term-memory
#5
Eva Varejkova, Eva Plananska, Jaromir Myslivecek
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is involved in modification of synaptic transmission and affects spatial discrimination learning, i.e., affects the formation of memory in long-term aspect. Therefore, we have focused on CRH effect on short-term memory. We have used stress task avoidance (maze containing three zones: entrance, aversive, and neutral) and compared the behavior and short-term memory in wild-type mice and mice lacking CRH (CRH KO) experiencing one 120-min session of restraint stress. As control, non-stressed animals were used...
August 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780604/mir-338-5p-promotes-glioma-cell-invasion-by-regulating-tshz3-and-mmp2
#6
Yanyan Li, Yulun Huang, Zhenyu Qi, Ting Sun, Youxin Zhou
This study was designed to examine differential expression of miR-338-5p in gliomas and the role of miR-338-5p in glioma cell invasion via its potential target gene TSHZ3 encoding Teashirt zinc finger homobox 3, predicted by bioinformatics, and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2), the key pro-invasive protease overexpressed in gliomas. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Spearman correlation analysis were used to determine differential expressions of miR-338-5p and TSHZ3 in astrocytic gliomas of different grades (n = 35) and glioblastoma cell lines (U87 and U251) in comparison to non-neoplastic brain (NNB) tissues (n = 6)...
August 5, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779332/neuroprotection-by-propofol-post-conditioning-focus-on-pkm%C3%AE-kcc2-pathway-activity
#7
Chen-Yi Yang, Shu-Ying Liu, Hai-Yun Wang, Yan-Li Li, Di Guo, Xin-Yue Wang, Wei Hua, Guo-Lin Wang
Critical and major operations are often accompanied by brain ischemic complications. Previous studies found that propofol post-conditioning provided neuroprotective functions through upregulating the expression of potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons. Membrane expression and phosphorylation represents KCC2 activity, which were modulated by a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent mechanism. However, the role of propofol in increasing KCC2 phosphorylation and the involvement of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), a major subtype of PKC, in the KCC2 pathway remained unclear...
August 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776199/contribution-of-vesicular-glutamate-transporters-to-stress-response-and-related-psychopathologies-studies-in-vglut3-knockout-mice
#8
REVIEW
Hanga Réka Horváth, Csilla Lea Fazekas, Diána Balázsfi, Subodh Kumar Jain, József Haller, Dóra Zelena
Maintenance of the homeostasis in a constantly changing environment is a fundamental process of life. Disturbances of the homeostatic balance is defined as stress response and is induced by wide variety of challenges called stressors. Being the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system glutamate is important in the adaptation process of stress regulating both the catecholaminergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Data are accumulating about the role of different glutamatergic receptors at all levels of these axes, but little is known about the contribution of different vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) characterizing the glutamatergic neurons...
August 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762191/inhibition-of-autophagy-is-involved-in-the-protective-effects-of-ginsenoside-rb1-on-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Peng Wang, Chaowei Lin, Shiyang Wu, Kelun Huang, Yu Wang, Xiaomei Bao, Fan Zhang, Zhihui Huang, Honglin Teng
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological disorder. Autophagy is induced and plays a crucial role in SCI. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), one of the major active components extracted from Panax Ginseng CA Meyer, has exhibited neuroprotective effects in various neurodegenerative diseases. However, it remains unknown whether autophagy is involved in the neuroprotection of Rb1 on SCI. In this study, we examined the regulation of autophagy following Rb1 treatment and its involvement in the Rb1-induced neuroprotection in SCI and in vitro injury model...
July 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752408/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-an-important-driver-of-neuroinflammation-in-hemorrhagic-stroke
#10
REVIEW
Shao-Jun Yang, Gao-Feng Shao, Jiang-Li Chen, Jie Gong
Hemorrhagic stroke is a devastating clinical event with no effective medical treatment. Neuroinflammation, which follows a hemorrhagic stroke, is an important element that involves both acute brain injury and subsequent brain rehabilitation. Therefore, delineating the key inflammatory mediators and deciphering their pathophysiological roles in hemorrhagic strokes is of great importance in the development of novel therapeutic targets for this disease. The NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a multi-protein complex that is localized within the cytoplasm...
July 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712092/favorable-impact-on-stress-related-behaviors-by-modulating-plasma-butyrylcholinesterase
#11
REVIEW
Stephen Brimijoin, Susannah Tye
In the last decade, it has become clear that the neuropeptide "ghrelin" and its principal receptor have a large impact on anxiety and stress. Our recent studies have uncovered a link between plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and ghrelin. BChE actually turns out to be the key regulator of this peptide. This article reviews our recent work on manipulating ghrelin levels in mouse blood and brain by long term elevation of BChE, leading to sustained decrease of ghrelin. That effect in turn was found to reduce stress-induced aggression in group caged mice...
July 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712091/contribution-of-genetic-factors-to-lower-dheas-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Lucia Vernerova, Martina Mravcova, Lucia Paulikova, Miroslav Vlcek, Andrea Marko, Milada Meskova, Adela Penesova, Jozef Rovensky, Juraj Wendl, Katarina Raslova, Branislav Vohnout, Ivana Jochmanova, Ivica Lazurova, Zdenko Killinger, Guenter Steiner, Josef Smolen, Richard Imrich
OBJECTIVE: Lower production of adrenal androgens has been confirmed in females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the mechanisms of this finding are not completely understood. The aim of our study was to assess the contribution of genetic factors associated with variability of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels to lower DHEAS in female RA patients. METHODS: 448 RA and 648 healthy controls were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes ZKSCAN5 (rs11761528), SULT2A1 (rs2637125), HHEX (rs2497306), and ARPC1A (rs740160)...
July 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699113/protective-role-of-naringenin-against-a%C3%AE-25-35-caused-damage-via-er-and-pi3k-akt-mediated-pathways
#13
Ning Zhang, Zhonghua Hu, Zhibo Zhang, Guoliang Liu, Yeqiu Wang, Yandong Ren, Xiuhong Wu, Fang Geng
Senile plaque accumulation and neurofibrillary tangles are primary characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to assess the protective functions of naringenin against β-amyloid protein fragment 25-35 (Aβ25-35)-caused nerve damage in differentiated PC12 cells, and study the potential mechanisms. We evaluated cell viability and apoptosis using the 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and flow cytometry, respectively. Moreover, we measured protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and caspase-3 activity via western blotting and RT-PCR...
July 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699112/brain-under-stress-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Boris Mravec, Lubica Horvathova, Alexandra Padova
Modern society is characterized by the ubiquity of stressors that affect every individual to different extents. Furthermore, experimental, clinical, and epidemiological data have shown that chronic activation of the stress response may participate in the development of various somatic as well as neuropsychiatric diseases. Surprisingly, the role that stress plays in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not yet been studied in detail and is therefore not well understood. However, accumulated data have shown that neuroendocrine and behavioral changes accompanying the stress response affect neuronal homeostasis and compromise several key neuronal processes...
July 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695320/at1-and-at2-receptors-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-modulate-the-cardiovascular-response-evoked-by-acute-exposure-to-restraint-stress-in-rats
#15
Taíz F S Brasil, Aline Fassini, Fernando M Corrêa
The prelimbic cortex (PL) is an important structure in the neural pathway integrating stress responses. Brain angiotensin is involved in cardiovascular control and modulation of stress responses. Blockade of angiotensin receptors has been reported to reduce stress responses. Acute restraint stress (ARS) is a stress model, which evokes sustained blood pressure increase, tachycardia, and reduction in tail temperature. We therefore hypothesized that PL locally generated angiotensin and angiotensin receptors modulate stress autonomic responses...
July 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695319/acute-impact-of-selected-pyridoindole-derivatives-on-fos-expression-in-different-structures-of-the-rat-brain
#16
Romana Koprdova, Jana Osacka, Mojmir Mach, Alexander Kiss
The impacts of three pyridoindole derivatives (PDs), designated as PD144, PD143, and PD104, which have previously been shown to have antidepressant (PD144) and anxiolytic (PD143, PD104) properties, were investigated on the Fos expressions in 11 different rat brain areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, septum, accumbens nucleus (shell, core), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, central amygdala, locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, and the solitary tract nucleus...
July 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689275/neuroprotective-effects-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-enriched-phosphatidylserine-against-oxidative-damage-in-pc12-cells
#17
Hongxia Che, Xueyuan Fu, Lingyu Zhang, Xiang Gao, Min Wen, Lei Du, Changhu Xue, Jie Xu, Yuming Wang
Neurodegenerative diseases are defined by progressive loss of specific neuronal cell populations and are associated with protein aggregates. Oxidative stress has been implicated in their pathological processes. Previous studies revealed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is beneficial in neurodegenerative diseases. Phospholipids (PLs) derived from marine products are rich in DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of DHA-enriched and unenriched phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS) on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and tert-butylhydroperoxide in PC12 cells...
July 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687876/chromosome-21-encoded-micrornas-mrnas-impact-on-down-s-syndrome-and-trisomy-21-linked-disease
#18
P N Alexandrov, M E Percy, Walter J Lukiw
Down's syndrome (DS; also known as trisomy 21; T21) is caused by a triplication of all or part of human chromosome 21 (chr21). DS is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability attributable to a naturally-occurring imbalance in gene dosage. DS incurs huge medical, healthcare, and socioeconomic costs, and there are as yet no effective treatments for this incapacitating human neurogenetic disorder. There is a remarkably wide variability in the 'phenotypic spectrum' associated with DS; the progression of symptoms and the age of DS onset fluctuate, and there is further variability in the biophysical nature of the chr21 duplication...
July 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676988/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-disturbs-coronary-tone-and-its-regulatory-mechanisms
#19
Svetlana S Lazuko, Olga P Kuzhel, Lyudmila E Belyaeva, Eugenia B Manukhina, H Fred Downey, Olga B Tseilikman, Maria V Komelkova, Vadim E Tseilikman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with myocardial injury, but changes in coronary regulatory mechanisms in PTSD have not been investigated. This study evaluated the effect of PTSD-inducing stress on coronary tone and its regulation by nitric oxide (NO) and voltage-gated K(+) channels. PTSD was induced by exposing rats to predator stress, 15 min daily for 10 days, followed by 14 stress-free days. Presence of PTSD was confirmed by the elevated plus-maze test. Coronary tone was evaluated from changes in coronary perfusion pressure of Langendorff isolated hearts...
July 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667374/human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-against-sca3-by-modulating-the-level-of-70-kd-heat-shock-protein
#20
Tan Li, Yi Liu, Linjie Yu, Jiamin Lao, Meijuan Zhang, Jiali Jin, Zhengjuan Lu, Zhuo Liu, Yun Xu
Spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3), which is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is currently incurable. Emerging studies have reported that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs) transplantation could be a promising therapeutic strategy for cerebellar ataxias. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of HUC-MSCs on SCA3 transgenic mouse. Thus, we investigated the effects of HUC-MSCs on SCA3 mice and the underlying mechanisms in this study. SCA3 transgenic mice received systematic administration of 2 × 10(6) HUC-MSCs once per week for 12 continuous weeks...
June 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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