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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

Glen B Baker, Juan M Saavedra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Noël Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Yves Lecarpentier
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is marked by neuroinflammation and demyelination with loss of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. The immune response is regulated by WNT/beta-catenin pathway in MS. Activated NF-kappaB, a major effector of neuroinflammation, and upregulated canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway positively regulate each other. Demyelinating events present an upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, whereas proper myelinating phases show a downregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway essential for the promotion of oligodendrocytes precursors cells proliferation and differentiation...
September 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
James P Herman
Hindbrain neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are critical for regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses to stress. It is well known that noradrenergic (as well as adrenergic) neurons in the NTS send direct projections to hypophysiotropic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons and control activation of HPA axis responses to acute systemic (but not psychogenic) stressors. Norepinephrine (NE) signaling via alpha1 receptors is primarily excitatory, working either directly on CRH neurons or through presynaptic activation of glutamate release...
September 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Pedro H D M Prazeres, Viviani M Almeida, Luiza Lousado, Julia P Andreotti, Ana E Paiva, Gabryella S P Santos, Patrick O Azevedo, Luanny Souto, Gregório G Almeida, Renato Filev, Akiva Mintz, Ricardo Gonçalves, Alexander Birbrair
Pericytes are defined by their anatomical location encircling blood vessels' walls with their long projections. The exact embryonic sources of cerebral pericytes remain poorly understood, especially because of their recently revealed diversity. Yamamoto et al. (Sci Rep 7(1):3855, 2017) using state-of-the-art techniques, including several transgenic mice models, reveal that a subpopulation of brain pericytes are derived from phagocytic macrophages during vascular development. This work highlights a new possible ancestor of brain pericytes...
September 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Esther L Sabban, Lidia I Serova, Elizabeth Newman, Nurit Aisenberg, Irit Akirav
The locus coeruleus (LC)-amygdala circuit is implicated in playing a key role in responses to emotionally arousing stimuli and in the manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined changes in gene expression of a number of important mediators of the LC-amygdala circuitry in the inhibition avoidance model of PTSD. After testing for basal acoustic startle response (ASR), rats were exposed to a severe footshock (1.5 mA for 10 s) in the inhibitory avoidance apparatus. They were given contextual situational reminders every 5 day for 25 days...
September 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
J M Saavedra, I Armando
Angiotensin II, through AT1 receptor stimulation, mediates multiple cardiovascular, metabolic, and behavioral functions including the response to stressors. Conversely, the function of Angiotensin II AT2 receptors has not been totally clarified. In adult rodents, AT2 receptor distribution is very limited but it is particularly high in the adrenal medulla. Recent results strongly indicate that AT2 receptors contribute to the regulation of the response to stress stimuli. This occurs in association with AT1 receptors, both receptor types reciprocally influencing their expression and therefore their function...
September 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
M Laukova, Peter Vargovic, I Rokytova, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
Spleen is an immune organ innervated with sympathetic nerves which together with adrenomedullary system control splenic immune functions. However, the mechanism by which prior stress exposure modulates the immune response induced by immunogenic challenge is not sufficiently clarified. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single (2 h) and repeated (2 h daily for 7 days) immobilization stress (IMO) on the innate immune response in the spleen induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/kg)...
September 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Yuhai Zhao, Lin Cong, Walter J Lukiw
microRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a class of ~18-25 nucleotide (nt) single-stranded non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) that are the smallest known carriers of gene-encoded, post-transcriptional regulatory information in both plants and animals. There are many fundamental similarities between plant and animal miRNAs-the miRNAs of both kingdoms play essential roles in development, aging and disease, and the shaping of the transcriptome of many cell types. Both plant and animal miRNAs appear to predominantly exert their genetic and transcriptomic influences by regulating gene expression at the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) stability and/or translational inhibition...
September 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Wenzhe Xu, Feng Li, Zhenkuan Xu, Bin Sun, Jingwei Cao, Yuguang Liu
Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prdx2) is a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme in mammalian brain. Although a protective role of Prdx2 has been established in cerebral ischemia and several neurodegenerative diseases, its contribution against iron-induced neurocytotoxicity still remains to be determined. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Prdx2 on iron-induced cytotoxicity using an in vitro model in which PC12 cells are exposed to ferrous sulfate (FS). The FS treatment increased Prdx2 expression, and promoted lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and cell apoptosis in PC12 cells, accompanied by the increase in the Bax/Bcl2 ratio, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 cleavage...
September 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
G T Shishkina, D A Lanshakov, A V Bannova, T S Kalinina, N P Agarina, N N Dygalo
Doxycycline (Dox)-inducible transgenic approach is used to examine the neural mechanisms of anxiety and depression; however, its own effects on related behaviors are not clear. To address this, in the present study, we tested the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats treated with Dox in drinking water (2 mg/ml) in the elevated plus-maze (EPM; on day 5) and forced swim (FST; on day 8) tests, respectively. In addition, the levels of mRNAs and proteins of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL in the hippocampus (HIPP) and frontal cortex (FC) were also analyzed...
August 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
D Kapsdorfer, N Hlavacova, D Vondrova, L Argalasova, L Sevcikova, Daniela Jezova
At the time of school-age, the most frequent stress stimuli are related to school environment and educational process. Anxiety may play a big role in coping with stressful situations associated with school load. To approach this issue, we performed a real-life study at school during the classwork. The sample consisted of 36 healthy children aged 10 years, which were divided to low and high trait anxiety group based on the median value of the anxiety score. The investigations were carried out in the classroom during a stress condition (final exams) and non-stress condition (without any exam)...
August 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Patricia Patterson-Buckendahl, Muhammad Shahid, Ankit Shah, Larissa A Pohorecky
Osteocalcin (OC) is an abundant extracellular calcium-binding protein synthesized by osteoblasts. Although most OC is bound to hydroxyapatite mineral during bone formation, a consistent amount is released directly to circulation. Plasma OC (pOC) levels are highly sensitive to stressful stimuli that alter stress-responsive hormones, such as glucocorticoids (cortisol or corticosterone) and the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine. To gain a better understanding of the apparent relationship of OC to the effects of ethanol (EtOH) and the stress responses, we compared mice that have OC (WT [OC+/+] and HET [OC+/-]) with OC null mutants (KO [OC-/-]), which have no OC in either plasma or in bone...
August 29, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Kayo Horio, Mahito Ohkuma, Ei-Ichi Miyachi
The expression of H1 receptor has been reported in amacrine cells of mouse and rat retinae. However, we assumed that other types of histamine receptors also function in amacrine cells. In order to confirm that histamine modulates the membrane potential in mouse amacrine cells, we measured voltage-gated currents using whole-cell configuration. Under voltage-clamp conditions, the amplitude of voltage-gated outward currents was enhanced by the application of 100 µM histamine in 65% of amacrine cells. Histamine also increased the amplitudes of voltage-gated inward currents in 72% of amacrine cells...
August 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Wei Liu, Yanling Lv, Facheng Ren
Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) has been identified in the expression of central sensitization after noxious inflammatory stimuli. However, its contribution in neuropathic pain remains to be determined. Here we address the role of PI3K signaling in central sensitization in a model of neuropathic pain, and propose a novel potential drug target for neuropathic pain. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model was used in the study as the model for neuropathic pain. Western blotting, whole-cell patch clamp, and von Frey assay were performed to study biochemical, electrical, and behavioral changes in CCI rats, respectively...
August 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Merlin P Thangaraj, Kendra L Furber, LaRhonda Sobchishin, Shaoping Ji, J Ronald Doucette, Adil J Nazarali
Sirtuin2 (SIRT2) is a deacetylase enzyme predominantly expressed in myelinating glia of the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously demonstrated that Sirt2 expression enhances oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and arborization in vitro, but the molecular targets of SIRT2 in OLs remain speculative. SIRT2 has been implicated in cholesterol biosynthesis by promoting the nuclear translocation of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-2. We investigated this further in CNS myelination by examining the role of Sirt2 in cholesterol biosynthesis in vivo and in vitro employing Sirt2 (-/-) mice, primary OL cells and CG4-OL cells...
August 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Dingxiu He, Yun Zhang, Biao Zhang, Wei Jian, Xiaojian Deng, Yi Yang, Tao Xiao, Hanyang Yu, Shuyin Wen, Kaisen Huang
Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as a new prognostic inflammatory marker in a variety of diseases. This study aimed to evaluate whether PCT is associated with increased risk of unfavorable outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. During January 2015-December 2016, we conducted a prospective cohort investigation involved 251 primary ICH patients who were admitted within 24 h after the onset of symptoms. We assessed serum PCT levels for all patients at admission. The functional outcome after 3 months was evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and dichotomized as favorable (mRS 0-2) and unfavorable (mRS 3-6)...
August 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Li-Hsien Lin, Susan Jones, William T Talman
By determining its cellular localization in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), we sought anatomical support for a putative physiological role for acid-sensing ion channel Type 1 (ASIC1) in chemosensitivity. Further, we sought to determine the effect of a lesion that produces gliosis in the area. In rats, we studied ASIC1 expression in control tissue with that in tissue with gliosis, which is associated with acidosis, after saporin lesions. We hypothesized that saporin would increase ASIC1 expression in areas of gliosis...
August 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Majid Salehi, Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammdreza Nourani, Arash Khojasteh, Saeed Farzamfar, Korosh Mansouri, Jafar Ai
The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable porous neural guidance conduit as a carrier to transplant allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The conduit was prepared from polyurethane (PU) and gelatin nanofibrils (GNFs) using thermally induced phase separation technique and filled with melatonin (MLT) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The prepared conduit had the porosity of 87.17 ± 1.89%, the contact angle of 78.17 ± 5.30° and the ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus of 5...
August 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Catherine Gozé, Christelle Reynes, Lionel Forestier, Robert Sabatier, Hugues Duffau
Earlier diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) increase overall survival by maximizing surgery efficacy and optimizing time for an adjuvant treatment when resection is incomplete. Presently, only imaging permits the non-invasive detection and monitoring of DLGG, but it lacks sensitivity. Measure of circulating microRNAs levels could represent a non-invasive alternative. We hypothesized that slow-growing DLGG induce overtime a systemic reaction impacting blood cells microRNA profiles, while the intact blood-brain barrier restricts the passage of tumor microRNAs into bloodstream...
August 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
P Vargovic, M Laukova, J Ukropec, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
Continuous exposure to cold leads to activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue but also to induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this work was to investigate whether prior exposure to immobilization (IMO) stress may affect immune response associated with adipocyte "browning" in mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT). In the first experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to acute (3 h) or prolonged (7 days) cold exposure (4 ± 1 °C). 7-day cold stimulated gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other "browning"-associated factors...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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