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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493234/exploration-of-involved-key-genes-and-signaling-diversity-in-brain-tumors
#1
REVIEW
Mojdeh Mahdian Nasser, Parvin Mehdipour
Brain tumors are becoming a major cause of death. The classification of brain tumors has gone through restructuring with regard to some criteria such as the presence or absence of a specific genetic alteration in the 2016 central nervous system World Health Organization update. Two categories of genes with a leading role in tumorigenesis and cancer induction include tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes; tumor suppressor genes are inactivated through a variety of mechanisms that result in their loss of function...
May 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493233/neurite-outgrowth-stimulated-by-oxytocin-is-modulated-by-inhibition-of-the-calcium-voltage-gated-channels
#2
M Zatkova, A Reichova, Z Bacova, V Strbak, A Kiss, J Bakos
Neuropeptide oxytocin contributes to the regulation of the neuron differentiation and cell morphology. However, the precise mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Oxytocin receptor function and its coupling to calcium entry are obvious objects of interest in relation to the neuron morphology. Postsynaptic scaffolding proteins including SHANK proteins interact with other synaptic molecules and change dendritic morphology. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line represents a useful neurobiological in vitro model to study the short-term oxytocin effects on neurite outgrowth and underlying mechanisms...
May 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488010/neuroprotective-effect-of-oxysophocarpine-by-modulation-of-mapk-pathway-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons-subject-to-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-reperfusion
#3
Peng Zhao, Ren-Yuan Chang, Ning Liu, Jing Wang, Ru Zhou, Xue Qi, Yue Liu, Lin Ma, Yang Niu, Tao Sun, Yu-Xiang Li, Yan-Ping He, Jian-Qiang Yu
Oxysophocarpine (OSC), an alkaloid isolated from Sophora flavescens Ait, has been traditionally used as a medicinal agent based on the observed pharmacological effects. In this study, the direct effect of OSC against neuronal injuries induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in neonatal rat primary-cultured hippocampal neurons and its mechanisms were investigated. Cultured hippocampal neurons, which were exposed to OGD for 2 h followed by a 24 h reoxygenation, were used as an in vitro model of ischemia and reperfusion...
May 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488009/linking-stress-catecholamine-autotoxicity-and-allostatic-load-with-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-focused-review-in-memory-of-richard-kvetnansky
#4
REVIEW
David S Goldstein, Irwin J Kopin
In this Focused Review, we provide an update about evolving concepts that may link chronic stress and catecholamine autotoxicity with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Richard Kvetnansky's contributions to the field of stress and catecholamine systems inspired some of the ideas presented here. We propose that coordination of catecholaminergic systems mediates adjustments maintaining health and that senescence-related disintegration of these systems leads to disorders of regulation and to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease...
May 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488008/ameliorating-the-effect-of-pioglitazone-on-lps-induced-inflammation-of-human-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells
#5
Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Motahare-Sadat Hashemi, Ali Ghoochani, Abbas Kiani-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Hossein Baharvand
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are appropriate model cells for studying the progress of neurodegenerative disorders and evaluation of pharmacological efficacies of small molecules for treatment of these disorders. Here, we focused on the therapeutic role of Pioglitazone, which is a selective agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a respective nuclear receptor in inflammatory responses. Human embryonic stem cell-derived OPCs were pretreated by Pioglitazone at differing concentrations...
May 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488007/effects-of-rat-anti-mouse-interleukin-6-receptor-antibody-on-the-recovery-of-cognitive-function-in-stroke-mice
#6
Jun Wei, Chongling Sun, Chang Liu, Qimei Zhang
This study aimed to investigate the effects of rat anti-mouse interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1) on the recovery of cognitive function in stroke mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Mice were randomly assigned into three groups: sham group, model group, and MR16-1 group. After the treatment of MR16-1, spatial learning and memory performance of mice were evaluated by the Morris water maze (MWM) and Y-maze tests. Then, brain slices were obtained and infarct volume and neuronal apoptosis were assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively...
May 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484859/effects-of-sdf-1-cxcr4-on-the-repair-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-by-mediating-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Quan-Jun Deng, Xiao-Feng Xu, Jing Ren
Our study aims to investigate the effects of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis on the repair of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats by mediating bone marrow derived from mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Healthy male SD rats were collected, their tibiofibulars were removed, cultured, and BMSCs were collected. The expression of cell-surface molecular proteins was examined using flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of CXCR4 in cells were tested using qRT-PCR and western blotting analysis. An electronic brain injury instrument was utilized to build TBI rat models and each rat was assigned into the experiment, positive control and control groups (10 rats in each group)...
May 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478572/perinatal-exposure-to-western-diet-programs-autonomic-dysfunction-in-the-male-offspring
#8
Snigdha Mukerjee, Yun Zhu, Andrea Zsombok, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, Jinying Zhao, Eric Lazartigues
Although the deleterious influence of protein deficiency on fetal programming is well documented, the impact of a Western diet on epigenetic mechanisms is less clear. We hypothesized that high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) consumption during pregnancy leads to epigenetic modifications within the progeny's compensatory renin-angiotensin system (RAS), affecting autonomic and metabolic functions. Dams were fed HFHSD (45% fat and 30% sucrose) or regular chow (RD) from mating until weaning of the pups (~7 weeks)...
May 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477054/neuroprotective-effects-of-sigesbeckia-pubescens-extract-on-glutamate-induced-oxidative-stress-in-ht22-cells-via-downregulation-of-mapk-caspase-3-pathways
#9
Md Rashedunnabi Akanda, Myung-Jin Kim, In-Shik Kim, Dongchoon Ahn, Hyun-Jin Tae, Md Mahfujur Rahman, Yang-Gyu Park, Jae-Won Seol, Hyeon-Hwa Nam, Byung-Kil Choo, Byung-Yong Park
Sigesbeckia pubescens (SP) is a traditional Chinese medicine, possessing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluate the neuroprotective activities of SP extract on glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells and the molecular mechanism underlying neuroprotection. We applied 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), crystal violet, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and western blot analyses for assessing the neuroprotective effects of SP extract...
May 5, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474296/erratum-to-microrna-29c-pten-pathway-is-involved-in-mice-brain-development-and-modulates-neurite-outgrowth-in-pc12-cells
#10
Hongjun Zou, Ya Ding, Weifeng Shi, Xu Xu, Aihua Gong, Zhijian Zhang, Jinbo Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470537/erratum-to-o-glcnac-glycosylation-of-nnos-promotes-neuronal-apoptosis-following-glutamate-excitotoxicity
#11
Rongrong Chen, Peipei Gong, Tao Tao, Yilu Gao, Jianhong Shen, Yaohua Yan, Chengwei Duan, Jun Wang, Xiaojuan Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447247/the-role-of-peripheral-myelin-protein-2-in-remyelination
#12
Mark Stettner, Jennifer Zenker, Fabian Klingler, Fabian Szepanowski, Hans-P Hartung, Anne K Mausberg, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Roman Chrast, Bernd C Kieseier
The protein component of the myelin layer is essential for all aspects of peripheral nerves, and its deficiency can lead to structural and functional impairment. The presence of peripheral myelin protein 2 (P2, PMP2, FABP8, M-FABP) in Schwann cells has been known for decades and shown recently to be involved in the lipid homeostasis in the peripheral neural system. However, its precise role during de- and remyelination has yet to be elucidated. To this end, we assessed remyelination after sciatic nerve crush injury in vivo, and in an experimental de/remyelination ex vivo myelinating culture model in P2-deficient (P2 (-/-) ) and wild-type (WT) animals...
April 26, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405903/stress-induced-alterations-of-immune-profile-in-animals-suffering-by-tau-protein-driven-neurodegeneration
#13
Petr Novak, Martin Cente, Nina Kosikova, Tomas Augustin, Richard Kvetnansky, Michal Novak, Peter Filipcik
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder; neurofibrillary pathology composed of tau protein is found side by side with amyloid-β deposits and extensive neuroinflammation. The immune system of the brain is considered as one of the factors that could influence the speed of the progression of AD neuropathology as a potential mediator of the damage induced by AD protein deposits. Alzheimer's disease pathology can be impacted by psychological stress; however, signalling pathways in background are not well known...
April 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405902/mitophagy-in-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#14
Mengqian Wu, Xinyu Liu, Xiaosa Chi, Le Zhang, Weixi Xiong, Siew Mun Vance Chiang, Dong Zhou, Jinmei Li
This study aimed to determine if there is an association between mitophagy and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. During epilepsy surgery, we collected tissue samples from the hippocampi and temporal lobe cortexes of rTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (as diagnosed by a pathologist). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the ultrastructural features of the tissue. To probe for mitophagy, we used fluorescent immunolabeling to determine if mitochondrial and autophagosomal markers colocalized...
April 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401316/the-orally-active-noncompetitive-ampar-antagonist-perampanel-attenuates-focal-cerebral-ischemia-injury-in-rats
#15
Hong-Xia Niu, Jun-Zhe Wang, Dong-Liang Wang, Jun-Jie Miao, Hua Li, Zhi-Gang Liu, Xing Yuan, Wei Liu, Jing-Ru Zhou
Inhibition of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) is a potential target of therapy for ischemic stroke. Perampanel is a potent noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor (AMPAR) antagonist with good oral bioavailability and favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we investigated the potential protective effects of perampanel against focal cerebral ischemia in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. Oral administration with perampanel significantly reduced MCAO-induced brain edema, brain infarct volume, and neuronal apoptosis...
April 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353187/noradrenergic-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-mediated-intracellular-molecular-mechanism-of-na-k-atpase-subunit-expression-in-c6-cells
#16
Megha Amar, Abhishek Singh, Birendra Nath Mallick
Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-associated elevated noradrenaline increases and decreases neuronal and glial Na-K ATPase activity, respectively. In this study, using C6 cell-line as a model, we investigated the possible intracellular molecular mechanism of noradrenaline-induced decreased glial Na-K ATPase activity. The cells were treated with noradrenaline in the presence or absence of adrenoceptor antagonists, modulators of extra- and intracellular Ca(++) and modulators of intracellular signalling pathways...
March 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349223/the-orexin-system-and-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Michael J Huber, Qing-Hui Chen, Zhiying Shan
In this review, we focus on the role of orexin signaling in blood pressure control and its potential link to hypertension by summarizing evidence from several experimental animal models of hypertension. Studies using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model of human essential hypertension show that pharmacological blockade of orexin receptors reduces blood pressure in SHRs but not in Wistar-Kyoto rats. In addition, increased activity of the orexin system contributes to elevated blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in dark-active period Schlager hypertensive (BPH/2J) mice, another genetic model of neurogenic hypertension...
March 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332001/ncam1-is-the-target-of-mirna-572-validation-in-the-human-oligodendroglial-cell-line
#18
Roberta Mancuso, Simone Agostini, Ivana Marventano, Ambra Hernis, Marina Saresella, Mario Clerici
The neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) is a fundamental protein in cell-cell interaction and in cellular developmental processes, and its dysregulation is involved in a number of diseases including multiple sclerosis. Studies in rats suggest that the modulation of NCAM1 expression is regulated by miRNA-572, but no data are available confirming such interaction in the human system. We analyzed whether this is the case using a human oligodendroglial cell line (MO3.13). MO3.13 cells were transfected with miRNA-572 mimic and inhibitor separately; NCAM1 mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed at different time points after transfection...
March 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324201/potential-roles-of-mitochondria-associated-er-membranes-mams-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
REVIEW
Dongdong Sun, Xin Chen, Gang Gu, Jianhao Wang, Jianning Zhang
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria have both been shown to be critical in cellular homeostasis. The functions of the ER and mitochondria are independent but interrelated. These two organelles could form physical interactions, known as MAMs, to regulate physiological functions between ER and mitochondria to maintain Ca(2+), lipid, and metabolite exchange. Several proteins are located in MAMs, including RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein-2 and sigma-1 receptor to ensure regulation...
March 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321604/suppression-of-the-smurf1-expression-inhibits-tumor-progression-in-gliomas
#20
Hao Chang, Jingning Zhang, Zengli Miao, Yasuo Ding, Xing Xu, Xudong Zhao, Peng Xu, Qing Wang, Yuchang Lin
Glioblastoma, one of the common malignant brain tumors, results in the highly death, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Smurf1, a member of Nedd4 family of HECT-type ligases, has been reported to contribute to tumorigenicity through several important biological pathways. Recently, it was also found to participate in modulate cellular processes, including morphogenesis, autophagy, growth, and cell migration. In this research, we reported the clinical guiding significance of the expression of Smurf1 in human glioma tissues and cell lines...
March 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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