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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770956/dynamic-changes-of-astrocytes-and-adenosine-signaling-in-rat-hippocampus-in-post-status-epilepticus-model-of-epileptogenesis
#1
Siqi Hong, Tingsong Li, Yuanyuan Luo, Wenjuan Li, Xiaoju Tang, Yuanzhen Ye, Peng Wu, Qiao Hu, Li Cheng, Hengsheng Chen, Li Jiang
It is of great importance to explore the development of epileptogenesis, and the adenosine and adenosine kinase (ADK) system seems to play a key role in this process. The aim of this study is to explore the dynamic changes of astrocytes and adenosine signaling during epileptogenesis in rat hippocampus in a post-status epileptogenesis (SE) model. Rat SE models were built and killed for experiments at 1 day (acute phase of epileptogenesis), 5 days (latent phase), 4 weeks (chronic phase), and 8 weeks (late chronic phase of epileptogenesis) after SE induction...
May 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766392/excessive-glutamate-stimulation-impairs-ace2-activity-through-adam17-mediated-shedding-in-cultured-cortical-neurons
#2
Jiaxi Xu, Srinivas Sriramula, Eric Lazartigues
The excitotoxicity of glutamate plays an important role in the progression of various neurological disorders via participating in inflammation and neuronal damage. In this study, we identified the role of excessive glutamate stimulation in the modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2), a critical component in the compensatory axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In primary cultured cortical neurons, high concentration of glutamate (100 µM) significantly reduced the enzymatic activity of ACE2...
May 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748835/canonical-transient-receptor-potential-channel-3-contributes-to-febrile-seizure-inducing-neuronal-cell-death-and-neuroinflammation
#3
Dan Sun, Hui Ma, Jiehui Ma, Jing Wang, Xiaolong Deng, Chunhui Hu, Xianbo Deng
Febrile seizure (FS) counts as the most common seizures symptom in children undergoing recurrent seizures, posing a high risk to developing subsequent temporal lobe epilepsy. Canonical transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) members are identified as the FS-related genes in hyperthermia prone rats. However, the role of TRPC3 in hyperthermia-induced FS rats remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPC3 functionally contributes to the development of FSs. Elevated TRPC3 mRNA and protein levels was detected in hyperthermia-induced FS rats and rat hippocampal neuron cells...
May 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744691/glioma-cell-and-astrocyte-co-cultures-as-a-model-to-study-tumor-tissue-interactions-a-review-of-methods
#4
REVIEW
Ivan V Chekhonin, Dimitry A Chistiakov, Nadezhda F Grinenko, Olga I Gurina
Astrocytes are a dominant cell type that envelopes the glioma bed. Typically, that is followed by formation of contacts between astrocytes and glioma cells and accompanied by change in astrocyte phenotype, a phenomenon known as a 'reactive astrogliosis.' Generally considered glioma-promoting, astrocytes have many controversial peculiarities in communication with tumor cells, which need thorough examination in vitro. This review is devoted to in vitro co-culture studies of glioma cells and astrocytes. Firstly, we list several fundamental works which allow understanding the modalities of co-culturing...
May 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700661/parkinson-disease-from-mendelian-forms-to-genetic-susceptibility-new-molecular-insights-into-the-neurodegeneration-process
#5
REVIEW
Amin Karimi-Moghadam, Saeid Charsouei, Benjamin Bell, Mohammad Reza Jabalameli
Parkinson disease (PD) is known as a common progressive neurodegenerative disease which is clinically diagnosed by the manifestation of numerous motor and nonmotor symptoms. PD is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with both familial and sporadic forms. To date, researches in the field of Parkinsonism have identified 23 genes or loci linked to rare monogenic familial forms of PD with Mendelian inheritance. Biochemical studies revealed that the products of these genes usually play key roles in the proper protein and mitochondrial quality control processes, as well as synaptic transmission and vesicular recycling pathways within neurons...
April 26, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687234/ros-as-regulators-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-neurons
#6
REVIEW
Carolina Cid-Castro, Diego Rolando Hernández-Espinosa, Julio Morán
Mitochondrial dynamics is a complex process, which involves the fission and fusion of mitochondrial outer and inner membranes. These processes organize the mitochondrial size and morphology, as well as their localization throughout the cells. In the last two decades, it has become a spotlight due to their importance in the pathophysiological processes, particularly in neurological diseases. It is known that Drp1, mitofusin 1 and 2, and Opa1 constitute the core of proteins that coordinate this intricate and dynamic process...
April 23, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666956/early-postnatal-development-of-the-lamination-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-a-layers-in-cats
#7
Natalia Merkulyeva, Aleksandr Mikhalkin, Pavel Zykin
The early postnatal development of the A-layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) was investigated in kittens aged 0-34 days by immunohistochemistry for the selective marker for neuronal differentiation (NeuN protein) and parvalbumin. We report two new facts about the LGNd development. First, there is a transient stratification of NeuN labelling in layer A, and to a lesser extent in layer A1, in kittens aged 0 and 4 days. Second, a transient population of large cells that are located between the LGNd A-layers (interlaminar cells) showed high expression levels of both NeuN and parvalbumin...
April 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663107/the-serca2-a-gatekeeper-of-neuronal-calcium-homeostasis-in-the-brain
#8
REVIEW
Aikaterini Britzolaki, Joseph Saurine, Emily Flaherty, Connor Thelen, Pothitos M Pitychoutis
Calcium (Ca2+ ) ions are prominent cell signaling regulators that carry information for a variety of cellular processes and are critical for neuronal survival and function. Furthermore, Ca2+ acts as a prominent second messenger that modulates divergent intracellular cascades in the nerve cells. Therefore, nerve cells have developed intricate Ca2+ signaling pathways to couple the Ca2+ signal to their biochemical machinery. Notably, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis greatly relies on the rapid redistribution of Ca2+ ions into the diverse subcellular organelles which serve as Ca2+ stores, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
April 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623478/continued-tumor-reduction-of-metastatic-pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma-harboring-succinate-dehydrogenase-subunit-b-mutations-with-cyclical-chemotherapy
#9
Irfan Jawed, Margarita Velarde, Roland Därr, Katherine I Wolf, Karen Adams, Aradhana M Venkatesan, Sanjeeve Balasubramaniam, Marianne S Poruchynsky, James C Reynolds, Karel Pacak, Tito Fojo
Patients harboring germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit B (SDHB) gene present with pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) that are more likely malignant and clinically aggressive. The combination chemotherapy cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine (CVD) was retrospectively evaluated in patients with SDHB-associated metastatic PPGL.Query Twelve metastatic PPGL patients harboring SDHB mutations/polymorphisms with undetectable SDHB immunostaining were treated with CVD...
April 5, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564590/proteomic-analysis-of-the-antidepressant-effects-of-shen-zhi-ling-in-depressed-patients-identification-of-proteins-associated-with-platelet-activation-and-lipid-metabolism
#10
Chao Chen, Yuan Hu, Xian-Zhe Dong, Xiao-Jiang Zhou, Li-Hua Mu, Ping Liu
Shen-Zhi-Ling (SZL) is a Chinese medicine formulated from a Kai-Xin-San decoction that is commonly used to treat depression caused by dual deficiencies in the heart and spleen. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated biological changes in depression patients (DPs) exhibiting antidepressant responses to SZL treatment using proteomic techniques. We performed label-free quantitative proteomic analysis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to discover and examine altered proteins involved in depression and antidepressant treatment...
March 21, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556871/glioprotective-effects-of-lingonberry-extract-against-altered-cellular-viability-acetylcholinesterase-activity-and-oxidative-stress-in-lipopolysaccharide-treated-astrocytes
#11
Simone Muniz Pacheco, Juliana Hofstätter Azambuja, Taíse Rosa de Carvalho, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira Soares, Pathise Souto Oliveira, Elita Ferreira da Silveira, Francieli Moro Stefanello, Elizandra Braganhol, Jessié Martins Gutierres, Roselia Maria Spanevello
Altered astrocytic function is a contributing factor to the development of neurological diseases and neurodegeneration. Berry fruits exert neuroprotective effects by modulating pathways involved in inflammation, neurotransmission, and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the lingonberry extract on cellular viability and oxidative stress in astrocytes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the reversal protocol, primary astrocytic cultures were first exposed to 1 µg/mL LPS for 3 h and subsequently treated with lingonberry extract (10, 30, 50, and 100 μg/mL) for 24 and 48 h...
March 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497878/spasticity-treatment-ameliorates-the-efficacy-of-melatonin-therapy-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Majid Ghareghani, Kazem Zibara, Hossein Sadeghi, Naser Farhadi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive inflammatory demyelinating disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Melatonin is an effective treatment in MS patients and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Melatonin secretion peaks at 2 AM, concomitant with the time at which the muscles are resting and the body is exerting its antioxidant activity. The current study was designed to investigate combination treatment of baclofen, a muscle relaxant drug, and melatonin in EAE mice...
March 1, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464444/cuprizone-administration-alters-the-iron-metabolism-in-the-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
E Varga, E Pandur, H Abrahám, A Horváth, P Ács, S Komoly, A Miseta, K Sipos
Cuprizone (CZ) is a widely used copper chelating agent to develop non-autoimmune animal model of multiple sclerosis, characterized by demyelination of the corpus callosum (CC) and other brain regions. The exact mechanisms of CZ action are still arguable, but it seems that the only affected cells are the mature oligodendrocytes, possibly via metabolic disturbances caused by copper deficiency. During the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, high amount of deposited iron can be found throughout the demyelinated areas of the brain in the form of extracellular iron deposits and intracellularly accumulated iron in microglia...
February 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134420/co-localization-and-interaction-of-pax5-with-iba1-in-brain-of-mice
#14
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
The Pax5, a B-cell-Specific Activator Protein (BSAP) and redox-sensitive transcription factor, is expressed in the immune-privileged brain, B-lymphocytes, lymph nodes and spleen. PAX5-mediated immune pathway has also been described in the progression of Glioblastoma multiforme. However, the status of Pax5 and its role in brain immunity are not yet elucidated. In silico analysis of Pax5 interacting proteins predicts its interaction with proteins of cell proliferation, differentiation of hematopoietic cells, neurogenesis and several cell signalling pathways...
May 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871473/role-of-peroxiredoxin-2-in-the-protection-against-ferrous-sulfate-induced-oxidative-and-inflammatory-injury-in-pc12-cells
#15
Wenzhe Xu, Feng Li, Zhenkuan Xu, Bin Sun, Jingwei Cao, Yuguang Liu
Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prdx2) is a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme in mammalian brain. Although a protective role of Prdx2 has been established in cerebral ischemia and several neurodegenerative diseases, its contribution against iron-induced neurocytotoxicity still remains to be determined. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Prdx2 on iron-induced cytotoxicity using an in vitro model in which PC12 cells are exposed to ferrous sulfate (FS). The FS treatment increased Prdx2 expression, and promoted lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and cell apoptosis in PC12 cells, accompanied by the increase in the Bax/Bcl2 ratio, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 cleavage...
April 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849294/the-effect-of-histamine-on-inward-and-outward-currents-in-mouse-retinal-amacrine-cells
#16
Kayo Horio, Mahito Ohkuma, Ei-Ichi Miyachi
The expression of H1 receptor has been reported in amacrine cells of mouse and rat retinae. However, we assumed that other types of histamine receptors also function in amacrine cells. In order to confirm that histamine modulates the membrane potential in mouse amacrine cells, we measured voltage-gated currents using whole-cell configuration. Under voltage-clamp conditions, the amplitude of voltage-gated outward currents was enhanced by the application of 100 µM histamine in 65% of amacrine cells. Histamine also increased the amplitudes of voltage-gated inward currents in 72% of amacrine cells...
April 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849293/pi3k-akt-pathway-is-required-for-spinal-central-sensitization-in-neuropathic-pain
#17
Wei Liu, Yanling Lv, Facheng Ren
Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) has been identified in the expression of central sensitization after noxious inflammatory stimuli. However, its contribution in neuropathic pain remains to be determined. Here we address the role of PI3K signaling in central sensitization in a model of neuropathic pain, and propose a novel potential drug target for neuropathic pain. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model was used in the study as the model for neuropathic pain. Western blotting, whole-cell patch clamp, and von Frey assay were performed to study biochemical, electrical, and behavioral changes in CCI rats, respectively...
April 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825209/serum-procalcitonin-levels-are-associated-with-clinical-outcome-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#18
Dingxiu He, Yun Zhang, Biao Zhang, Wei Jian, Xiaojian Deng, Yi Yang, Tao Xiao, Hanyang Yu, Shuyin Wen, Kaisen Huang
Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as a new prognostic inflammatory marker in a variety of diseases. This study aimed to evaluate whether PCT is associated with increased risk of unfavorable outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. During January 2015-December 2016, we conducted a prospective cohort investigation involved 251 primary ICH patients who were admitted within 24 h after the onset of symptoms. We assessed serum PCT levels for all patients at admission. The functional outcome after 3 months was evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and dichotomized as favorable (mRS 0-2) and unfavorable (mRS 3-6)...
April 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823058/polyurethane-gelatin-nanofibrils-neural-guidance-conduit-containing-platelet-rich-plasma-and-melatonin-for-transplantation-of-schwann-cells
#19
Majid Salehi, Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammdreza Nourani, Arash Khojasteh, Saeed Farzamfar, Korosh Mansouri, Jafar Ai
The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable porous neural guidance conduit as a carrier to transplant allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The conduit was prepared from polyurethane (PU) and gelatin nanofibrils (GNFs) using thermally induced phase separation technique and filled with melatonin (MLT) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The prepared conduit had the porosity of 87.17 ± 1.89%, the contact angle of 78.17 ± 5.30° and the ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus of 5...
April 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815332/pilot-study-of-whole-blood-micrornas-as-potential-tools-for-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas-detection
#20
Catherine Gozé, Christelle Reynes, Lionel Forestier, Robert Sabatier, Hugues Duffau
Earlier diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) increase overall survival by maximizing surgery efficacy and optimizing time for an adjuvant treatment when resection is incomplete. Presently, only imaging permits the non-invasive detection and monitoring of DLGG, but it lacks sensitivity. Measure of circulating microRNAs levels could represent a non-invasive alternative. We hypothesized that slow-growing DLGG induce overtime a systemic reaction impacting blood cells microRNA profiles, while the intact blood-brain barrier restricts the passage of tumor microRNAs into bloodstream...
April 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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