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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224237/attempts-to-overcome-remyelination-failure-toward-opening-new-therapeutic-avenues-for-multiple-sclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Mahsa Motavaf, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Mohammad Javan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system that results in destruction of the myelin sheath wrapped around the axons and eventual axon degeneration. The disease is pathologically heterogeneous; however, perhaps its most frustrating aspect is the lack of efficient regenerative response for remyelination. Current treatment strategies are based on anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory medications that have the potential to reduce the numbers of newly evolving lesions...
February 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213656/dual-functional-microrna-186-5p-targets-both-fgf2-and-rela-to-suppress-tumorigenesis-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#2
Fachen Wang, Hui Jiang, Shanjun Wang, Bing Chen
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant cancers. MicroRNAs (miRs) were reported to play important roles in GBM recently. However, the role of a novel miR-186-5p in GBM tumorigenesis is still elusive. Using bioinformatics, miR-186-5p was identified as potential regulators of both fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and NF-κB subunit RelA. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the direct recognition FGF2 and RelA mRNAs by miR-186-5p. Invasion and migration assays were employed to study the effect of miR-186-5p on GBM cell growth in vitro...
February 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210876/effect-of-hyperhomocysteinemia-on-redox-balance-and-redox-defence-enzymes-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-or-after-ischemic-preconditioning-in-rats
#3
Martin Petráš, Anna Drgová, Mária Kovalská, Zuzana Tatarková, Barbara Tóthová, Oľga Križanová, Ján Lehotský
Increased level of homocysteine (hHcy) in plasma is an accompanying phenomenon of many diseases, including a brain stroke. This study determines whether hyperhomocysteinemia (which is a risk factor of brain ischemia) itself or in combination with ischemic preconditioning affects the ischemia-induced neurodegenerative changes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipoperoxidation, protein oxidation, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the rat brain cortex. The hHcy was induced by subcutaneous administration of homocysteine (0...
February 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176051/piracetam-attenuates-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#4
Alok Tripathi, Pankaj Paliwal, Sairam Krishnamurthy
The present study was performed to investigate the effect of piracetam on neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and resulting changes in cognitive behavior. Neuroinflammation was induced by a single dose of LPS solution infused into each of the lateral cerebral ventricles in concentrations of 1 μg/μl, at a rate of 1 μl/min over a 5-min period, with a 5-min waiting period between the two infusions. Piracetam in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg i.p. was administered 30 min before LPS infusion and continued for 9 days...
February 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176050/upregulated-expression-of-sstr3-is-involved-in-neuronal-apoptosis-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-adult-rats
#5
Qi Yao, Qianqian Liu, Hui Xu, Zhonghua Wu, Liang Zhou, Zhikai Gu, Peipei Gong, Jianhong Shen
Somatostatin which is a multifunctional growth hormone inhibitory neuropeptide shows diverse physiological effects, such as neurotransmission, cell growth, apoptosis, and endocrine signaling as well as exerts inhibitory effects on hormonal products and other secretory proteins. SSTR3 is a member of superfamily of somatostatin receptors (SSTR), which are G-protein-coupled plasma membrane receptors. Previous studies proved that SSTR3 regulates antiproliferative signaling and apoptosis in several cells. Here, we explored a potential role of SSTR3 in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis in the course of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)...
February 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160099/sinomenine-protects-pc12-neuronal-cells-against-h2o2-induced-cytotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-via-a-ros-dependent-up-regulation-of-endogenous-antioxidant-system
#6
Hua Fan, Qing Shu, Xinlei Guan, Jiegang Zhao, Junqiang Yan, Xiangming Li, Jiangbo Liu, Zhaohui Jia, Jian Shi, Juan Li
Sinomenine (SN), a purified alkaloid from Chinese herb Sinomenium acutum that was used preferentially in the treatment of rheumatoid diseases, has exerted neuroprotective effects and anti-inflammatory properties in many previous studies. Some studies have revealed that the antioxidant property of SN, acting mainly through inhibiting NADPH oxidase activation, was involved in the beneficial effects of SN. However, SN belongs to the family of dextrorotatory morphinan analogues, which may initiate elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels...
February 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132130/rab10-disruption-results-in-delayed-opc-maturation
#7
Zhao-Huan Zhang, Wei-Qian Zhao, Fan-Fei Ma, Hui Zhang, Xiao-Hui Xu
Oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) maturation requires membrane addition for myelin sheath formation. Since the Rab system has been shown to contribute to membrane addition in other cell types, in this study, we explored the role of Rab in OPC maturation. SiRNA and shRNA techniques and conditional knockout mice provided in vitro and in vivo evidence that Rab10 is involved in OPC maturation and may affect myelination during OPC development.
January 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132129/neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-melatonin-in-hemorrhagic-stroke
#8
REVIEW
Hai-Jian Wu, Cheng Wu, Huan-Jiang Niu, Kun Wang, Lian-Jie Mo, An-Wen Shao, Brandon J Dixon, Jian-Min Zhang, Shu-Xu Yang, Yi-Rong Wang
Hemorrhagic stroke which consists of subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage is a dominant cause of death and disability worldwide. Although great efforts have been made, the physiological mechanisms of these diseases are not fully understood and effective pharmacological interventions are still lacking. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, is a broad-spectrum antioxidant and potent free radical scavenger. More importantly, there is extensive evidence demonstrating that melatonin confers neuroprotective effects in experimental models of hemorrhagic stroke...
January 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124209/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-attenuate-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-induced-actin-cytoskeletal-reorganization-through-rho-signaling-modulation
#9
Patricia Ferrera, Angélica Zepeda, Clorinda Arias
Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) neurotoxicity occurs along with the reorganization of the actin-cytoskeleton through the activation of the Rho GTPase pathway. In addition to the classical mode of action of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), indomethacin, and ibuprofen have Rho-inhibiting effects. In order to evaluate the role of the Rho GTPase pathway on Aβ-induced neuronal death and on neuronal morphological modifications in the actin cytoskeleton, we explored the role of NSAIDS in human-differentiated neuroblastoma cells exposed to Aβ...
January 25, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124208/microrna-98-attenuates-cell-migration-and-invasion-in-glioma-by-directly-targeting-pre-b-cell-leukemia-homeobox-3
#10
Xiupeng Xu, Zhongyuan Bao, Yinlong Liu, Jing Ji, Ning Liu
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The extraordinary invasion of human GBM into adjacent normal brain tissues contributes to treatment failure. However, the mechanisms that control this process remain poorly understood. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs are strongly implicated in the migration and invasion of GBM. In this study, we found that microRNA-98 (miR-98) was markedly downregulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. Functional experiments indicated that restored expression of miR-98 attenuated glioma cell invasion and migration, whereas depletion of miR-98 promoted glioma cell invasion and migration...
January 25, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110484/upregulation-of-20-hete-synthetic-cytochrome-p450-isoforms-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-cortical-neurons
#11
Hui Zhang, John R Falck, Richard J Roman, David R Harder, Raymond C Koehler, Zeng-Jin Yang
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a potent vasoconstrictor, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A/4F-derived metabolite of arachidonic acid. Inhibition of 20-HETE synthesis protects brain from ischemic injury. However, that protection is not associated with changes in cerebral blood flow. The present study examined whether CYP4A isoforms are expressed in neurons, whether they produce 20-HETE in neurons, and whether neuronally derived 20-HETE exerts direct neurotoxicity after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)...
January 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110483/explosive-blast-loading-on-human-3d-aggregate-minibrains
#12
Nicole E Zander, Thuvan Piehler, Helena Hogberg, David Pamies
The effects of primary explosive blast on brain tissue still remain mostly unknown. There are few in vitro models that use real explosives to probe the mechanisms of injury at the cellular level. In this work, 3D aggregates of human brain cells or brain microphysiological system were exposed to military explosives at two different pressures (50 and 100 psi). Results indicate that membrane damage and oxidative stress increased with blast pressure, but cell death remained minimal.
January 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097489/enhanced-histone-acetylation-in-the-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-fear-extinction
#13
Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui, Sanjay Singh, Vandana Ranjan, Rajesh Ugale, Sudipta Saha, Anand Prakash
The molecular processes that establish fear memory are complex and involve a combination of genetic and epigenetic influences. Dysregulation of these processes can manifest in humans as a range of fear-related anxiety disorders like post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). In the present study, immunohistochemistry for acetyl H3, H4, c-fos, CBP (CREB-binding protein) in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) and prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC) of mPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) and basal amygdala (BA), lateral amygdala (LA), centrolateral amygdala (CeL), centromedial amygdala (CeM) of the amygdala was performed to link region-specific histone acetylation to fear and extinction learning...
January 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044240/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein6-associated-with%C3%A2-neuronal-apoptosis-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#14
Qijun Dai, Peipei Jiang, Yang Gu, Lin Zhu, Haifeng Dai, Zhigang Yao, Hua Liu, Xiaoping Ma, Chengwei Duan, Lianxia Qu
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is linked to CNS pathological states. The functions of IGFs are modulated by a family of binding proteins termed insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). Here, we demonstrate that IGFBP-6 may be associated with neuronal apoptosis in the processes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We obtained a significant upregulation of IGFBP-6 in neurons adjacent to the hematoma following ICH with the results of Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence...
January 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039536/cardiolipin-in-central-nervous-system-physiology-and-pathology
#15
REVIEW
Caitlin B Pointer, Andis Klegeris
Cardiolipin, an anionic phospholipid found primarily in the inner mitochondrial membrane, has many well-defined roles within the peripheral tissues, including the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane fluidity and the regulation of mitochondrial functions. Within the central nervous system (CNS), cardiolipin is found within both neuronal and non-neuronal glial cells, where it regulates metabolic processes, supports mitochondrial functions, and promotes brain cell viability. Furthermore, cardiolipin has been shown to act as an elimination signal and participate in programmed cell death by apoptosis of both neurons and glia...
December 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035478/metformin-attenuates-cognitive-impairments-in-hypoxia-ischemia-neonatal-rats-via-improving-remyelination
#16
Boxiang Qi, Libao Hu, Lei Zhu, Lei Shang, Liping Sheng, Xuecheng Wang, Na Liu, Nana Wen, Xiaohe Yu, Qihong Wang, Yujia Yang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (H/I) causes brain injury and myelination damage. Finding efficient methods to restore myelination is critical for the recovery of brain impairments. By applying an H/I rat model, we demonstrate that metformin (Met) treatment significantly ameliorates the loss of locomotor activity and cognition of H/I rat in the Morris water maze and open field task tests. After administration of Met to H/I rat, the proliferation of Olig2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and the expression of myelin basic protein are obviously increased in the corpus callosum...
December 29, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028735/mapping-of-surface-exposed-epitopes-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-aggregated-species-of-alpha-synuclein
#17
Leire Almandoz-Gil, Veronica Lindström, Jessica Sigvardson, Philipp J Kahle, Lars Lannfelt, Martin Ingelsson, Joakim Bergström
Aggregated alpha-synuclein is the main component of Lewy bodies, intraneuronal deposits observed in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The objective of the study was to identify surface-exposed epitopes of alpha-synuclein in vitro and in vivo formed aggregates. Polyclonal immunoglobulin Y antibodies were raised against short linear peptides of the alpha-synuclein molecule. An epitope in the N-terminal region (1-10) and all C-terminal epitopes (90-140) were found to be exposed in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant monomeric, oligomeric, and fibrillar alpha-synuclein...
December 27, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012022/runx1-regulates-migration-invasion-and-angiogenesis-via-p38-mapk-pathway-in-human-glioblastoma
#18
Kant Sangpairoj, Pornpun Vivithanaporn, Somjai Apisawetakan, Sukumal Chongthammakun, Prasert Sobhon, Kulathida Chaithirayanon
Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) is essential for the establishment of fetal and adult hematopoiesis and neuronal development. Aberrant expression of RUNX1 led to proliferation and metastasis of several cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of RUNX1 in migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma using IL-1β-treated U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells as a model. IL-1β at 10 ng/ml stimulated translocation of RUNX1 into the nucleus with increased expressions of RUNX1, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-19, and VEGFA in U-87 MG cells...
December 24, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012021/lentiviral-modulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-affects-in-vivo-ltp
#19
Olga Ya Ivanova, Yulia V Dobryakova, Sergey V Salozhin, Viktor A Aniol, Mikhail V Onufriev, Natalia V Gulyaeva, Vladimir A Markevich
Wnt signaling is involved in hippocampal development and synaptogenesis. Numerous recent studies have been focused on the role of Wnt ligands in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Inhibitors and activators of canonical Wnt signaling were demonstrated to decrease or increase, respectively, in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance in hippocampal slices (Chen et al. in J Biol Chem 281:11910-11916, 2006; Vargas et al. in J Neurosci 34:2191-2202, 2014, Vargas et al. in Exp Neurol 264:14-25, 2015). Using lentiviral approach to down- and up-regulate the canonical Wnt signaling, we explored whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for the in vivo LTP...
December 23, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008568/development-of-calbindin-and-calretinin-immunopositive-neurons-in-the-enteric-ganglia-of-rats
#20
Petr M Masliukov, Konstantin Moiseev, Antonina F Budnik, Alexandr D Nozdrachev, Jean-Pierre Timmermans
Calbindin D28 K (CB) and calretinin (CR) are the members of the EF-hand family of calcium-binding proteins that are expressed in neurons and nerve fibers of the enteric nervous system. CB and CR are expressed differentially in neuronal subpopulations throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems and their expression has been used to selectively target specific cell types and isolate neuronal networks. The present study presents an immunohistochemical analysis of CB and CR in the enteric ganglia of small intestine in rats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 60-day-old, 1-year-old, and 2-year-old)...
December 22, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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