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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302837/up-regulated-pro-inflammatory-micrornas-mirnas-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-amd
#1
Aileen I Pogue, Walter J Lukiw
Alzheimer's disease (AD) of the brain neocortex and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) of the retina are two complex neurodegenerative disorders, which (i) involve the progressive dysregulation and deterioration of multiple neurobiological signaling pathways, (ii) exhibit the temporal accumulation of pro-inflammatory lesions including the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide-containing senile plaques of AD and the drusen of AMD, and (iii) culminate in an insidious inflammatory neurodegeneration ending, respectively, in neural cell atrophy and death and progressive loss of cognition and central visual function...
January 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299792/tau-proteins-and-tauopathies-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Fong Ping Chong, Khuen Yen Ng, Rhun Yian Koh, Soi Moi Chye
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive function deficits. There are two major pathological hallmarks that contribute to the pathogenesis of AD which are the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques composed of amyloid-β (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. Despite extensive research that has been done on Aβ in the last two decades, therapies targeting Aβ were not very fruitful at treating AD as the efficacy of Aβ therapies observed in animal models is not reflected in human clinical trials...
January 3, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285660/effect-of-blood-phenylalanine-levels-on-oxidative-stress-in-classical-phenylketonuric-patients
#3
Burcu Kumru, Davut Sinan Kaplan, Burcu Oztürk Hismi, Hakim Celik
Mental retardation, which occurs in phenylketonuric patients, is associated with increased levels of phenylalanine, increased oxidative stress, and an imbalance of amino acids in the brain. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of phenylketonuria. In this work, we aimed to compare the influence of blood phenylalanine levels on oxidative stress parameters in phenylketonuric patients who divided patients into groups according to blood Phe levels during follow-up visits and compared these groups with healthy controls...
December 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224183/effects-of-acute-alcohol-exposure-on-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-of-juvenile-mice
#4
Francesco Ferrini, Benjamin Dering, Andrea De Giorgio, Laura Lossi, Alberto Granato
Early-onset drinking during childhood or preadolescence is a serious social problem. Yet, most of the basic neurobiological research on the acute effects of ethanol has been carried out on adult or early postnatal animals. We studied the effect of alcohol exposure on the basic electrophysiological properties and cell viability of layer 5 pyramidal neurons from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile (P21-P23) C57BL/6N mice. After bath application of 50 mM ethanol to acute slices of the somatosensory cortex, no adverse effects were detected on cells survival, whereas the input resistance and firing rate of layer 5 neurons were significantly reduced...
December 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222622/toll-like-receptor-4-knockdown-attenuates-brain-damage-and-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy-and-astrocyte-activation
#5
Hongsheng Jiang, Yanzhou Wang, Xin Liang, Xiaofeng Xing, Xiuzhen Xu, Caifeng Zhou
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been linked to various pathophysiological conditions, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is reported that posttraumatic neuroinflammation is an essential event in the progression of brain injury after TBI. Recent evidences indicate that TLR4 mediates glial phagocytic activity and inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, TLR4 may be an important therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory injury post-TBI. This study was designed to explore potential effects and underlying mechanisms of TLR4 in rats suffered from TBI...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189971/significance-of-the-stress-research-in-memoriam-richard-kvetnansky
#6
EDITORIAL
Stefan Zorad, Daniela Jezova, Vladimir Strbak, Ladislav Macho, Juan M Saavedra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177638/the-ferroxidase-hephaestin-but-not-amyloid-precursor-protein-is-required-for-ferroportin-supported-iron-efflux-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#7
Changyi Ji, Brittany L Steimle, Danielle K Bailey, Daniel J Kosman
Iron efflux in mammalian cells is mediated by the ferrous iron exporter ferroportin (Fpn); Fpn plasma membrane localization and function are supported by a multicopper ferroxidase and/or the soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP). Fpn and APP are ubiquitously expressed in all cell types in the central nervous system including neurons. In contrast, neuronal ferroxidase(s) expression has not been well characterized. Using primary cultures of hippocampal neurons, we examined the molecular mechanism of neuronal Fe efflux in detail...
November 25, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177613/retinal-pigment-epithelium-and-photoreceptor-preconditioning-protection-requires-docosanoid-signaling
#8
Eric J Knott, William C Gordon, Bokkyoo Jun, Khanh Do, Nicolas G Bazan
Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are necessary for functional cell integrity. Preconditioning (PC), as we define it, is an acquired protection or resilience by a cell, tissue, or organ to a lethal stimulus enabled by a previous sublethal stressor or stimulus. In this study, we provide evidence that the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its derivatives, the docosanoids 17-hydroxy docosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), facilitate cell survival in both in vitro and in vivo models of retinal PC...
November 24, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159732/the-pgc-1%C3%AE-activator-zln005-ameliorates-ischemia-induced-neuronal-injury-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Yazhou Xu, John Alimamy Kabba, Wenchen Ruan, Yunjie Wang, Shunyi Zhao, Xiaoyue Song, Luyong Zhang, Jia Li, Tao Pang
Oxidative stress is a great challenge to neurons following cerebral ischemia. PGC-1α has been shown to act as a potent modulator of oxidative metabolism. In this study, the effects of ZLN005, a small molecule that activate PGC-1α, against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)- or ischemia-induced neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo were investigated. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was performed in rats and ZLN005 was administered intravenously at 2 h, 4 h, or 6 h after ischemia onset. Infarct volume and neurological deficit score were detected to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ZLN005...
November 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134420/co-localization-and-interaction-of-pax5-with-iba1-in-brain-of-mice
#10
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
The Pax5, a B-cell-Specific Activator Protein (BSAP) and redox-sensitive transcription factor, is expressed in the immune-privileged brain, B-lymphocytes, lymph nodes and spleen. PAX5-mediated immune pathway has also been described in the progression of Glioblastoma multiforme. However, the status of Pax5 and its role in brain immunity are not yet elucidated. In silico analysis of Pax5 interacting proteins predicts its interaction with proteins of cell proliferation, differentiation of hematopoietic cells, neurogenesis and several cell signalling pathways...
November 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134419/acute-administration-of-the-nonpathogenic-saprophytic-bacterium-mycobacterium-vaccae-induces-activation-of-serotonergic-neurons-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-and-antidepressant-like-behavior-in-association-with-mild-hypothermia
#11
Philip H Siebler, Jared D Heinze, Drake M Kienzle, Matthew W Hale, Jodi L Lukkes, Nina C Donner, Jared M Kopelman, Orlando A Rodriguez, Christopher A Lowry
Peripheral immune activation can have profound physiologic and behavioral effects. One mechanism through which immune activation may affect physiology and behavior is through actions on brainstem neuromodulatory systems, such as serotonergic systems. To test this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, adult male BALB/c mice were implanted with telemetric recording devices and then immunized with Mycobacterium vaccae NCTC 11659 (0.1 mg, s.c.; Days - 28, - 14; N = 36). On Day 1, mice received an acute challenge with M...
November 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110208/expression-of-gas1-in-mouse-brain-release-and-role-in-neuronal-differentiation
#12
Elizabeth Bautista, Natanael Zarco, Nicolás Aguirre-Pineda, Manuel Lara-Lozano, Paula Vergara, Juan Antonio González-Barrios, Raúl Aguilar-Roblero, José Segovia
Growth arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis of tumor cells and has important roles during development. Recently, the presence of two forms of Gas1 was reported: one attached to the cell membrane by a GPI anchor; and a soluble extracellular form shed by cells. Previously, we showed that Gas1 is expressed in different areas of the adult mouse CNS. Here, we report the levels of Gas1 mRNA protein in different regions and analyzed its expressions in glutamatergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons...
November 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110207/ameliorating-effect-of-osteopontin-on-h2o2-induced-apoptosis-of-human-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells
#13
Neda Mazaheri, Maryam Peymani, Hamid Galehdari, Kamran Ghaedi, Ali Ghoochani, Abbas Kiani-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Recently our group used oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) as appropriate model cells to pinpoint the mechanism of the progress of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we focused on the therapeutic role of osteopontin (OPN), a secreted glycosylated phosphoprotein, involved in a number of physiological events including bone formation and remodeling, immune responses, and tumor progression. Protective role of OPN, as a negative regulator of tumorigenesis, has already been clarified. Human embryonic stem cell-derived OPCs were pretreated with OPN before induction of apoptosis by H2O2...
November 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103093/enhancement-of-gustatory-neural-responses-by-parasympathetic-nerve-in-the-frog
#14
Toshihide Sato, Yukio Okada
The autonomic nervous system affects the gustatory responses in animals. Frog glossopharyngeal nerve (GPN) contains the parasympathetic nerve. We checked the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of the parasympathetic nerves on the gustatory neural responses. The gustatory neural impulses of the GPNs were recorded using bipolar AgCl wires under normal blood circulation and integrated with a time constant of 1 s. Electrical stimuli were applied to the proximal side of the GPN with a pair of AgCl wires. The parasympathetic nerves of the GPN were strongly stimulated for 10 s with 6 V at 30 Hz before taste stimulation...
November 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098505/downregulation-of-survivin-gene-expression-affects-ionizing-radiation-resistance-of-human-t98-glioma-cells
#15
Jicheng Li, Yong Han, Dai Zhou, Youxin Zhou, Ming Ye, Hangzhou Wang, Ziwei Du
Survivin is a tumor-associated gene, which has been detected in a wide variety of human tumors. Previous research has shown that Survivin can affect hepatoma carcinoma cell radiosensitivity. However, little is known about the role of Survivin in ionizing radiation resistance in glioma cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the effects of Survivin on ionizing radiation resistance in glioma cell line T98. Our results showed that downregulation of Survivin gene expression and ionizing irradiation could both inhibit T98 cell proliferation by assays in vitro including CCK-8 and immunohistochemistry...
November 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067536/development-of-a-cell-based-assay-to-assess-binding-of-the-prongf-prodomain-to-sortilin
#16
Ibrahim Malik, Søren Christensen, Jeffrey B Stavenhagen, Gunnar P H Dietz
Sortilin was first identified based on its activity as part of intracellular protein sorting machinery. Recently, it was discovered that sortilin also acts as a cell surface receptor for the propeptide form of nerve growth factor (proNGF), progranulin, and neurotensin. The interaction of sortilin to these neurotrophic ligands is linked to diseases of the nervous system that lead to neurodegeneration and neuropathic pain. Blocking of the interaction of sortilin to these ligands may prevent or slow the progress of these nervous system disorders...
October 24, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063982/role-of-beta-adrenergic-receptors-and-sirtuin-signaling-in-the-heart-during-aging-heart-failure-and-adaptation-to-stress
#17
REVIEW
Regina Celia Spadari, Claudia Cavadas, Ana Elisa T Saturi de Carvalho, Daniela Ortolani, Andre Luiz de Moura, Paula Frizera Vassalo
In the heart, catecholamine effects occur by activation of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs), mainly the beta 1 (β1-AR) and beta 2 (β2-AR) subtypes, both of which couple to the Gs protein that activates the adenylyl cyclase signaling pathway. The β2-ARs can also couple to the Gi protein that counterbalances the effect of the Gs protein on cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway. In several cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure, as well as in aging and in animal models of environmental stress, a reduction in the β1/β2-AR ratio and activation of the β2-AR-Gi-PI3K-Akt signaling pathway have been observed...
October 24, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058095/potentiation-and-block-of-asic1a-by-memantine
#18
Vasiliy Y Shteinikov, Tatiana B Tikhonova, Vyacheslav S Korkosh, Denis B Tikhonov
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are modulated by various classes of ligands, including the recently described hydrophobic monoamines, which inhibit and potentiate ASICs in a subunit-specific manner. In particular, memantine inhibits ASIC1a and potentiates ASIC2a homomers. The aim of the present work was to characterize action mechanism of memantine on recombinant ASIC1a expressed in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. We have demonstrated that effect of memantine on ASIC1a strongly depends on membrane voltage, conditioning pH value and application protocol...
October 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993972/the-effect-of-acute-and-repeated-stress-on-crh-r1-and-crh-r2-mrna-expression-in-pituitaries-of-wild-type-and-crh-knock-out-mice
#19
Vera Klenerova, Richard Kvetnansky, Sixtus Hynie
The activation of the HPA axis is the endocrine measure of stress responsiveness that is initiated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH exerts its effects via CRHR1 and CRH-R2 receptors coupled to the cAMP signaling system and this process involves transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB).This study investigated the role of CRH and the possible involvement of CREB in gene regulation of CRH receptor, under basal conditions and after stress application in the pituitary. We used wild type (wt +/+) controls and CRH knock-out (CRH-KO -/-) male mice...
October 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993924/effects-of-acetylcholine-on-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-cpla2-activation-in-the-tb-neuroectodermal-cell-line-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Arianna Polverino, Manuela Grimaldi, Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Francesca Jacini, Anna Maria D'Ursi, Giuseppe Sorrentino
The role of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still considered crucial. The state of Aβ aggregation is critical in promoting neuronal loss and neuronal function impairment. Recently, we demonstrated that Acetylcholine (ACh) is neuroprotective against the toxic effects of Aβ in the cholinergic LAN-2 cells. In biophysical experiments, ACh promotes the soluble Aβ peptide conformation rather than the aggregation-prone β-sheet conformation. In order to better understand the biological role of ACh in AD, we studied the effect of Aβ on the phosphorylation of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in the TB neuroectodermal cell line, which differentiates toward a neuronal phenotype when cultured in the presence of retinoic acid (RA)...
October 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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