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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

Souvik Kar, Kiran Kumar Bali, Arpita Baisantry, Robert Geffers, Christian Hartmann, Amir Samii, Helmut Bertalanffy
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular malformations associated with abnormally dilated blood vessels and leaky capillaries that often result in hemorrhages. Despite recent advances, precise understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanism leading to the pathogenesis of CCM remains elusive. Emerging evidence indicates that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), belonging to the class of non-coding RNAs, may play a significant role as diagnostic markers in human diseases. However, there is no report till date that studied the role of snoRNAs in CCM biology...
July 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Yunnan Lu, Zhichao Huang, Ye Hua, Guodong Xiao
Minocycline, an anti-infective agent of a tetracycline derivative, is reported to improve behavioral functional recovery after cerebral ischemia via enhancing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, the precise mechanisms that minocycline targets to enhance the expression of BDNF are not fully defined. In the present study, we observed the neuroprotective effect and its potential mechanisms of minocycline using oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-treated N2a cells. We found that 50 µM minocycline protected against neuronal apoptosis induced by OGD/R injury, with increased expression ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and reduced expression of caspase-3...
June 27, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Juraj Culman, Stephan Mühlenhoff, Annegret Blume, Jürgen Hedderich, Ulf Lützen, Stephen P Hunt, Nadia M J Rupniak, Yi Zhao
Mice lacking the substance P (SP) neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor (NK1R-/-mice) were used to investigate whether SP affects serotonin (5-HT) function in the brain and to assess the effects of acute immobilisation stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and 5-HT turnover in individual brain nuclei. Basal HPA activity and the expression of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in wild-type (WT)- and NK1R-/- mice were identical. Stress-induced increases in plasma ACTH concentration were considerably higher in NK1R-/- mice than in WT mice while corticosterone concentrations were equally elevated in both mouse lines...
June 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Veronika Brezovakova, Bernadeta Valachova, Jozef Hanes, Michal Novak, Santosh Jadhav
Despite years of research, Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains incurable and thus poses a major health challenge in coming years. This neurodegenerative disease belongs to a heterogeneous group of human tauopathies, characterized by the extracellular deposition of beta amyloid-Aβ and intracellular accumulation of tau protein in neuronal and glial cells, whereby tau pathology best correlates with disease progression. For decades, several disease-modifying agents were brought to clinical studies with promising efficacy in preclinical trials; however, all of the subsequent clinical trials failed...
June 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Ning Bao, Bo Fang, Huangwei Lv, Yanhua Jiang, Fengshou Chen, Zhilin Wang, Hong Ma
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced spinal cord injury can cause apoptotic damage and subsequently act as a blood-spinal cord barrier damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contributed to the process of I/R injury by regulating their target mRNAs. miR-199a-5p is involved in brain and heart I/R injury; however, its function in the spinal cord is not yet completely clarified. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-199a-5p on spinal cord I/R via the endothelin-converting enzyme 1, especially the apoptosis pathway. In the current study, the rat spinal cord I/R injury model was established, and the Basso Beattie Bresnahan scoring, Evans blue staining, HE staining, and TUNEL assay were used to assess the I/R-induced spinal cord injury...
June 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Yu Zeng, Xizhao Wang, Jizhou Wang, Renhui Yi, Hao Long, Mingfeng Zhou, Qisheng Luo, Zhihao Zhai, Ye Song, Songtao Qi
Established cancer cell lines are routinely used to study cancer. Several factors such as serial passage may affect the reproducibility of experiments with cancer cell lines, but few researches focused on these changes. In the present study, different morphology and decreased tumorigenicity were observed in late passage U87MG cells. In vitro experiments further revealed that late passage U87MG cells possessed lower invasion properties than early passage, whereas no significant differences of proliferation and migration were found between early and late passage U87MG cells...
June 8, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Jialei Yang, Lian Gu, Xiaojing Guo, Jiao Huang, Zhaoxia Chen, Guifeng Huang, Yiwen Kang, Xiaoting Zhang, Jianxiong Long, Li Su
The aim of the present study was to explore the role of lncRNA ANRIL in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine the association between ANRIL variants and the genetic susceptibility of IS and CAD in the Chinese Han population. A genetic association study including 550 IS patients, 550 CAD patients, and 550 healthy controls was conducted. The expression levels of lncRNA ANRIL, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B were detected using qRT-PCR. Genotyping was performed by Sequenom MassARRAY on an Agena platform...
June 7, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Wen Yi Jiang, Yuan Li, Zhi Ying Li, Zong Jie Cui
The G protein-coupled cholecystokinin 1 receptor (CCK1R) is activated permanently by type II photodynamic action (i.e., by singlet oxygen) in the freshly isolated rat pancreatic acini, in contrast to reversible activation by CCK. But how CCK1R is photodynamically activated is not known. Therefore, in the present work, we subjected membrane proteins extracted from isolated rat pancreatic acini to photodynamic action with photosensitiser sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine (SALPC), and used reducing gel electrophoresis and Western blot to detect possible changes in CCK1R oligomerization status...
June 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Cinzia Mallozzi, Mariacristina Parravano, Lucia Gaddini, Marika Villa, Flavia Pricci, Fiorella Malchiodi-Albedi, Andrea Matteucci
Curcumin is one of the major compounds contained in turmeric, the powdered rhizome of Curcuma longa. Results obtained in various experimental models indicate that curcumin has the potential to treat a large variety of neuronal diseases. Excitotoxicity, the toxicity due to pathological glutamate receptors stimulation, has been considered to be involved in several ocular pathologies including ischemia, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. The NMDA receptor (NMDAR), a heteromeric ligand-gated ion channel, is composed of GluN1 and GluN2 subunits...
May 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
G B Stefano, N Pilonis, R Ptacek, J Raboch, M Vnukova, R M Kream
It has become apparent that the molecular and biochemical integrity of interactive families, genera, and species of human gut microflora is critically linked to maintaining complex metabolic and behavioral processes mediated by peripheral organ systems and central nervous system neuronal groupings. Relatively recent studies have established intrinsic ratios of enterotypes contained within the human microbiome across demographic subpopulations and have empirically linked significant alterations in the expression of bacterial enterotypes with the initiation and persistence of several major metabolic and psychiatric disorders...
May 25, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Siqi Hong, Tingsong Li, Yuanyuan Luo, Wenjuan Li, Xiaoju Tang, Yuanzhen Ye, Peng Wu, Qiao Hu, Li Cheng, Hengsheng Chen, Li Jiang
It is of great importance to explore the development of epileptogenesis, and the adenosine and adenosine kinase (ADK) system seems to play a key role in this process. The aim of this study is to explore the dynamic changes of astrocytes and adenosine signaling during epileptogenesis in rat hippocampus in a post-status epileptogenesis (SE) model. Rat SE models were built and killed for experiments at 1 day (acute phase of epileptogenesis), 5 days (latent phase), 4 weeks (chronic phase), and 8 weeks (late chronic phase of epileptogenesis) after SE induction...
May 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Jiaxi Xu, Srinivas Sriramula, Eric Lazartigues
The excitotoxicity of glutamate plays an important role in the progression of various neurological disorders via participating in inflammation and neuronal damage. In this study, we identified the role of excessive glutamate stimulation in the modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2), a critical component in the compensatory axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In primary cultured cortical neurons, high concentration of glutamate (100 µM) significantly reduced the enzymatic activity of ACE2...
May 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Dan Sun, Hui Ma, Jiehui Ma, Jing Wang, Xiaolong Deng, Chunhui Hu, Xianbo Deng
Febrile seizure (FS) counts as the most common seizures symptom in children undergoing recurrent seizures, posing a high risk to developing subsequent temporal lobe epilepsy. Canonical transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) members are identified as the FS-related genes in hyperthermia prone rats. However, the role of TRPC3 in hyperthermia-induced FS rats remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPC3 functionally contributes to the development of FSs. Elevated TRPC3 mRNA and protein levels was detected in hyperthermia-induced FS rats and rat hippocampal neuron cells...
May 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Ivan V Chekhonin, Dimitry A Chistiakov, Nadezhda F Grinenko, Olga I Gurina
Astrocytes are a dominant cell type that envelopes the glioma bed. Typically, that is followed by formation of contacts between astrocytes and glioma cells and accompanied by change in astrocyte phenotype, a phenomenon known as a 'reactive astrogliosis.' Generally considered glioma-promoting, astrocytes have many controversial peculiarities in communication with tumor cells, which need thorough examination in vitro. This review is devoted to in vitro co-culture studies of glioma cells and astrocytes. Firstly, we list several fundamental works which allow understanding the modalities of co-culturing...
May 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Amin Karimi-Moghadam, Saeid Charsouei, Benjamin Bell, Mohammad Reza Jabalameli
Parkinson disease (PD) is known as a common progressive neurodegenerative disease which is clinically diagnosed by the manifestation of numerous motor and nonmotor symptoms. PD is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with both familial and sporadic forms. To date, researches in the field of Parkinsonism have identified 23 genes or loci linked to rare monogenic familial forms of PD with Mendelian inheritance. Biochemical studies revealed that the products of these genes usually play key roles in the proper protein and mitochondrial quality control processes, as well as synaptic transmission and vesicular recycling pathways within neurons...
April 26, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Carolina Cid-Castro, Diego Rolando Hernández-Espinosa, Julio Morán
Mitochondrial dynamics is a complex process, which involves the fission and fusion of mitochondrial outer and inner membranes. These processes organize the mitochondrial size and morphology, as well as their localization throughout the cells. In the last two decades, it has become a spotlight due to their importance in the pathophysiological processes, particularly in neurological diseases. It is known that Drp1, mitofusin 1 and 2, and Opa1 constitute the core of proteins that coordinate this intricate and dynamic process...
July 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Natalia Merkulyeva, Aleksandr Mikhalkin, Pavel Zykin
The early postnatal development of the A-layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) was investigated in kittens aged 0-34 days by immunohistochemistry for the selective marker for neuronal differentiation (NeuN protein) and parvalbumin. We report two new facts about the LGNd development. First, there is a transient stratification of NeuN labelling in layer A, and to a lesser extent in layer A1, in kittens aged 0 and 4 days. Second, a transient population of large cells that are located between the LGNd A-layers (interlaminar cells) showed high expression levels of both NeuN and parvalbumin...
July 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Aikaterini Britzolaki, Joseph Saurine, Emily Flaherty, Connor Thelen, Pothitos M Pitychoutis
Calcium (Ca2+ ) ions are prominent cell signaling regulators that carry information for a variety of cellular processes and are critical for neuronal survival and function. Furthermore, Ca2+ acts as a prominent second messenger that modulates divergent intracellular cascades in the nerve cells. Therefore, nerve cells have developed intricate Ca2+ signaling pathways to couple the Ca2+ signal to their biochemical machinery. Notably, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis greatly relies on the rapid redistribution of Ca2+ ions into the diverse subcellular organelles which serve as Ca2+ stores, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
July 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Irfan Jawed, Margarita Velarde, Roland Därr, Katherine I Wolf, Karen Adams, Aradhana M Venkatesan, Sanjeeve Balasubramaniam, Marianne S Poruchynsky, James C Reynolds, Karel Pacak, Tito Fojo
Patients harboring germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit B (SDHB) gene present with pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) that are more likely malignant and clinically aggressive. The combination chemotherapy cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine (CVD) was retrospectively evaluated in patients with SDHB-associated metastatic PPGL.Query Twelve metastatic PPGL patients harboring SDHB mutations/polymorphisms with undetectable SDHB immunostaining were treated with CVD...
July 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Chao Chen, Yuan Hu, Xian-Zhe Dong, Xiao-Jiang Zhou, Li-Hua Mu, Ping Liu
Shen-Zhi-Ling (SZL) is a Chinese medicine formulated from a Kai-Xin-San decoction that is commonly used to treat depression caused by dual deficiencies in the heart and spleen. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated biological changes in depression patients (DPs) exhibiting antidepressant responses to SZL treatment using proteomic techniques. We performed label-free quantitative proteomic analysis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to discover and examine altered proteins involved in depression and antidepressant treatment...
July 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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