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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044240/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein6-associated-with%C3%A2-neuronal-apoptosis-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#1
Qijun Dai, Peipei Jiang, Yang Gu, Lin Zhu, Haifeng Dai, Zhigang Yao, Hua Liu, Xiaoping Ma, Chengwei Duan, Lianxia Qu
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is linked to CNS pathological states. The functions of IGFs are modulated by a family of binding proteins termed insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). Here, we demonstrate that IGFBP-6 may be associated with neuronal apoptosis in the processes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We obtained a significant upregulation of IGFBP-6 in neurons adjacent to the hematoma following ICH with the results of Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence...
January 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039536/cardiolipin-in-central-nervous-system-physiology-and-pathology
#2
REVIEW
Caitlin B Pointer, Andis Klegeris
Cardiolipin, an anionic phospholipid found primarily in the inner mitochondrial membrane, has many well-defined roles within the peripheral tissues, including the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane fluidity and the regulation of mitochondrial functions. Within the central nervous system (CNS), cardiolipin is found within both neuronal and non-neuronal glial cells, where it regulates metabolic processes, supports mitochondrial functions, and promotes brain cell viability. Furthermore, cardiolipin has been shown to act as an elimination signal and participate in programmed cell death by apoptosis of both neurons and glia...
December 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035478/metformin-attenuates-cognitive-impairments-in-hypoxia-ischemia-neonatal-rats-via-improving-remyelination
#3
Boxiang Qi, Libao Hu, Lei Zhu, Lei Shang, Liping Sheng, Xuecheng Wang, Na Liu, Nana Wen, Xiaohe Yu, Qihong Wang, Yujia Yang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (H/I) causes brain injury and myelination damage. Finding efficient methods to restore myelination is critical for the recovery of brain impairments. By applying an H/I rat model, we demonstrate that metformin (Met) treatment significantly ameliorates the loss of locomotor activity and cognition of H/I rat in the Morris water maze and open field task tests. After administration of Met to H/I rat, the proliferation of Olig2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and the expression of myelin basic protein are obviously increased in the corpus callosum...
December 29, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028735/mapping-of-surface-exposed-epitopes-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-aggregated-species-of-alpha-synuclein
#4
Leire Almandoz-Gil, Veronica Lindström, Jessica Sigvardson, Philipp J Kahle, Lars Lannfelt, Martin Ingelsson, Joakim Bergström
Aggregated alpha-synuclein is the main component of Lewy bodies, intraneuronal deposits observed in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The objective of the study was to identify surface-exposed epitopes of alpha-synuclein in vitro and in vivo formed aggregates. Polyclonal immunoglobulin Y antibodies were raised against short linear peptides of the alpha-synuclein molecule. An epitope in the N-terminal region (1-10) and all C-terminal epitopes (90-140) were found to be exposed in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant monomeric, oligomeric, and fibrillar alpha-synuclein...
December 27, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012022/runx1-regulates-migration-invasion-and-angiogenesis-via-p38-mapk-pathway-in-human-glioblastoma
#5
Kant Sangpairoj, Pornpun Vivithanaporn, Somjai Apisawetakan, Sukumal Chongthammakun, Prasert Sobhon, Kulathida Chaithirayanon
Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) is essential for the establishment of fetal and adult hematopoiesis and neuronal development. Aberrant expression of RUNX1 led to proliferation and metastasis of several cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of RUNX1 in migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma using IL-1β-treated U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells as a model. IL-1β at 10 ng/ml stimulated translocation of RUNX1 into the nucleus with increased expressions of RUNX1, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-19, and VEGFA in U-87 MG cells...
December 24, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012021/lentiviral-modulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-affects-in-vivo-ltp
#6
Olga Ya Ivanova, Yulia V Dobryakova, Sergey V Salozhin, Viktor A Aniol, Mikhail V Onufriev, Natalia V Gulyaeva, Vladimir A Markevich
Wnt signaling is involved in hippocampal development and synaptogenesis. Numerous recent studies have been focused on the role of Wnt ligands in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Inhibitors and activators of canonical Wnt signaling were demonstrated to decrease or increase, respectively, in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance in hippocampal slices (Chen et al. in J Biol Chem 281:11910-11916, 2006; Vargas et al. in J Neurosci 34:2191-2202, 2014, Vargas et al. in Exp Neurol 264:14-25, 2015). Using lentiviral approach to down- and up-regulate the canonical Wnt signaling, we explored whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for the in vivo LTP...
December 23, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008568/development-of-calbindin-and-calretinin-immunopositive-neurons-in-the-enteric-ganglia-of-rats
#7
Petr M Masliukov, Konstantin Moiseev, Antonina F Budnik, Alexandr D Nozdrachev, Jean-Pierre Timmermans
Calbindin D28 K (CB) and calretinin (CR) are the members of the EF-hand family of calcium-binding proteins that are expressed in neurons and nerve fibers of the enteric nervous system. CB and CR are expressed differentially in neuronal subpopulations throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems and their expression has been used to selectively target specific cell types and isolate neuronal networks. The present study presents an immunohistochemical analysis of CB and CR in the enteric ganglia of small intestine in rats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 60-day-old, 1-year-old, and 2-year-old)...
December 22, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987059/melatonin-increases-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-cultured-neural-stem-cells
#8
Majid Ghareghani, Heibatollah Sadeghi, Kazem Zibara, Nazanin Danaei, Hassan Azari, Amir Ghanbari
Neural stem cell (NSC) culture is a remarkable tool to investigate the potential therapeutic benefits of drugs in neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin on proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in vitro. NSCs were isolated and expanded from mouse embryonic E14 cortex, and the effect of various concentrations of melatonin (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on NSC proliferation was assessed by MTT and neurosphere assay. Results showed that melatonin significantly increased NSC viability and NSC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, in comparison to controls...
December 16, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942908/could-sirtuin-activities-modify-als-onset-and-progression
#9
REVIEW
Bor Luen Tang
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a complex etiology. Sirtuins have been implicated as disease-modifying factors in several neurological disorders, and in the past decade, attempts have been made to check if manipulating Sirtuin activities and levels could confer benefit in terms of neuroprotection and survival in ALS models. The efforts have largely focused on mutant SOD1, and while limited in scope, the results were largely positive. Here, the body of work linking Sirtuins with ALS is reviewed, with discussions on how Sirtuins and their activities may impact on the major etiological mechanisms of ALS...
December 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928652/enhanced-proteostasis-in-post-ischemic-stroke-mouse-brains-by-ubiquilin-1-promotes-functional-recovery
#10
Yanying Liu, Fangfang Qiao, Hongmin Wang
Stroke is pathologically associated with oxidative stress, protein damage, and neuronal loss. We previously reported that overexpression of a ubiquitin-like protein, ubiquilin-1 (Ubqln), protects neurons against ischemia-caused brain injury, while knockout of the gene exacerbates cerebral ischemia-caused neuronal damage and delays functional recovery. Although these observations indicate that Ubqln is a potential therapeutic target, transgenic manipulation-caused overexpression of Ubqln occurs before the event of ischemic stroke, and it remains unknown whether delayed Ubqln overexpression in post-ischemic brains within a clinically relevant time frame is still beneficial...
December 7, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904994/rapamycin-protects-sepsis-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mouse-hippocampus-by-enhancing-autophagy
#11
Wenyu Liu, Jia'nan Guo, Jie Mu, Linyu Tian, Dong Zhou
The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway might mediate neuroprotection in a mouse model of septic encephalopathy and also to identify the role of autophagy. Mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or a sham operation, and all 50 mice were randomly assigned to five groups: sham, CLP+ saline, CLP+ rapamycin (1, 5, 10 mg/kg) groups. Two weeks after the operation, Morris water maze was conducted for behavioral test; Nissl staining was used for observing glia infiltration; immunohistochemical staining and biochemical measures in hippocampi were performed to detect mTOR targets and autophagy indicators...
December 1, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896629/remote-limb-ischemic-preconditioning-protects-rats-against-cerebral-ischemia-via-hif-1%C3%AE-ampk-hsp70-pathway
#12
Ming Xia, Qian Ding, Zhidan Zhang, Qinggen Feng
Remote limb ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a clinically feasible strategy to protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the knowledge concerning the mechanism underlying RIPC is scarce. This study was performed to examine the effect of RIPC on brain tissue suffering from ischemia challenge and explore its underlying mechanism in a rat model. The animals were divided into four groups: Sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), RIPC, and MCAO+RIPC. We found that previous exposure to RIPC significantly attenuated neurological dysfunction and lessened brain edema in MCAO+RIPC group...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891557/exogenous-expression-of-nt-3-and-trkc-genes-in-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-elevated-the-survival-rate-of-the-cells-in-the-course-of-neural-differentiation
#13
Houri Edalat, Zahra Hajebrahimi, Vahid Pirhajati, Mahmoud Tavallaei, Mansoureh Movahedin, Seyed Javad Mowla
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are attractive cellular sources for cell therapy of many diseases, specifically neurodegenerative ones. The potential capability of BMSCs could be further augmented by enhancing their neuroprotective property, differentiation potential, and survival rate subsequent to transplantation. Therefore, a concurrent upregulation of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its high affinity receptor, tyrosin kinase C (TrkC), was utilized in our study. BMSCs were cotransfected with pDsRed1-N1-NT-3 and pCMX-TrkC plasmids before induction of neural differentiation...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873129/expression-of-dixdc1-and-its-role-in-astrocyte-proliferation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Hongjian Lu, Rui Jiang, Xuelei Tao, Chengwei Duan, Jie Huang, Wei Huan, Yunfen He, Jianbin Ge, Jianbing Ren
DIX domain containing 1 (Dixdc1), a positive regulator of Wnt signaling pathway, is recently reported to play a role in the neurogenesis. However, the distribution and function of Dixdc1 in the central nervous system (CNS) after brain injury are still unclear. We used an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) model in adult rats to investigate whether Dixdc1 is involved in CNS injury and repair. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed a time-dependent up-regulation of Dixdc1 expression in ipsilateral cortex after TBI...
November 21, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866306/low-dose-of-bisphenol-a-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-il-6-signals-to-increase-malignancy-of-neuroblastoma-cells
#15
Shunjun Xiong, Yanjun Wang, Huijuan Li, Xiaofang Zhang
Bisphenol A (BPA) can accumulate in the human body and promote the progression of various cancers. However, its role in the development of neuroblastoma (NB) is largely unknown. Our present study revealed that nanomolar concentrations of BPA can significantly increase the proliferation, migration and invasion of NB SH-SY5Y and SiMa cells, further evidenced by the upregulation of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Bcl-2, vimentin and fibronectin. Real-time PCR and ELISA results suggested that nanomolar BPA can increase the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), but had no effect on the expression of IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 or IL-12...
November 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858287/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-lens-development-and-cataract-formation
#16
REVIEW
Yong Wang, Huaijin Guan
Epigenetics pertains to heritable alterations in genomic structural modifications without altering genomic DNA sequence. The studies of epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs. DNA methylation may contribute to silencing gene expression which is a major mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation. DNA methylation regulatory mechanisms in lens development and pathogenesis of cataract represent exciting areas of research that have opened new avenues for association with aging and environment...
November 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858286/hypoxic-preconditioning-augments-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-in-a-rat-ischemic-stroke-model
#17
Jin Chen, Yuanyuan Yang, Lihua Shen, Wensen Ding, Xiang Chen, Erbing Wu, Kefu Cai, Guohua Wang
Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is a promising therapy for ischemic stroke, but the poor oxygen environment in brain lesions limits the efficacy of cell-based therapies. Here, we tested whether hypoxic preconditioning (HP) could augment the efficacy of BMSC transplantation in a rat ischemic stroke model and investigated the underlying mechanism of the effect of HP. In vitro, BMSCs were divided into five passage (P0, P1, P2, P3, and P4) groups, and HP was applied to the groups by incubating the cells with 1% oxygen for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h, respectively...
November 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858285/the-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
REVIEW
Osigbemhe Iyalomhe, Sabina Swierczek, Ngozi Enwerem, Yuanxiu Chen, Monica O Adedeji, Joanne Allard, Oyonumo Ntekim, Sheree Johnson, Kakra Hughes, Philip Kurian, Thomas O Obisesan
Neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species are thought to mediate the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal stage of AD, may be driven by similar insults. Several studies document that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is neuroprotective in the setting of neuronal insults, since this transcription factor drives the expression of critical genes that diminish neuronal cell death. HIF-1 facilitates glycolysis and glucose metabolism, thus helping to generate reductive equivalents of NADH/NADPH that counter oxidative stress...
November 17, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848060/man1-restricts-bmp-signaling-during-synaptic-growth-in-drosophila
#19
Ulrike Laugks, Marie Hieke, Nicole Wagner
Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling is crucial for coordinated synaptic growth and plasticity. Here, we show that the nuclear LEM-domain protein MAN1 is a negative regulator of synaptic growth at Drosophila larval and adult neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Loss of MAN1 is associated with synaptic structural defects, including floating T-bars, membrane attachment defects, and accumulation of vesicles between perisynaptic membranes and membranes of the subsynaptic reticulum. In addition, MAN1 mutants accumulate more heterogeneously sized vesicles and multivesicular bodies in larval and adult synapses, the latter indicating that MAN1 may function in synaptic vesicle recycling and endosome-to-lysosome trafficking...
November 15, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832395/mitoluhmes-an-engineered-neuronal-cell-line-for-the-analysis-of-the-motility-of-mitochondria
#20
Tomasz M Stępkowski, Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Marcin Kruszewski
Perturbations in the transport of mitochondria and their quality control in neuronal cells underlie many types of neurological pathologies, whereas systems enabling convenient analysis of mitochondria behavior in cellular models of neurodegenerative diseases are limited. In this study, we present a modified version of lund human mesencephalic cells, mitoLUHMES, expressing GFP and mitochondrially targeted DsRed2 fluorescent proteins, intended for in vitro analysis of mitochondria trafficking by real-time fluorescence microscopy...
November 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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