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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

Alice Filippini, Massimo Gennarelli, Isabella Russo
Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) species in dopaminergic neurons is one of the main hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several factors have been associated with α-syn aggregation process, including an impairment of the proper protein degradation, which might drive the neurons toward an alternative and/or additional clearance mechanism that involves the release of undigested material from the cell. It has been reported that extracellular α-syn, released by stressed and/or degenerating neurons, might widely contribute to the neuronal toxicity and degeneration...
January 14, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Adriana Alarcón-Aguilar, Armando Luna-López, Norma Edith López-Diazguerrero, Mina Königsberg
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in author names. The given name and family name was swapped erroneously for the three authors and published incorrectly as Alarcon-Aguilar Adriana, Luna-Lopez Armando and Königsberg Mina.The author names should read as Adriana Alarcón-Aguilar, Armando Luna-López and Mina Königsberg.The original article has been corrected.
January 4, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Wenchen Ruan, Jingwei Li, Yazhou Xu, Yunjie Wang, Feng Zhao, Xu Yang, Hulin Jiang, Luyong Zhang, Juan M Saavedra, Lei Shi, Tao Pang
Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA contributing to protect the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after stroke. We searched for small molecules that may up-regulate MALAT1 and focused on polydatin (PD), a natural product, as a possible candidate. PD enhanced MALAT1 gene expression in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells, reducing cell toxicity and apoptosis after oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). These effects correlated with reduction of inflammatory factors and enhancement of expression of BBB markers...
January 3, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Tatyana Y Postnikova, Alina M Trofimova, Julia L Ergina, Olga E Zubareva, Sergey V Kalemenev, Aleksey V Zaitsev
The mechanisms of impairment in long-term potentiation after status epilepticus (SE) remain unclear. We investigated the properties of LTP induced by theta-burst stimulation in hippocampal slices of rats 3 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after SE. Seizures were induced in 3-week old rats by a single injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Only animals with generalized seizures lasting more than 30 min were included in the experiments. The results revealed that LTP was strongly attenuated in the CA1 hippocampal area after PTZ-induced SE as compared with that in control animals...
January 3, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Mohammad Reza Safari, Alireza Komaki, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Mohammad Taheri, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders including schizophrenia has been highlighted by independent studies. In the present study, we compared peripheral blood expression of seven lncRNAs between schizophrenic patients and sex- and age-matched controls using quantitative real-time PCR technique. FAS-AS1, PVT1 and TUG1 were significantly down-regulated in schizophrenic patients compared with healthy individuals (P = 0.007, 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). The association between FAS-AS1 expression and schizophrenia was significant in male subjects aged more than 50 but not in other subgroups...
December 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
XiaoGang Shen, JiaRui Zhang, XiaoLong Zhang, YiFan Wang, YunFeng Hu, Jun Guo
Retinoic acid-induced 14 is a developmentally regulated gene induced by retinoic acid and is closely associated with NIK/NF-κB signaling. In the present study, we examined the effect of RAI14 on mTOR-mediated glial inflammation in response to inflammatory factors and chemical ischemia. A U87 cell model of LPS- and TNF-α-induced inflammation was used to investigate the role of RAI14 in glial inflammation. U87 cells were treated with siR-RAI14 or everolimus to detect the correlation between mTOR, RAI14, and NF-κB...
December 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Lauren Kosten, Steven Deleye, Sigrid Stroobants, Leonie Wyffels, Susana Mingote, Stephen Rayport, Steven Staelens
Many PET tracers enable determination of fluctuations in neurotransmitter release, yet glutamate specifically can not be visualized in a noninvasive manner. Several studies point to the possibility of visualizing fluctuations in glutamate release by changes in affinity of the mGluR5 radioligand [11 C]ABP688. These studies use pharmacological challenges to alter glutamate levels, and so probe release, but have not measured chronic alterations in receptor occupancy due to altered neurotransmission relevant to chronic neuropsychiatric disorders or their treatment...
December 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Sreekala S Nampoothiri, G K Rajanikant
The irrefutable change in the expression of brain-enriched microRNAs (miRNAs) following ischemic stroke has promoted the development of radical miRNA-based therapeutics encompassing neuroprotection and neuronal restoration. Our previous report on the systems-level prediction of miR-9 in post-stroke-induced neurogenesis served as a premise to experimentally uncover the functional role of miR-9 in post-ischemic neuronal survival and regeneration. The oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in SH-SY5Y cells significantly reduced miR-9 expression, while miR-9 mimic transfection enhanced post-ischemic neuronal cell viability...
December 11, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Alarcón-Aguilar Adriana, Luna-López Armando, Norma Edith López-Diazguerrero, Königsberg Mina
Although age is known to be the main risk for developing chronic and neurodegenerative diseases, those illnesses have a different prevalence depending on the sex. It has been questioned whether genetic and hormonal differences are preserved in primary cultures from individuals of different genders. Therefore, here we studied the susceptibility of astrocytes, obtained from female and male Wistar rats of different ages (newborn, 9 and 24 months-old), to the well-known toxin MPP+ after 2 weeks in vitro, at different concentrations and exposure times...
December 11, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Marcelo Vilas Boas Mota, Bruna Cunha Zaidan, Amanda Morato do Canto, Enrico Ghizoni, Helder Tedeschi, Luciano de Souza Queiroz, Marina K M Alvim, Fernando Cendes, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, André Almeida Schenka, André Schwambach Vieira, Fabio Rogerio
Epilepsy is a common disease presenting with recurrent seizures. Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the commonest histopathological alteration in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) undergoing surgery. HS physiopathogenesis is debatable. We have recently studied, by using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, an experimental model of TLE induced by electrical stimulation. Specifically, protein expressions of both the beta subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATP5B) and of membrane ATPases were found to be reduced...
December 11, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Ai-Qin Qi, Yan-Hui Zhang, Qin-De Qi, Ye-Hui Liu, Jun-Ling Zhu
Epilepsy is a commonly occurring neurological disease that has a large impact on the patient's daily life. Phosphorylation of heat shock protein B6 (HspB6) has been reported to protect the central nervous system. In this investigation, we explored whether HspB6 played a positive effect on epilepsy with the involvement of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway. The epileptic seizure was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA). The extent of HspB6 phosphorylation and expressions of HspB6, PKA, and inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were quantified along with neuronal apoptosis...
December 3, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Jialei Yang, Xiaojing Guo, Lulu Zhu, Jiao Huang, Jianxiong Long, Qiang Chen, Runde Pan, Zhaoxia Chen, Xulong Wu, Li Su
In the present study, we examined a potential genetic association between the variant rs7219 within the 3'-UTR of GRB2 and the susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) in the Chinese Han population. A genetic association study, including 548 SCZ patients, 512 BD patients, and 598 normal controls, was conducted in the Chinese Han population. Genotyping was performed through the Sequenom MassARRAY technology platform. The expression of GRB2 was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
November 24, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Zuofan Li, Bo Zhang, Wenlong Yao, Chuanhan Zhang, Li Wan, Yue Zhang
Anaphase-promoting complex (APC) with its coactivator Cdh1 is required to maintain the postmitotic state of neurons via degradation of Cyclin B1, which aims to prevent aberrant cell cycle entry that causes neuronal apoptosis. Interestingly, evidence is accumulating that apart from the cell cycle, APC-Cdh1 also involves in neuronal metabolism via modulating the glycolysis promoting enzyme, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 (PFKFB3). Here, we showed that under oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R), APC-Cdh1 was decreased in primary cortical neurons...
November 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Marianne O Klein, Daniella S Battagello, Ariel R Cardoso, David N Hauser, Jackson C Bittencourt, Ricardo G Correa
The dopaminergic system plays important roles in neuromodulation, such as motor control, motivation, reward, cognitive function, maternal, and reproductive behaviors. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, synthesized in both central nervous system and the periphery, that exerts its actions upon binding to G protein-coupled receptors. Dopamine receptors are widely expressed in the body and function in both the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Dopaminergic signaling pathways are crucial to the maintenance of physiological processes and an unbalanced activity may lead to dysfunctions that are related to neurodegenerative diseases...
November 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Bárbara Rangel da Silva, Luis Eduardo Santos, Ricardo A de Melo Reis, Fernando Garcia de Mello, Victor T Ribeiro-Resende
Neurospheres prepared from multipotent progenitors in the retina obtained from postnatal mice differentiate into neurons and Müller glia (De Melo Reis et al., in Cell Mol Neurobiol 31:835-846, 2011). Here, we investigated whether neurospheres prepared from adult chickens (ciliary marginal zone, CMZ) or (ciliary body) retina could also lead to differentiated neurons and glia. Neurospheres were prepared from post-hatched chickens or from adult mice after 7 days in the presence of mitogenic factors (FGFb, insulin, and EGF), generating neurons and glial cells...
November 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Tianyi Wang, Bo Li, Xin Yuan, Libin Cui, Zhijie Wang, Yanjun Zhang, Mei Yu, Yucai Xiu, Zheng Zhang, Wenhua Li, Fengyan Wang, Xiaoling Guo, Xiangyang Zhao, Xueming Chen
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes sensory dysfunctions such as paresthesia, dysesthesia, and chronic neuropathic pain. MiR-20a facilitates the axonal outgrowth of the cortical neurons. However, the role of miR-20a in the axonal outgrowth of primary sensory neurons and spinal cord dorsal column lesion (SDCL) is yet unknown. Therefore, the role of miR-20a post-SDCL was investigated in rat. The NF-200 immunofluorescence staining was applied to observe whether axonal outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons could be altered by miR-20a or PDZ-RhoGEF modulation in vitro...
November 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Pandian Nagakannan, Md Imamul Islam, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Eftekhar Eftekharpour
The involvement of glutamate in neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma is mediated through excitotoxicity or oxytosis. The latter process induces oxidative stress via glutamate-mediated inhibition of cysteine transporter xCT, leading to depletion of the cellular glutathione pool. Mitochondrial damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and depletion of energy metabolites have been shown in this process. The Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel-1 (VDAC1) is one of the main components of the mitochondrial outer membrane and plays a gatekeeping role in mitochondria-cytoplasm transport of metabolites...
November 12, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Elif Kaval Oğuz, Gürkan Öztürk
Axons of a peripheral nerve grow faster after an axotomy if it attains a prior injury a few days earlier. This is called conditioning lesion effect (CLE) and very much valued since it may provide new insights into neuron biology and axonal regeneration. There are established in vivo experimental paradigms to study CLE, however, there is a need to have an in vitro conditioning technique where CLE occurs in a maximally controlled environment. Mouse primary sensory neurons were isolated from lumbar 4-5 dorsal root ganglia and incubated at 37 °C on a silicon-coated watch glass that prevents cell attachment...
November 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Boris Mravec, Lubica Horvathova, Alena Cernackova
Various hypothalamic nuclei function as central parts of regulators that maintain homeostasis of the organism. Recently, findings have shown that inflammation in the hypothalamus may significantly affect activity of these homeostats and consequently participate in the development of various somatic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cachexia. In addition, hypothalamic inflammation may also affect aging and lifespan. Identification of the causes and mechanisms involved in the development of hypothalamic inflammation creates not only a basis for better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of somatic diseases, but for the development of new therapeutic approaches for their treatment, as well...
October 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Jinqi Luo, Yujie Luo, Hanhai Zeng, Cesar Reis, Sheng Chen
Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) refers to bleeding that derives from the subependymal (or periventricular) germinal region of the premature brain. GMH can induce severe and irreversible damage attributing to the vulnerable structure of germinal matrix and deleterious circumstances. Molecular mechanisms remain obscure so far. In this review, we summarized the newest preclinical discoveries recent years about GMH to distill a deeper understanding of the neuropathology, and then discuss the potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets among these pathways...
October 25, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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