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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159732/the-pgc-1%C3%AE-activator-zln005-ameliorates-ischemia-induced-neuronal-injury-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Yazhou Xu, John Alimamy Kabba, Wenchen Ruan, Yunjie Wang, Shunyi Zhao, Xiaoyue Song, Luyong Zhang, Jia Li, Tao Pang
Oxidative stress is a great challenge to neurons following cerebral ischemia. PGC-1α has been shown to act as a potent modulator of oxidative metabolism. In this study, the effects of ZLN005, a small molecule that activate PGC-1α, against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)- or ischemia-induced neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo were investigated. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was performed in rats and ZLN005 was administered intravenously at 2 h, 4 h, or 6 h after ischemia onset. Infarct volume and neurological deficit score were detected to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ZLN005...
November 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134420/co-localization-and-interaction-of-pax5-with-iba1-in-brain-of-mice
#2
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
The Pax5, a B-cell-Specific Activator Protein (BSAP) and redox-sensitive transcription factor, is expressed in the immune-privileged brain, B-lymphocytes, lymph nodes and spleen. PAX5-mediated immune pathway has also been described in the progression of Glioblastoma multiforme. However, the status of Pax5 and its role in brain immunity are not yet elucidated. In silico analysis of Pax5 interacting proteins predicts its interaction with proteins of cell proliferation, differentiation of hematopoietic cells, neurogenesis and several cell signalling pathways...
November 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134419/acute-administration-of-the-nonpathogenic-saprophytic-bacterium-mycobacterium-vaccae-induces-activation-of-serotonergic-neurons-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-and-antidepressant-like-behavior-in-association-with-mild-hypothermia
#3
Philip H Siebler, Jared D Heinze, Drake M Kienzle, Matthew W Hale, Jodi L Lukkes, Nina C Donner, Jared M Kopelman, Orlando A Rodriguez, Christopher A Lowry
Peripheral immune activation can have profound physiologic and behavioral effects. One mechanism through which immune activation may affect physiology and behavior is through actions on brainstem neuromodulatory systems, such as serotonergic systems. To test this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, adult male BALB/c mice were implanted with telemetric recording devices and then immunized with Mycobacterium vaccae NCTC 11659 (0.1 mg, s.c.; Days - 28, - 14; N = 36). On Day 1, mice received an acute challenge with M...
November 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110208/expression-of-gas1-in-mouse-brain-release-and-role-in-neuronal-differentiation
#4
Elizabeth Bautista, Natanael Zarco, Nicolás Aguirre-Pineda, Manuel Lara-Lozano, Paula Vergara, Juan Antonio González-Barrios, Raúl Aguilar-Roblero, José Segovia
Growth arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) is a pleiotropic protein that induces apoptosis of tumor cells and has important roles during development. Recently, the presence of two forms of Gas1 was reported: one attached to the cell membrane by a GPI anchor; and a soluble extracellular form shed by cells. Previously, we showed that Gas1 is expressed in different areas of the adult mouse CNS. Here, we report the levels of Gas1 mRNA protein in different regions and analyzed its expressions in glutamatergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons...
November 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110207/ameliorating-effect-of-osteopontin-on-h2o2-induced-apoptosis-of-human-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells
#5
Neda Mazaheri, Maryam Peymani, Hamid Galehdari, Kamran Ghaedi, Ali Ghoochani, Abbas Kiani-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Recently our group used oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) as appropriate model cells to pinpoint the mechanism of the progress of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we focused on the therapeutic role of osteopontin (OPN), a secreted glycosylated phosphoprotein, involved in a number of physiological events including bone formation and remodeling, immune responses, and tumor progression. Protective role of OPN, as a negative regulator of tumorigenesis, has already been clarified. Human embryonic stem cell-derived OPCs were pretreated with OPN before induction of apoptosis by H2O2...
November 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103093/enhancement-of-gustatory-neural-responses-by-parasympathetic-nerve-in-the-frog
#6
Toshihide Sato, Yukio Okada
The autonomic nervous system affects the gustatory responses in animals. Frog glossopharyngeal nerve (GPN) contains the parasympathetic nerve. We checked the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of the parasympathetic nerves on the gustatory neural responses. The gustatory neural impulses of the GPNs were recorded using bipolar AgCl wires under normal blood circulation and integrated with a time constant of 1 s. Electrical stimuli were applied to the proximal side of the GPN with a pair of AgCl wires. The parasympathetic nerves of the GPN were strongly stimulated for 10 s with 6 V at 30 Hz before taste stimulation...
November 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098505/downregulation-of-survivin-gene-expression-affects-ionizing-radiation-resistance-of-human-t98-glioma-cells
#7
Jicheng Li, Yong Han, Dai Zhou, Youxin Zhou, Ming Ye, Hangzhou Wang, Ziwei Du
Survivin is a tumor-associated gene, which has been detected in a wide variety of human tumors. Previous research has shown that Survivin can affect hepatoma carcinoma cell radiosensitivity. However, little is known about the role of Survivin in ionizing radiation resistance in glioma cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the effects of Survivin on ionizing radiation resistance in glioma cell line T98. Our results showed that downregulation of Survivin gene expression and ionizing irradiation could both inhibit T98 cell proliferation by assays in vitro including CCK-8 and immunohistochemistry...
November 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067536/development-of-a-cell-based-assay-to-assess-binding-of-the-prongf-prodomain-to-sortilin
#8
Ibrahim Malik, Søren Christensen, Jeffrey B Stavenhagen, Gunnar P H Dietz
Sortilin was first identified based on its activity as part of intracellular protein sorting machinery. Recently, it was discovered that sortilin also acts as a cell surface receptor for the propeptide form of nerve growth factor (proNGF), progranulin, and neurotensin. The interaction of sortilin to these neurotrophic ligands is linked to diseases of the nervous system that lead to neurodegeneration and neuropathic pain. Blocking of the interaction of sortilin to these ligands may prevent or slow the progress of these nervous system disorders...
October 24, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063982/role-of-beta-adrenergic-receptors-and-sirtuin-signaling-in-the-heart-during-aging-heart-failure-and-adaptation-to-stress
#9
REVIEW
Regina Celia Spadari, Claudia Cavadas, Ana Elisa T Saturi de Carvalho, Daniela Ortolani, Andre Luiz de Moura, Paula Frizera Vassalo
In the heart, catecholamine effects occur by activation of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs), mainly the beta 1 (β1-AR) and beta 2 (β2-AR) subtypes, both of which couple to the Gs protein that activates the adenylyl cyclase signaling pathway. The β2-ARs can also couple to the Gi protein that counterbalances the effect of the Gs protein on cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway. In several cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure, as well as in aging and in animal models of environmental stress, a reduction in the β1/β2-AR ratio and activation of the β2-AR-Gi-PI3K-Akt signaling pathway have been observed...
October 24, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058095/potentiation-and-block-of-asic1a-by-memantine
#10
Vasiliy Y Shteinikov, Tatiana B Tikhonova, Vyacheslav S Korkosh, Denis B Tikhonov
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are modulated by various classes of ligands, including the recently described hydrophobic monoamines, which inhibit and potentiate ASICs in a subunit-specific manner. In particular, memantine inhibits ASIC1a and potentiates ASIC2a homomers. The aim of the present work was to characterize action mechanism of memantine on recombinant ASIC1a expressed in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. We have demonstrated that effect of memantine on ASIC1a strongly depends on membrane voltage, conditioning pH value and application protocol...
October 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993972/the-effect-of-acute-and-repeated-stress-on-crh-r1-and-crh-r2-mrna-expression-in-pituitaries-of-wild-type-and-crh-knock-out-mice
#11
Vera Klenerova, Richard Kvetnansky, Sixtus Hynie
The activation of the HPA axis is the endocrine measure of stress responsiveness that is initiated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH exerts its effects via CRHR1 and CRH-R2 receptors coupled to the cAMP signaling system and this process involves transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB).This study investigated the role of CRH and the possible involvement of CREB in gene regulation of CRH receptor, under basal conditions and after stress application in the pituitary. We used wild type (wt +/+) controls and CRH knock-out (CRH-KO -/-) male mice...
October 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993924/effects-of-acetylcholine-on-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-cpla2-activation-in-the-tb-neuroectodermal-cell-line-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Arianna Polverino, Manuela Grimaldi, Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Francesca Jacini, Anna Maria D'Ursi, Giuseppe Sorrentino
The role of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still considered crucial. The state of Aβ aggregation is critical in promoting neuronal loss and neuronal function impairment. Recently, we demonstrated that Acetylcholine (ACh) is neuroprotective against the toxic effects of Aβ in the cholinergic LAN-2 cells. In biophysical experiments, ACh promotes the soluble Aβ peptide conformation rather than the aggregation-prone β-sheet conformation. In order to better understand the biological role of ACh in AD, we studied the effect of Aβ on the phosphorylation of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in the TB neuroectodermal cell line, which differentiates toward a neuronal phenotype when cultured in the presence of retinoic acid (RA)...
October 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975471/roles-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-on-brain-and-peripheral-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Sonia Villapol
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases involving diabetes, stroke, cancer, or obesity. It is expressed in diverse cell types, including vessels, immune and glial cells, and neurons. PPARγ plays crucial roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation, lipid metabolism, or glucose homeostasis. PPARγ ligands also exert effects on attenuating degenerative processes in the brain, as well as in peripheral systems, and it has been associated with the control of anti-inflammatory mechanisms, oxidative stress, neuronal death, neurogenesis, differentiation, and angiogenesis...
October 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942555/the-applicability-of-amide-proton-transfer-imaging-in-the-nervous-system-focus-on-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-the-neonate
#14
REVIEW
Yang Zheng, Xiaoming Wang
In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become more widely used in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), involving, for example, evaluation of cerebral edema, white matter fiber bundle tracking, cerebral perfusion status, and assessment of brain metabolites. MRI has many imaging modalities. However, its application for assessing changes in the internal environment at the tissue and cellular level after hypoxia-ischemia remains a challenge and is currently the focus of intense research...
September 23, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940129/the-role-of-smurf1-in-neuronal-necroptosis-after-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation
#15
Lifei Shao, Xiaojuan Liu, Shunxing Zhu, Chun Liu, Yilu Gao, Xide Xu
The role of inflammation in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease is gradually recognized and leads to an urgent challenge. Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1), one member of the HECT family, is up-regulated by proinflammatory cytokines and associated with apoptosis in acute spinal cord injury. However, the function of Smurf1 through promoting neuronal necroptosis is still limited in the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, we developed a neuroinflammatory model in adult rats following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral ventral injection to elaborate whether Smurf1 is involved in necroptosis in CNS injury...
September 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916984/in-memoriam-adil-j-nazarali
#16
Glen B Baker, Juan M Saavedra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905149/interactions-between-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-gamma-on-neuroinflammation-demyelination-and-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Noël Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Yves Lecarpentier
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is marked by neuroinflammation and demyelination with loss of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. The immune response is regulated by WNT/beta-catenin pathway in MS. Activated NF-kappaB, a major effector of neuroinflammation, and upregulated canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway positively regulate each other. Demyelinating events present an upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, whereas proper myelinating phases show a downregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway essential for the promotion of oligodendrocytes precursors cells proliferation and differentiation...
September 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895001/regulation-of-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical-responses-to-stressors-by-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-dorsal-vagal-complex
#18
REVIEW
James P Herman
Hindbrain neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are critical for regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses to stress. It is well known that noradrenergic (as well as adrenergic) neurons in the NTS send direct projections to hypophysiotropic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons and control activation of HPA axis responses to acute systemic (but not psychogenic) stressors. Norepinephrine (NE) signaling via alpha1 receptors is primarily excitatory, working either directly on CRH neurons or through presynaptic activation of glutamate release...
September 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894964/macrophages-generate-pericytes-in-the-developing-brain
#19
REVIEW
Pedro H D M Prazeres, Viviani M Almeida, Luiza Lousado, Julia P Andreotti, Ana E Paiva, Gabryella S P Santos, Patrick O Azevedo, Luanny Souto, Gregório G Almeida, Renato Filev, Akiva Mintz, Ricardo Gonçalves, Alexander Birbrair
Pericytes are defined by their anatomical location encircling blood vessels' walls with their long projections. The exact embryonic sources of cerebral pericytes remain poorly understood, especially because of their recently revealed diversity. Yamamoto et al. (Sci Rep 7(1):3855, 2017) using state-of-the-art techniques, including several transgenic mice models, reveal that a subpopulation of brain pericytes are derived from phagocytic macrophages during vascular development. This work highlights a new possible ancestor of brain pericytes...
September 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889197/changes-in-gene-expression-in-the-locus-coeruleus-amygdala-circuitry-in-inhibitory-avoidance-ptsd-model
#20
Esther L Sabban, Lidia I Serova, Elizabeth Newman, Nurit Aisenberg, Irit Akirav
The locus coeruleus (LC)-amygdala circuit is implicated in playing a key role in responses to emotionally arousing stimuli and in the manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined changes in gene expression of a number of important mediators of the LC-amygdala circuitry in the inhibition avoidance model of PTSD. After testing for basal acoustic startle response (ASR), rats were exposed to a severe footshock (1.5 mA for 10 s) in the inhibitory avoidance apparatus. They were given contextual situational reminders every 5 day for 25 days...
September 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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