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Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

Vered Ne'Eman-Haviv, Hagit Bonny-Noach
This research investigates associations between cognitive test anxiety (CTA) and use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and medical and non-medical prescription stimulants (MNPS) among undergraduate students in Israel. A structured, self-report, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 814 undergraduate students in Israel. According to the test anxiety questionnaire, 16.6% of participants were found to experience CTA. CTA was higher among users of MNPS than among students who did not use MNPS. Students with CTA were 2...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Sarah E Linke, Rita Hovsepians, Brittany Schnebly, Kathryn Godfrey, Madison Noble, David R Strong, Melodie Isgro, Laurie A Lindamer
Substance use disorders (SUD) are prevalent among veterans, and the relapse rate is estimated at ≥60% within one year of treatment. Exercise's broad health benefits make it an appealing adjunctive component to interventions preventing relapse among individuals with SUDs. After conducting formative research, we designed and conducted the Go-VAR! (Veterans Active Recovery) pilot study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component exercise-based intervention for veterans seeking SUD treatment through the outpatient Alcohol & Drug Treatment Program (ADTP) at the VA San Diego Healthcare System (VASDHS)...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Scott Kellogg
This article outlines a liberation-focused model of addiction treatment. Drawing on the Latin root word "addictus", addiction is seen as slavery and freedom, rather than the cessation of drug and alcohol use, is proposed as a viable, alternative treatment goal. Freedom is defined as: (1) the capacity to create a life of social and internal complexity and multiplicity; (2) the ability to make choices from an array of options; and (3) the possibility of engaging in long-term, goal-directed behavior...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Abenaa Acheampong Jones, Travis Gerke, Catherine W Striley, Vicki Osborne, Nicole Whitehead, Linda B Cottler
Using data from a randomized controlled trial of 319 women mainly recruited from a Municipal Drug Court System in St. Louis, MO, this study evaluates substance use, victimization, and HIV/AIDS risk behaviors over time. The results indicated that, for all participants, the likelihood of victimization, using drugs, and meeting the criteria for HIV/AIDS risk decreased by 46% by the eight-month follow-up; however, results did not differ significantly by intervention group. Women who were sexually abused as a child, had 4+ arrests, or believed they had sexual and drug-using behaviors that need changing at baseline were more likely to experience these issues over time...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
S Palasamudram Shekar, Edward Eurice Rojas, Christopher Charles D'Angelo, Samantha Rebecca Gillenwater, Nydia Patricia Martinez Galvis
This case report describes an overdose on kratom, and elicits the potential dangers of overdose on the regulated dietary supplement. A young male presented to the emergency department intubated after being found unresponsive. He was found by his family to be unarousable and agonal breathing with minimal response to naloxone administered by Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Urine toxicology and blood alcohol content were negative. Physical exam was significant for tachycardia, hypotension, and pinpoint pupils with sluggish reactivity to light...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Daniel J Kruger, Jessica S Kruger
An evidence-based approach is needed to shape policies and practices regarding medical cannabis, thereby reducing harm and maximizing benefits to individuals and society. This project assesses attitudes towards and utilization of medical cannabis and the mainstream healthcare system among medical cannabis users. The research team administered brief hard copy surveys to 450 adults attending an annual public event advocating for cannabis law reform. Among usable responses (N = 392), the majority (78%) reported using cannabis to help treat a medical or health condition...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Cornel N Stanciu, Samantha A Gnanasegaram, Saeed Ahmed, Thomas Penders
Recent years have seen a widespread increase in kratom use, not just for the purpose of easing opioid withdrawal, but also for management of emotional and mental health concerns by individuals without histories of opioid use. Chronic use can lead to dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal on cessation, and clinicians are seeing an increasing number of presentations involving the latter. Although there is literature discussing the use of kratom to assist in opioid withdrawal, this article comprehensively examines independent withdrawal from kratom...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Bryan Y Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti, Namkee G Choi
Opioid misuse and adverse health outcomes are serious problems among the 50+ age group. Using data from the 2015-2016 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (N = 17,608 respondents aged 50+), we examined emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations among those who reported (1) no opioid use in the past year (61.4%); (2) opioid use but no misuse (36.0%); and (3) opioid misuse (2.6%). Compared to nonusers, those who reported use but no misuse or misuse had greater odds of any ED visit (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI = 2...
December 25, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Sueli Moreira Mello, Paula Christiane Soubhia, Gabriela Silveira, Nelson Francisco Corrêa-Neto, Rafael Lanaro, José Luiz Costa, Alessandra Linardi
Ayahuasca is a beverage obtained from decoctions of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi plus the shrub Psychotria viridis. This beverage contains a combination of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine) and N,N-dimethyltryptamine, the main substance responsible for its visionary effect. The ritualistic use of ayahuasca is becoming a global phenomenon. Most members of ayahuasca churches consume this beverage throughout their life, and many reports have discussed the therapeutic potential of this beverage...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Barbara Campbell, Deborah Yip, Thao Le, Noah Gubner, Joseph Guydish
We examined relationships of smoking status and tobacco-related variables with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), a metric of disease burden, among clients in substance use disorders (SUDs) treatment. Participants (N = 2,068; 46.6% female) completed surveys reporting demographics, smoking status, and past-month days they experienced physical and/or mental health distress. Smokers (n = 1,596; 77.2% of sample) answered questions on tobacco-related variables. Multinomial regression models assessed relationships between tobacco-related variables (smoking status, nicotine dependence, menthol smoking, electronic-cigarette use, health concerns, and cost as reasons affecting reducing/quitting smoking, past and future quit attempts) with HRQol in four categories (good health, physical health distress, mental health distress, or both physical and mental health distress)...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Christian P Müller, Balasingam Vicknasingam, Murat Yücel, Eric Tatt Wei Ho, Zurina Hassan, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
Kratom or Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) is a medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. As a result of its opioid-like effects, it remains unknown whether consumption of kratom tea is associated with impaired cognitive function. We assessed the cognitive function of 70 regular kratom users and 25 control participants using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Participants performed six neuropsychological tasks that assessed motor, learning and memory, attention and executive function. Relative to control participants, higher consumption (>3 glasses daily or mitragynine doses between 72...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
John C Rhead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Gila Chen
The aim of this article is to explore the role of "hitting bottom" as a motivation to initiate a recovery process and desistance from crime and substance use disorders (SUDs), and in building recovery capital (RC). Researchers and practitioners have long been interested in why and how offenders desist from crime. Desistance and recovery from crime and SUDs have also been linked to negative turning points, such as hitting bottom, which represents multidimensional suffering with physiological, familial, social, and criminal implications...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
J Matthew Webster, Megan F Dickson, Faiyad Mannan, Michele Staton
Previous studies have highlighted the prescription opioid epidemic in rural Appalachia and its associated risk behaviors; however, no studies have examined prescription-opioid-impaired driving as a consequence of this epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to describe prescription-opioid-impaired drivers in rural Appalachian Kentucky and examine how they are similar to and different from other substance-impaired drivers from the region. A sample of convicted DUI offenders from rural Appalachian Kentucky completed a confidential research interview focused on their substance use, mental health, and criminal activity...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Michael Lyvers, Charles Hanigan, Fred Arne Thorberg
In young adults at university, social interaction anxiety has been linked to elevated risk of alcohol-related problems, as has alexithymia. The present study sought to assess whether social interaction anxiety is, like alexithymia, associated with the primary motive of drinking to cope with negative affect. There were 126 undergraduates (76 females, 50 males), aged 18-25 years, who were recruited from two southeast Queensland universities to complete validated self-report measures of problematic drinking, alexithymia, drinking motives, and social interaction anxiety...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Jermaine D Jones, Adam Bisaga, Verena E Metz, Jeanne M Manubay, Shanthi Mogali, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Gabriela Madera, Molly Doernberg, Sandra D Comer
Possibly through its effects on glia, the peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma receptor (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone (PIO) has been shown to alter the effects of heroin in preclinical models. Until now, these results have not been assessed in humans. Heroin-dependent participants were randomized to either active (45 mg, n = 14) or placebo (0 mg, n = 16) PIO maintenance for the duration of the three-week study. After stabilization on buprenorphine (8 mg), participants began a two-week testing period...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Joseph J Palamar
Use of synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") has been associated with tens of thousands of emergency department visits. Few surveys, however, query use. Research on "bath salt" use is needed, especially in high-risk populations, to inform prevention and harm reduction efforts. A total of 933 adults (ages 18-40) were surveyed entering electronic dance music (EDM) parties in New York City in 2017. Lifetime use of 22 different synthetic cathinones was queried, and agreement with four statements about "bath salts" was also assessed...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Jonathan Feelemyer, Huong Duong Thi, Minh Khuê Pham, Giang Hoang Thi, Nham Thi Tuyet Thanh, Khuat Thi Hai Oanh, Kamyar Arasteh, Jean Pierre Moles, Vinh Vu Hai, Roselyne Vallo, Catherine Quillet, Delphine Rapoud, Laurent Michel, Ted Hammett, Didier Laureillard, Nicolas Nagot, Don Des Jarlais
Methamphetamine use has increased significantly in Southeast Asia in the last 5-10 years, but there is little research on risk behaviors associated with the increase in this region. We evaluate injection and sexual risk behaviors associated with current methamphetamine use among heterosexual persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Hai Phong, Vietnam. We recruited 1336 PWID and assessed associations between methamphetamine use, injection and sexual risk behaviors, stratified by HIV serostatus. There were several statistically significant associations between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive PWID, but we did not find any associations between methamphetamine use and injection risk behaviors...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Rachel Luba, Mitch Earleywine, Stacey Farmer, Melissa Slavin, Maha Mian, Brianna Altman
Impulsivity and substance use covary. Smith and Anderson's acquired preparedness model proposes that impulsivity predicts substance use through a mediational model such that substance use expectancies mediate the relation between impulsivity and drug use. The present study seeks to examine the relation between positive urgency, an important component of impulsivity with specific relations to substance use behavior, marijuana expectancies, and marijuana use patterns. The study focused on a sample of frequent marijuana users (n = 3,616) and assessed positive urgency using the UPPS-P, expectancies using the Biphasic Marijuana Effects Scale, an adapted form of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale to measure the sedative and stimulant properties of marijuana, and also assessed use patterns...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Jane Carlisle Maxwell
This article describes the characteristics of individuals who used synthetic cannabinoids and the changes in the user population over time. Data sources include treatment admissions with a primary problem with synthetic cannabinoids reported to the Texas treatment dataset, synthetic cannabinoid exposures reported to the Texas Poison Center Network, and items identified in the National Forensic Laboratory Information System in 2009-2016. Statistically significant trends were identified for race/ethnicity, gender, age, education level, employment status, homelessness, criminal justice problems, use of other substances, lag time between first use and time to treatment, exposure site, chronicity, reason for exposure, and the most common types of cannabinoids...
September 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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