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Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

John C Rhead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Gila Chen
The aim of this article is to explore the role of "hitting bottom" as a motivation to initiate a recovery process and desistance from crime and substance use disorders (SUDs), and in building recovery capital (RC). Researchers and practitioners have long been interested in why and how offenders desist from crime. Desistance and recovery from crime and SUDs have also been linked to negative turning points, such as hitting bottom, which represents multidimensional suffering with physiological, familial, social, and criminal implications...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
J Matthew Webster, Megan F Dickson, Faiyad Mannan, Michele Staton
Previous studies have highlighted the prescription opioid epidemic in rural Appalachia and its associated risk behaviors; however, no studies have examined prescription-opioid-impaired driving as a consequence of this epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to describe prescription-opioid-impaired drivers in rural Appalachian Kentucky and examine how they are similar to and different from other substance-impaired drivers from the region. A sample of convicted DUI offenders from rural Appalachian Kentucky completed a confidential research interview focused on their substance use, mental health, and criminal activity...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Michael Lyvers, Charles Hanigan, Fred Arne Thorberg
In young adults at university, social interaction anxiety has been linked to elevated risk of alcohol-related problems, as has alexithymia. The present study sought to assess whether social interaction anxiety is, like alexithymia, associated with the primary motive of drinking to cope with negative affect. There were 126 undergraduates (76 females, 50 males), aged 18-25 years, who were recruited from two southeast Queensland universities to complete validated self-report measures of problematic drinking, alexithymia, drinking motives, and social interaction anxiety...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Jermaine D Jones, Adam Bisaga, Verena E Metz, Jeanne M Manubay, Shanthi Mogali, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Gabriela Madera, Molly Doernberg, Sandra D Comer
Possibly through its effects on glia, the peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma receptor (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone (PIO) has been shown to alter the effects of heroin in preclinical models. Until now, these results have not been assessed in humans. Heroin-dependent participants were randomized to either active (45 mg, n = 14) or placebo (0 mg, n = 16) PIO maintenance for the duration of the three-week study. After stabilization on buprenorphine (8 mg), participants began a two-week testing period...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Joseph J Palamar
Use of synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") has been associated with tens of thousands of emergency department visits. Few surveys, however, query use. Research on "bath salt" use is needed, especially in high-risk populations, to inform prevention and harm reduction efforts. A total of 933 adults (ages 18-40) were surveyed entering electronic dance music (EDM) parties in New York City in 2017. Lifetime use of 22 different synthetic cathinones was queried, and agreement with four statements about "bath salts" was also assessed...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Jonathan Feelemyer, Huong Duong Thi, Minh Khuê Pham, Giang Hoang Thi, Nham Thi Tuyet Thanh, Khuat Thi Hai Oanh, Kamyar Arasteh, Jean Pierre Moles, Vinh Vu Hai, Roselyne Vallo, Catherine Quillet, Delphine Rapoud, Laurent Michel, Ted Hammett, Didier Laureillard, Nicolas Nagot, Don Des Jarlais
Methamphetamine use has increased significantly in Southeast Asia in the last 5-10 years, but there is little research on risk behaviors associated with the increase in this region. We evaluate injection and sexual risk behaviors associated with current methamphetamine use among heterosexual persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Hai Phong, Vietnam. We recruited 1336 PWID and assessed associations between methamphetamine use, injection and sexual risk behaviors, stratified by HIV serostatus. There were several statistically significant associations between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive PWID, but we did not find any associations between methamphetamine use and injection risk behaviors...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Rachel Luba, Mitch Earleywine, Stacey Farmer, Melissa Slavin, Maha Mian, Brianna Altman
Impulsivity and substance use covary. Smith and Anderson's acquired preparedness model proposes that impulsivity predicts substance use through a mediational model such that substance use expectancies mediate the relation between impulsivity and drug use. The present study seeks to examine the relation between positive urgency, an important component of impulsivity with specific relations to substance use behavior, marijuana expectancies, and marijuana use patterns. The study focused on a sample of frequent marijuana users (n = 3,616) and assessed positive urgency using the UPPS-P, expectancies using the Biphasic Marijuana Effects Scale, an adapted form of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale to measure the sedative and stimulant properties of marijuana, and also assessed use patterns...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Miroslav Horák, Lea Hasíková, Nahanga Verter
This article focuses on the therapeutic potential ascribed to ayahuasca by users in the Czech Republic. Following an online survey, the fieldwork among users of ayahuasca was carried out from November 2015 to December 2016. The research sample consisted of 46 persons (23 women and 23 men), who took part at least once in some type of ayahuasca ritual and/or were the facilitators of the ayahuasca sessions. We held semi-structured interviews with participants in order to discover the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Christian P Müller, Marc T Swogger, Azlan Abdul Rahim, Mohammad Farris Iman Leong Bin Abdullah, Balasingam K Vicknasingam
Kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) are traditionally used in Southeast Asia for their medicinal value. Self-report studies suggest that cessation from chronic kratom tea consumption (freshly brewed kratom tea) was associated with unpleasant psychological symptoms. This study sought to assess the severity of anxiety and depression during kratom cessation. Regular kratom users (N = 150) were recruited from the northern state of Penang (Malaysia) for this retrospective study. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scales were used to assess the severity of the symptoms of anxiety and depression...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Maryam Akhgari, Fatemeh Moradi, Parisa Ziarati
Psychoactive illicit drugs are widely used all over the world. Due to the high demand for illicit drugs, adulteration of substances with poisonous and active pharmaceutical ingredients is a common phenomenon in some countries. Lead and other active pharmaceutical ingredients are among adulterants added to illicit drugs intentionally. In the present study, we analyzed four major abused street drugs in Iran's drug black market (opium, Iranian crack, ecstasy tablets, and crystal methamphetamine) to assess active pharmaceutical ingredients and determine a quantitative assay of lead...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Jane Carlisle Maxwell
This article describes the characteristics of individuals who used synthetic cannabinoids and the changes in the user population over time. Data sources include treatment admissions with a primary problem with synthetic cannabinoids reported to the Texas treatment dataset, synthetic cannabinoid exposures reported to the Texas Poison Center Network, and items identified in the National Forensic Laboratory Information System in 2009-2016. Statistically significant trends were identified for race/ethnicity, gender, age, education level, employment status, homelessness, criminal justice problems, use of other substances, lag time between first use and time to treatment, exposure site, chronicity, reason for exposure, and the most common types of cannabinoids...
September 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Rachel L Goldberg, Janine K Cataldo
Due to marijuana's analgesic effects and its growing national legal status, it is likely that marijuana's rising prevalence will impact prescription pain reliever (PPR) use. The present study investigates the relationship between marijuana and PPR use among U.S. adult current cigarette smokers. Data were analyzed from the Tobacco and Attitudes Beliefs Survey II, with 348 current cigarette smokers, aged 24-88. Logistic regression was used to examine the likelihood of current (past 30 days) PPR use by marijuana use (never, ever, and current) among cigarette smokers...
September 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Nicholas Denomme
University of Michigan Pharmacology Professor Ed Domino is an expert in the field of neuropsychopharmacology. For over six decades, Dr. Domino has made many contributions to our understanding of psychoactive drugs, but is most well-known for his role in the development of ketamine anesthesia. This article covers the story behind this discovery, along with many other fascinating personal and professional anecdotes, all of which provide insight into the career of a remarkable scientist.
September 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Zachary W Walker, Abigail R Vinson, Dean Babcock, Tara Benjamin, David M Haas
The aim of this study was to explore the "opiate misuse footprint" made by obstetrics and gynecology physicians in prescribing opioid medications for postpartum pain control that led to opioid misuse and opioid use disorder. Data were collected using intake information and anonymous surveys administered to pregnant women at local methadone clinics in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2016-2017. Results from this study revealed that 40% of the 33 participants stated that the first drug they became addicted to was prescription opioids; 71% stated that the first opiate they became addicted to was a prescription pain medication...
September 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Logan Neitzke-Spruill, Carol Glasser
Psychedelic drugs, or entheogens, have been used for religious purposes among various cultures for thousands of years. Recently, these substances have caught the attention of Westerners for many reasons, including their propensity to induce mystical experiences. This study examined the relationship between religion and having mystical experiences. A total of 119 participants were drawn from psychedelic-related websites and asked to complete an anonymous online questionnaire containing items regarding history of psychedelic use, set and setting for psychedelic use, and a measure for mystical experiences...
September 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Udo Bonnet, Ali Canbay, Michael Specka, Norbert Scherbaum
To shed more light on the influence of chronic cannabis use on liver function, we performed a post-hoc analysis of routine lab data of 42 inpatient treatment-seeking (9 female, median: 27 years old) pure cannabis dependents. Serum liver function tests (LFT: transaminases, bilirubin), C-reactive protein (CRP), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and body mass index (BMI) were considered. The LFT were correlated with CDT, BMI, and cannabis-related clinical data (CR); i.e., the serum levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its major metabolites 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), plus the cannabis-history data...
September 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Alan K Davis, Elise Renn, Austin-Marley Windham-Herman, Martin Polanco, Joseph P Barsuglia
We examined persisting effects, self-perceived challenges, and potential benefits associated with positive outcomes following ibogaine detoxification using data collected as part of a larger online retrospective study of 73 patients who received treatment for chronic opioid use in Mexico between 2012 and 2015. A mixed-methods design was used comparing treatment responders versus non-responders, as well as content coding of themes from open-ended questions. Most participants reported positive persisting effects of ibogaine detoxification (e...
September 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Hayley McCarron, Emily R Griese, Elizabeth Dippel, Tracey R McMahon
Substance abuse is especially undesirable among pregnant or parenting women (PPW). As such, there is a need to examine the factors impacting positive treatment outcomes, particularly among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) PPW, as they are seeking substance abuse treatment at rates considerably higher than the national average. This study aimed to identify the social and cultural mechanisms that support their recovery. Qualitative analyses were used to identify mechanisms used by AI and non-AI PPW in their recovery...
September 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. As shown in the literature, this disorder is frequently associated with alcohol and drug abuse. Patients affected by ADHD show high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking. These characteristics can significantly increase the risk of alcohol abuse, which is itself a clinical condition associated with high levels of impulsivity. Clinical studies suggest that atomoxetine is effective and safe in patients affected by both ADHD and alcohol dependence; however, information focused specifically on impulsivity is very limited...
September 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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