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Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937941/the-scheduling-of-kratom-and-selective-use-of-data
#1
O Hayden Griffin, Megan E Webb
Kratom is a traditional drug from Southeast Asia that has been an emerging new substance in the United States. On August 30, 2016, the DEA announced the intention to emergency schedule kratom into Schedule I. To support this decision, the DEA cited an increase in drug seizures of kratom and an increase in calls to poison control concerning kratom. However, a short time later, on October 12, 2016, the DEA withdrew the intent to schedule kratom after public and congressional backlash. The withdrawal by the DEA was somewhat unprecedented...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937933/what-s-in-a-name-correlates-of-ecstasy-users-knowing-or-agreeing-that-molly-is-ecstasy-mdma
#2
Joseph J Palamar
Ecstasy (MDMA) has regained popularity in powder and crystalline form, known as Molly. However, it is unknown whether all Molly users are aware that Molly is ecstasy. A total of 1045 nightclub/festival-attending adults in New York City were surveyed about ecstasy/MDMA/Molly use in 2016. Users were asked if they agreed that "Molly is (or is supposed to be) ecstasy/MDMA." Of the 43.5% reporting lifetime use, 84.6% agreed that Molly is ecstasy, 9.5% disagreed, and 5.9% reported not knowing that Molly is ecstasy...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937863/bullying-victimization-binge-drinking-and-marijuana-use-among-adolescents-results-from-the-2013-national-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#3
Emily Priesman, Rameika Newman, Jason A Ford
The current research examines the association between bullying victimization, binge drinking, and marijuana use among adolescents. We seek to determine if this association varies based on the type of bullying experienced, traditional or cyberbullying. We used data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The dependent variables were binge drinking and marijuana use. Our key independent variable, bullying victimization, included both traditional and cyberbullying...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934076/delayed-urinary-symptoms-induced-by-ketamine
#4
María Robles-Martínez, Alfonso C Abad, Violeta Pérez-Rodríguez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Abderraman Esojo, Carlos Roncero
One of the side-effects of ketamine abuse is genito-urinary damage. This report describes a case of a former ketamine user who presented with urinary symptoms associated with ketamine years after stopping consumption. This was a 26-year-old male with a history of ketamine abuse. He started treatment for alcohol dependence at age 19. He smoked marijuana daily and denied any other drug use. During the follow-up, urinary symptoms were evidenced (dysuria, frequency, urgency, incontinence, nocturia, hematuria, and suprapubic pain)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895798/nonmedical-opioid-use-in-relation-to-recency-of-heroin-use-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-adults-in-the-united-states
#5
Joseph J Palamar, Jenni A Shearston
Nonmedical opioid use has been linked to lifetime heroin use; however, research is needed to examine associations between nonmedical opioid use and current or recent heroin use, as current users appear to be at highest risk for harm. Data were from a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized adults (age 18-64) in households participating in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health who reported lifetime heroin use (2005-2014, N = 7,111). We examined associations between frequency and recency of nonmedical opioid use and recency of heroin use...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895792/rash-impulsiveness-and-negative-mood-but-not-alexithymia-or-reward-sensitivity-differentiate-young-to-middle-aged-chronic-daily-smokers-from-never-smokers
#6
Michael Lyvers, Monique Bremner, Mark S Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg
Given the well-established associations of the personality traits alexithymia, impulsivity, and reward sensitivity with problematic use of a variety of substances, including alcohol and cannabis, the present study sought to determine whether daily tobacco smoking is similarly linked to these traits. Male and female adults aged 18 to 40 years were recruited from the local Australian community, allowing comparison of demographically similar samples of current daily smokers (n = 47) to never-smokers (n = 59) on the relevant self-report measures...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895790/experiential-avoidance-and-bulimic-symptoms-among-men-in-residential-treatment-for-substance-use-disorders-a-preliminary-examination
#7
JoAnna Elmquist, Ryan C Shorey, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
There has been a growing focus on identifying factors that underlie and maintain bulimic symptoms and substance use disorders (SUDs), as both are associated with high mortality and poor clinical outcomes. Experiential avoidance has been an area of interest within both the eating disorder and SUD fields, as it is a robust risk factor for both disorders. No known research has examined the relationship between experiential avoidance and bulimic symptoms in a SUD treatment-seeking sample. Moreover, the extant literature has focused exclusively on female samples...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895501/nourishing-the-spirit-exploratory-research-on-ayahuasca-experiences-along-the-continuum-of-recovery-from-eating-disorders
#8
Adele Lafrance, Anja Loizaga-Velder, Jenna Fletcher, Marika Renelli, Natasha Files, Kenneth W Tupper
Eating disorders (EDs) are serious health conditions that are among the most difficult to treat. Innovative treatments are needed and modalities from across cultures must be considered. Ayahuasca is a psychoactive plant-based tea originally used by Amazonian indigenous groups. A growing body of research points to its promise in the healing of various mental health issues. This study explored the potential therapeutic value of ayahuasca in the context of EDs, including the perceived impact of the preparatory diet and the ayahuasca purge...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846059/mortality-trends-among-cocaine-users-treated-between-1989-and-2013-in-northern-italy-results-of-a-longitudinal-study
#9
Raimondo Maria Pavarin, Angelo Fioritti
A total of 852 participants attending 11 centers for addiction treatment in north Italy following problems due to cocaine abuse between 1989 and 2013 were recruited. Two typologies were created: cocaine users (never heroin) (CU) and heroin and cocaine users (HCU). During the 38-year follow-up period, 4.8% of the whole cohort died. Over the whole period, tumors were the main causes of death; starting in 2010, suicide deaths became the first cause of death. Among CUs, most deaths were due to road accidents and suicide; among HCUs, most of the deaths were from opiate overdose and from cardio-circulatory system diseases...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846058/intercorrelation-of-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-disorders-among-a-national-sample-of-drivers
#10
Michael Scherer, Sarah Canham, Robert B Voas, C Debra Furr-Holden
This study examined the relationship between alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and painkiller use disorders in a sample of drivers. We studied nighttime drivers aged 16 to 87 (n = 4,277) from the 2007 National Roadside Survey who reported substance use behaviors and provided breath tests for alcohol. Logistic regression analyses assessed the relationships between (1) substance (i.e., alcohol/marijuana/cocaine/pain killer) use disorders; (2) demographic characteristics; and (3) BAC levels. Overall, 13.2% of participants met criteria for marijuana use disorder, 7% met criteria for cocaine use disorder, and 15...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813207/examination-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-and-cathinone-use-among-a-drug-using-offender-sample-2013-2015
#11
Kirsten Elin Smith, Amanda M Bunting, Michele Staton, Robert Walker, Sara Shalash, Erin Winston, Kevin Pangburn
Use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) such as synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., "Spice," "Serenity") and cathinones (e.g., "bath salts") has proliferated in recent years; however, there is a gap in research examining prevalence among offender samples. This study examined demographics, drug use, mental health characteristics, and criminal histories of NPS users compared to non-NPS users within an offender sample entering drug treatment. Using logistic regression analysis, combined 2013-2015 assessment data were examined (N = 8,791)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813206/levamisole-in-illicit-trafficking-cocaine-seized-a-one-year-study
#12
Simona Martello, Massimo Pieri, Cristiano Ialongo, Stefano Pignalosa, Gianluca Noce, Francesca Vernich, Carmelo Russo, Federico Mineo, Sergio Bernardini, Luigi Tonino Marsella
Cocaine use is increasing around the world and its purity is frequently altered through dilution, substitution, contamination, and adulteration. Sugars, talc, starch, and carbonates represent the principal diluents of cocaine, while phenacetin, levamisole, caffeine, and lidocaine are its major adulterants in Europe. Levamisole is used because it is an odorless powder, with physical properties similar to cocaine, and it has reasonable cost and availability, being widely used in veterinary medicine. For this study, we analyzed 88 cocaine samples...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796595/william-burroughs-sailor-of-the-soul
#13
Andrew J Lees
In 1953, William Seward Burroughs made several important and largely unrecognized discoveries relating to the composition and clinical pharmacological effects of the hallucinogenic plant potion known as yagé or ayahuasca. Illustrations of Burroughs' voucher sample of Psychotria viridis and his letter to the father of modern ethnobotany, Richard Evans Schultes, are published here for the very first time.
August 10, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777732/body-image-and-eating-disorders-are-common-among-professional-and-amateur-athletes-using-performance-and-image-enhancing-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Daria Piacentino, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Livia Longo, Antonio Pavan, Luciano Stivali, Guido Stivali, Stefano Ferracuti, Roberto Brugnoli, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi, Paolo Girardi, Gabriele Sani
The use of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) is not uncommon in athletes and appears to be associated with several psychopathological disorders of unclear prevalence. In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of body image disorders (BIDs) and eating disorders (EDs) in PIED-using athletes vs. PIED nonusers. We enrolled 84 consecutive professional and amateur athletes training in sport centers in Italy, who underwent semi-structured interviews (SCID-I, SCID-II) and completed the Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) and the Sick, Control, One, Fat, Food Eating Disorder Screening Test (SCOFF)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771093/placebo-effects-of-edible-cannabis-reported-intoxication-effects-at-a-30-minute-delay
#15
Mallory J E Loflin, Mitch Earleywine, Stacey Farmer, Melissa Slavin, Rachel Luba, Marcel Bonn-Miller
Previous research has demonstrated the ability of non-active smoked cannabis cigarettes to induce subjective effects of intoxication (i.e., placebo effect). No studies have been conduced to test whether edible forms of cannabis, which are associated with a significant delay in onset of effect, are able to induce a placebo effect. In the present study, 20 participants were told that they would receive an edible cannabis lollipop containing a high dose of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but were instead given a placebo control...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699844/khat-use-is-associated-with-tobacco-alcohol-and-illicit-drug-use-a-cross-sectional-examination-in-the-united-states
#16
Motohiro Nakajima, Kalkidan Molla, Brook Belachew, Abduselam Mohammed, Abdikadir Hassan, Jerome Kroll, Mustafa al'Absi
No study has systematically examined khat (Catha edulis) use and its linkages with other substance use in the United States. This study provides novel findings related to the associations of khat with other substance use among immigrants in metropolitan areas of Minnesota where large East African communities reside. Using a convenience sampling, a total of 261 individuals completed a brief face-to-face interview during which demographic information and substance use were assessed. The proportion of lifetime and current use were 30% and 6...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699832/neuropsychological-effects-of-placebo-stimulants-in-college-students
#17
Samantha J Lookatch, Hayley C Fivecoat, Todd M Moore
Many college students underestimate or ignore the side-effects associated with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and are motivated by hopes of academic enhancement. The present study measured the effect a placebo stimulant and personal expectancies have on subjective physiological changes and cognitive enhancement. Undergraduate college students participated in a two-phase study. Phase 1 (n = 305) involved completing an online survey to gather distal study variables and individual stimulant expectancy data...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699829/association-between-nonmedical-marijuana-and-pain-reliever-uses-among-individuals-aged-50
#18
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti, Bryan Y Choi
Marijuana and pain reliever use for medical and nonmedical purposes has been increasing among older adults. Using the 2012-2013 U.S. National Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III), this study examined: (1) the association between past-year nonmedical marijuana and pain reliever use among adults aged 50+ years (N = 14,715); and (2) sociodemographic, health, and pain-related correlates of nonmedical marijuana and/or pain reliever use. The findings show that 3.87% and 3.12%, respectively, used marijuana and pain relievers nonmedically and 14...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692339/motivations-for-selling-ecstasy-among-young-adults-in-the-electronic-dance-music-club-culture-in-brazil
#19
Lysa S Remy, Mance E Buttram, Steven P Kurtz, Hilary L Surratt, Flavio Pechansky
This article describes data on the motivations for selling ecstasy among young adults in the electronic dance music (EDM) club culture in Brazil. Individual interviews were conducted with 20 individuals recruited for their involvement in the EDM club scene. Eligible participants were aged 18-39 and reported ecstasy and/or LSD use one or more times in the past 90 days. Exclusion criteria included current treatment for drug/alcohol problems and cognitive impairment or clinically evident psychiatric disorder...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686543/a-physician-s-attempt-to-self-medicate-bipolar-depression-with-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-dmt
#20
Tanida Brown, Wanda Shao, Shehzad Ayub, David Chong, Christian Cornelius
N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a psychoactive substance that has been gaining popularity in therapeutic and recreational use. This is a case of a physician who chronically took DMT augmented with phenelzine in an attempt to self-medicate refractory bipolar depression. His presentation of altered mental status, mania, and psychosis is examined in regards to his DMT use. This case discusses DMT, the possible uses of DMT, and the theorized mechanism of DMT in psychosis and treatment of depression, particularly involving its agonist activity at 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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