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Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535130/home-manufacture-of-drugs-an-online-investigation-and-a-toxicological-reality-check-of-online-discussions-on-drug-chemistry
#1
Evelyn Hearne, Emanuele Amorim Alves, Marie Claire Van Hout, Jean-Paul C Grund
Emerging trends in market dynamics and the use of new psychoactive substances are both a public health concern and a complex regulatory issue. One novel area of investigation is the availability of homemade opioids, amphetamines and dissociatives, and the potential fueling of interest in clandestine home manufacture of drugs via the Internet. We illustrate here how online communal folk pharmacology of homemade drugs on drug website forums may actually inform home manufacture practices or contribute to the reduction of harms associated with this practice...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524758/seeking-safety-group-therapy-for-co-occurring-substance-use-disorder-and-ptsd-among-transgender-women-living-with-hiv-a-pilot-study
#2
Susannah Empson, Yvette P Cuca, Jennifer Cocohoba, Carol Dawson-Rose, Katy Davis, Edward L Machtinger
Transgender women living with HIV experience high rates of substance use, violence, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seeking Safety is a manualized, present-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy program designed to address co-occurring substance use and PTSD. Seeking Safety has evidence of efficacy in a variety of populations but had not been evaluated specifically with people living with HIV or transgender women. We pilot-tested a 12-session Seeking Safety program with a group of transgender women living with HIV who reported substance use and a history of violence...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481178/psilocybin-assisted-therapy-a-review-of-a-novel-treatment-for-psychiatric-disorders
#3
Kelan Thomas, Benjamin Malcolm, Dan Lastra
Recent research suggests that functional connectivity changes may be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Hyperconnectivity in the default mode network has been associated with psychopathology, but psychedelic serotonin agonists like psilocybin may profoundly disrupt these dysfunctional neural network circuits and provide a novel treatment for psychiatric disorders. We have reviewed the current literature to investigate the efficacy and safety of psilocybin-assisted therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443705/severity-of-withdrawal-symptoms-plasma-oxytocin-levels-and-treatment-outcome-in-heroin-users-undergoing-acute-withdrawal
#4
Kakia Nikolaou, Dorothea Kapoukranidou, Samuel Ndungu, Georgios Floros, Leda Kovatsi
Pre-clinical studies show that, following chronic opioid exposure, oxytocin neurons exhibit over-excitation upon withdrawal, causing an increase in oxytocin brain and plasma levels. Relevant clinical data on humans are scarce. This study investigates the opioid withdrawal stress effect on oxytocin plasma levels in humans. We evaluated 57 male chronic heroin users in a residential detoxification program. We determined plasma oxytocin levels by ELISA and measured the stress effects of withdrawal using the COWS scale for opioid withdrawal, the VAS scale for craving, and the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression on the second day of admission...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443703/psychedelics-personality-and-political-perspectives
#5
Matthew M Nour, Lisa Evans, Robin L Carhart-Harris
The psychedelic experience (including psychedelic-induced ego dissolution) can effect lasting change in a person's attitudes and beliefs. Here, we aimed to investigate the association between naturalistic psychedelic use and personality, political perspectives, and nature relatedness using an anonymous internet survey. Participants (N = 893) provided information about their naturalistic psychedelic, cocaine, and alcohol use, and answered questions relating to personality traits of openness and conscientiousness (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), nature relatedness (Nature-Relatedness Scale), and political attitudes (one-item liberalism-conservatism measure and five-item libertarian-authoritarian measure)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441106/jwh-122-consumption-adverse-effects-a-case-of-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-five-year-follow-up
#6
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are a heterogeneous group of psychotropic drugs functionally related to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These substances, marketed as cannabis substitutes, have been associated with numerous cases of severe intoxication and death across the world. In our article, we describe a case of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder developing in a natural cannabis user after consumption of JWH-122, a naphthoylindole largely used since 2010. Clinical symptomatology persisted for about four years and was alleviated through treatment with clonazepam...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426332/buprenorphine-treatment-and-patient-use-of-health-services-after-the-affordable-care-act-in-an-integrated-health-care-system
#7
Cynthia I Campbell, Sujaya Parthasarathy, Kelly C Young-Wolff, Derek D Satre
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was expected to benefit patients with substance use disorders, including opioid use disorders (OUDs). This study examined buprenorphine use and health services utilization by patients with OUDs pre- and post-ACA in a large health care system. Using electronic health record data, we examined demographic and clinical characteristics (substance use, psychiatric and medical conditions) of two patient cohorts using buprenorphine: those newly enrolled in 2012 ("pre-ACA," N = 204) and in 2014 ("post-ACA," N = 258)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406363/insurance-receipt-and-readiness-for-opportunities-under-the-affordable-care-act-a-national-survey-of-treatment-providers-for-substance-use-disorders
#8
Lydia Aletraris, Mary Bond Edmond, Paul M Roman
This study measures the readiness of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment to use opportunities under the Affordable Care Act by examining Medicaid and private insurance acceptance between 2011 and 2013, as well as center characteristics associated with acceptance. Data for this study were from a random sample of SUD treatment centers in the United States. Interviews were conducted on site and face to face, with administrative and clinical directors. We employed logistic regression analyses to examine Medicaid acceptance and private insurance acceptance...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406348/motivations-for-using-mdma-ecstasy-molly-among-african-americans-implications-for-prevention-and-harm-reduction-programs
#9
Khary K Rigg
Despite the growing popularity of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) among African Americans, their motives for using the drug are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the most salient motivations for using MDMA among this understudied population. In-depth interviews (n = 15) were conducted with a sample of African American young adults in Southwest Florida between August 2014 and November 2015. The primary motivations for using MDMA included: (1) altering the effects of marijuana and alcohol; (2) lasting longer sexually; (3) enhancing sexual pleasure; and (4) facilitating "freaky" sexual experiences...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350232/massachusetts-substance-use-disorder-treatment-organizations-perspectives-on-the-affordable-care-act-changes-in-payment-services-and-system-design
#10
Amity E Quinn, Maureen T Stewart, Mary Brolin, Constance Horgan, Nancy E Lane
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expanded insurance benefits and coverage for substance use disorder (SUD) treatment and encouraged delivery and payment reforms. Massachusetts passed a similar reform in 2006. This study aims to assess Massachusetts SUD treatment organizations' responses to the ACA. Organizational interviews addressing challenges of and responses to the ACA were conducted in person June-December 2014 with 31 leaders at 12 treatment organizations across Massachusetts. Many organizations were affiliated with medical or social services and offered a range of SUD services...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350229/commercial-health-plan-coverage-of-selected-treatments-for-opioid-use-disorders-from-2003-to-2014
#11
Sharon Reif, Timothy B Creedon, Constance M Horgan, Maureen T Stewart, Deborah W Garnick
Opioid use disorders (OUDs) are receiving significant attention in the U.S. as a public health crisis. Access to treatment for OUDs is essential and was expected to improve following implementation of the federal parity law and the Affordable Care Act. This study examines changes in coverage and management of treatments for OUDs (opioid treatment programs (OTPs) as a covered service benefit, buprenorphine as a pharmacy benefit) before, during, and after parity and ACA implementation. Data are from three rounds of a nationally representative survey conducted with commercial health plans regarding behavioral health services in benefit years 2003, 2010, and 2014...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350226/integration-of-care-in-the-implementation-of-the-affordable-care-act-changes-in-treatment-services-in-a-national-sample-of-centers-treating-substance-use-disorders
#12
Lydia Aletraris, Paul M Roman, Jana Pruett
This study examined patterns of medicalization in substance use disorder (SUD) that are aligned with the goals of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Using a nationally representative sample of SUD treatment programs, we examined changes in several treatment domains. While observed changes were modest, they were in directions that support the thrust of the ACA. Specifically, we found an increase in the percentage of treatment referrals from other health care providers. We found an increase in the number of physicians for programs that did have a physician on staff, and an increase in counselors certified in treating alcohol and drug addiction...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323538/relationships-between-a-dissociative-subtype-of-ptsd-and-clinical-characteristics-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders
#13
Michaela Mergler, Martin Driessen, Christel Lüdecke, Martin Ohlmeier, Claudia Chodzinski, Steffen Weirich, Detlef Schläfke, Dirk Wedekind, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Walter Renner, Ingo Schäfer
The increasing support for a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-D) has led to its inclusion in DSM-5. We examined relationships between PTSD-D and relevant variables in patients with substance use disorders (SUD). The sample comprised N = 459 patients with SUD. The International Diagnostic Checklist and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale were used to diagnose PTSD. In addition, participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The course of SUD was assessed by means of the European Addiction Severity Index...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306416/the-addiction-benefits-scorecard-a-framework-to-promote-health-insurer-accountability-and-support-consumer-engagement
#14
Itai Danovitch, David Kan
Health care insurance plans covering treatment for substance use disorders (SUD) offer a wide range of benefits. Distinctions between health plan benefits are confusing, and consumers making selections may not adequately understand the characteristics or significance of the choices they have. The California Society of Addiction Medicine sought to help consumers make informed decisions about plan selections by providing education on the standard of care for SUD and presenting findings from an expert analysis of selected health plans...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296625/a-social-work-response-to-the-affordable-care-act-prevention-and-early-intervention
#15
Matthew J Corrigan, Kathryn Krase, John Charles Reed
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act represents a reinvestment in primary care, with a focus on prevention of illness and remediation of the impacts of chronic diseases through a behavioral health framework. Licensed social work professionals, specifically those trained in behavioral health, are a natural fit to help implement these new approaches. Though there are many evidence-based interventions that will be helpful, two that come from the field of substance abuse ought to be specifically beneficial: SAMHSA's SBIRT Model and Motivational Interviewing, developed by Miller and Rollnick...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296623/medicalizing-the-opioid-epidemic-in-the-u-s-in-the-era-of-health-care-reform
#16
David E Smith
The medicalization of the current opioid epidemic in the era of health care reform and parity, and its possible dismantling, poses many challenges. Between 2002 and 2013, drug overdose rates quadrupled. Parallel to an increase in prescription opioid overdose, heroin overdose deaths are increasing as patients shift to cheaper and more accessible heroin from the prescription opioids which physicians are prescribing less often due to increasing regulatory restrictions, as well as enhanced education and awareness...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296579/perceived-impacts-of-the-affordable-care-act-perspectives-of-buprenorphine-prescribers
#17
Hannah K Knudsen, Jamie L Studts
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been heralded as a major policy change that is expected to transform the delivery of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Few studies have reported on the perceived impacts of ACA from the perspectives of SUD treatment providers, such as physicians who prescribe buprenorphine to patients with opioid use disorder. The present study describes buprenorphine prescribers' perceptions regarding impacts of the ACA on the delivery of buprenorphine and examines whether state-level approaches to implementing ACA are associated with its perceived impacts...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266899/the-blue-lotus-flower-nymphea-caerulea-resin-used-in-a-new-type-of-electronic-cigarette-the-re-buildable-dripping-atomizer
#18
Justin L Poklis, Haley A Mulder, Matthew S Halquist, Carl E Wolf, Alphonse Poklis, Michelle R Peace
The blue lotus flower (Nymphea caerulea) is an Egyptian water lily containing apomorphine and nuciferine. Apomorphine has been described as a psychoactive alkaloid and is a non-selective dopamine agonist primarily used to treat Parkinson's disease as it stimulates dopamine receptors and improves motor function. Nuciferine is an alkaloid associated with dopamine receptor blockade. Today, blue lotus flower is used as a sleep aid and anxiety reliever. The rebuildable dripping atomizer (RDA) is an electronic cigarette that allows direct application of an e-liquid onto the coil in the atomizer for aerosolization, compared to a typical electronic cigarette where the e-liquid is wicked from a storage vessel to the coil...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266897/the-relationship-between-emotional-intelligence-and-nicotine-dependence-in-lebanese-adults
#19
R Bou Khalil, A Chaar, I Bou Orm, Z Aoun-Bacha, S Richa
Emotional intelligence (EI) is known to be a risk factor for several types of addiction. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a cross-sectional design, the presence of a relationship between the level of EI and nicotine dependence in a sample of Lebanese adults. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the sociodemographic characteristics, the level of nicotine dependence, and the level of EI in a sample of 142 Lebanese participants from the community. The sample was 51.4% women, with a mean age of 33...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266890/examination-of-the-phenomenology-of-the-ibogaine-treatment-experience-role-of-altered-states-of-consciousness-and-psychedelic-experiences
#20
Annamarie Heink, Steve Katsikas, Tiffany Lange-Altman
Psychedelic drugs have historically been used for ritualistic purposes and to help individuals gain insight. Ibogaine, a naturally occurring psychoactive substance, has been reported to have anti-addictive properties that aid in the treatment of substance use disorders. An online survey obtained retrospective data from individuals who used ibogaine in the past. Individuals who used ibogaine tended to describe thematically similar experiences post-treatment. This study adds to the literature by using the 5d-ASC, a psychometrically sound measure of altered states of consciousness (ASCs), to examine the ASCs induced by ibogaine and discusses the demographic characteristics of those who seek ibogaine treatment (N = 27)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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