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Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768112/-marvin-the-paranoid-android-the-case-of-an-alpha-pvp-user-in-the-expanding-galaxy-of-nps
#1
Simonato Pierluigi, Bulsis Laura, Negri Attilio, Bansal Gurjeet K, Pessa Gloria, Mioni Davide, Giuseppe Borgherini, Martinotti Giovanni, Schifano Fabrizio, Giulia Perini, Corazza Ornella
Alpha-PVP can be defined as a novel psychoactive substance (NPS)-more specifically, a novel synthetic cathinone with unpredictable stimulant effects in humans. "Marvin" arrived at a Dual Diagnosis Unit at Parco dei Tigli, Italy. He underwent a 30-day rehabilitation program to overcome his problematic Alpha-PVP use as a psychonaut. We conducted an online search to understand the properties of Alpha-PVP and its presence in scientific literature, reviewing official reports and the online drug market (e...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714640/cannabis-in-end-of-life-care-examining-attitudes-and-practices-of-palliative-care-providers
#2
Rachel Luba, Mitch Earleywine, Stacey Farmer, Melissa Slavin
Medical cannabis research has become quite extensive, with indications ranging from glaucoma to chemotherapy-induced nausea. Despite increased interest in cannabis' potential medical uses, research barriers, cannabis legislation, stigma, and lack of dissemination of data contribute to low adoption for some medical populations. Of interest, cannabis use appears low in palliative care settings, with few guidelines available to palliative care providers. The present study sought to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of palliative care providers regarding the use of cannabis for terminally ill patients...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608428/is-ayahuasca-an-option-for-the-treatment-of-crack-cocaine-dependence
#3
Joselaine Ida Cruz, Solange Aparecida Nappo
The low efficacy of crack cocaine addiction treatment available in Brazil has led Brazilian users to find alternatives to reduce drug consumption or even to reach abstinence. One of them is the use of entheogenic substances, like ayahuasca, an infusion obtained from two native plant species from the Amazon. The present report aimed to understand how crack cocaine users recover from drug addiction by consuming ayahuasca tea in a religious context. This is a qualitative study with a purposeful sample of 40 crack cocaine users, based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608409/changes-in-withdrawal-and-craving-scores-in-participants-undergoing-opioid-detoxification-utilizing-ibogaine
#4
Benjamin J Malcolm, Martin Polanco, Joseph P Barsuglia
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is currently an epidemic in the United States (US) and ibogaine is reported to have the ability to interrupt opioid addiction by simultaneously mitigating withdrawal and craving symptoms. This study examined opioid withdrawal and drug craving scores in 50 participants with OUD undergoing a week-long detoxification treatment protocol with ibogaine. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was used for baseline characterization of participants' OUD. Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Subjective Opioid Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), and Brief Substance Craving Scale (BSCS) scores were collected at 48 and 24 hours prior to ibogaine administration, as well as 24 and 48 hours after ibogaine administration...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608132/mental-health-and-substance-use-disorder-comorbidity-among-methamphetamine-using-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#5
Jesse B Fletcher, Dallas Swendeman, Cathy J Reback
Men who have sex with men (MSM) exhibit elevated rates of mental health and substance use disorder relative to their non-MSM male counterparts. Methamphetamine use in particular has been associated with both neuronal damage and mental health disorders among MSM, and this study reports on the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-5 mental health and substance use disorders in a sample of methamphetamine-using MSM. From March 2014 through January 2015, 286 methamphetamine-using MSM enrolled in a study to reduce methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558272/severity-of-pain-and-sleep-problems-during-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-cessation-among-regular-kratom-users
#6
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Walter C Prozialeck, Surash Ramanathan, Hadzliana Zainal, Sabariah Noor Harun
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is traditionally used in Southeast Asia for its medicinal value and psychoactive properties. Nonetheless, cessation from regular kratom use is reported to cause unpleasant dose-dependent withdrawal symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the severity of pain and sleep problems following the cessation of kratom tea/juice consumption among regular kratom users. A total of 170 regular users were recruited through snowball sampling for this cross-sectional study. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scales were administered to assess the severity of pain and sleep problems...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528783/sociodemographic-characteristics-patterns-of-crack-use-concomitant-substance-use-disorders-and-psychiatric-symptomatology-in-treatment-seeking-crack-dependent-individuals-in-brazil
#7
André Q C Miguel, Clarice S Madruga, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Rodolfo Yamauchi, Viviane Simões, Claudio J Da Silva, Renata R Abdalla, Michael McDonell, Sterling McPherson, John M Roll, Jair J Mari, Ronaldo R Laranjeira
Crack cocaine (crack) dependence is a severe disorder associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, constituting a major public health problem in Brazil. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the profile of treatment-seeking crack-dependent individuals. We recruited 65 crack-dependent individuals from among those seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic for alcohol and drug treatment in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Assessments, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, focused on sociodemographic characteristics, the pattern/history of crack use, treatment history, concomitant substance use disorders, psychiatric symptomatology, and impulsivity...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494783/tianeptine-abuse-and-dependence-in-psychiatric-patients-a-review-of-18-case-reports-in-the-literature
#8
Janusz Springer, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant approved in 25 countries for the treatment of depressive syndromes. Tianeptine abuse among psychiatric patients in the community and at inpatient wards has been increasingly reported in recent years. The purpose of this article is to alert clinicians to tianeptine abuse potential and identify any patterns in the literature. We searched the Academic Search Complete, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, Scopus, and the Social Sciences Citation Index for articles published between 1960-2017 in any language containing the keywords: "tianeptine abuse," "tianeptine misuse," "tianeptine dependence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895798/nonmedical-opioid-use-in-relation-to-recency-of-heroin-use-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-adults-in-the-united-states
#9
Joseph J Palamar, Jenni A Shearston
Nonmedical opioid use has been linked to lifetime heroin use; however, research is needed to examine associations between nonmedical opioid use and current or recent heroin use, as current users appear to be at highest risk for harm. Data were from a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized adults (age 18-64) in households participating in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health who reported lifetime heroin use (2005-2014, N = 7,111). We examined associations between frequency and recency of nonmedical opioid use and recency of heroin use...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447584/a-longitudinal-qualitative-analysis-of-the-lived-experience-of-the-recovery-process-in-opioid-dependent-patients-post-detoxification
#10
J H Ivers, F Larkan, J Barry
The aim of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of opioid-dependent patients' lived experiences post-detoxification. METHOD: The study employed a naturalistic, observational longitudinal design, involving baseline screening and tracking of patients post-detoxification, with follow-up interviews at three, six, and nine months to observe specific processes of interest. This in-depth investigation of patients at four points was new within an Irish context and novel throughout the literature...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424656/from-peers-to-lay-bystanders-findings-from-a-decade-of-naloxone-distribution-in-pittsburgh-pa
#11
Alex S Bennett, Alice Bell, Maya Doe-Simkins, Luther Elliott, Enrique Pouget, Corey Davis
Distribution of the opioid overdose reversal drug naloxone has been central to efforts to combat the ongoing opioid epidemic in the United States. This report presents data from Prevention Point Pittsburgh (PPP), a public health advocacy and direct service organization that has operated an overdose prevention program (OPP) with naloxone distribution since 2005. The program initially provided naloxone training and distribution only to people who use opioids (PWUO). In 2015, a change to state law enabled PPP to provide naloxone to anyone in a position to respond to an opioid-related overdose...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377788/factors-influencing-transition-to-shisheh-methamphetamine-among-young-people-who-use-drugs-in-tehran-a-qualitative-study
#12
Alireza Noroozi, Mohsen Malekinejad, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
BACKGROUND: Iran has experienced an emerging epidemic of methamphetamine use during recent years which has added to existing non-injecting and injecting opioid use in the country. This study explored factors influencing the initiation into or transition to methamphetamine use among young people who use drugs (PWUD). METHODS: We conducted 42 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young PWUD (n = 35) and health care workers (HCWs) (n = 7) between July and October 2011 in Tehran, Iran...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438634/regulating-cannabis-manufacturing-applying-public-health-best-practices-from-tobacco-control
#13
Daniel G Orenstein, Stanton A Glantz
State legalization and regulation of cannabis, despite continued federal illegality, is a massive shift in regulatory approach. Manufactured cannabis, including concentrates, extracts, edibles, tinctures, topicals and other products, has received less attention than more commonly used dried flower, but represents emerging regulatory challenges due to additives, potency, consumption methods, and abuse and misuse potential. In November 2017, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) released initial cannabis manufacturing regulations as part of a new state regulatory structure...
January 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279040/helping-smokers-quit-new-partners-and-new-strategies-from-the-university-of-california-san-francisco-smoking-cessation-leadership-center
#14
Steven A Schroeder, Brian Clark, Christine Cheng, Catherine B Saucedo
The Smoking Cessation Leadership Center (SCLC) was established in 2003 to increase the rate of smoking cessation attempts and the likelihood those efforts would succeed. Although smoking remains the number one cause of preventable death and disability, clinicians underperform in smoking cessation. Furthermore, many clinical organizations, governmental agencies, and advocacy groups put little effort into smoking cessation. Initially targeted at increasing the efforts of primary care physicians, SCLC efforts expanded to include many other medical and non-physician disciplines, ultimately engaging 21 separate specialties...
January 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960166/perceived-treatment-need-and-latent-transitions-in-heroin-and-methamphetamine-polydrug-use-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-tijuana-mexico
#15
Meredith C Meacham, Scott C Roesch, Steffanie A Strathdee, Tommi L Gaines
People who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico, use heroin and/or methamphetamine. While polydrug use is associated with HIV risk behavior, less is known about the stability of polydrug use patterns over time and how polydrug use is related to perceived treatment need. Within a cohort of PWID in Tijuana (N = 735) we sought to (1) characterize subgroups of polydrug and polyroute use from baseline to six months; (2) determine the probabilities of transitioning between subgroups; and (3) examine whether self-reported need for help for drug use modified these transition probabilities...
January 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937933/what-s-in-a-name-correlates-of-ecstasy-users-knowing-or-agreeing-that-molly-is-ecstasy-mdma
#16
Joseph J Palamar
Ecstasy (MDMA) has regained popularity in powder and crystalline form, known as Molly. However, it is unknown whether all Molly users are aware that Molly is ecstasy. A total of 1045 nightclub/festival-attending adults in New York City were surveyed about ecstasy/MDMA/Molly use in 2016. Users were asked if they agreed that "Molly is (or is supposed to be) ecstasy/MDMA." Of the 43.5% reporting lifetime use, 84.6% agreed that Molly is ecstasy, 9.5% disagreed, and 5.9% reported not knowing that Molly is ecstasy...
January 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279028/helping-smokers-quit-the-smoking-cessation-leadership-center-engages-behavioral-health-by-challenging-old-myths-and-traditions
#17
Steven A Schroeder, Brian Clark, Christine Cheng, Catherine B Saucedo
Smoking is much more common among persons with behavioral health conditions (mental illnesses and/or substance use disorders). Persons with these disorders are more likely to die from smoking-related causes than any other reason. Studies have shown that stopping smoking can improve mental health function, as well as improve outcomes for substance use disorders. Yet, for a variety of reasons, smoking cessation has not been integrated into the treatment of behavioral health conditions, and in many instances tobacco use was not only condoned but encouraged...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211971/sold-as-heroin-perceptions-and-use-of-an-evolving-drug-in-baltimore-md
#18
Sarah G Mars, Jeff Ondocsin, Daniel Ciccarone
Since 2001, heroin-related overdose deaths in the United States have risen six-fold, a rise unaccounted for by the expanding user population. Has heroin become a more dangerous drug? Reports of fentanyl and its analogs, often concealed in or sold as heroin, have also increased sharply. This article investigates heroin injectors' perceptions and experiences of changes in the heroin supply in the East Coast city of Baltimore, Maryland, currently facing an epidemic in heroin- and fentanyl-related overdose deaths...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199906/racial-ethnic-differences-in-prevalence-and-correlates-of-blunt-smoking-among-adolescents
#19
LaTrice Montgomery, Dale Mantey
Blunt use is pervasive among adolescents. The study uses cross-sectional data from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to examine sociodemographic, health, and other substance use correlates of current and lifetime blunt use among 12,036 African American, White, and Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Findings revealed that 5.3% of African American, 4.3% of Hispanic/Latino, and 3.8% of White adolescents reported past-30-day blunt use. Age and substance use other than marijuana were consistent correlates of current and lifetime blunt use across all racial/ethnic groups...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199901/an-evaluation-of-practitioner-s-experience-of-service-users-seeking-community-detoxification-from-benzodiazepines
#20
Marianne Wall, Sharon Lambert, Aidan Horan
A recent report in Ireland identified that two-thirds of poisoning deaths involved poly drug use with an average of four different drugs involved. Of these, benzodiazepines were the most common drug group involved. Concern has been expressed regarding high levels of benzodiazepine prescriptions globally. Community-based detoxification programs are required, but detoxification is complex with associated high risks, such as overdose. This study utilized a survey to gather the experiences of a range of drug workers in addiction settings in the southern region of Ireland who are tasked with the management of supporting service users who wish to detoxify from benzodiazepines...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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