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Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699844/khat-use-is-associated-with-tobacco-alcohol-and-illicit-drug-use-a-cross-sectional-examination-in-the-united-states
#1
Motohiro Nakajima, Kalkidan Molla, Brook Belachew, Abduselam Mohammed, Abdikadir Hassan, Jerome Kroll, Mustafa al'Absi
No study has systematically examined khat (Catha edulis) use and its linkages with other substance use in the United States. This study provides novel findings related to the associations of khat with other substance use among immigrants in metropolitan areas of Minnesota where large East African communities reside. Using a convenience sampling, a total of 261 individuals completed a brief face-to-face interview during which demographic information and substance use were assessed. The proportion of lifetime and current use were 30% and 6...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699832/neuropsychological-effects-of-placebo-stimulants-in-college-students
#2
Samantha J Lookatch, Hayley C Fivecoat, Todd M Moore
Many college students underestimate or ignore the side-effects associated with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and are motivated by hopes of academic enhancement. The present study measured the effect a placebo stimulant and personal expectancies have on subjective physiological changes and cognitive enhancement. Undergraduate college students participated in a two-phase study. Phase 1 (n = 305) involved completing an online survey to gather distal study variables and individual stimulant expectancy data...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699829/association-between-nonmedical-marijuana-and-pain-reliever-uses-among-individuals-aged-50
#3
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti, Bryan Y Choi
Marijuana and pain reliever use for medical and nonmedical purposes has been increasing among older adults. Using the 2012-2013 U.S. National Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III), this study examined: (1) the association between past-year nonmedical marijuana and pain reliever use among adults aged 50+ years (N = 14,715); and (2) sociodemographic, health, and pain-related correlates of nonmedical marijuana and/or pain reliever use. The findings show that 3.87% and 3.12%, respectively, used marijuana and pain relievers nonmedically and 14...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692339/motivations-for-selling-ecstasy-among-young-adults-in-the-electronic-dance-music-club-culture-in-brazil
#4
Lysa S Remy, Mance E Buttram, Steven P Kurtz, Hilary L Surratt, Flavio Pechansky
This article describes data on the motivations for selling ecstasy among young adults in the electronic dance music (EDM) club culture in Brazil. Individual interviews were conducted with 20 individuals recruited for their involvement in the EDM club scene. Eligible participants were aged 18-39 and reported ecstasy and/or LSD use one or more times in the past 90 days. Exclusion criteria included current treatment for drug/alcohol problems and cognitive impairment or clinically evident psychiatric disorder...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686543/a-physician-s-attempt-to-self-medicate-bipolar-depression-with-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-dmt
#5
Tanida Brown, Wanda Shao, Shehzad Ayub, David Chong, Christian Cornelius
N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a psychoactive substance that has been gaining popularity in therapeutic and recreational use. This is a case of a physician who chronically took DMT augmented with phenelzine in an attempt to self-medicate refractory bipolar depression. His presentation of altered mental status, mania, and psychosis is examined in regards to his DMT use. This case discusses DMT, the possible uses of DMT, and the theorized mechanism of DMT in psychosis and treatment of depression, particularly involving its agonist activity at 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682218/differences-in-the-rates-of-drug-polyconsumption-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-among-patients-with-cocaine-use-disorders-according-to-the-mental-health-service
#6
P Araos, Esperanza Vergara-Moragues, Francisco González-Saiz, María Pedraz, Nuria García-Marchena, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Juan Jesus Ruiz, Rafael Campos-Cloute, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón, Marta Torrens, Fernando Rodriguez De Fonseca
Cocaine continues to be a worldwide public health concern in Europe. To improve prognosis and intervention, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of the patients who depend on the services where they receive care. The objective is to analyze the differences among patients who use cocaine and between ambulatory and residential resources to better adapt treatment. This is a descriptive, observational study of two populations of cocaine users in treatment: the ambulatory therapeutic community (ATC) and the therapeutic community (TC)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661714/early-initiation-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-ats-use-associated-with-lowered-cognitive-performance-among-individuals-with-co-occurring-opioid-and-ats-use-disorders-in-malaysia
#7
Weng-Tink Chooi, Norzarina Mohd Zaharim, Alethea Desrosiers, Imran Ahmad, Mohd Azhar Mohd Yasin, Sharifah Z Syed Jaapar, Richard S Schottenfeld, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Marek C Chawarski
Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use is increasingly prevalent in Malaysia, including among individuals who also use opioids. We evaluated cognitive functioning profiles among individuals with co-occurring opioid and ATS dependence and their lifetime patterns of drug use. Participants (N = 50) enrolling in a clinical trial of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment with or without atomoxetine completed the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Digit Span, Trail Making and Symbol Digit Substitution tasks...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657823/recovery-housing-evolving-models-to-address-resident-needs
#8
Amy A Mericle, Douglas L Polcin, Jordana Hemberg, Jennifer Miles
Recovery housing is a service delivery modality that simultaneously addresses the social support and housing needs of those in recovery from substance use disorders. This article describes a group of recovery homes in Texas (N = 10) representing a lesser-studied type of recovery housing, one which explicitly bridges treatment and peer support by providing a variety of recovery support services. All residents meet with a recovery coach, undergo regular drug screening, and have access to intensive outpatient treatment-a program that was developed specifically to support the needs of residents in the homes...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594602/randomized-pilot-of-an-anxiety-sensitivity-based-intervention-for-individuals-in-a-substance-use-day-program
#9
Blaise L Worden, Marla Genova, David F Tolin
Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the tendency to appraise physical symptoms as intolerable or dangerous, may maintain the cycle between co-occurring anxiety and substance use disorders. This study examined preliminary efficacy of a brief intervention targeting AS for individuals with heterogeneous substance use disorders. Forty-one patients with high AS entering an addictions day program were randomized to treatment as usual (TAU) or to TAU plus a nine-hour AS-focused intervention that consisted of interoceptive exposures, psychoeducation about the cycle of problematic substance use and anxiety, and a single session of cognitive challenging (e...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590798/beyond-ketamine-and-phencyclidine-analytically-confirmed-use-of-multiple-novel-arylcyclohexylamines
#10
Stephen Thornton, David Lisbon, Thomas Lin, Roy Gerona
BACKGROUND: Methoxetamine and 3-methoxy-phencyclidine are novel arylcyclohexylamines whose use and clinical toxicity are poorly reported in the medical literature. We report a case of analytically confirmed use of both methoxetamine and 3-methoxy-phencyclidine. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old male presented 10 hours after insufflating an Internet-obtained powder. He was hypertensive, tachycardic, and demonstrated dissociated affect, a delayed verbal response to questions, ataxia, and vertical nystagmus...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569652/something-new-about-something-old-a-10-year-follow-up-on-classical-and-new-psychoactive-tryptamines-and-results-of-analysis
#11
Álvaro José Palma-Conesa, Mireia Ventura, Liliana Galindo, Francina Fonseca, Marc Grifell, Pol Quintana, Iván Fornís, Cristina Gil, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens
New psychoactive tryptamines may be a public health risk since they intend to mimic the hallucinogenic effects of regulated psychoactive drugs. Few studies describe uses and clinical effects of unregulated new psychoactive tryptamines. This study aims (1) to explore the presence of tryptamines classified as NPS among the substances delivered for analysis to a harm-reduction organization; (2) to describe the substances found in the samples after analysis; and (3) to compare analytical results of regulated vs...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557570/childhood-maltreatment-emotional-lability-and-alcohol-problems-in-young-adults-at-risk-for-adhd-testing-moderation-and-moderated-moderation
#12
Nóra Bunford, Brian T Wymbs, Anne E Dawson, Ryan C Shorey
Childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems are common among young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the degree to which maltreatment and alcohol problems are associated; potential pertinent mediating or moderating mechanisms, such as emotional lability; and whether this association varies by sex. We examined, in a sample of adults at risk for ADHD (N = 122, 37% male), the association between childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems, whether emotional lability mediated or moderated this association, and whether either role of emotional lability differed between men and women...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548619/stages-of-change-model-has-limited-value-in-explaining-the-change-in-use-of-cannabis-among-adolescent-participants-in-an-efficacious-motivational-interviewing-intervention
#13
Hans B Dupont, Math J J M Candel, Paul Lemmens, Charles D Kaplan, Dike van de Mheen, Nanne K De Vries
Previously, a Dutch randomized controlled trial evaluating an intervention aimed at changing adolescents' cannabis use, called Moti-4, has shown its efficacy. A secondary analysis of the Moti-4 data investigated the process of change specified by the Stage of Change (SOC) model in cannabis use during the trial. Seventy-one Moti-4 participants and 60 controls were recruited for the study with a pre-test, post-test (T1), and six-month follow-up (T2). All participants showed signs of problematic cannabis use. No contribution of the Moti-4 intervention to a change in SOC between T1 and T2 was found...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535130/home-manufacture-of-drugs-an-online-investigation-and-a-toxicological-reality-check-of-online-discussions-on-drug-chemistry
#14
Evelyn Hearne, Emanuele Amorim Alves, Marie Claire Van Hout, Jean-Paul C Grund
Emerging trends in market dynamics and the use of new psychoactive substances are both a public health concern and a complex regulatory issue. One novel area of investigation is the availability of homemade opioids, amphetamines and dissociatives, and the potential fueling of interest in clandestine home manufacture of drugs via the Internet. We illustrate here how online communal folk pharmacology of homemade drugs on drug website forums may actually inform home manufacture practices or contribute to the reduction of harms associated with this practice...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524758/seeking-safety-group-therapy-for-co-occurring-substance-use-disorder-and-ptsd-among-transgender-women-living-with-hiv-a-pilot-study
#15
Susannah Empson, Yvette P Cuca, Jennifer Cocohoba, Carol Dawson-Rose, Katy Davis, Edward L Machtinger
Transgender women living with HIV experience high rates of substance use, violence, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seeking Safety is a manualized, present-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy program designed to address co-occurring substance use and PTSD. Seeking Safety has evidence of efficacy in a variety of populations but had not been evaluated specifically with people living with HIV or transgender women. We pilot-tested a 12-session Seeking Safety program with a group of transgender women living with HIV who reported substance use and a history of violence...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481178/psilocybin-assisted-therapy-a-review-of-a-novel-treatment-for-psychiatric-disorders
#16
Kelan Thomas, Benjamin Malcolm, Dan Lastra
Recent research suggests that functional connectivity changes may be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Hyperconnectivity in the default mode network has been associated with psychopathology, but psychedelic serotonin agonists like psilocybin may profoundly disrupt these dysfunctional neural network circuits and provide a novel treatment for psychiatric disorders. We have reviewed the current literature to investigate the efficacy and safety of psilocybin-assisted therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443705/severity-of-withdrawal-symptoms-plasma-oxytocin-levels-and-treatment-outcome-in-heroin-users-undergoing-acute-withdrawal
#17
Kakia Nikolaou, Dorothea Kapoukranidou, Samuel Ndungu, Georgios Floros, Leda Kovatsi
Pre-clinical studies show that, following chronic opioid exposure, oxytocin neurons exhibit over-excitation upon withdrawal, causing an increase in oxytocin brain and plasma levels. Relevant clinical data on humans are scarce. This study investigates the opioid withdrawal stress effect on oxytocin plasma levels in humans. We evaluated 57 male chronic heroin users in a residential detoxification program. We determined plasma oxytocin levels by ELISA and measured the stress effects of withdrawal using the COWS scale for opioid withdrawal, the VAS scale for craving, and the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression on the second day of admission...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443703/psychedelics-personality-and-political-perspectives
#18
Matthew M Nour, Lisa Evans, Robin L Carhart-Harris
The psychedelic experience (including psychedelic-induced ego dissolution) can effect lasting change in a person's attitudes and beliefs. Here, we aimed to investigate the association between naturalistic psychedelic use and personality, political perspectives, and nature relatedness using an anonymous internet survey. Participants (N = 893) provided information about their naturalistic psychedelic, cocaine, and alcohol use, and answered questions relating to personality traits of openness and conscientiousness (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), nature relatedness (Nature-Relatedness Scale), and political attitudes (one-item liberalism-conservatism measure and five-item libertarian-authoritarian measure)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441106/jwh-122-consumption-adverse-effects-a-case-of-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-five-year-follow-up
#19
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are a heterogeneous group of psychotropic drugs functionally related to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These substances, marketed as cannabis substitutes, have been associated with numerous cases of severe intoxication and death across the world. In our article, we describe a case of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder developing in a natural cannabis user after consumption of JWH-122, a naphthoylindole largely used since 2010. Clinical symptomatology persisted for about four years and was alleviated through treatment with clonazepam...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406348/motivations-for-using-mdma-ecstasy-molly-among-african-americans-implications-for-prevention-and-harm-reduction-programs
#20
Khary K Rigg
Despite the growing popularity of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) among African Americans, their motives for using the drug are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the most salient motivations for using MDMA among this understudied population. In-depth interviews (n = 15) were conducted with a sample of African American young adults in Southwest Florida between August 2014 and November 2015. The primary motivations for using MDMA included: (1) altering the effects of marijuana and alcohol; (2) lasting longer sexually; (3) enhancing sexual pleasure; and (4) facilitating "freaky" sexual experiences...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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