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Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918880/racial-differences-in-hiv-and-hcv-risk-behaviors-transmission-and-prevention-knowledge-among-non-treatment-seeking-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder
#1
Verena E Metz, Maria A Sullivan, Jermaine D Jones, Elizabeth Evans, Rachel Luba, Jonathan Vogelman, Sandra D Comer
In light of New York's recently reinforced strategy to end the AIDS epidemic by expanding testing, treatment, and access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), we assessed drug use and sexual risk behaviors, along with HIV/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and prevention knowledge among non-treatment-seeking adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) in New York City. Over the course of 18 months, volunteers screening for research studies in the Opioid Laboratory at the New York State Psychiatric Institute completed a locally developed self-assessment questionnaire...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918874/effects-of-the-natural-%C3%AE-carboline-alkaloid-harmine-a-main-constituent-of-ayahuasca-in-memory-and-in-the-hippocampus-a-systematic-literature-review-of-preclinical-studies
#2
Rafael G Dos Santos, Jaime E C Hallak
Harmine is a natural β-carboline alkaloid found in several botanical species, such as the Banisteriopsis caapi vine used in the preparation of the hallucinogenic beverage ayahuasca and the seeds of Syrian rue (Peganum harmala). Preclinical studies suggest that harmine may have neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects, and retrospective/observational investigations of the mental health of long-term ayahuasca users suggest that prolonged use of this harmine-rich hallucinogen is associated with better neuropsychological functioning...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918873/loperamide-the-poor-man-s-methadone-brief-review
#3
Cornel N Stanciu, Samantha A Gnanasegaram
Loperamide is widely available as an inexpensive, over-the-counter remedy commonly used for management of diarrhea. Although an opioid, at therapeutic doses it acts primarily on the gastrointestinal tissues; however, larger than recommended amounts facilitate central nervous system (CNS) penetration. Such high doses of loperamide have recently gained popularity among users of opioids to manage withdrawal symptomatology and, less frequently, to achieve psychoactive effects. Chronic loperamide use can result in development of tolerance and, upon abrupt cessation of use, withdrawal...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918861/to-study-to-party-or-both-assessing-risk-factors-for-non-prescribed-stimulant-use-among-middle-and-high-school-students
#4
Kenneth S León, Daniel E Martínez
This study examines the risk factors predicting non-prescribed stimulant use (NPSU) among adolescents, with an emphasis on whether such factors are reflective of instrumental (e.g., studying) and/or recreational (e.g., partying) drug consumption settings. Using data from Monitoring the Future (2011), we employed a series of logistic regression models to establish predictors of 12-month self-reported Adderall or Ritalin use without a doctor's note among eighth and tenth graders. Whereas studies of college students have found NPSU to correlate with instrumental motives and productivity-related demands, we find no association between NPSU and indicators of academic strain for this younger sample...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767408/a-case-of-acute-pericarditis-following-intravenous-injection-of-crushed-morphine-tablets
#5
Ryan J Anderson, Bryan Corbett, Binh T Ly
A 37-year-old male presented with sharp, severe chest pain following seven days of intravenous injection of crushed morphine tablets. The chest pain was positional and pleuritic in nature and resolved with leaning forward. Work-up was notable for an ECG with inferior and anterolateral PR depressions as well as a CT chest with diffuse centrilobular nodules. Per radiology, the CT findings along with the patient's history were concerning for pulmonary granulomatosis from deposition of talc or some other foreign body...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767406/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-substance-use-diagnoses-comorbid-psychiatric-disorders-and-treatment-initiation-among-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-women-in-an-integrated-health-plan
#6
Erik David Storholm, Michael J Silverberg, Derek D Satre
Access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a critical issue for women with HIV. This study examined differences in SUD diagnoses, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and predictors of SUD treatment initiation among a diverse sample of HIV-positive women (n = 228) and a demographically similar cohort of HIV-negative women (n = 693). Diagnoses and service utilization data were obtained from electronic health records of members of a large integrated healthcare system in Northern California. HIV-positive women were less likely to initiate SUD treatment...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749152/association-of-traffic-injuries-substance-use-disorders-and-ed-visit-outcomes-among-individuals-aged-50-years
#7
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti, Bryan Y Choi
OBJECTIVES: Motor vehicle traffic (MVT) injury is the second most frequent type of injury among older emergency department (ED) patients. We examined the role of substance use disorders (SUD) in ED visit outcomes among older MVT injury patients either as drivers, passengers, or pedestrians. METHODS: Using the 2012 U.S. National Emergency Department Sample, we employed multinomial logistic regression to analyze the association of SUD with ED visit outcomes among 171,145 ED events by MVT injury patients aged 50+...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719438/the-associations-of-naturalistic-classic-psychedelic-use-mystical-experience-and-creative-problem-solving
#8
Noah W Sweat, Larry W Bates, Peter S Hendricks
Developing methods for improving creativity is of broad interest. Classic psychedelics may enhance creativity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. This study was designed to assess whether a relationship exists between naturalistic classic psychedelic use and heightened creative problem-solving ability and if so, whether this is mediated by lifetime mystical experience. Participants (N = 68) completed a survey battery assessing lifetime mystical experience and circumstances surrounding the most memorable experience...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705533/personality-and-defense-styles-clinical-specificities-and-predictive-factors-of-alcohol-use-disorder-in-women
#9
Aurélien Ribadier, Géraldine Dorard, Isabelle Varescon
This study investigated personality traits and defense styles in order to determine clinical specificities and predictive factors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in women. A female sample, composed of AUD outpatients (n = 48) and a control group (n = 50), completed a sociodemographic self-report and questionnaires assessing personality traits (BFI), defense mechanisms and defense styles (DSQ-40). Comparative and correlational analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, were performed...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705089/drug-initiation-of-female-detainees-in-a-compulsory-drug-treatment-institution-in-china
#10
Liu Liu, Suh Chen Hsiao, Charles Kaplan
This study explored drug initiation among 46 Chinese women in a compulsory drug treatment institution. The study adopted a mixed method with a strong emphasis on qualitative techniques to capture the perspectives of women in long-term treatment regarding their drug initiation experiences. A complementary analysis of quantitative data was used to help interpret, refine, deepen, and extend qualitative findings. Participants were divided into two groups according to their main drug of choice: 27 used methamphetamines and 19 used heroin (11 of them used methamphetamines occasionally)...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681583/patterns-of-use-acute-subjective-experiences-and-motivations-for-using-synthetic-cathinones-bath-salts-in-recreational-users
#11
Lisham Ashrafioun, Francis A Bonadio, Kyoung Deok Baik, Stacey L Bradbury, Victoria L Carhart, Nicole A Cross, Alan K Davis, Margaret Feuille, Anna R Harper, Jennifer H Lackey, Brent Lang, Kirstin J Lauritsen, Jaclyn Leith, Lawrence A Osborn, Harold Rosenberg, Jacob Stock, Mariya Zaturenskaya
Given the variety and potential toxicity of synthetic cathinones, clinicians and educators would benefit from information about patterns of and motivations for use, frequency of psychosocial consequences, and experience of acute subjective effects. We administered a comprehensive, web-based survey to 104 recreational users of synthetic cathinones. Sixty percent of respondents consumed synthetic cathinones once or more per month, usually snorting or swallowing these drugs, typically at home, usually with others, customarily during the evening and nighttime hours, and often in combination with another drug such as alcohol or marijuana...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669103/do-you-get-what-you-paid-for-an-examination-of-products-advertised-as-kratom
#12
O Hayden Griffin, Jace A Daniels, Elizabeth A Gardner
Although some novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are newly discovered chemicals, others are traditional or indigenous substances that are introduced to new markets. One of these latter substances is a plant many people refer to as kratom. Indigenous to Southeast Asia and used for a variety of instrumental and recreational purposes, kratom has recently become available to Western drug users. Kratom is somewhat unique in that the plant contains two different psychoactive chemicals, which have both stimulant (mitragynine) and narcotic (7-hydroxymitragynine) properties...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660913/the-presence-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-a-tor-network-marketplace-environment
#13
Diana S Dolliver, Joseph B Kuhns
Prior research has documented the availability of drugs on many Tor Network websites, with the Internet playing a particularly vital role in the global new psychoactive substances (NPS) market. The primary objective of this research was to document types of NPS for sale on the largest operating Tor site (Agora) over a period of four months. Secondary objectives were to analyze countries and vendors sourcing NPS on Agora. Data from Agora were collected in February and June 2015. The number of total advertisements on Agora increased from 20,742 to 27,431 over the four months, while the number of NPS advertisements increased from 2,205 to 2,271 and the number of vendors increased from 157 to 288...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636207/a-case-of-3-4-dimethoxyamphetamine-3-4-dma-and-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-toxicity-with-possible-metabolic-interaction
#14
Michael A Darracq, Stephen L Thornton, Alicia B Minns, Roy R Gerona
: We present a case of "ecstasy" ingestion revealing 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine (3,4-DMA) and absence of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-2D6 MDMA metabolites. CASE REPORT: A 19-year-old presented following a seizure. Initial vital signs were normal. Laboratories were normal with the exception of sodium 127 mEq/L and urine drugs of abuse screen positive for amphetamines. Twelve hours later, serum sodium was 114 mEq/L and a second seizure occurred...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627959/is-general-or-alcohol-specific-perceived-social-support-associated-with-depression-among-adults-in-substance-use-treatment
#15
Ryan C Shorey, Anne E Dawson, Ellen Haynes, Catherine Strauss, JoAnna Elmquist, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
Alcohol use disorders are among the most common mental health disorders in the world and incur considerable costs for individuals and society. Previous research has demonstrated that perceived social support (PSS) may decrease rates of depression and relapse in individuals seeking treatment for alcohol use. The current study developed and investigated a self-report measure for perceived social support for sobriety from alcohol (PSSA) in a sample of men and women in residential treatment for substance use (N = 231), and examined the relationship between general or alcohol-specific perceived social support and depression...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541988/psychological-burden-and-gender-differences-in-methamphetamine-dependent-individuals-in-treatment
#16
Jamie L Simpson, Kathleen M Grant, Patrick M Daly, Stephanie G Kelley, Gustavo Carlo, Rick A Bevins
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about gender differences in methamphetamine (METH)-dependent users. The objective of this study was to examine potential gender differences in four domains: drug use history, psychological burden, current symptomology, and coping strategy. METHODS: One hundred twenty four METH-dependent individuals (men; n = 75) were enrolled from substance use treatment programs. Participants filled out detailed questionnaires in the four domains...
September 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541987/non-medical-use-of-prescription-stimulants-a-comparison-of-college-students-and-their-same-age-peers-who-do-not-attend-college
#17
Jason A Ford, Corey Pomykacz
Data show that the prevalence of non-medical use of prescription stimulants is higher among college students than their same-age peers who do not attend college. Because of this, most of the research in this area focuses on data from samples of college students and on use motivated by academic demands. There is little research that examines whether attending college increases the odds of non-medical use of prescription stimulants while including important covariates in the analytical models. The current research addresses this gap in the literature using data from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health for respondents aged 18 to 25 years old...
September 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485987/substance-use-among-a-sample-of-healthcare-workers-in-kenya-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Aggrey G Mokaya, Victoria Mutiso, Abednego Musau, Albert Tele, Yeri Kombe, Zipporah Ng'ang'a, Erica Frank, David M Ndetei, Veronic Clair
This study describes reported substance use among Kenyan healthcare workers (HCWs), as it has implications for HCWs' health, productivity, and their ability and likelihood to intervene on substance use. The Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was administered to a convenience sample of HCWs (n = 206) in 15 health facilities. Reported lifetime use was 35.8% for alcohol, 23.5% for tobacco, 9.3% for cannabis, 9.3% for sedatives, 8.8% for cocaine, 6.4% for amphetamine-like stimulants, 5...
September 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440088/the-textures-of-heroin-user-perspectives-on-black-tar-and-powder-heroin-in-two-u-s-cities
#19
Sarah G Mars, Philippe Bourgois, George Karandinos, Fernando Montero, Daniel Ciccarone
Since the 1990s, U.S. heroin consumers have been divided from the full range of available products: east of the Mississippi River, Colombian-sourced powder heroin (PH) dominates the market while, to the west, Mexican-sourced "black tar" (BTH) is the main heroin available. By conducting qualitative research in two exemplar cities, Philadelphia (PH) and San Francisco (BTH), we compare users' experiences of heroin source-types, markets, health consequences, and consumption preferences. The strict division of heroin markets may be changing with novel forms of powder heroin appearing in San Francisco...
September 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437563/ithubalethu-intervention-to-address-drug-use-and-sexual-hiv-risk-patterns-among-female-commercial-sex-workers-in-durban-south-africa
#20
Tara Carney, Petal M Petersen Williams, Charles D H Parry
Previous research shows that interventions aimed at female sex workers (FSWs) can be successful in reducing HIV risk behavior. The current study evaluated a specific HIV prevention intervention for substance-using FSWs in Durban, South Africa by comparing such behaviors before and after the intervention. The intervention was provided by trained outreach workers by an organization that worked with FSWs, and consisted of community-based outreach, HIV and substance use education and information. Safer sex practices were also taught...
September 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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