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Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020025/a-mixed-method-analysis-of-persisting-effects-associated-with-positive-outcomes-following-ibogaine-detoxification
#1
Alan K Davis, Elise Renn, Austin-Marley Windham-Herman, Martin Polanco, Joseph P Barsuglia
We examined persisting effects, self-perceived challenges, and potential benefits associated with positive outcomes following ibogaine detoxification using data collected as part of a larger online retrospective study of 73 patients who received treatment for chronic opioid use in Mexico between 2012 and 2015. A mixed-methods design was used comparing treatment responders versus non-responders, as well as content coding of themes from open-ended questions. Most participants reported positive persisting effects of ibogaine detoxification (e...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932824/cultural-and-social-predictors-of-substance-abuse-recovery-among-american-indian-and-non-american-indian-pregnant-and-parenting-women
#2
Hayley McCarron, Emily R Griese, Elizabeth Dippel, Tracey R McMahon
Substance abuse is especially undesirable among pregnant or parenting women (PPW). As such, there is a need to examine the factors impacting positive treatment outcomes, particularly among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) PPW, as they are seeking substance abuse treatment at rates considerably higher than the national average. This study aimed to identify the social and cultural mechanisms that support their recovery. Qualitative analyses were used to identify mechanisms used by AI and non-AI PPW in their recovery...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877779/impulsivity-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-with-and-without-adhd-the-role-of-atomoxetine
#3
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. As shown in the literature, this disorder is frequently associated with alcohol and drug abuse. Patients affected by ADHD show high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking. These characteristics can significantly increase the risk of alcohol abuse, which is itself a clinical condition associated with high levels of impulsivity. Clinical studies suggest that atomoxetine is effective and safe in patients affected by both ADHD and alcohol dependence; however, information focused specifically on impulsivity is very limited...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768112/-marvin-the-paranoid-android-the-case-of-an-alpha-pvp-user-in-the-expanding-galaxy-of-nps
#4
Simonato Pierluigi, Bulsis Laura, Negri Attilio, Bansal Gurjeet K, Pessa Gloria, Mioni Davide, Giuseppe Borgherini, Martinotti Giovanni, Schifano Fabrizio, Giulia Perini, Corazza Ornella
Alpha-PVP can be defined as a novel psychoactive substance (NPS)-more specifically, a novel synthetic cathinone with unpredictable stimulant effects in humans. "Marvin" arrived at a Dual Diagnosis Unit at Parco dei Tigli, Italy. He underwent a 30-day rehabilitation program to overcome his problematic Alpha-PVP use as a psychonaut. We conducted an online search to understand the properties of Alpha-PVP and its presence in scientific literature, reviewing official reports and the online drug market (e...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714640/cannabis-in-end-of-life-care-examining-attitudes-and-practices-of-palliative-care-providers
#5
Rachel Luba, Mitch Earleywine, Stacey Farmer, Melissa Slavin
Medical cannabis research has become quite extensive, with indications ranging from glaucoma to chemotherapy-induced nausea. Despite increased interest in cannabis' potential medical uses, research barriers, cannabis legislation, stigma, and lack of dissemination of data contribute to low adoption for some medical populations. Of interest, cannabis use appears low in palliative care settings, with few guidelines available to palliative care providers. The present study sought to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of palliative care providers regarding the use of cannabis for terminally ill patients...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608428/is-ayahuasca-an-option-for-the-treatment-of-crack-cocaine-dependence
#6
Joselaine Ida Cruz, Solange Aparecida Nappo
The low efficacy of crack cocaine addiction treatment available in Brazil has led Brazilian users to find alternatives to reduce drug consumption or even to reach abstinence. One of them is the use of entheogenic substances, like ayahuasca, an infusion obtained from two native plant species from the Amazon. The present report aimed to understand how crack cocaine users recover from drug addiction by consuming ayahuasca tea in a religious context. This is a qualitative study with a purposeful sample of 40 crack cocaine users, based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608409/changes-in-withdrawal-and-craving-scores-in-participants-undergoing-opioid-detoxification-utilizing-ibogaine
#7
Benjamin J Malcolm, Martin Polanco, Joseph P Barsuglia
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is currently an epidemic in the United States (US) and ibogaine is reported to have the ability to interrupt opioid addiction by simultaneously mitigating withdrawal and craving symptoms. This study examined opioid withdrawal and drug craving scores in 50 participants with OUD undergoing a week-long detoxification treatment protocol with ibogaine. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was used for baseline characterization of participants' OUD. Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Subjective Opioid Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), and Brief Substance Craving Scale (BSCS) scores were collected at 48 and 24 hours prior to ibogaine administration, as well as 24 and 48 hours after ibogaine administration...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608132/mental-health-and-substance-use-disorder-comorbidity-among-methamphetamine-using-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#8
Jesse B Fletcher, Dallas Swendeman, Cathy J Reback
Men who have sex with men (MSM) exhibit elevated rates of mental health and substance use disorder relative to their non-MSM male counterparts. Methamphetamine use in particular has been associated with both neuronal damage and mental health disorders among MSM, and this study reports on the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-5 mental health and substance use disorders in a sample of methamphetamine-using MSM. From March 2014 through January 2015, 286 methamphetamine-using MSM enrolled in a study to reduce methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279028/helping-smokers-quit-the-smoking-cessation-leadership-center-engages-behavioral-health-by-challenging-old-myths-and-traditions
#9
Steven A Schroeder, Brian Clark, Christine Cheng, Catherine B Saucedo
Smoking is much more common among persons with behavioral health conditions (mental illnesses and/or substance use disorders). Persons with these disorders are more likely to die from smoking-related causes than any other reason. Studies have shown that stopping smoking can improve mental health function, as well as improve outcomes for substance use disorders. Yet, for a variety of reasons, smoking cessation has not been integrated into the treatment of behavioral health conditions, and in many instances tobacco use was not only condoned but encouraged...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211971/sold-as-heroin-perceptions-and-use-of-an-evolving-drug-in-baltimore-md
#10
Sarah G Mars, Jeff Ondocsin, Daniel Ciccarone
Since 2001, heroin-related overdose deaths in the United States have risen six-fold, a rise unaccounted for by the expanding user population. Has heroin become a more dangerous drug? Reports of fentanyl and its analogs, often concealed in or sold as heroin, have also increased sharply. This article investigates heroin injectors' perceptions and experiences of changes in the heroin supply in the East Coast city of Baltimore, Maryland, currently facing an epidemic in heroin- and fentanyl-related overdose deaths...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125424/understanding-postdisaster-substance-use-and-psychological-distress-using-concepts-from-the-self-medication-hypothesis-and-social-cognitive-theory
#11
Adam C Alexander, Kenneth D Ward
This article applies constructs from the Self-Medication Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Theory to explain the development of substance use and psychological distress after a disaster. A conceptual model is proposed, which employs a sequential mediation model, identifying perceived coping self-efficacy, psychological distress, and self-medication as pathways to substance use after a disaster. Disaster exposure decreases perceived coping self-efficacy, which, in turn, increases psychological distress and subsequently increases perceptions of self-medication in vulnerable individuals...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064777/mother-of-berries-acdc-or-chocolope-examination-of-the-strains-used-by-medical-cannabis-patients-in-new-england
#12
Brian J Piper
Medical marijuana patients often believe that specific strains are more efficacious at treating their conditions. The goals of this investigation were to determine: (1) how many strains of cannabis are there; (2) which strains are used by medical cannabis (MC) patients; and (3) are there any differences in the strains used by patient condition? Study I involved quantifying the number of strains listed in the online database leafly.com and categorizing these by whether the strain name included a gustatory component...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960159/an-exploratory-study-of-cannabis-festivals-and-their-attendees-in-two-european-cities-amsterdam-and-berlin
#13
Kostas Skliamis, Dirk J Korf
This study was designed to explore the nature and features of cannabis festivals, characteristics of festival participants, and reasons for attendance. A field study in two European cities (Amsterdam and Berlin) included participant observation at the festivals, interviews with local organizers, and a survey among festival attendees (n = 728). Both festivals had common features, but also showed distinct differences. At both festivals, nine out of 10 participants were current, often daily cannabis users. Participants were mainly young adults (mean = 26...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952880/-you-don-t-feel-the-experience-of-youth-benzodiazepine-misuse-in-ireland
#14
Kevin D Murphy, Sharon Lambert, Suzanne McCarthy, Laura J Sahm, Stephen Byrne
There are negative effects to inappropriate use of benzodiazepines, yet the percentage of young people in Ireland experimenting with benzodiazepines has increased. There is a paucity of research about why Irish young people misuse benzodiazepines. In this study, people between 18 and 25 years attending substance misuse services in the south of Ireland (N = 13) were interviewed in a semi-structured style between June 2012 and April 2013. Content analysis was performed. The main motivations for benzodiazepine misuse were to self-regulate negative emotions and to induce dissociation from their environment...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937941/the-scheduling-of-kratom-and-selective-use-of-data
#15
O Hayden Griffin, Megan E Webb
Kratom is a traditional drug from Southeast Asia that has been an emerging new substance in the United States. On August 30, 2016, the DEA announced the intention to emergency schedule kratom into Schedule I. To support this decision, the DEA cited an increase in drug seizures of kratom and an increase in calls to poison control concerning kratom. However, a short time later, on October 12, 2016, the DEA withdrew the intent to schedule kratom after public and congressional backlash. The withdrawal by the DEA was somewhat unprecedented...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937863/bullying-victimization-binge-drinking-and-marijuana-use-among-adolescents-results-from-the-2013-national-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#16
Emily Priesman, Rameika Newman, Jason A Ford
The current research examines the association between bullying victimization, binge drinking, and marijuana use among adolescents. We seek to determine if this association varies based on the type of bullying experienced, traditional or cyberbullying. We used data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The dependent variables were binge drinking and marijuana use. Our key independent variable, bullying victimization, included both traditional and cyberbullying...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934076/delayed-urinary-symptoms-induced-by-ketamine
#17
María Robles-Martínez, Alfonso C Abad, Violeta Pérez-Rodríguez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Abderraman Esojo, Carlos Roncero
One of the side-effects of ketamine abuse is genito-urinary damage. This report describes a case of a former ketamine user who presented with urinary symptoms associated with ketamine years after stopping consumption. This was a 26-year-old male with a history of ketamine abuse. He started treatment for alcohol dependence at age 19. He smoked marijuana daily and denied any other drug use. During the follow-up, urinary symptoms were evidenced (dysuria, frequency, urgency, incontinence, nocturia, hematuria, and suprapubic pain)...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895798/nonmedical-opioid-use-in-relation-to-recency-of-heroin-use-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-adults-in-the-united-states
#18
Joseph J Palamar, Jenni A Shearston
Nonmedical opioid use has been linked to lifetime heroin use; however, research is needed to examine associations between nonmedical opioid use and current or recent heroin use, as current users appear to be at highest risk for harm. Data were from a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized adults (age 18-64) in households participating in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health who reported lifetime heroin use (2005-2014, N = 7,111). We examined associations between frequency and recency of nonmedical opioid use and recency of heroin use...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846058/intercorrelation-of-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-disorders-among-a-national-sample-of-drivers
#19
Michael Scherer, Sarah Canham, Robert B Voas, C Debra Furr-Holden
This study examined the relationship between alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and painkiller use disorders in a sample of drivers. We studied nighttime drivers aged 16 to 87 (n = 4,277) from the 2007 National Roadside Survey who reported substance use behaviors and provided breath tests for alcohol. Logistic regression analyses assessed the relationships between (1) substance (i.e., alcohol/marijuana/cocaine/pain killer) use disorders; (2) demographic characteristics; and (3) BAC levels. Overall, 13.2% of participants met criteria for marijuana use disorder, 7% met criteria for cocaine use disorder, and 15...
April 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558272/severity-of-pain-and-sleep-problems-during-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-korth-cessation-among-regular-kratom-users
#20
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Walter C Prozialeck, Surash Ramanathan, Hadzliana Zainal, Sabariah Noor Harun
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is traditionally used in Southeast Asia for its medicinal value and psychoactive properties. Nonetheless, cessation from regular kratom use is reported to cause unpleasant dose-dependent withdrawal symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the severity of pain and sleep problems following the cessation of kratom tea/juice consumption among regular kratom users. A total of 170 regular users were recruited through snowball sampling for this cross-sectional study. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scales were administered to assess the severity of pain and sleep problems...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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