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Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125424/understanding-postdisaster-substance-use-and-psychological-distress-using-concepts-from-the-self-medication-hypothesis-and-social-cognitive-theory
#1
Adam C Alexander, Kenneth D Ward
This article applies constructs from the Self-Medication Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Theory to explain the development of substance use and psychological distress after a disaster. A conceptual model is proposed, which employs a sequential mediation model, identifying perceived coping self-efficacy, psychological distress, and self-medication as pathways to substance use after a disaster. Disaster exposure decreases perceived coping self-efficacy, which, in turn, increases psychological distress and subsequently increases perceptions of self-medication in vulnerable individuals...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077536/the-role-of-companionship-and-conflict-in-perceptions-of-a-friend-s-heavy-alcohol-and-marijuana-use
#2
John H Boman, Thomas J Mowen
Individuals have been found to "project" their own substance use onto perceptions of their friends' substance use. This study explores whether companionship and conflict relate to incorrect perceptions of a friend's heavy alcohol and marijuana use after controlling for the behavior of the respondent and friend. Mixed models demonstrate that having higher levels of companionship, but not conflict, with a friend result in significantly higher perceptual levels of the friend's heavy alcohol and marijuana use. While beneficial for the friendship, higher levels of companionship may result in a person overestimating the heavy alcohol and marijuana use of a friend...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064777/mother-of-berries-acdc-or-chocolope-examination-of-the-strains-used-by-medical-cannabis-patients-in-new-england
#3
Brian J Piper
Medical marijuana patients often believe that specific strains are more efficacious at treating their conditions. The goals of this investigation were to determine: (1) how many strains of cannabis are there; (2) which strains are used by medical cannabis (MC) patients; and (3) are there any differences in the strains used by patient condition? Study I involved quantifying the number of strains listed in the online database leafly.com and categorizing these by whether the strain name included a gustatory component...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960166/perceived-treatment-need-and-latent-transitions-in-heroin-and-methamphetamine-polydrug-use-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-tijuana-mexico
#4
Meredith C Meacham, Scott C Roesch, Steffanie A Strathdee, Tommi L Gaines
People who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico, use heroin and/or methamphetamine. While polydrug use is associated with HIV risk behavior, less is known about the stability of polydrug use patterns over time and how polydrug use is related to perceived treatment need. Within a cohort of PWID in Tijuana (N = 735) we sought to (1) characterize subgroups of polydrug and polyroute use from baseline to six months; (2) determine the probabilities of transitioning between subgroups; and (3) examine whether self-reported need for help for drug use modified these transition probabilities...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960159/an-exploratory-study-of-cannabis-festivals-and-their-attendees-in-two-european-cities-amsterdam-and-berlin
#5
Kostas Skliamis, Dirk J Korf
This study was designed to explore the nature and features of cannabis festivals, characteristics of festival participants, and reasons for attendance. A field study in two European cities (Amsterdam and Berlin) included participant observation at the festivals, interviews with local organizers, and a survey among festival attendees (n = 728). Both festivals had common features, but also showed distinct differences. At both festivals, nine out of 10 participants were current, often daily cannabis users. Participants were mainly young adults (mean = 26...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952897/feasibility-and-preliminary-effectiveness-of-varenicline-for-treating-co-occurring-cannabis-and-tobacco-use
#6
Tangeria R Adams, Julia H Arnsten, Yuming Ning, Shadi Nahvi
Few studies have evaluated treatment for co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of varenicline for co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. Participants who reported cannabis use on ≥5 days per week were recruited from an urban, outpatient opioid treatment program (OTP). Participants were randomized to either four weeks of standard OTP clinical care (SCC; medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder and individual behavioral counseling), followed by four weeks of SCC plus varenicline (SCC+VT), or to four weeks of SCC+VT followed by four weeks of SCC...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952880/-you-don-t-feel-the-experience-of-youth-benzodiazepine-misuse-in-ireland
#7
Kevin D Murphy, Sharon Lambert, Suzanne McCarthy, Laura J Sahm, Stephen Byrne
There are negative effects to inappropriate use of benzodiazepines, yet the percentage of young people in Ireland experimenting with benzodiazepines has increased. There is a paucity of research about why Irish young people misuse benzodiazepines. In this study, people between 18 and 25 years attending substance misuse services in the south of Ireland (N = 13) were interviewed in a semi-structured style between June 2012 and April 2013. Content analysis was performed. The main motivations for benzodiazepine misuse were to self-regulate negative emotions and to induce dissociation from their environment...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949827/correlates-of-high-risk-and-low-risk-alcohol-use-among-college-students-in-kerala-india
#8
T S Jaisoorya, Guru S Gowda, B Sivasankaran Nair, Priya G Menon, Anjana Rani, K S Radhakrishnan, M Revamma, C R Jeevan, Anupam Kishore, K Thennarasu, Vivek Benegal
This study describes the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among college students in Ernakulam, Kerala State, India. A total of 5784 students from 58 colleges selected by stratified random sampling completed a questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. The prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 21.4% with a male predominance. Among users, low-risk, hazardous, and dependent use were 80.2%, 18.3% and 0.9% respectively. Initiation was mostly with friends (45.3%). Both low-risk and high-risk alcohol users (hazardous and dependent users), in comparison to abstainers, had higher odds of being older, non-Muslim, having a part-time job, using other substances, and exposure to sexual abuse...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937941/the-scheduling-of-kratom-and-selective-use-of-data
#9
O Hayden Griffin, Megan E Webb
Kratom is a traditional drug from Southeast Asia that has been an emerging new substance in the United States. On August 30, 2016, the DEA announced the intention to emergency schedule kratom into Schedule I. To support this decision, the DEA cited an increase in drug seizures of kratom and an increase in calls to poison control concerning kratom. However, a short time later, on October 12, 2016, the DEA withdrew the intent to schedule kratom after public and congressional backlash. The withdrawal by the DEA was somewhat unprecedented...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937933/what-s-in-a-name-correlates-of-ecstasy-users-knowing-or-agreeing-that-molly-is-ecstasy-mdma
#10
Joseph J Palamar
Ecstasy (MDMA) has regained popularity in powder and crystalline form, known as Molly. However, it is unknown whether all Molly users are aware that Molly is ecstasy. A total of 1045 nightclub/festival-attending adults in New York City were surveyed about ecstasy/MDMA/Molly use in 2016. Users were asked if they agreed that "Molly is (or is supposed to be) ecstasy/MDMA." Of the 43.5% reporting lifetime use, 84.6% agreed that Molly is ecstasy, 9.5% disagreed, and 5.9% reported not knowing that Molly is ecstasy...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937863/bullying-victimization-binge-drinking-and-marijuana-use-among-adolescents-results-from-the-2013-national-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#11
Emily Priesman, Rameika Newman, Jason A Ford
The current research examines the association between bullying victimization, binge drinking, and marijuana use among adolescents. We seek to determine if this association varies based on the type of bullying experienced, traditional or cyberbullying. We used data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The dependent variables were binge drinking and marijuana use. Our key independent variable, bullying victimization, included both traditional and cyberbullying...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934076/delayed-urinary-symptoms-induced-by-ketamine
#12
María Robles-Martínez, Alfonso C Abad, Violeta Pérez-Rodríguez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Abderraman Esojo, Carlos Roncero
One of the side-effects of ketamine abuse is genito-urinary damage. This report describes a case of a former ketamine user who presented with urinary symptoms associated with ketamine years after stopping consumption. This was a 26-year-old male with a history of ketamine abuse. He started treatment for alcohol dependence at age 19. He smoked marijuana daily and denied any other drug use. During the follow-up, urinary symptoms were evidenced (dysuria, frequency, urgency, incontinence, nocturia, hematuria, and suprapubic pain)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895798/nonmedical-opioid-use-in-relation-to-recency-of-heroin-use-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-adults-in-the-united-states
#13
Joseph J Palamar, Jenni A Shearston
Nonmedical opioid use has been linked to lifetime heroin use; however, research is needed to examine associations between nonmedical opioid use and current or recent heroin use, as current users appear to be at highest risk for harm. Data were from a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized adults (age 18-64) in households participating in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health who reported lifetime heroin use (2005-2014, N = 7,111). We examined associations between frequency and recency of nonmedical opioid use and recency of heroin use...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895792/rash-impulsiveness-and-negative-mood-but-not-alexithymia-or-reward-sensitivity-differentiate-young-to-middle-aged-chronic-daily-smokers-from-never-smokers
#14
Michael Lyvers, Monique Bremner, Mark S Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg
Given the well-established associations of the personality traits alexithymia, impulsivity, and reward sensitivity with problematic use of a variety of substances, including alcohol and cannabis, the present study sought to determine whether daily tobacco smoking is similarly linked to these traits. Male and female adults aged 18 to 40 years were recruited from the local Australian community, allowing comparison of demographically similar samples of current daily smokers (n = 47) to never-smokers (n = 59) on the relevant self-report measures...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895790/experiential-avoidance-and-bulimic-symptoms-among-men-in-residential-treatment-for-substance-use-disorders-a-preliminary-examination
#15
JoAnna Elmquist, Ryan C Shorey, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
There has been a growing focus on identifying factors that underlie and maintain bulimic symptoms and substance use disorders (SUDs), as both are associated with high mortality and poor clinical outcomes. Experiential avoidance has been an area of interest within both the eating disorder and SUD fields, as it is a robust risk factor for both disorders. No known research has examined the relationship between experiential avoidance and bulimic symptoms in a SUD treatment-seeking sample. Moreover, the extant literature has focused exclusively on female samples...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895501/nourishing-the-spirit-exploratory-research-on-ayahuasca-experiences-along-the-continuum-of-recovery-from-eating-disorders
#16
Adele Lafrance, Anja Loizaga-Velder, Jenna Fletcher, Marika Renelli, Natasha Files, Kenneth W Tupper
Eating disorders (EDs) are serious health conditions that are among the most difficult to treat. Innovative treatments are needed and modalities from across cultures must be considered. Ayahuasca is a psychoactive plant-based tea originally used by Amazonian indigenous groups. A growing body of research points to its promise in the healing of various mental health issues. This study explored the potential therapeutic value of ayahuasca in the context of EDs, including the perceived impact of the preparatory diet and the ayahuasca purge...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846059/mortality-trends-among-cocaine-users-treated-between-1989-and-2013-in-northern-italy-results-of-a-longitudinal-study
#17
Raimondo Maria Pavarin, Angelo Fioritti
A total of 852 participants attending 11 centers for addiction treatment in north Italy following problems due to cocaine abuse between 1989 and 2013 were recruited. Two typologies were created: cocaine users (never heroin) (CU) and heroin and cocaine users (HCU). During the 38-year follow-up period, 4.8% of the whole cohort died. Over the whole period, tumors were the main causes of death; starting in 2010, suicide deaths became the first cause of death. Among CUs, most deaths were due to road accidents and suicide; among HCUs, most of the deaths were from opiate overdose and from cardio-circulatory system diseases...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846058/intercorrelation-of-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-disorders-among-a-national-sample-of-drivers
#18
Michael Scherer, Sarah Canham, Robert B Voas, C Debra Furr-Holden
This study examined the relationship between alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and painkiller use disorders in a sample of drivers. We studied nighttime drivers aged 16 to 87 (n = 4,277) from the 2007 National Roadside Survey who reported substance use behaviors and provided breath tests for alcohol. Logistic regression analyses assessed the relationships between (1) substance (i.e., alcohol/marijuana/cocaine/pain killer) use disorders; (2) demographic characteristics; and (3) BAC levels. Overall, 13.2% of participants met criteria for marijuana use disorder, 7% met criteria for cocaine use disorder, and 15...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657823/recovery-housing-evolving-models-to-address-resident-needs
#19
Amy A Mericle, Douglas L Polcin, Jordana Hemberg, Jennifer Miles
Recovery housing is a service delivery modality that simultaneously addresses the social support and housing needs of those in recovery from substance use disorders. This article describes a group of recovery homes in Texas (N = 10) representing a lesser-studied type of recovery housing, one which explicitly bridges treatment and peer support by providing a variety of recovery support services. All residents meet with a recovery coach, undergo regular drug screening, and have access to intensive outpatient treatment-a program that was developed specifically to support the needs of residents in the homes...
September 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590798/beyond-ketamine-and-phencyclidine-analytically-confirmed-use-of-multiple-novel-arylcyclohexylamines
#20
Stephen Thornton, David Lisbon, Thomas Lin, Roy Gerona
BACKGROUND: Methoxetamine and 3-methoxy-phencyclidine are novel arylcyclohexylamines whose use and clinical toxicity are poorly reported in the medical literature. We report a case of analytically confirmed use of both methoxetamine and 3-methoxy-phencyclidine. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old male presented 10 hours after insufflating an Internet-obtained powder. He was hypertensive, tachycardic, and demonstrated dissociated affect, a delayed verbal response to questions, ataxia, and vertical nystagmus...
September 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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