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Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961421/monitoring-anoxic-depolarization-at-the-bedside-a-step-closer-to-the-24th-century
#1
Cenk Ayata
Anoxic depolarization starts the clock for irreversible brain injury. Yet, this critical indicator has been highly elusive and notoriously difficult to capture using currently available clinical monitoring tools. Recent data suggest that it may be possible to detect anoxic depolarization at the bedside. Detection of such terminal events has far-reaching implications for diagnosis, prognostication, and neuroprotection, as well as the ethics of end-of-life decision-making in neurocritical care.
July 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633649/functional-energetic-responses-and-individual-variance-of-the-human-brain-revealed-by-quantitative-imaging-of-adenosine-triphosphate-production-rates
#2
Xiao-Hong Zhu, Byeong-Yeul Lee, Wei Chen
Cellular ATP energy metabolism and regulation are essential for brain function and health. Given the high ATP expenditure at resting-state, it is not yet clear how the human brain at working-state can effectively regulate ATP production to meet higher energy requirement. Through quantitative measurement of regional cerebral ATP production rates and associated neurophysiological parameters in human visual cortex at rest and during visual stimulation, we found significant stimulus-induced and highly correlated neuroenergetic changes, indicating distinctive and complementary roles of the ATP synthesis reactions in supporting evoked neuronal activity and maintaining ATP homeostasis...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611451/permeability-imaging-as-a-predictor-of-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#3
Jonathan J Russin, Axel Montagne, Francesco D'Amore, Shuhan He, Mark S Shiroishi, Robert C Rennert, Jena Depetris, Berislav V Zlokovic, William J Mack
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction has been implicated in ischemic risk following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), but never directly imaged. We prospectively examined whether post-bleed day 4 dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) BBB permeability imaging could predict development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Global MR-derived BBB permeability ( Ktrans ) was significantly higher in aSAH patients who subsequently developed DCI (five patients; 2.28 ± 0.09 × 10-3 min-1 ) compared to those who experienced radiographic vasospasm only (three patients; 1...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561203/n-acetylcysteine-rapidly-replenishes-central-nervous-system-glutathione-measured-via-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-human-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#4
Hunter G Moss, Truman R Brown, Donald B Wiest, Dorothea D Jenkins
Persistent oxidative stress depletes reduced glutathione (GSH), an intracellular antioxidant and an important determinant of CNS injury after hypoxia ischemia. We used standard, short echo time Stimulated Echo Acquisition Mode (STEAM) to detect GSH by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in 24 term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), on day of life 5-6, after rewarming from therapeutic hypothermia. MRS demonstrated reliable, consistent GSH of 1·64 ± 0·20 mM in the basal ganglia immediately before intravenous infusion of N-acetylcysteine...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557702/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-secreted-by-the-cerebral-endothelium-a-new-actor-of-brain-function
#5
Christine Marie, Martin Pedard, Aurore Quirié, Anne Tessier, Philippe Garnier, Perle Totoson, Céline Demougeot
Low cerebral levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays a critical role in many brain functions, have been implicated in neurodegenerative, neurological and psychiatric diseases. Thus, increasing BDNF levels in the brain is considered an attractive possibility for the prevention/treatment of various brain diseases. To date, BDNF-based therapies have largely focused on neurons. However, given the cross-talk between endothelial cells and neurons and recent evidence that BDNF expressed by the cerebral endothelium largely accounts for BDNF levels present in the brain, it is likely that BDNF-based therapies would be most effective if they also targeted the cerebral endothelium...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383984/preoperatively-reduced-cerebrovascular-contractile-reactivity-to-hypocapnia-by-hyperventilation-is-associated-with-cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-after-arterial-bypass-surgery-for-adult-patients-with-cerebral-misery-perfusion-due-to-ischemic-moyamoya-disease
#6
Shinpei Sato, Daigo Kojima, Yasuyoshi Shimada, Jun Yoshida, Kentaro Fujimato, Shunrou Fujiwara, Masakazu Kobayashi, Yoshitaka Kubo, Kenji Yoshida, Kazunori Terasaki, Shouta Tsutsui, Kenya Miyoshi, Kuniaki Ogasawara
The present study examined whether preoperatively reduced cerebrovascular contractile reactivity to hypocapnia by hyperventilation is associated with development of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after arterial bypass surgery for adult patients with cerebral misery perfusion due to ischemic moyamoya disease. Among 65 adult patients with ischemic moyamoya disease, 19 had misery perfusion in the precentral region on preoperative 15 O positron emission tomography and underwent arterial bypass surgery for that region...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106322/neurovascular-unit-crosstalk-pericytes-and-astrocytes-modify-cytokine-secretion-patterns-of-brain-endothelial-cells
#7
William A Banks, Andrej Kovac, Yoichi Morofuji
Crosstalk among brain endothelial cells (BECs), pericytes, and astrocytes occurs by way of soluble factors, including cytokines. Here, we studied cytokine secretion from both mouse BEC monocultures and tri-cultured with pericytes and astrocytes. Four cytokines were constitutively secreted by BEC monolayers, 12 by LPS-stimulated BECs, 10 by tri-cultures, and 14 by LPS-stimulated tri-cultures. Cytokine levels were generally higher with either LPS stimulation or tri-culture when compared to monocultures and highest in tri-cultures stimulated by LPS...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714328/neuronal-expression-of-the-mitochondrial-protein-prohibitin-confers-profound-neuroprotection-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#8
Anja Kahl, Corey J Anderson, Liping Qian, Henning Voss, Giovanni Manfredi, Costantino Iadecola, Ping Zhou
The mitochondrial protein prohibitin (PHB) has emerged as an important modulator of neuronal survival in different injury modalities . We previously showed that viral gene transfer of PHB protects CA1 neurons from delayed neurodegeneration following transient forebrain ischemia through mitochondrial mechanisms. However, since PHB is present in all cell types, it is not known if its selective expression in neurons is protective, and if the protection occurs also in acute focal ischemic brain injury, the most common stroke type in humans...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685662/simultaneous-functional-photoacoustic-microscopy-and-electrocorticography-reveal-the-impact-of-rtpa-on-dynamic-neurovascular-functions-after-cerebral-ischemia
#9
Aishwarya Bandla, Lun-De Liao, Su Jing Chan, Ji Min Ling, Yu-Hang Liu, Yen-Yu Ian Shih, Han-Chi Pan, Peter Tsun-Hon Wong, Hsin-Yi Lai, Nicolas Kon Kam King, You-Yin Chen, Wai Hoe Ng, Nitish V Thakor
The advance of thrombolytic therapy has been hampered by the lack of optimization of the therapy during the hyperacute phase of focal ischemia. Here, we investigate neurovascular dynamics using a custom-designed hybrid electrocorticography (ECoG)-functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) imaging system during the hyperacute phase (first 6 h) of photothrombotic ischemia (PTI) in male Wistar rats following recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA)-mediated thrombolysis. We reported, for the first time, the changes in neural activity and cerebral hemodynamic responses following rtPA infusion at different time points post PTI...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685621/white-matter-hyperintensities-associated-with-small-vessel-disease-impair-social-cognition-beside-attention-and-memory
#10
Jana Kynast, Leonie Lampe, Tobias Luck, Stefan Frisch, Katrin Arelin, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Markus Loeffler, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Arno Villringer, Matthias L Schroeter
Age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a manifestation of white matter damage seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They are related to vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment. This study investigated the cognitive profile at different stages of WMH in a large community-dwelling sample; 849 subjects aged 21 to 79 years were classified on the 4-stage Fazekas scale according to hyperintense lesions seen on individual T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI scans. The evaluation of cognitive functioning included seven domains of cognitive performance and five domains of subjective impairment, as proposed by the DSM-5...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665171/infarct-volume-predicts-outcome-after-decompressive-hemicraniectomy-for-malignant-hemispheric-stroke
#11
Nils Hecht, Hermann Neugebauer, Ingo Fiss, Alexandra Pinczolits, Peter Vajkoczy, Eric Jüttler, Johannes Woitzik
The decision to perform decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) by default in malignant hemispheric stroke (MHS) remains controversial. Even under ideal conditions, DHC usually results in moderate to severe disability. The present study for the first time uses neuroimaging to identify independent outcome predictors in a prospective cohort of 96 MHS patients undergoing DHC. The primary outcome was functional status according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 12 months and categorized as favorable (mRS 0-3) or unfavorable (mRS 4-6)...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597712/blockade-and-knock-out-of-calhm1-channels-attenuate-ischemic-brain-damage
#12
Abraham Cisneros-Mejorado, Miroslav Gottlieb, Asier Ruiz, Juan C Chara, Alberto Pérez-Samartín, Philippe Marambaud, Carlos Matute
Overactivation of purinergic receptors during cerebral ischemia results in a massive release of neurotransmitters, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to the extracellular space which leads to cell death. Some hypothetical pathways of ATP release are large ion channels, such as calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), a membrane ion channel that can permeate ATP. Since this transmitter contributes to postischemic brain damage, we hypothesized that CALHM1 activation may be a relevant target to attenuate stroke injury...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569655/sustained-s-roscovitine-delivery-promotes-neuroprotection-associated-with-functional-recovery-and-decrease-in-brain-edema-in-a-randomized-blind-focal-cerebral-ischemia-study
#13
Estelle Rousselet, Anne Létondor, Bénédicte Menn, Yann Courbebaisse, Marie-Lise Quillé, Serge Timsit
Stroke is a devastating disorder that significantly contributes to death, disability and healthcare costs. In ischemic stroke, the only current acute therapy is recanalization, but the narrow therapeutic window less than 6 h limits its application. The current challenge is to prevent late cell death, with concomitant therapy targeting the ischemic cascade to widen the therapeutic window. Among potential neuroprotective drugs, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as (S)-roscovitine are of particular relevance...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537106/vasoreactivity-in-cadasil-comparison-to-structural-mri-and-neuropsychology
#14
Fiona C Moreton, Breda Cullen, Christian Delles, Celestine Santosh, Rosario L Gonzalez, Krishna Dani, Keith W Muir
Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity precedes histological and clinical evidence of CADASIL in animal models. We aimed to more fully characterise peripheral and cerebral vascular function and reactivity in a cohort of adult CADASIL patients, and explore the associations of these with conventional clinical, imaging and neuropsychological measures. A total of 22 adults with CADASIL gave informed consent to participate in an exploratory study of vascular function in CADASIL. Clinical assessment, comprehensive vascular assessment, MRI and neuropsychological testing were conducted...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504050/how-long-is-sufficient-for-optimal-neuroprotection-with-cerebral-cooling-after-ischemia-in-fetal-sheep
#15
Joanne O Davidson, Vittoria Draghi, Sean Whitham, Simerdeep K Dhillon, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
The optimal duration of mild "therapeutic" hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is surprisingly unclear. This study assessed the relative efficacy of cooling for 48 h versus 72 h. Fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) received sham ischemia (n = 9) or 30 min global cerebral ischemia followed by normothermia (n = 8) or delayed hypothermia from 3 h to 48 h (n = 8) or 72 h (n = 8). Ischemia was associated with profound loss of electroencephalogram (EEG) power, neurons in the cortex and hippocampus, and oligodendrocytes and myelin basic protein expression in the white matter, with increased Iba-1-positive microglia and proliferation...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864463/increased-brain-hemopexin-levels-improve-outcomes-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#16
Jenna L Leclerc, Juan Santiago-Moreno, Alex Dang, Andrew S Lampert, Pedro E Cruz, Awilda M Rosario, Todd E Golde, Sylvain Doré
Following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), extracellular heme precipitates secondary brain injury, which results in irreversible brain damage and enduring neurological deficits. Hemopexin (Hpx) is an endogenous protein responsible for scavenging heme, thereby modulating its intrinsic proxidant/proinflammatory properties. Although Hpx is present in the brain, the endogenous levels are insufficient to combat the massive heme overload following ICH. We hypothesized that increasing brain Hpx levels would improve ICH outcomes...
June 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480040/the-case-for-introducing-pre-registered-confirmatory-pharmacological-pre-clinical-studies
#17
Olivia Kiwanuka, Bo-Michael Bellander, Anders Hånell
When evaluating the design of pre-clinical studies in the field of traumatic brain injury, we found substantial differences compared to phase III clinical trials, which in part may explain the difficulties in translating promising experimental drugs into approved treatments. By using network analysis, we also found cases where a large proportion of the studies evaluating a pre-clinical treatment was performed by inter-related researchers, which is potentially problematic. Subjecting all pre-clinical trials to the rigor of a phase III clinical trial is, however, likely not practically achievable...
May 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372644/quantitative-assessment-of-demyelination-in-ischemic-stroke-in-vivo-using-macromolecular-proton-fraction-mapping
#18
Marina Y Khodanovich, Alena A Kisel, Andrey E Akulov, Dmitriy N Atochin, Marina S Kudabaeva, Valentina Y Glazacheva, Michael V Svetlik, Yana A Medvednikova, Lilia R Mustafina, Vasily L Yarnykh
A recent MRI method, fast macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping, was used to quantify demyelination in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat stroke model. MPF and other quantitative MRI parameters (T1 , T2 , proton density, and apparent diffusion coefficient) were compared with histological and immunohistochemical markers of demyelination (Luxol Fast Blue stain, (LFB)), neuronal loss (NeuN immunofluorescence), axonal loss (Bielschowsky stain), and inflammation (Iba1 immunofluorescence) in three animal groups ( n = 5 per group) on the 1st, 3rd, and 10th day after MCAO...
May 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595496/reconstruction-of-input-functions-from-a-dynamic-pet-image-with-sequential-administration-of-15-o-2-and-formula-see-text-for-noninvasive-and-ultra-rapid-measurement-of-cbf-oef-and-cmro-2
#19
Nobuyuki Kudomi, Yukito Maeda, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Yuka Yamamoto, Tetsuhiro Hatakeyama, Yoshihiro Nishiyama
CBF, OEF, and CMRO2 images can be quantitatively assessed using PET. Their image calculation requires arterial input functions, which require invasive procedure. The aim of the present study was to develop a non-invasive approach with image-derived input functions (IDIFs) using an image from an ultra-rapid O2 and C15 O2 protocol. Our technique consists of using a formula to express the input using tissue curve with rate constants. For multiple tissue curves, the rate constants were estimated so as to minimize the differences of the inputs using the multiple tissue curves...
May 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569090/insulin-differentially-affects-the-distribution-kinetics-of-amyloid-beta-40-and-42-in-plasma-and-brain
#20
Suresh Kumar Swaminathan, Kristen M Ahlschwede, Vidur Sarma, Geoffry L Curran, Rajesh S Omtri, Teresa Decklever, Val J Lowe, Joseph F Poduslo, Karunya K Kandimalla
Impaired brain clearance of amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ) 40 and 42 across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is believed to be one of the pathways responsible for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Hyperinsulinemia prevalent in type II diabetes was shown to damage cerebral vasculature and increase Aβ accumulation in AD brain. However, there is no clarity on how aberrations in peripheral insulin levels affect Aβ accumulation in the brain. This study describes, for the first time, an intricate relation between plasma insulin and Aβ transport at the BBB...
May 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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