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Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617071/an-endothelial-link-between-the-benefits-of-physical-exercise-in-dementia
#1
Lianne J Trigiani, Edith Hamel
The current absence of a disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) highlights the necessity for investigating the benefits of non-pharmacological approaches such as physical exercise (PE). Although evidence exists to support an association between regular PE and higher scores on cognitive function tests, and a slower rate of cognitive decline, there is no clear consensus on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the advantages of PE. This review seeks to summarize the positive effects of PE in human and animal studies while highlighting the vascular link between these benefits...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541158/noninvasive-optical-monitoring-of-critical-closing-pressure-and-arteriole-compliance-in-human-subjects
#2
Wesley B Baker, Ashwin B Parthasarathy, Kimberly P Gannon, Venkaiah C Kavuri, David R Busch, Kenneth Abramson, Lian He, Rickson C Mesquita, Michael T Mullen, John A Detre, Joel H Greenberg, Daniel J Licht, Ramani Balu, W Andrew Kofke, Arjun G Yodh
The critical closing pressure ( CrCP) of the cerebral circulation depends on both tissue intracranial pressure and vasomotor tone. CrCP defines the arterial blood pressure ( ABP) at which cerebral blood flow approaches zero, and their difference ( ABP -  CrCP) is an accurate estimate of cerebral perfusion pressure. Here we demonstrate a novel non-invasive technique for continuous monitoring of CrCP at the bedside. The methodology combines optical diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of pulsatile cerebral blood flow in arterioles with concurrent ABP data during the cardiac cycle...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541130/measuring-functional-connectivity-in-stroke-approaches-and-considerations
#3
Joshua S Siegel, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
Recent research has demonstrated the importance of global changes to the functional organization of brain network following stroke. Resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) is a non-invasive tool that enables the measurement of functional connectivity (FC) across the entire brain while placing minimal demands on the subject. For these reasons, it is a uniquely appealing tool for studying the distant effects of stroke. However, R-fMRI studies rely on a number of premises that cannot be assumed without careful validation in the context of stroke...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530125/pro-inflammatory-activation-of-primary-microglia-and-macrophages-increases-18%C3%A2-kda-translocator-protein-expression-in-rodents-but-not-humans
#4
David R Owen, Nehal Narayan, Lisa Wells, Luke Healy, Erica Smyth, Eugenii A Rabiner, Dylan Galloway, John B Williams, Joshua Lehr, Harpreet Mandhair, Laura An Peferoen, Peter C Taylor, Sandra Amor, Jack P Antel, Paul M Matthews, Craig S Moore
The 18kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) is the most commonly used tissue-specific marker of inflammation in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. It is expressed in myeloid cells such as microglia and macrophages, and in rodent myeloid cells expression increases with cellular activation. We assessed the effect of myeloid cell activation on TSPO gene expression in both primary human and rodent microglia and macrophages in vitro, and also measured TSPO radioligand binding with (3)H-PBR28 in primary human macrophages...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273717/alcam-cd166-is-involved-in-extravasation-of-monocytes-rather-than-t-cells-across-the-blood-brain-barrier
#5
Ruth Lyck, Marc-André Lécuyer, Michael Abadier, Christof B Wyss, Christoph Matti, Maria Rosito, Gaby Enzmann, Thomas Zeis, Laure Michel, Ana B García Martín, Federica Sallusto, Fabien Gosselet, Urban Deutsch, Joshua A Weiner, Nicole Schaeren-Wiemers, Alexandre Prat, Britta Engelhardt
Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) has been proposed to mediate leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in multiple sclerosis or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we confirmed vascular ALCAM expression in human brain tissue samples in situ and on two different human in vitro BBB models. Antibody-mediated inhibition of ALCAM reduced diapedesis of human CD4(+) Th1 but not of Th17 cells across the human BBB in vitro. In accordance to human Th1 cells, mouse Th1 cells showed reduced diapedesis across an ALCAM(-/-) in vitro BBB model under static but no longer under flow conditions...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168893/long-term-depression-in-purkinje-neurons-is-persistently-impaired-following-cardiac-arrest-and-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-mice
#6
Nidia Quillinan, Guiying Deng, Kaori Shimizu, Ivelisse Cruz-Torres, Christian Schroeder, Richard J Traystman, Paco S Herson
Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) produce brain ischemia that results in cognitive and motor coordination impairments subsequent to injury of vulnerable populations of neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje neurons. To determine the effects of CA/CPR on plasticity in the cerebellum, we used whole cell recordings from Purkinje neurons to examine long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber (PF) synapses. Acute slices were prepared from adult male mice subjected to 8 min cardiac arrest at 1, 7, and 30 days after resuscitation...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155584/prediction-of-final-infarct-volume-on-subacute-mri-by-quantifying-cerebral-edema-in-ischemic-stroke
#7
Aaryani Tipirneni-Sajja, Soren Christensen, Matus Straka, Manabu Inoue, Maarten G Lansberg, Michael Mlynash, Roland Bammer, Mark W Parsons, Geoffrey A Donnan, Stephen M Davis, Gregory W Albers
Final infarct volume in stroke trials is assessed on images obtained between 30 and 90 days after stroke onset. Imaging at such delayed timepoints is problematic because patients may be lost to follow-up or die before the scan. Obtaining an early assessment of infarct volume on subacute scans avoids these limitations; however, it overestimates true infarct volume because of edema. The aim of this study was to develop a novel approach to quantify edema so that final infarct volumes can be approximated on subacute scans...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155583/prediction-of-hemorrhagic-transformation-after-experimental-ischemic-stroke-using-mri-based-algorithms
#8
Mark Jrj Bouts, Ivo Acw Tiebosch, Umesh S Rudrapatna, Annette van der Toorn, Ona Wu, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Estimation of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) risk is crucial for treatment decision-making after acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to determine the accuracy of multiparametric MRI-based predictive algorithms in calculating probability of HT after stroke. Spontaneously, hypertensive rats were subjected to embolic stroke and, after 3 h treated with tissue plasminogen activator (Group I: n = 6) or vehicle (Group II: n = 7). Brain MRI measurements of T2, T2*, diffusion, perfusion, and blood-brain barrier permeability were obtained at 2, 24, and 168 h post-stroke...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155579/carotid-disease-at-age-73-and-cognitive-change-from-age-70-to-76-years-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#9
Joanna M Wardlaw, Michael Allerhand, Elizabeth Eadie, Avril Thomas, Janey Corley, Alison Pattie, Adele Taylor, Susan D Shenkin, Simon Cox, Alan Gow, John M Starr, Ian J Deary
Cognitive decline and carotid artery atheroma are common at older ages. In community-dwelling subjects, we assessed cognition at ages 70, 73 and 76 and carotid Doppler ultrasound at age 73, to determine whether carotid stenosis was related to cognitive decline. We used latent growth curve models to examine associations between four carotid measures (internal carotid artery stenosis, velocity, pulsatility and resistivity indices) and four cognitive ability domains (memory, visuospatial function, crystallised intelligence, processing speed) adjusted for cognitive ability at age 11, current age, gender and vascular risk factors...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909266/reliability-of-infarct-volumetry-its-relevance-and-the-improvement-by-a-software-assisted-approach
#10
Felix Friedländer, Ferdinand Bohmann, Max Brunkhorst, Ju-Hee Chae, Kavi Devraj, Yvette Köhler, Peter Kraft, Hannah Kuhn, Alexandra Lucaciu, Sebastian Luger, Waltraud Pfeilschifter, Rebecca Sadler, Arthur Liesz, Karolina Scholtyschik, Leonie Stolz, Rajkumar Vutukuri, Robert Brunkhorst
Despite the efficacy of neuroprotective approaches in animal models of stroke, their translation has so far failed from bench to bedside. One reason is presumed to be a low quality of preclinical study design, leading to bias and a low a priori power. In this study, we propose that the key read-out of experimental stroke studies, the volume of the ischemic damage as commonly measured by free-handed planimetry of TTC-stained brain sections, is subject to an unrecognized low inter-rater and test-retest reliability with strong implications for statistical power and bias...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909265/prevention-of-the-collapse-of-pial-collaterals-by-remote-ischemic-perconditioning-during-acute-ischemic-stroke
#11
Junqiang Ma, Yonglie Ma, Bin Dong, Mischa V Bandet, Ashfaq Shuaib, Ian R Winship
Collateral circulation is a key variable determining prognosis and response to recanalization therapy during acute ischemic stroke. Remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) involves inducing peripheral ischemia (typically in the limbs) during stroke and may reduce perfusion deficits and brain damage due to cerebral ischemia. In this study, we directly investigated pial collateral flow augmentation due to RIPerC during distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rats. Blood flow through pial collaterals between the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the MCA was assessed in male Sprague Dawley rats using in vivo laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) during distal MCAo...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909264/global-ablation-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-increases-glycolysis-in-cortical-neurons-subjected-to-energetic-stressors
#12
Matthew Nichols, Pia A Elustondo, Jordan Warford, Aruloli Thirumaran, Evgeny V Pavlov, George S Robertson
The effects of global mitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)) uniporter (MCU) deficiency on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, neuronal Ca(2+) handling, bioenergetics and hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) were examined. Forebrain mitochondria isolated from global MCU nulls displayed markedly reduced Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+)-induced opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. Despite evidence that these effects should be neuroprotective, global MCU nulls and wild-type (WT) mice suffered comparable HI brain damage...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903921/a-two-pool-model-to-describe-the-ivim-cerebral-perfusion
#13
Gabrielle Fournet, Jing-Rebecca Li, Alex M Cerjanic, Bradley P Sutton, Luisa Ciobanu, Denis Le Bihan
IntraVoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique capable of measuring perfusion-related parameters. In this manuscript, we show that the mono-exponential model commonly used to process IVIM data might be challenged, especially at short diffusion times. Eleven rat datasets were acquired at 7T using a diffusion-weighted pulsed gradient spin echo sequence with b-values ranging from 7 to 2500 s/mm(2) at three diffusion times. The IVIM signals, obtained by removing the diffusion component from the raw MR signal, were fitted to the standard mono-exponential model, a bi-exponential model and the Kennan model...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899766/examining-potential-side-effects-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#14
Shannon Wowk, Kelly J Fagan, Yonglie Ma, Helen Nichol, Frederick Colbourne
Studies treating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) have shown inconsistent benefits. We hypothesized that TH's anti-inflammatory effects may be responsible as inflammatory cells are essential for removing degrading erythrocytes. Here, we subjected rats to a collagenase-induced striatal ICH followed by whole-body TH (∼33℃ for 11-72 h) or normothermia. We used X-ray fluorescence imaging to spatially quantify total and peri-hematoma iron three days post-injury. At three and seven days, we measured non-heme iron levels...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885100/temporal-analysis-of-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-rhesus-monkeys-subjected-to-transient-ischemic-stroke
#15
Yingqian Zhang, Feng Fan, Guojun Zeng, Linlin Zhou, Yinbing Zhang, Jie Zhang, He Jiao, Ting Zhang, Dan Su, Cheng Yang, Xin Wang, Kai Xiao, Hongxia Li, Zhihui Zhong
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption plays an important role in pathophysiological progress of ischemic stroke. However, our knowledge of the dynamic change of BBB permeability and its mechanism remains limited. In the current study, we used a non-human primate (NHP) MCAO model and a serial CSF sampling method that allowed us to determine the dynamic change of BBB permeability by calculating the CSF/serum albumin ratio (AR). We showed that AR increased rapidly and significantly after ischemia, and the fold increase of AR is highly correlated with the infarction size during the subacute phase...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864466/thiamet-g-mediates-neuroprotection-in-experimental-stroke-by-modulating-microglia-macrophage-polarization-and-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-signaling
#16
Yating He, Xiaofeng Ma, Daojing Li, Junwei Hao
Inflammatory responses are accountable for secondary injury induced by acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Previous studies indicated that O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is involved in the pathology of AIS, and increase of O-GlcNAcylation by glucosamine attenuated the brain damage after ischemia/reperfusion. Inhibition of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (OGA) with thiamet G (TMG) is an alternative option for accumulating O-GlcNAcylated proteins. In this study, we investigate the neuroprotective effect of TMG in a mouse model of experimental stroke...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864465/posttraumatic-therapeutic-hypothermia-alters-microglial-and-macrophage-polarization-toward-a-beneficial-phenotype
#17
Jessie S Truettner, Helen M Bramlett, W Dalton Dietrich
Posttraumatic inflammatory processes contribute to pathological and reparative processes observed after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent findings have emphasized that these divergent effects result from subsets of proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) microglia and macrophages. Therapeutic hypothermia has been tested in preclinical and clinical models of TBI to limit secondary injury mechanisms including proinflammatory processes. This study evaluated the effects of posttraumatic hypothermia (PTH) on phenotype patterns of microglia/macrophages...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837190/hyperoxia-results-in-increased-aerobic-metabolism-following-acute-brain-injury
#18
Arnab Ghosh, David Highton, Christina Kolyva, Ilias Tachtsidis, Clare E Elwell, Martin Smith
Acute brain injury is associated with depressed aerobic metabolism. Below a critical mitochondrial pO2 cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal electron acceptor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, fails to sustain oxidative phosphorylation. After acute brain injury, this ischaemic threshold might be shifted into apparently normal levels of tissue oxygenation. We investigated the oxygen dependency of aerobic metabolism in 16 acutely brain-injured patients using a 120-min normobaric hyperoxia challenge in the acute phase (24-72 h) post-injury and multimodal neuromonitoring, including transcranial Doppler ultrasound-measured cerebral blood flow velocity, cerebral microdialysis-derived lactate-pyruvate ratio (LPR), brain tissue pO2 (pbrO2), and tissue oxygenation index and cytochrome c oxidase oxidation state (oxCCO) measured using broadband spectroscopy...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837189/middle-cerebral-artery-diameter-changes-during-rhythmic-handgrip-exercise-in-humans
#19
J Verbree, Agt Bronzwaer, M A van Buchem, Mjap Daemen, J J van Lieshout, Mjp van Osch
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography is a frequently employed technique for quantifying cerebral blood flow by assuming a constant arterial diameter. Given that exercise increases arterial pressure by sympathetic activation, we hypothesized that exercise might induce a change in the diameter of large cerebral arteries. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) cross-sectional area was assessed in response to handgrip exercise by direct magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) observations. Twenty healthy subjects (11 female) performed three 5 min bouts of rhythmic handgrip exercise at 60% maximum voluntary contraction, alternated with 5 min of rest...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837188/capsular-stroke-modeling-based-on-somatotopic-mapping-of-motor-fibers
#20
Hanlim Song, Wonbin Jung, Eulgi Lee, Ji-Young Park, Min Sun Kim, Min-Cheol Lee, Hyoung-Ihl Kim
Recently, several capsular stroke models have been reported with different targets of destruction. This study was performed to establish an accurate internal capsule (IC) target for capsular stroke modeling in rats. We injected adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV)-CaMKII-EYFP into forelimb motor cortex and AAV-CaMKII-mCherry into hindlimb motor cortex (n = 9) to anterogradely trace the pyramidal fibers and map their somatotopic distribution in the IC. On the basis of the neural tracing results, we created photothrombotic infarct lesions in rat forelimb and hindlimb motor fiber (FMF and HMF) areas of the IC (n = 29) and assessed motor behavior using a forelimb-use asymmetry test, a foot-fault test, and a single-pellet reaching test...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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