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Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

Ruilan Zhang, Zhenggang Zhang, Michael Chopp
Hypoxic/ischemic injury is the single most important cause of disabilities in infants, while stroke remains a leading cause of morbidity in children and adults around the world. The injured brain has limited repair capacity, and thereby only modest improvement of neurological function is evident post injury. In rodents, embryonic neural stem cells in the ventricular zone generate cortical neurons, and adult neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle produce new neurons through animal life...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Angela Sánchez-Guerrero, Gemma Mur-Bonet, Marian Vidal-Jorge, Darío Gándara-Sabatini, Ivette Chocrón, Esteban Cordero, Maria-Antonia Poca, Katharine Mullen, Juan Sahuquillo
Cerebral microdialysis is widely used in neurocritical care units. The goal of this study was to establish the reference interval for the interstitial fluid concentrations of energy metabolites and glycerol by using the extrapolation to zero-flow methodology in anesthetized patients and by constant perfusion at 0.3 µL/min in awake patients. A CMA-71 probe was implanted during surgery in normal white matter of patients with posterior fossa or supratentorial lesions, and the perfusion flow rate was randomized to 0...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Christine DeLorenzo, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, John Gardus, Jie Yang, Beata Planeta, Nabeel Nabulsi, R Todd Ogden, David C Labaree, Yiyun H Huang, J John Mann, Fabrizio Gasparini, Xin Lin, Jonathan A Javitch, Ramin V Parsey, Richard E Carson, Irina Esterlis
Positron emission tomography tracers [(11)C]ABP688 and [(18)F]FPEB target the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 providing quantification of the brain glutamatergic system in vivo. Previous [(11)C]ABP688 positron emission tomography human test-retest studies indicate that, when performed on the same day, significant binding increases are observed; however, little deviation is reported when scans are >7 days apart. Due to the small cohorts examined previously (eight and five males, respectively), we aimed to replicate the same-day test-retest studies in a larger cohort including both males and females...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Yash V Tiwari, Jianfei Lu, Qiang Shen, Bianca Cerqueira, Timothy Q Duong
Diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed to quantify the rate of water exchange (Kw) across the blood-brain barrier in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the blood-brain barrier disruption in transient (60 min) ischemic stroke using Kw magnetic resonance imaging with cross-validation by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology in the same rats. The major findings were: (i) at 90 min after stroke (30 min after reperfusion), group Kw magnetic resonance imaging data showed no significant blood-brain barrier permeability changes, although a few animals showed slightly abnormal Kw Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding in the same animals...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Bob Bryan, Joel H Greenberg, Sami Harik, Stephen C Jones, Joe LaManna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Wei Yang, Wulf Paschen
Folding and processing newly synthesized proteins are vital functions of the endoplasmic reticulum that are sensitive to a variety of stress conditions. The unfolded protein response is activated to restore endoplasmic reticulum function impaired by stress. While we know that brain ischemia impairs endoplasmic reticulum function, the role of unfolded protein response activation in post-ischemic recovery of neurologic function is only beginning to emerge. Here, we summarize what is known about endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response in brain ischemia and discuss recent findings from myocardial ischemia studies that could help to advance research on endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response in brain ischemia...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Sarah Hoffmann, Hendrik Harms, Lena Ulm, Darius G Nabavi, Bruno-Marcel Mackert, Ingo Schmehl, Gerhard J Jungehulsing, Joan Montaner, Alejandro Bustamante, Marcella Hermans, Frank Hamilton, Jos Göhler, Uwe Malzahn, Carolin Malsch, Peter U Heuschmann, Christian Meisel, Andreas Meisel
Stroke-associated pneumonia is a frequent complication after stroke associated with poor outcome. Dysphagia is a known risk factor for stroke-associated pneumonia but accumulating evidence suggests that stroke induces an immunodepressive state increasing susceptibility for stroke-associated pneumonia. We aimed to confirm that stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome is associated with stroke-associated pneumonia independently from dysphagia by investigating the predictive properties of monocytic HLA-DR expression as a marker of immunodepression as well as biomarkers for inflammation (interleukin-6) and infection (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Samuel Valable, Aurélien Corroyer-Dulmont, Ararat Chakhoyan, Lucile Durand, Jérôme Toutain, Didier Divoux, Louisa Barré, Eric T MacKenzie, Edwige Petit, Myriam Bernaudin, Omar Touzani, Emmanuel L Barbier
The partial pressure in oxygen remains challenging to map in the brain. Two main strategies exist to obtain surrogate measures of tissue oxygenation: the tissue saturation studied by magnetic resonance imaging (StO2-MRI) and the identification of hypoxia by a positron emission tomography (PET) biomarker with 3-[(18)F]fluoro-1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-2-propanol ([(18)F]-FMISO) as the leading radiopharmaceutical. Nonetheless, a formal validation of StO2-MRI against FMISO-PET has not been performed. The objective of our studies was to compare the two approaches in (a) the normal rat brain when the rats were submitted to hypoxemia; (b) animals implanted with four tumour types differentiated by their oxygenation...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Fernando Garcia-Polite, Jordi Martorell, Paula Del Rey-Puech, Pedro Melgar-Lesmes, Caroline C O'Brien, Jaume Roquer, Angel Ois, Alessandro Principe, Elazer R Edelman, Mercedes Balcells
Microvascular endothelial cells at the blood-brain barrier exhibit a protective phenotype, which is highly induced by biochemical and biomechanical stimuli. Amongst them, shear stress enhances junctional tightness and limits transport at capillary-like levels. Abnormal flow patterns can reduce functional features of macrovascular endothelium. We now examine if this is true in brain microvascular endothelial cells. We suggest in this paper a complex response of endothelial cells to aberrant forces under different flow domains...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Jia Liu, Zhengzheng Yan, Yuehua Pu, Wen-Shin Shiu, Jianhuang Wu, Rongliang Chen, Xinyi Leng, Haiqiang Qin, Xin Liu, Baixue Jia, Ligang Song, Yilong Wang, Zhongrong Miao, Yongjun Wang, Liping Liu, Xiao-Chuan Cai
The fractional pressure ratio is introduced to quantitatively assess the hemodynamic significance of severe intracranial stenosis. A computational fluid dynamics-based method is proposed to non-invasively compute the FPRCFD and compared against fractional pressure ratio measured by an invasive technique. Eleven patients with severe intracranial stenosis considered for endovascular intervention were recruited and an invasive procedure was performed to measure the distal and the aortic pressure (Pd and Pa). The fractional pressure ratio was calculated as [Formula: see text] The computed tomography angiography was used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) arteries for each patient...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Hesamoddin Jahanian, Thomas Christen, Michael E Moseley, Nicholas M Pajewski, Clinton B Wright, Manjula K Tamura, Greg Zaharchuk
Measurement of the ability of blood vessels to dilate and constrict, known as vascular reactivity, is often performed with breath-holding tasks that transiently raise arterial blood carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels. However, following the proper commands for a breath-holding experiment may be difficult or impossible for many patients. In this study, we evaluated two approaches for obtaining vascular reactivity information using blood oxygenation level-dependent signal fluctuations obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data: physiological fluctuation regression and coefficient of variation of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Adrienne Dorr, Lynsie Am Thomason, Margaret M Koletar, Illsung L Joo, Joe Steinman, Lindsay S Cahill, John G Sled, Bojana Stefanovic
Aerobic activity has been shown highly beneficial to brain health, yet much uncertainty still surrounds the effects of exercise on the functioning of cerebral microvasculature. This study used two-photon fluorescence microscopy to examine cerebral hemodynamic alterations as well as accompanying geometric changes in the cortical microvascular network following five weeks of voluntary exercise in transgenic mice endogenously expressing tdTomato in vascular endothelial cells to allow visualization of microvessels irrespective of their perfusion levels...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Edgar Santos, Fiorella León, Humberto Silos, Renan Sanchez-Porras, C William Shuttleworth, Andreas Unterberg, Oliver W Sakowitz
The aim was to characterize the effects of magnesium sulfate, using i.v. bolus and local administration, using intrinsic signal imaging, and on electrocorticographic activity during the induction and propagation of spreading depolarizations in the gyrencephalic porcine brain. Local application of magnesium sulfate led to a complete inhibition of spreading depolarizations. One hour after washing out the topical magnesium sulfate, re-incidence of the spreading depolarizations was observed in 50% of the hemispheres...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Martin Krueger, Wolfgang Härtig, Clara Frydrychowicz, Wolf C Mueller, Andreas Reichenbach, Ingo Bechmann, Dominik Michalski
Stroke-induced blood-brain barrier breakdown promotes complications like cerebral edema and hemorrhagic transformation, especially in association with therapeutical recanalization of occluded vessels. As arteries, capillaries and veins display distinct functional and morphological characteristics, we here investigated patterns of blood-brain barrier breakdown for each segment of the vascular tree in rodent models of embolic, permanent, and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, added by analyses of human stroke tissue...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Justin Balog, Suresh L Mehta, Raghu Vemuganti
Mitochondria are dynamically active organelles, regulated through fission and fusion events to continuously redistribute them across axons, dendrites, and synapses of neurons to meet bioenergetics requirements and to control various functions, including cell proliferation, calcium buffering, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. However, following acute or chronic injury to CNS, altered expression and function of proteins that mediate fission and fusion lead to mitochondrial dynamic imbalance...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Michael Johannes Schöll, Edgar Santos, Renan Sanchez-Porras, Modar Kentar, Markus Gramer, Humberto Silos, Zelong Zheng, Yuan Gang, Anthony John Strong, Rudolf Graf, Andreas Unterberg, Oliver W Sakowitz, Hartmut Dickhaus
Haemodynamic responses to spreading depolarizations (SDs) have an important role during the development of secondary brain damage. Characterization of the haemodynamic responses in larger brains, however, is difficult due to movement artefacts. Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging, laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) and electrocorticography were performed in different configurations in three groups of in total 18 swine. SDs were elicited by topical application of KCl or occurred spontaneously after middle cerebral artery occlusion...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Nefize Turan, Brandon A Miller, Robert A Heider, Maheen Nadeem, Iqbal Sayeed, Donald G Stein, Gustavo Pradilla
The most important aspect of a preclinical study seeking to develop a novel therapy for neurological diseases is whether the therapy produces any clinically relevant functional recovery. For this purpose, neurobehavioral tests are commonly used to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of treatments in a wide array of cerebrovascular diseases and neurotrauma. Their use, however, has been limited in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage studies. After several randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trials repeatedly failed to produce a benefit in functional outcome despite some improvement in angiographic vasospasm, more rigorous methods of neurobehavioral testing became critical to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the functional efficacy of proposed treatments...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Matthew B Bevers, Neil H Vaishnav, Ly Pham, Thomas Wk Battey, W Taylor Kimberly
Hyperglycemia is a common complication after ischemic stroke, but its link to worse outcome is not well understood. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia may reflect an impaired metabolic response that is associated with worse cytotoxic brain injury. We performed retrospective analysis of magnetic resonance imaging from a cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients prospectively collected from 2006 to 2010 with baseline demographic and laboratory data as well as three-month outcomes. The severity of cytotoxic injury was quantified in vivo using apparent diffusion coefficient imaging by measuring the signal intensity within the stroke relative to the normal signal intensity of the contralateral hemisphere...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Budbazar Enkhjargal, Devin W McBride, Anatol Manaenko, Cesar Reis, Yasushi Sakai, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
In this study, we investigated the role of vitamin D3 (VitD3) on endogenous osteopontin (OPN), a neuroprotective glycoprotein, after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The endovascular perforation SAH model in Sprague-Dawley rats was used to study the effect of intranasal VitD3 (30 ng/kg) before (Pre-SAH + VitD3) and after (Post-SAH + VitD3) subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vitamin D3 (30, 60, 120 ng/kg/day) increased more than one fold endogenous OPN expression in astrocytes and endothelial cells of rat brain...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Michael J Haley, Catherine B Lawrence
Obesity is a risk factor for stroke and is consequently one of the most common co-morbidities found in patients. There is therefore an identified need to model co-morbidities preclinically to allow better translation from bench to bedside. In preclinical studies, both diet-induced and genetically obese rodents have worse stroke outcome, characterised by increased ischaemic damage and an altered inflammatory response. However, clinical studies have reported an 'obesity paradox' in stroke, characterised by reduced mortality and morbidity in obese patients...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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