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Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797196/the-improve-guidelines-ischaemia-models-procedural-refinements-of-in-vivo-experiments
#1
Nathalie Percie du Sert, Alessio Alfieri, Stuart M Allan, Hilary Vo Carswell, Graeme A Deuchar, Tracy D Farr, Paul Flecknell, Lindsay Gallagher, Claire L Gibson, Michael J Haley, Malcolm R Macleod, Barry W McColl, Christopher McCabe, Anna Morancho, Lawrence Df Moon, Michael J O'Neill, Isabel Pérez de Puig, Anna Planas, C Ian Ragan, Anna Rosell, Lisa A Roy, Kathryn O Ryder, Alba Simats, Emily S Sena, Brad A Sutherland, Mark D Tricklebank, Rebecca C Trueman, Lucy Whitfield, Raymond Wong, I Mhairi Macrae
Most in vivo models of ischaemic stroke target the middle cerebral artery and a spectrum of stroke severities, from mild to substantial, can be achieved. This review describes opportunities to improve the in vivo modelling of ischaemic stroke and animal welfare. It provides a number of recommendations to minimise the level of severity in the most common rodent models of middle cerebral artery occlusion, while sustaining or improving the scientific outcomes. The recommendations cover basic requirements pre-surgery, selecting the most appropriate anaesthetic and analgesic regimen, as well as intraoperative and post-operative care...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685617/aerobic-exercise-prevents-rarefaction-of-pial-collaterals-and-increased-stroke-severity-that-occur-with-aging
#2
Wojciech Rzechorzek, Hua Zhang, Brian K Buckley, Kunjie Hua, Daniel Pomp, James E Faber
Variation in extent of the brain's collateral circulation is an important determinant of variation in the severity of stroke and efficacy of revascularization therapies. However, the number and diameter of pial collateral "arterioles" decrease with aging in associated with reduced eNOS and increased oxidative stress. We tested whether exercise reduces this aging-induced rarefaction. Twelve-month-old mice were randomized to sedentary or voluntary wheel-running. At 26 months' age, permanent MCA occlusion was followed 72 h later by determination of infarct volume and vascular casting after maximal dilation...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503999/quantitative-assessment-of-brain-glucose-metabolic-rates-using-in%C3%A2-vivo-deuterium-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#3
Ming Lu, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Yi Zhang, Gheorghe Mateescu, Wei Chen
Quantitative assessment of cerebral glucose consumption rate (CMRglc) and tricarboxylic acid cycle flux (VTCA) is crucial for understanding neuroenergetics under physiopathological conditions. In this study, we report a novel in vivo Deuterium ((2)H) MRS (DMRS) approach for simultaneously measuring and quantifying CMRglc and VTCA in rat brains at 16.4 Tesla. Following a brief infusion of deuterated glucose, dynamic changes of isotope-labeled glucose, glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and water contents in the brain can be robustly monitored from their well-resolved (2)H resonances...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492341/implications-of-neurovascular-uncoupling-in-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-of-brain-tumors
#4
Rebecca W Pak, Darian H Hadjiabadi, Janaka Senarathna, Shruti Agarwal, Nitish V Thakor, Jay J Pillai, Arvind P Pathak
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) serves as a critical tool for presurgical mapping of eloquent cortex and changes in neurological function in patients diagnosed with brain tumors. However, the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism underlying fMRI assumes that neurovascular coupling remains intact during brain tumor progression, and that measured changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) are correlated with neuronal function. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that even low-grade brain tumors can exhibit neurovascular uncoupling (NVU), which can confound interpretation of fMRI data...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429604/intra-arterial-verapamil-post-thrombectomy-is-feasible-safe-and-neuroprotective-in-stroke
#5
Justin F Fraser, Michael Maniskas, Amanda Trout, Doug Lukins, Lindsey Parker, W Lane Stafford, Abdulnasser Alhajeri, Jill Roberts, Gregory J Bix
Large vessel ischemic stroke represents the most disabling subtype. While t-PA and endovascular thrombectomy can recanalize the occluded vessel, good clinical outcomes are not uniformly achieved. We propose that supplementing endovascular thrombectomy with superselective intra-arterial (IA) verapamil immediately following recanalization could be safe and effective. Verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, has been shown to be an effective IA adjunct in a pre-clinical mouse focal ischemia model. To demonstrate translational efficacy, mechanism, feasibility, and safety, we conducted a group of translational experiments...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350285/2-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-delirium
#6
Lucy R Haggstrom, Julia A Nelson, Eva A Wegner, Gideon A Caplan
Delirium is a common, serious, yet poorly understood syndrome. Growing evidence suggests cerebral metabolism is fundamentally disturbed; however, it has not been investigated using 2-(18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in delirium. This prospective study thus explored FDG PET patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism in older inpatients with delirium. A particular emphasis was on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key region for attention, which is a central feature of delirium...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112024/inversion-of-neurovascular-coupling-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in%C3%A2-vivo
#7
Matilde Balbi, Masayo Koide, George C Wellman, Nikolaus Plesnila
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induces acute changes in the cerebral microcirculation. Recent findings ex vivo suggest neurovascular coupling (NVC), the process that increases cerebral blood flow upon neuronal activity, is also impaired after SAH. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether this occurs also in vivo. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either sham surgery or SAH by filament perforation. Twenty-four hours later NVC was tested by forepaw stimulation and CO2 reactivity by inhalation of 10% CO2...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090802/functional-deficits-induced-by-cortical-microinfarcts
#8
Philipp M Summers, David A Hartmann, Edward S Hui, Xingju Nie, Rachael L Deardorff, Emilie T McKinnon, Joseph A Helpern, Jens H Jensen, Andy Y Shih
Clinical studies have revealed a strong link between increased burden of cerebral microinfarcts and risk for cognitive impairment. Since the sum of tissue damage incurred by microinfarcts is a miniscule percentage of total brain volume, we hypothesized that microinfarcts disrupt brain function beyond the injury site visible to histological or radiological examination. We tested this idea using a mouse model of microinfarcts, where single penetrating vessels that supply mouse cortex were occluded by targeted photothrombosis...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084869/crossed-cerebellar-diaschisis-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-impact-on-morphologic-and-functional-outcome
#9
Wolfgang G Kunz, Wieland H Sommer, Christopher Höhne, Matthias P Fabritius, Felix Schuler, Franziska Dorn, Ahmed E Othman, Felix G Meinel, Louisa von Baumgarten, Maximilian F Reiser, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Kolja M Thierfelder
Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is the phenomenon of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism of the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere caused by dysfunction of the related supratentorial region. Our aim was to analyze its influence on morphologic and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke. Subjects with stroke caused by a large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation were selected from an initial cohort of 1644 consecutive patients who underwent multiparametric CT including whole-brain CT perfusion...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864462/collateral-status-and-tissue-outcome-after-intra-arterial-therapy-for-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Anna Mm Boers, Ivo Gh Jansen, Olvert A Berkhemer, Albert J Yoo, Hester F Lingsma, Cornelis H Slump, Yvo Bwem Roos, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Diederik Wj Dippel, Aad van der Lugt, Wim H van Zwam, Henk A Marquering, Charles Blm Majoie
Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) for ischemic stroke aims to save brain tissue. Collaterals are thought to contribute to prolonged penumbra sustenance. In this study, we investigate the effect of collateral status on brain tissue salvage with IAT. In 500 patients randomized between IAT and standard care, collateral status was graded from 0 (absent) to 3 (good). Final infarct volumes (FIV) were calculated on post-treatment CT. FIVs were compared between treatment groups per collateral grade. Multivariable linear regression with interaction terms was performed to study whether collaterals modified IAT effect on FIV...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789784/chronic-photoperiod-disruption-does-not-increase-vulnerability-to-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-young-normotensive-rats
#11
Ku Mastura Ku Mohd Noor, Cathy Wyse, Lisa A Roy, Stephany M Biello, Christopher McCabe, Deborah Dewar
Photoperiod disruption, which occurs during shift work, is associated with changes in metabolism or physiology (e.g. hypertension and hyperglycaemia) that have the potential to adversely affect stroke outcome. We sought to investigate if photoperiod disruption affects vulnerability to stroke by determining the impact of photoperiod disruption on infarct size following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Adult male Wistar rats (210-290 g) were housed singly under two different light/dark cycle conditions ( n = 12 each)...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677672/neurobehavioral-testing-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-review-of-methods-and-current-findings-in-rodents
#12
Nefize Turan, Brandon A Miller, Robert A Heider, Maheen Nadeem, Iqbal Sayeed, Donald G Stein, Gustavo Pradilla
The most important aspect of a preclinical study seeking to develop a novel therapy for neurological diseases is whether the therapy produces any clinically relevant functional recovery. For this purpose, neurobehavioral tests are commonly used to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of treatments in a wide array of cerebrovascular diseases and neurotrauma. Their use, however, has been limited in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage studies. After several randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trials repeatedly failed to produce a benefit in functional outcome despite some improvement in angiographic vasospasm, more rigorous methods of neurobehavioral testing became critical to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the functional efficacy of proposed treatments...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650910/inhibition-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-by-bia-10-2474-in-rat-brain
#13
Junchao Tong, Romina Mizrahi, Sylvain Houle, Stephen J Kish, Isabelle Boileau, Jose Nobrega, Pablo M Rusjan, Alan A Wilson
In a recent clinical trial, the drug BIA 10-2474, a putative fatty acid amide hydrolase(FAAH) inhibitor, was responsible for severe adverse events (SAEs), including one death. To date, there has been little reliable information divulged about the potency of BIA 10-2474 at FAAH in the central nervous system. We synthesised BIA 10-2474 and determined its ability to inhibit FAAH ex vivo in rat brain using a FAAH selective radiotracer. BIA 10-2474 proved to be a potent FAAH inhibitor with IC50s of 50-70 µg/kg (i...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298238/differential-associations-between-systemic-markers-of-disease-and-white-matter-tissue-health-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#14
Chang-Woo Ryu, Jean-Philippe Coutu, Anna Greka, H Diana Rosas, Geon-Ho Jahng, Bruce R Rosen, David H Salat
Age-associated cerebrovascular disease impacts brain tissue integrity, but other factors, including normal variation in blood markers of systemic health, may also influence the structural integrity of the brain. This cross-sectional study included 139 individuals between 40 to 86 years old who were physically healthy and cognitively intact. Eleven markers (total-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, insulin, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, total protein) and five derived indicators (estimated glomerular filtration rate, creatinine clearance rate, insulin-resistance, average glucose, and cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio) were obtained from blood sampling...
November 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965487/2018-the-beginning-of-a-new-era
#15
Jun Chen, Rick Dijkhuizen, Peter Herscovitch, Guohua Xi, Patrick Lyden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816095/new-astroglial-injury-defined-biomarkers-for-neurotrauma-assessment
#16
Julia Halford, Sean Shen, Kyohei Itamura, Jaclynn Levine, Albert C Chong, Gregg Czerwieniec, Thomas C Glenn, David A Hovda, Paul Vespa, Ross Bullock, W Dalton Dietrich, Stefania Mondello, Joseph A Loo, Ina-Beate Wanner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an expanding public health epidemic with pathophysiology that is difficult to diagnose and thus treat. TBI biomarkers should assess patients across severities and reveal pathophysiology, but currently, their kinetics and specificity are unclear. No single ideal TBI biomarker exists. We identified new candidates from a TBI CSF proteome by selecting trauma-released, astrocyte-enriched proteins including aldolase C (ALDOC), its 38kD breakdown product (BDP), brain lipid binding protein (BLBP), astrocytic phosphoprotein (PEA15), glutamine synthetase (GS) and new 18-25kD-GFAP-BDPs...
October 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816088/new-biomarker-stars-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Aleksandra Ichkova, Jerome Badaut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786737/corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753105/the-vascular-basement-membrane-in-the-healthy-and-pathological-brain
#19
REVIEW
Maj S Thomsen, Lisa J Routhe, Torben Moos
The vascular basement membrane contributes to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs). The BCECs receive support from pericytes embedded in the vascular basement membrane and from astrocyte endfeet. The vascular basement membrane forms a three-dimensional protein network predominantly composed of laminin, collagen IV, nidogen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans that mutually support interactions between BCECs, pericytes, and astrocytes. Major changes in the molecular composition of the vascular basement membrane are observed in acute and chronic neuropathological settings...
October 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752790/ph-imaging-reveals-worsened-tissue-acidification-in-diffusion-kurtosis-lesion-than-the-kurtosis-diffusion-lesion-mismatch-in-an-animal-model-of-acute-stroke
#20
Enfeng Wang, Yin Wu, Jerry S Cheung, Iris Yuwen Zhou, Takahiro Igarashi, XiaoAn Zhang, Phillip Zhe Sun
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been commonly used in acute stroke examination, yet a portion of DWI lesion may be salvageable. Recently, it has been shown that diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) defines the most severely damaged DWI lesion that does not renormalize following early reperfusion. We postulated that the diffusion and kurtosis lesion mismatch experience heterogeneous hemodynamic and/or metabolic injury. We investigated tissue perfusion, pH, diffusion, kurtosis and relaxation from regions of the contralateral normal area, diffusion lesion, kurtosis lesion and their mismatch in an animal model of acute stroke...
October 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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