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Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239258/lesional-and-perilesional-tissue-characterization-by-automated-image-processing-in-a-novel-gyrencephalic-animal-model-of-peracute-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#1
Johannes Boltze, Fabienne Ferrara, Atticus H Hainsworth, Leslie R Bridges, Marietta Zille, Donald Lobsien, Henryk Barthel, Damian D McLeod, Felix Gräßer, Sören Pietsch, Ann-Kathrin Schatzl, Antje Y Dreyer, Björn Nitzsche
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an important stroke subtype, but preclinical research is limited by a lack of translational animal models. Large animal models are useful to comparatively investigate key pathophysiological parameters in human ICH. To (i) establish an acute model of moderate ICH in adult sheep and (ii) an advanced neuroimage processing pipeline for automatic brain tissue and hemorrhagic lesion determination; 14 adult sheep were assigned for stereotactically induced ICH into cerebral white matter under physiological monitoring...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226401/phosphorus-spectroscopy-in-acute-tbi-demonstrates-metabolic-changes-that-relate-to-outcome-in-the-presence-of-normal-structural-mri
#2
Matthew G Stovell, Marius O Mada, T Adrian Carpenter, Jiun-Lin Yan, Mathew R Guilfoyle, Ibrahim Jalloh, Karen E Welsh, Adel Helmy, Duncan J Howe, Peter Grice, Andrew Mason, Susan Giorgi-Coll, Clare N Gallagher, Michael P Murphy, David K Menon, Peter J Hutchinson, Keri Lh Carpenter
Metabolic dysfunction is a key pathophysiological process in the acute phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although changes in brain glucose metabolism and extracellular lactate/pyruvate ratio are well known, it was hitherto unknown whether these translate to downstream changes in ATP metabolism and intracellular pH. We have performed the first clinical voxel-based in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31 P MRS) in 13 acute-phase major TBI patients versus 10 healthy controls (HCs), at 3T, focusing on eight central 2...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226080/basement-membrane-and-stroke
#3
Yao Yao
Located at the interface of the circulation system and the CNS, the basement membrane (BM) is well positioned to regulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Given the important roles of BBB in the development and progression of various neurological disorders, the BM has been hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. After stroke, a cerebrovascular disease caused by rupture (hemorrhagic) or occlusion (ischemic) of cerebral blood vessels, the BM undergoes constant remodeling to modulate disease progression...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215541/selective-brain-cooling-let-us-have-a-moment-of-science
#4
Mohammed A Almekhlafi, Fred Colbourne, Abdulaziz S Al Sultan, Mayank Goyal, Andrew M Demchuk
Selective brain cooling is a promising advent for reducing final infarct volume and improving outcomes in ischemic stroke victims. Despite the robust body of evidence from animal studies, evidence supporting the use of selective hypothermia in stroke patients is lacking. A recent study provided promising results on the safety and possible efficacy of selective brain hypothermia via intraarterial infusion of cooled saline. Better understanding of the patients' population that may attain benefit from this approach will be informative...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215264/role-of-microrna-126-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#5
Peng Yu, Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Alex Zacharek, Yi Shen, Ruizhuo Ning, Linlin Liang, Wei Li, Li Zhang, Julie Landschoot-Ward, RongCai Jiang, Jieli Chen
Vascular dementia (VaD) affects cognition and memory. MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) is an angiogenic microRNA that regulates vascular function. In this study, we employ a multiple microinfarction (MMI) model to induce VaD in mice, and investigate VaD-induced cognitive dysfunction, white matter (WM) damage, glymphatic dysfunction and the role of miR-126 in mediating these effects. Male six-to eight-months old C57/BL6 mice (WT) were subject to MMI model, and cerebral blood flow (CBF), vessel patency, glymphatic function, cognitive function, and serum miR-126 expression were measured...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204044/spatiotemporal-analysis-of-impaired-microglia-process-movement-at-sites-of-secondary-neurodegeneration-post-stroke
#6
Murielle G Kluge, Mahmoud Abdolhoseini, Katarzyna Zalewska, Lin Kooi Ong, Sarah J Johnson, Michael Nilsson, Frederick R Walker
It has recently been identified that after motor cortex stroke, the ability of microglia processes to respond to local damage cues is lost from the thalamus, a major site of secondary neurodegeneration (SND). In this study, we combine a photothrombotic stroke model in mice, acute slice and fluorescent imaging to analyse the loss of microglia process responsiveness. The peri-infarct territories and thalamic areas of SND were investigated at time-points 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after stroke. We confirmed the highly specific nature of non-responsive microglia processes to sites of SND...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204040/breath-hold-effect-on-cardiovascular-brain-pulsations-a-multimodal-magnetic-resonance-encephalography-study
#7
Lauri Raitamaa, Vesa Korhonen, Niko Huotari, Ville Raatikainen, Taneli Hautaniemi, Janne Kananen, Aleksi Rasila, Heta Helakari, Aleksandra Zienkiewicz, Teemu Myllylä, Viola Borchardt, Vesa Kiviniemi
Ultra-fast functional magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) enables separate assessment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and vasomotor waves from brain pulsations without temporal aliasing. We examined effects of breath hold- (BH) related changes on cardiovascular brain pulsations using MREG to study the physiological nature of cerebrovascular reactivity. We used alternating 32 s BH and 88 s resting normoventilation (NV) to change brain pulsations during MREG combined with simultaneously measured respiration, continuous non-invasive blood pressure, and cortical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in healthy volunteers...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204039/the-association-between-lacunes-and-white-matter-hyperintensity-features-on-mri-the-smart-mr-study
#8
Rashid Ghaznawi, Mirjam I Geerlings, Myriam G Jaarsma-Coes, Maarten Ht Zwartbol, Hugo J Kuijf, Yolanda van der Graaf, Theo D Witkamp, Jeroen Hendrikse, Jeroen de Bresser
Lacunes and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are features of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) that are associated with poor functional outcomes. However, how the two are related remains unclear. In this study, we examined the association between lacunes and several WMH features in patients with a history of vascular disease. A total of 999 patients (mean age 59 ± 10 years) with a 1.5 T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan were included from the SMART-MR study. Lacunes were scored visually and WMH features (volume, subtype and shape) were automatically determined...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203705/variability-of-functional-outcome-measures-used-in-animal-models-of-stroke-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment-a-review-of-contemporary-studies
#9
Tuuli M Hietamies, Caroline Ostrowski, Zhong Pei, Luyang Feng, Christopher McCabe, Lorraine M Work, Terence J Quinn
Despite promising preclinical data, few novel stroke therapies have shown efficacy in man. Efforts to improve standards in conduct and reporting of preclinical research are ongoing. In clinical trials, inconsistency in outcome measures led to regulatory agencies and funders mandating use of a core set of functional outcomes. Our aim was to describe functional outcome measures in preclinical stroke and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) studies. From 14 high impact journals (January 2005-December 2015 inclusive), 91,956 papers were screened with 1302 full texts analyzed for stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic) and 56 for VCI studies...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30200799/phase-contrast-mapping-mri-measurements-of-global-cerebral-blood-flow-across-different-perfusion-states-a-direct-comparison-with-15-o-h-2-o-positron-emission-tomography-using-a-hybrid-pet-mr-system
#10
Oriol Puig, Mark B Vestergaard, Ulrich Lindberg, Adam E Hansen, Annette Ulrich, Flemming L Andersen, Helle H Johannesen, Egill Rostrup, Ian Law, Henrik Bw Larsson, Otto M Henriksen
Phase-contrast mapping (PCM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides easy-access non-invasive quantification of global cerebral blood flow (gCBF) but its accuracy in altered perfusion states is not established. We aimed to compare paired PCM MRI and 15 O-H2 O positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of gCBF in different perfusion states in a single scanning session. Duplicate combined gCBF PCM-MRI and 15 O-H2 O PET measurements were performed in the resting condition, during hyperventilation and after acetazolamide administration (post-ACZ) using a 3T hybrid PET/MR system...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198826/the-importance-of-comorbidities-in-ischemic-stroke-impact-of-hypertension-on-the-cerebral-circulation
#11
Marilyn J Cipolla, David S Liebeskind, Siu-Lung Chan
Comorbidities are a hallmark of stroke that both increase the incidence of stroke and worsen outcome. Hypertension is prevalent in the stroke population and the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke. Hypertensive disorders promote stroke through increased shear stress, endothelial dysfunction, and large artery stiffness that transmits pulsatile flow to the cerebral microcirculation. Hypertension also promotes cerebral small vessel disease through several mechanisms, including hypoperfusion, diminished autoregulatory capacity and localized increase in blood-brain barrier permeability...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191760/a-new-era-for-stroke-therapy-integrating-neurovascular-protection-with-optimal-reperfusion
#12
Ligen Shi, Marcelo Rocha, Rehana K Leak, Jingyan Zhao, Tarun N Bhatia, Hongfeng Mu, Zhishuo Wei, Fang Yu, Susan L Weiner, Feifei Ma, Tudor G Jovin, Jun Chen
Recent advances in stroke reperfusion therapies have led to remarkable improvement in clinical outcomes, but many patients remain severely disabled, due in part to the lack of effective neuroprotective strategies. In this review, we show that 95% of published preclinical studies on "neuroprotectants" (1990-2018) reported positive outcomes in animal models of ischemic stroke, while none translated to successful Phase III trials. There are many complex reasons for this failure in translational research, including that the majority of clinical trials did not test early delivery of neuroprotectants in combination with successful reperfusion...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182800/resting-regional-brain-activity-and-connectivity-vary-with-resting-blood-pressure-but-not-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-normotensive-humans-an-exploratory-study
#13
Sophie Kobuch, Vaughan G Macefield, Luke A Henderson
Blood pressure is tightly controlled by the central nervous system, particularly the brainstem. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mean blood pressure (MBP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and resting regional brain activity in healthy human subjects. Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were performed immediately following a laboratory microneurography recording of MSNA and BP measurement in 31 young, healthy normotensive subjects...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182792/reduced-acquisition-time-pet-pharmacokinetic-modelling-using-simultaneous-asl-mri-proof-of-concept
#14
Catherine J Scott, Jieqing Jiao, Andrew Melbourne, Ninon Burgos, David M Cash, Enrico De Vita, Pawel J Markiewicz, Antoinette O'Connor, David L Thomas, Philip Sj Weston, Jonathan M Schott, Brian F Hutton, Sébastien Ourselin
Pharmacokinetic modelling on dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data is a quantitative technique. However, the long acquisition time is prohibitive for routine clinical use. Instead, the semi-quantitative standardised uptake value ratio (SUVR) from a shorter static acquisition is used, despite its sensitivity to blood flow confounding longitudinal analysis. A method has been proposed to reduce the dynamic acquisition time for quantification by incorporating cerebral blood flow (CBF) information from arterial spin labelling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into the pharmacokinetic modelling...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182788/hypercapnia-increases-brain-viscoelasticity
#15
Stefan Hetzer, Florian Dittmann, Karl Bormann, Sebastian Hirsch, Axel Lipp, Danny Jj Wang, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack
Brain function, the brain's metabolic activity, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and intracranial pressure are intimately linked within the tightly autoregulated regime of intracranial physiology in which the role of tissue viscoelasticity remains elusive. We applied multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) paired with CBF measurements in 14 healthy subjects exposed to 5-min carbon dioxide-enriched breathing air to induce cerebral vasodilatation by hypercapnia. Stiffness and viscosity as quantified by the magnitude and phase angle of the complex shear modulus, | G*| and ϕ, as well as CBF of the whole brain and 25 gray matter sub-regions were analyzed prior to, during, and after hypercapnia...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182779/genetic-susceptibility-to-cerebrovascular-disease-a-systematic-review
#16
Christoph J Griessenauer, Sean Farrell, Atom Sarkar, Ramin Zand, Vida Abedi, Neil Holland, Andrew Michael, Christopher L Cummings, Raghu Metpally, David J Carey, Oded Goren, Neil Martin, Philipp Hendrix, Clemens M Schirmer
Investigation of genetic susceptibility to cerebrovascular disease has been of growing interest. A systematic review of human studies assessing neurogenomic aspects of cerebrovascular disease was performed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Any association study exploring genetic variants located in the exome associated with one of the major cerebrovascular diseases with at least 500 subjects was eligible for inclusion. Of 6874 manuscripts identified, 35 studies met the inclusion criteria...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152713/comparative-transcriptome-of-neurons-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-potential-differences-in-neuroprotection-versus-reperfusion
#17
Shuzhen Guo, Anna Tjärnlund-Wolf, Wenjun Deng, Emiri Tejima-Mandeville, Lauren J Lo, Changhong Xing, Ken Arai, MingMing Ning, Yiming Zhou, Eng H Lo
In the context of ischemic stroke, rescuing neurons can be theoretically achieved with either reperfusion or neuroprotection. Reperfusion works via the rapid restoration of oxygen and glucose delivery. Neuroprotection comprises molecular strategies that seek to block excitotoxicity, oxidative stress or various cell death pathways. Here, we propose the hypothesis that neurons rescued with reperfusion are different from neurons rescued with molecular neuroprotection. Neurons were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and then treated with "in vitro reperfusion" (i...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149778/perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-large-animal-models-relevance-to-human-neonatal-encephalopathy
#18
Raymond C Koehler, Zeng-Jin Yang, Jennifer K Lee, Lee J Martin
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia resulting in death or lifelong disabilities remains a major clinical disorder. Neonatal models of hypoxia-ischemia in rodents have enhanced our understanding of cellular mechanisms of neural injury in developing brain, but have limitations in simulating the range, accuracy, and physiology of clinical hypoxia-ischemia and the relevant systems neuropathology that contribute to the human brain injury pattern. Large animal models of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia, such as partial or complete asphyxia at the time of delivery of fetal monkeys, umbilical cord occlusion and cerebral hypoperfusion at different stages of gestation in fetal sheep, and severe hypoxia and hypoperfusion in newborn piglets, have largely overcome these limitations...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132384/modulator-of-apoptosis-1-is-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-acute-ischemic-injury
#19
Su Jing Chan, Hui Zhao, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Chou Chai, Chong Teik Tan, Jiawen Huang, Ran Tao, Gen Hamanaka, Thiruma V Arumugam, Eng H Lo, Victor Chun Kong Yu, PeterTsun-Hon Wong
Modulator of apoptosis 1 (MOAP-1) is a Bax-associating protein highly enriched in the brain. In this study, we examined the role of MOAP-1 in promoting ischemic injuries following a stroke by investigating the consequences of MOAP-1 overexpression or deficiency in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. MOAP-1 overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells showed significantly lower cell viability following oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) treatment when compared to control cells. Consistently, MOAP-1-/- primary cortical neurons were observed to be more resistant against OGD treatment than the MOAP-1+/+ primary neurons...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129391/myeloid-cells-as-therapeutic-targets-in-neuroinflammation-after-stroke-specific-roles-of-neutrophils-and-neutrophil-platelet-interactions
#20
Alicia García-Culebras, Violeta Durán-Laforet, Carolina Peña-Martínez, Iván Ballesteros, Jesús M Pradillo, Jaime Díaz-Guzmán, Ignacio Lizasoain, María A Moro
Ischemic brain injury causes a local inflammatory response, involving the activation of resident brain cells such as microglia and the recruitment of infiltrating immune cells. Increasing evidence supports that plasticity of the myeloid cell lineage is determinant for the specific role of these cells on stroke outcome, from initiation and maintenance to resolution of post-ischemic inflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize some of the key characteristics of these cells and the mechanisms for their recruitment into the injured brain through interactions with platelets, endothelial cells and other leukocytes...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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