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Seminars in Neurology

Nathaniel M Robbins
A conflict of interest (COI) exists when a physician's professional responsibilities are compromised by personal or financial relationships. COIs between physicians and the pharmaceutical or medical device industry (Industry) are common. Collaborations with Industry have many potential benefits, but also raise potential ethical pitfalls. Industry-related COIs have widespread influence on medical education, research, and clinical practice, and therefore have profound implications for the integrity of the field of medicine...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Lisa Kearns, Alison Bateman-House, Arthur Caplan
Patients who suffer from life-threatening illnesses or are stricken with conditions that could result in serious morbidity who have exhausted all appropriate treatments may choose to try, through the Food and Drug Administration's expanded access program, an investigational drug or device in development. The program has succeeded for decades in allowing patients to access potentially helpful but still experimental agents. Nevertheless, the administration of investigational drugs outside of clinical trials raises several ethical issues...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Ariane Lewis
Although the concept of death by neurologic criteria is accepted throughout much of the world and death can legally be determined by neurologic criteria throughout the United States, the process is fraught with contentious ethical and legal controversies. I explore historic and contemporary ethical and legal disputes about determination of death by neurologic criteria including the need for consent from patients' surrogates prior to determination of death, the role of religion in determination of death, management of objections to determination of death by neurologic criteria, the approach to patients who are dead by neurologic criteria but are pregnant, and gamete retrieval after determination of death...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
K Brizzi, C J Creutzfeldt
Neuropalliative care is a new and growing field within neurology that focuses on improving the quality of life of patients with serious neurologic illnesses. While specialty-level palliative care training is available to interested neurologists, all neurologists can strive to provide primary palliative care for their patients. In this review, we will describe the scope of neuropalliative care, define patient populations who may benefit from palliative care, and explore the communication and symptom management skills essential to palliative care delivery...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Laura Cifrese, Fred Rincon
As medical decisions fall under more scrutiny and society demands increasing transparency of care, it is likely that more opportunities for conflicts will emerge. Similarly, with increasing demand and a static supply, the issue of who receives treatment and for how long naturally will arise. This mismatch leads to discussions of resource utilization and limitation of care in light of patients' values and rights. Clinicians should always be forthcoming with the uncertainty of prognostication while also articulating the severity of a patient's disease in relation to the risk and benefits of an intervention...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Mackenzie Graham, Colin P Doherty, Lorina Naci
Robust prognostic indicators of neurological recovery are urgently needed for acutely comatose patients. Functional neuroimaging is a highly sensitive tool for uncovering covert cognition and awareness in behaviorally nonresponsive patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness, and may be applicable to acutely comatose patients. Establishing a link between early detection of covert awareness in acutely comatose patients and eventual recovery of function could have significant implications for patient prognosis, treatment, and end-of-life decisions...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Spencer Septien, Michael A Rubin
Consciousness defines our humanity more than any other biologic phenomena that a clinician might be called upon to examine, diagnose, or treat. When family comes to the bedside of a patient, they hope to find them talking, thinking, and feeling. The complexity of consciousness allows an expansive gradation of dysfunction such that we must consider numerous potential insults, possible interventions, and often an unknown likelihood of recovery. As value-laden questions are more often in the hands of surrogate decision makers, the neurologist is given the herculean task of not only diagnosing and treating alterations of consciousness but also predicting the likely course of the disease to empower surrogates to make a choice most consistent with the preferences of the patient...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Neil H Vaishnav, Winston Chiong
The doctrine of informed consent sits at the intersection of law, ethics, and neuroscience, posing unique challenges for human subject research involving neurological patients. These challenges are compounded by the variegated nature of both neurological injury and the law governing research consent. This article provides a framework for investigators likely to encounter subjects with some degree of neurological impairment, whose capacity to consent requires scrupulous assessment prior to enrollment in research trials...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Abigail Lang, Erin Talati Paquette
When caring for minors, the clinician-patient relationship becomes more ethically complex by the inclusion of parents in the clinician-parent-patient triad. As they age, children become more capable of participating in the decision-making process. This involvement may lead them to either accept or refuse proposed care, both of which are ethically acceptable positions when the minor's capacity to participate in decision making is carefully considered in the context of their age, development, and overall health...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
James A Russell
Physician-hastened-death remains a controversial topic for patients and those who care for them. It is a particularly relevant topic for neurologists who currently, or will in the future, reside in jurisdictions where physician-hastened-death is legal. In this article, I attempt to provide a comprehensive and contemporary discussion of hastened-death issues in a measured and respectful fashion. My goal is to provide clinicians with the information necessary to mold their own judgment and conscience in preparation for a time in which one or more of their patients request their participation in physician-hastened-death...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Natalie C Wheeler, Sadhana Murali, Justin A Sattin
There are ethical aspects to each of the three phases of cerebrovascular disease: hyperacute management, acute prognostication and management of early complications, and long-term recovery and reintegration with the community. This article addresses ethical concerns pertinent to each phase. First, we discuss ethical issues regarding consent for thrombolysis and endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke, including a review of considerations regarding the provision of acute stroke treatment advice over the telephone...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Xiaowei W Su, Zachary Simmons
Recent advances in the genetics of neurologic diseases coupled with improvements in sensitivity and specificity are making genetic testing an increasingly important part of diagnosis and management for neurologists. However, the complex nature of genetic testing, the nuances of multiple result types, and the short- and long-term consequences of genetic diagnoses raise important ethical issues for the clinician. Neurologists must balance the ethical principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence, on the one hand, with patient autonomy on the other hand, when ordering such tests by facilitating shared decision making, carrying out their fiduciary responsibilities to patients, and ensuring that patients have adequate counseling to make informed decisions...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Christopher B Traner, Dorothy W Tolchin, Benjamin Tolchin
Neurologists regularly confront complex clinical scenarios that require the application of ethical principles to achieve a respectful and fair resolution. In this article, we describe the types of ethically precarious scenarios neurologists encounter, the current status of standards for ethics and communication training for neurology residents, and the present practice of ethics training in neurology residency programs. We make recommendations for optimizing bioethics training for neurology residents and suggest methods for assessing the efficacy of these training initiatives...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Ariane Lewis, James L Bernat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
David M Greer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Arielle M Kurzweil, Steven L Galetta
Struggling trainees exist in all residency programs across all fields. Remediation, the act of improving deficiencies in struggling trainees, is necessary to promote the graduation of competent physicians. Deficiencies may be primarily cognitive or behavioral, and occasionally physical limitations do arise during residency. Remediation is challenging for all parties involved, and there is a paucity of literature to help guide the most effective process. In this review, we outline key principles of effective remediation of a struggling trainee in the modern era of medical education...
August 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Darya Khazanova, Joseph E Safdieh
Continuing medical education (CME) is designed to keep physicians up-to-date on ever-changing practices and guidelines to provide patients with high quality care. CME is especially important in the field of neurology due to rapidly evolving knowledge and medical advances, and is a required element of maintenance of certification. CME itself has evolved from a passive, didactic approach to a learner-centered approach which utilizes new technologies, online learning, and simulations. CME improves knowledge, skills, and, to a lesser extent, patient outcomes, with multimodal, interactive interventions found to be most effective in teaching health care professionals...
August 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Lyell K Jones
Neurology trainee assessment is a required component of the education feedback loop, allowing programs and trainees to measure their progress toward established educational goals. In the era of competency-based medical education, assessment systems should be designed to inform decisions about each trainee's acquisition of the many competencies required for independent clinical neurology practice. In addition to the need to inform trainees and programs regarding trainee performance, assessment systems must be equipped to satisfy requirements established by accrediting bodies...
August 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Eelco F M Wijdicks, Sara E Hocker
Acute neurologic (and potentially disability prone) conditions are rarely taught and, if so, at the bedside and usually after the fact. Simulation training offers a realistic environment to teach rapid-fire decision making, how to take charge, and how best to approach a deteriorating, acutely ill neurologic patient.Simulating acute neurology is a newly emerging educational program. Proven principles of simulation, which may include teaching technical skills, can be applied to acute neurology (and neurointensive care)...
August 2018: Seminars in Neurology
K H Vincent Lau, Shaheen E Lakhan, Francis Achike
The use of technology in neurology education has revolutionized many aspects of medical teaching, addressing some important challenges of modern education such as information overload and the unique needs of millennial learners. However, it also has inherent problems, such as depersonalization and high development costs. Due to the heterogeneity of different applications, it is difficult to establish general principles to guide front line educators, but it may be possible to describe "minimum" best practice elements...
August 2018: Seminars in Neurology
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