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Seminars in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548059/gliomas-in-children
#1
Mariella G Filbin, Dominik Sturm
Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in children and adolescents and are thought to arise from their glial progenitors or stem cells. Although the exact cells of origin for most pediatric gliomas remain to be identified, our current understanding is that specific cell populations during CNS development are susceptible to particular oncogenic events during certain time windows and thus give rise to pediatric gliomas with distinct histological, molecular, and clinical features...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548058/meningiomas-overview-and-new-directions-in-therapy
#2
Nancy Wang, Matthias Osswald
The majority of meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumor, are considered to be benign, and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging features allow a preliminary diagnosis. Meningiomas can be classified in the World Health Organization system as grade I, II, or III, depending on various histological features. In many cases, observation is the preferred management option, although this means the absence of a histological diagnosis. If necessary, standard therapy consists of surgery with or without adjuvant radiation, depending on the tumor grade and the degree of resection...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548057/ependymoma
#3
Elizabeth R Gerstner, Kristian W Pajtler
Ependymoma can arise throughout the whole neuraxis. In children, tumors predominantly occur intracranially, whereas the spine is the most prevalent location in adults. Significant variance in the grade II versus grade III distinction of ependymomas has led to the acknowledgment that the clinical utility of histopathological classification is limited. Epigenomic profiling efforts have identified molecularly distinct groups of ependymomas that adequately reflect the biological, clinical, and histopathological heterogeneities across anatomical compartments, age groups, and grades...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548056/toward-precision-medicine-in-brain-metastases
#4
Anna S Berghoff, Priscilla K Brastianos
Brain metastases (BMs) reflect an area of high clinical need, as up to 40% of patients with metastatic cancer will develop this morbid and highly fatal complication. Historically, treatment strategies have relied on local approaches including radiosurgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, and neurosurgical resection. Recently, targeted and immune-modulating therapies have shown promising responses and have been introduced in the clinical management of patients with BMs. Recent improvements in genomic technologies have enriched our understanding of BMs and have demonstrated that BMs present with significant genetic divergence from the originating primary tumor, such that potentially targetable genetic alterations are detected only in the BMs...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548055/primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#5
Sarah Löw, Tracy T Batchelor
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma limited to the brain, spinal cord, leptomeninges, and eyes. The majority of patients are immunocompetent, with a median age of 65 years at diagnosis. Historically, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) was the first and sole treatment for PCNSL. Today, due to the recognized neurotoxicity of WBRT, this modality is usually avoided in the treatment. Most chemotherapy regimens are based on high-dose methotrexate plus the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, leading to high response rates, but 5-year survival is still poor at approximately 30% compared with other extranodal lymphomas...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548054/neurofibromatosis-and-schwannomatosis
#6
Scott R Plotkin, Antje Wick
Neurofibromatosis 1, neurofibromatosis 2, and schwannomatosis are a group of related classically inherited but often times sporadic tumor suppressor syndromes. Neuro-oncologists should recognize these syndromes, initiate necessary tests in patients with a clinical suspicion, and support genetic counseling of patients and families. In this review, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, day-to-day management including supportive care as well as updates on genetics, and experimental treatment strategies are discussed...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548053/concepts-for-immunotherapies-in-gliomas
#7
Michael Platten, David A Reardon
Strategies to empower the immune system to successfully attack cancers, including vaccination approaches, adaptive T cell therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators, have recently achieved remarkable success across a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless, with rare exception, only a minority of patients with a given type of cancer respond to an immunotherapeutic when administered as single-agent therapy. Although under extensive laboratory and clinical investigation, the role of these approaches for glioma patients remains to be determined...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548052/new-directions-in-the-treatment-of-glioblastoma
#8
Zachary J Reitman, Frank Winkler, Andrew E H Elia
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system. The current standard of care for GBM is maximal resection followed by postoperative radiation with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Despite this multimodality treatment, the median survival for GBM remains marginally better than 1 year. In the past decade, genome-wide analyses have uncovered new molecular features of GBM that have refined its classification and provided new insights into the molecular basis for GBM pathogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548051/what-s-new-in-grade-ii-and-grade-iii-gliomas
#9
Julie J Miller, Wolfgang Wick
The majority of World Health Organization grade II and grade III gliomas harbor heterozygous mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), and tumors with an IDH wild-type status show molecular features of a glioblastoma and simply may constitute a separate disease entity. This discovery has led to a profound shift in the way that gliomas are classified and, consequently, how treatment decisions are made. We will review the current understanding of IDH- mutant gliomagenesis and the preclinical models being used to investigate the underlying biology of these tumors and to explore new therapeutic options for these patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548050/radiomics-metabolic-and-molecular-mri-for-brain-tumors
#10
Philipp Kickingereder, Ovidiu Cristian Andronesi
Magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of brain tumors. Novel imaging techniques that specifically interrogate aspects of underlying tumor biology and biochemical pathways have great potential in neuro-oncology. This review focuses on the emerging role of 2-hydroxyglutarate-targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as radiomics and radiogenomics in establishing diagnosis for isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant gliomas, and for monitoring treatment response and predicting prognosis of this group of brain tumor patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548049/imaging-criteria-in-neuro-oncology
#11
Martha Nowosielski, Patrick Y Wen
The identification of more effective therapies for brain tumors has been limited in part by the lack of reliable criteria for determining response and progression. Since its introduction in 1990, the MacDonald criteria have been used in neuro-oncology clinical trials to determine response, but they fail to address issues such as pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression that have arisen with more recent therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group, a multidisciplinary international group consisting of neuro-oncologists, medical oncologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and neuropsychologists, was formed to improve response assessment and clinical trial endpoints in neuro-oncology...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548048/grading-of-diffuse-astrocytic-gliomas-a-review-of-studies-before-and-after-the-advent-of-idh-testing
#12
Andreas von Deimling, Takahiro Ono, Mitsuaki Shirahata, David N Louis
Estimating the malignancy level of tumors is key to management, and has been part of oncology practice for the past ∼100 years. A central aspect of assessing malignancy level is based on histological "grading"-a process in which a pathologist evaluates microscopic features of a tumor and interprets those findings in light of large prognostic studies. For the diffuse astrocytic gliomas, there have been many such studies over the past century and these have proven useful in estimating prognosis for patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548047/practical-implications-of-the-updated-who-classification-of-brain-tumors
#13
Maria Martinez-Lage, Felix Sahm
The updated 2016 WHO classification of Central Nervous System tumors introduced a novel concept of neuropathology diagnostics. Molecular parameters are now included into the definition of several entities. This evolution from a previously purely histology-based classification to an integrated approach of histology and genetic characteristics has implications in daily diagnostic and clinical practice. Both the spectrum of diagnostic workup demanded from the neuropathologist and the range of relevant markers to be considered by clinicians and clinical investigators have increased...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548046/origin-of-gliomas
#14
Daniel Cahill, Sevin Turcan
Malignant glioma is a common type of brain tumor that remains largely incurable. Although a definitive cell of origin of gliomas remains elusive, numerous population studies, sequencing efforts, and genetically engineered mouse models have contributed to our understanding of the early events that may lead to gliomagenesis. Herein we summarize our current knowledge on the population epidemiology of gliomas, heritable genetic risk factors, the somatic events that contribute to tumor evolution, and mouse models that have shed light on the glioma cell of origin...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548045/neuro-oncology
#15
Tracy Batchelor, Wolfgang Wick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548044/tracy-batchelor-md-and-dr-med-wolfgang-wick
#16
David M Greer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270946/ethical-issues-in-the-neurology-of-pregnancy
#17
Thomas I Cochrane
Decision making for pregnant women and fetuses who suffer brain injuries is emotionally difficult and conceptually challenging. Occasionally, both the pregnant woman and the fetus have suffered an injury that confers a poor neurological prognosis, and decisions about one of them will have implications for the other-making the process of decision making even more problematic. In this article, decision-making standards and principles are reviewed for both pregnant women and fetuses, using a real case from the author's institution...
December 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270945/neuroimaging-in-pregnant-women
#18
Thanissara Chansakul, Geoffrey S Young
Choosing the most appropriate diagnostic neuroimaging study for a pregnant woman involves assessing the pretest likelihood of serious treatable neurologic disease, the diagnostic utility of various available computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) modalities, and the risks of each. Of these three elements-pretest differential diagnosis, utility of MRI and CT, and risks of MR and CT-the risk component is perhaps the least well understood by most physicians. We provide a basic review of the intrinsic risks of MRI and CT, particularly radiation biology and radiation safety, as well as the risks pertaining to the use of contrast agents, to reduce provider confusion and anxiety and improve quality, safety, and efficiency of neuroimaging diagnosis in pregnant patients...
December 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270944/the-neurology-of-immune-mediated-disorders-in-women
#19
Ivana Vodopivec
Many neuroinflammatory disorders have a predilection for women; even if there is no female predominance, neuroinflammatory conditions in women pose a management challenge for several reasons. Disease activity of these conditions may change during pregnancy and commonly increases in the postpartum period. Uncontrolled disease activity may affect pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, immunomodulating agents that are used to suppress the disease activity may have a negative impact on fertility, pregnancy, and fetal outcomes, and on infants who are breastfed...
December 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270943/sex-matters-in-neuroinfectious-diseases
#20
Felicia C Chow
Although sex and gender have a major impact on the susceptibility and immunologic response to infectious diseases, these factors are often neglected. Identifying the mechanisms underlying sex-based differences in infectious diseases will facilitate the rational design and implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies that reduce risk and improve outcomes for women and men. In this article, we discuss two examples in neuroinfectious diseases of how sex matters: (1) the heightened risk of cerebrovascular disease in women living with HIV infection and (2) the implications of Zika virus infection on sexual and reproductive health and vaccine development for women...
December 2017: Seminars in Neurology
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