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Clinical Psychology Review

Kristin M Healey, Cali F Bartholomeusz, David L Penn
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with chronic schizophrenia (SCZ) consistently show impairments in social cognition (SC) that are associated with functional decline, and work suggests that similar associations exist in first-episode psychosis (FEP). The goal of the current article is to review and synthesize the current body of work examining SC in FEP. Secondary aims are to examine the relationship between SC and symptoms, and change in SC over time in FEP. DESIGN: Literature is reviewed from four key SC domains: emotion processing (EP), theory of mind (ToM), social perception (SP), and attributional style (AS)...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Allison M Waters, Michelle G Craske
The tendency to disproportionately allocate attention to threat stimuli, to evaluate ambiguous or benign situations as overly threatening, and to exhibit overgeneralised and indiscriminate conditioned fear responses to threat and safe stimuli are hallmark clinical correlates of pathological anxiety. Investigation of these processes in children and adolescents suggests that anxiety-related differences increase with age, and that the specific conditions under which anxious children differ from non-anxious peers are poorly understood...
September 23, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Rivka L Levin, Jennine S Rawana
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders are common and concerning mental health disorders. There is both empirical and theoretical support for an association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. This systematic review aims to summarize the extant literature on the comorbidity of ADHD and eating disorders across the lifespan, including the influences of sex, age, eating disorder diagnosis, and potential mediators. A total of 37 peer-reviewed studies on diagnosed ADHD and eating disturbances were identified through key research databases...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Kathryn Bennett, Katharina Manassis, Stephanie Duda, Alexa Bagnell, Gail A Bernstein, E Jane Garland, Lynn D Miller, Amanda Newton, Lehana Thabane, Pamela Wilansky
We conducted an overview of systematic reviews about child and adolescent anxiety treatment options (psychosocial; medication; combination; web/computer-based treatment) to support evidence informed decision-making. Three questions were addressed: (i) Is the treatment more effective than passive controls? (ii) Is there evidence that the treatment is superior to or non-inferior to (i.e., as good as) active controls? (iii) What is the quality of evidence for the treatment? Pre-specified inclusion criteria identified high quality systematic reviews (2000-2015) reporting treatment effects on anxiety diagnosis and symptom severity...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Lotte H J M Lemmens, Viola N L S Müller, Arnoud Arntz, Marcus J H Huibers
We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent to which these studies meet several important requirements for mechanism research. Our review indicates that in spite of increased attention for the topic, advances in theoretical consensus about necessities for mechanism research, and sophistication of study designs, research in this field is still heterogeneous and unsatisfactory in methodological respect...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Jessica L Hamilton, Lauren B Alloy
Heart rate variability has received growing attention in the depression literature, with several recent meta-analyses indicating that lower resting heart rate variability is associated with depression. However, the role of fluctuations in heart rate variability (or reactivity) in response to stress in depression remains less clear. The present review provides a systematic examination of the literature on heart rate variability reactivity to a laboratory-induced stressor task and depression, including 26 studies of reactivity in heart rate variability and clinical depression, remitted (or history of) depression, and subthreshold depression (or symptom-level depression) among adults, adolescents, and children...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Rebecca B Price, Meredith Wallace, Jennie M Kuckertz, Nader Amir, Simona Graur, Logan Cummings, Paul Popa, Per Carlbring, Yair Bar-Haim
Computer-based approaches, such as Attention Bias Modification (ABM), could help improve access to care for anxiety. Study-level meta-analyses of ABM have produced conflicting findings and leave critical questions unresolved regarding ABM's mechanisms of action and clinical potential. We pooled patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of children and adults with high-anxiety. Attentional bias (AB) towards threat, the target mechanism of ABM, was tested as an outcome and a mechanistic mediator and moderator of anxiety reduction...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Michelle A Gonzalez, Deborah J Jones
Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) is the standard of care for early onset (3 to 8years old) disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). Preliminary evidence suggests that BPT may also produce cascading treatment effects for comorbid and interrelated symptomatology in children, primarily internalizing problems, as well as symptomatology in multiple systems of the family, including caregiver depressive symptomatology. What is less well understood, however, is why and how BPT functions to impact these multiple symptom clusters within and between family members...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Sarah Vigerland, Fabian Lenhard, Marianne Bonnert, Maria Lalouni, Erik Hedman, Johan Ahlen, Ola Olén, Eva Serlachius, Brjánn Ljótsson
Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is a relatively novel treatment format with the potential to increase accessibility of evidence-based care. However, little is known about the feasibility and efficacy of ICBT in children and adolescents. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of ICBT for children and adolescents to provide an overview of the field and assess the efficacy of these interventions. A systematic literature search of six electronic databases was performed to identify ICBT intervention studies for children with a psychiatric condition, such as social anxiety disorder, or a somatic condition, such as chronic pain...
September 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Zac E Seidler, Alexei J Dawes, Simon M Rice, John L Oliffe, Haryana M Dhillon
AIM: Conformity to traditional masculine gender norms may deter men's help-seeking and/or impact the services men engage. Despite proliferating research, current evidence has not been evaluated systematically. This review summarises findings related to the role of masculinity on men's help-seeking for depression. METHOD: Six electronic databases were searched using terms related to masculinity, depression and help-seeking. Titles and abstracts were reviewed and data systematically extracted and examined for methodological quality...
September 10, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Matthew C Morris, Natalie Hellman, James L Abelson, Uma Rao
Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically exhibit altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. The goals of this study were to determine whether HPA and SNS alterations in the immediate aftermath of trauma predict subsequent PTSD symptom development and whether inconsistencies observed between studies can be explained by key demographic and methodological factors. This work informs secondary prevention of PTSD by identifying subgroups of trauma survivors at risk for PTSD...
September 4, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Lauren E Gibson, Lauren B Alloy, Lauren M Ellman
Traumatic life events have been robustly associated with various psychosis outcomes, including increased risk of psychotic disorders, the prodrome of psychosis, and dimensional measures of psychotic symptoms, such as attenuated positive psychotic symptoms. However, trauma exposure has been linked to various mental disorders; therefore, the specificity of trauma exposure to psychosis remains unclear. This review focuses on two understudied areas of the trauma and psychosis literature: 1) the specificity between trauma and psychosis in relation to other disorders that often result post-trauma, and 2) proposed mechanisms that uniquely link trauma to psychosis...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Ioannis Angelakis, Patricia A Gooding, Maria Panagioti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Lisa Weston, Joanne Hodgekins, Peter E Langdon
The aims of this study were to undertake a meta-analytic and systematic appraisal of the literature investigating the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) when used with individuals who have autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) for either a) affective disorders, or b) the symptoms of ASDs. Following a systematic search, 48 studies were included. CBT, used for affective disorders, was associated with a non-significant small to medium effect size, g=0.24, for self-report measures, a significant medium effect size, g=0...
August 4, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Amy Harrison, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Jesper Enander, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder unlikely to remit without treatment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for BDD was conducted, including published and unpublished trials to 26th November 2015. Primary outcomes were validated BDD measures; secondary outcomes included depression and insight. Meta-regressions were conducted to examine potential effects of variables on the primary outcome, including socio-demographic variables, comorbidity, symptom severity/duration, concomitant medication, treatment duration, and methodological quality of the RCTs...
August 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Christina Mohr-Jensen, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
The primary aim of this study was to systematically review and estimate the risk of arrests, convictions, and incarcerations associated with childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in long-term outcome studies. In addition, all included studies were qualitatively and systematically reviewed for predictors of long-term crimes. The databases Pubmed, PsycINFO and Embase were searched for all controlled studies that included children and adolescents (age 4-15) with ADHD who had been followed longitudinally and reported the frequency of arrests, convictions or incarcerations based on data from official sources...
August 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
S S Merkouris, S A Thomas, C J Browning, N A Dowling
This systematic review aimed to synthesise the evidence relating to pre-treatment predictors of gambling outcomes following psychological treatment for disordered gambling across multiple time-points (i.e., post-treatment, short-term, medium-term, and long-term). A systematic search from 1990 to 2016 identified 50 articles, from which 11 socio-demographic, 16 gambling-related, 21 psychological/psychosocial, 12 treatment, and no therapist-related variables, were identified. Male gender and low depression levels were the most consistent predictors of successful treatment outcomes across multiple time-points...
August 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Megan L Rogers, Fallon B Ringer, Thomas E Joiner
Agitation has been implicated as an acute risk factor for suicidal behavior, yet the literature to date has not been consolidated to better understand this relationship. We conducted a meta-analysis of the association between agitation and suicidal behavior to synthesize the existing literature (k=13 studies) and point out future directions for research. Results indicated that the association between agitation and suicidal behavior is moderate (Hedge's g=0.40, p=0.007, 95% CI [0.08, 0.72]). Follow-up meta-regressions revealed that age, gender, and year of publication were not significant moderators of the magnitude of this relationship...
August 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Michael W Otto, Abraham Eastman, Stephen Lo, Bridget A Hearon, Warren K Bickel, Michael Zvolensky, Jasper A J Smits, Stacey N Doan
Understanding the nature and influence of specific risk profiles is increasingly important for health behavior promotion. The purpose of this article is to document the value of two factors-anxiety sensitivity (AS) and working memory capacity (WMC)-for enhancing risk for the initiation and/or maintenance of a range of negative health behaviors. AS is a distress-related risk factor that potentiates avoidance/coping motivations for negative health behaviors. Stress provides the conditions for negative somatic and affective states, and AS amplifies the aversiveness of these experiences and correspondingly hinders adaptive functioning...
July 26, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Ryan J Jacoby, Jonathan S Abramowitz
The majority of treatment research on OCD has focused on pre/post treatment efficacy of exposure-based interventions, with less attention directed towards (a) understanding mechanisms of change, and (b) maximizing long-term effectiveness. Inhibitory learning theory (ILT) provides a novel foundation for understanding how exposure therapy reduces fear. Moreover, ILT is consistent with empirical evidence that raises questions about the more traditional (i.e., habituation) explanation for exposure therapy's efficacy...
July 25, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
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