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Seminars in Nephrology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753405/cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-children-with-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Christine B Sethna, Kumail Merchant, Abigail Reyes
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in individuals diagnosed with kidney disease during childhood. Children with kidney disease often incur a significant cardiovascular burden that leads to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Evidence has shown that children with kidney disease, including chronic kidney disease, dialysis, kidney transplantation, and nephrotic syndrome, develop abnormalities in cardiovascular markers such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and aortic stiffness...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753404/cardiovascular-disease-after-kidney-transplant
#2
REVIEW
Nitesh N Rao, P Toby Coates
Renal transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, despite successful kidney transplantation, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the major causes of patient death and hence graft loss. The antecedents of this increased risk reside within the development of end-stage kidney disease and dialysis. Risk factors for the development of CVD include diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Other transplant-specific factors include the presence of a patent arteriovenous fistula and immunosuppressive therapy...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753403/clinical-studies-of-interventions-to-mitigate-cardiovascular-risk-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#3
REVIEW
Dev Jegatheesan, Yeoungjee Cho, David W Johnson
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent in the peritoneal dialysis (PD) population, affecting up to 60% of cohorts. CVD is the primary cause of death in up to 40% of PD patients in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. Cardiovascular mortality rates are reported to be approximately 14 per 100 patient-years, which are 10- to 20-fold greater than those of age- and sex-matched controls. The excess risk of CVD is related to a combination of traditional risk factors (such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and insulin resistance), nontraditional (kidney disease-related) risk factors (such as anemia, chronic volume overload, inflammation, malnutrition, hyperuricemia, and mineral and bone disorder), and PD-specific risk factors (such as dialysis solutions, glycation end products, hypokalemia, residual kidney function, and ultrafiltration failure)...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753402/hif-activation-against-cvd-in-ckd-novel-treatment-opportunities
#4
REVIEW
Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Kai-Uwe Eckardt
Cardiovascular disease is a common and serious complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). One of the fundamental functions of the cardiovascular system is oxygen delivery, therefore cardiovascular disease inherently is linked to insufficient tissue oxygenation. Advances in our knowledge of cellular oxygen sensing by a family of prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) and their role in regulating hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) have led to the discovery of PHD inhibitors as HIF stabilizers. Several small-molecule PHD inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of anemia in CKD...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753401/vitamin-d-and-calcimimetics-in-cardiovascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Kenneth Lim, Takayuki Hamano, Ravi Thadhani
Cardiovascular disease has earned its place as one of the leading noncommunicable diseases that has become a modern-day global epidemic. The increasing incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has added to this enormous burden, given that CKD is now recognized as an established risk factor for accelerated cardiovascular disease. In fact, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the CKD population, with significant prognostic implications. Alterations in vitamin D levels as renal function declines has been linked invariably to the development of cardiovascular disease beyond a mere epiphenomenon, and has become an important focus in recent years in our search for new therapies...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753400/updates-on-the-mechanisms-and-the-care-of-cardiovascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Lucie Hénaut, Jean-Marc Chillon, Saïd Kamel, Ziad A Massy
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the progressive decrease in renal function leads to disturbances of mineral metabolism that generally cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The increase in serum parathyroid hormone is associated with reduced serum calcium and calcitriol levels and/or increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and phosphate levels. The resulting CKD-associated disorder of mineral and bone metabolism is associated with various other metabolic dysregulations such as acidosis, malnutrition, inflammation, and accumulation of uremic toxins...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753399/cardiovascular-disease-and-diabetic-kidney-disease
#7
REVIEW
Muhammad Maqbool, Mark E Cooper, Karin A M Jandeleit-Dahm
Diabetic kidney disease commonly is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are traditional common risk factors for both conditions including hypertension and poor glycemic control. However, it is likely that there are other pathophysiological mechanisms that explain the clinical phenomenon of increased cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients with chronic kidney and vice versa. Current management of both conditions includes aggressive glucose and blood pressure control. The protective role of treating dyslipidemia has been shown for cardiovascular disease, but the results for renal disease are not as clear...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753398/cardiovascular-risk-prediction-in-ckd
#8
REVIEW
Shoshana H Ballew, Kunihiro Matsushita
Cardiovascular disease is an important complication for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), warranting accurate risk prediction, but clinical guidelines are inconsistent regarding whether or how to use information on measures of CKD for predicting risk. Recent large meta-analyses have shown that key CKD measures (estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria) improve cardiovascular risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors, especially when albuminuria is added to prediction models. In addition, several recent studies have shown that the use of filtration markers other than serum creatinine, cystatin C, and β2 -microglobulin can improve cardiovascular risk prediction...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753397/introduction-kidney-disease-and-cardiovascular-disease
#9
EDITORIAL
Masaomi Nangaku
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602402/introduction-systems-biology-of-kidney-disease
#10
EDITORIAL
Kumar Sharma, Katalin Susztak, Subramaniam Pennathur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602401/contributory-role-of-gut-microbiota-and-their-metabolites-toward-cardiovascular-complications-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Daniel Y Li, W H Wilson Tang
The gut microbiome recently has emerged as a novel risk factor that impacts health and disease. Our gut microbiota can function as an endocrine organ through its unique ability to metabolize various dietary precursors, and can fuel the systemic inflammation observed in chronic disease. This is especially important in the setting of chronic kidney disease, in which microbial metabolism can contribute directly to accumulation of circulating toxins that then can alter and shift the balance of microbiota composition and downstream functions...
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602400/targeting-glucosylceramide-synthesis-in-the-treatment-of-rare-and-common-renal-disease
#12
REVIEW
James A Shayman
Sphingolipids, including ceramides, glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin, and sphingosine-1-phosphate, have been recognized as important molecules that regulate critical cellular functions. Although originally studied in the context of lysosomal storage diseases, the roles of these compounds in more common disorders involving metabolism, vascular disease, and aberrant growth has been the focus of recent studies, including in disorders that affect the kidneys. These efforts have led to new insights into Fabry disease, a classic disorder of lysosomal function that results in renal failure as well as in more common renal diseases including diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease...
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602399/metabolomics-and-metabolic-reprogramming-in-kidney-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Robert H Weiss
Kidney cancer, or renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is a disease of increasing incidence that commonly is seen in the general practice of nephrology. Despite this state of affairs, this fascinating and highly morbid disease frequently is under-represented, or even absent, from the curriculum of nephrologists in training and generally is underemphasized in national nephrology meetings, both scientific as well as clinical. Although classic concepts in cancer research in general had led to the concept that cancer is a disease resulting from mutations in the control of growth-regulating pathways, reinforced by the discovery of oncogenes, more contemporary research, particularly in kidney cancer, has uncovered changes in metabolic pathways mediated by those same genes that control tumor energetics and biosynthesis...
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602398/genome-wide-association-studies-of-metabolite-concentrations-mgwas-relevance-for-nephrology
#14
REVIEW
Anna Köttgen, Johannes Raffler, Peggy Sekula, Gabi Kastenmüller
Metabolites are small molecules that are intermediates or products of metabolism, many of which are freely filtered by the kidneys. In addition, the kidneys have a central role in metabolite anabolism and catabolism, as well as in active metabolite reabsorption and/or secretion during tubular passage. This review article illustrates how the coupling of genomics and metabolomics in genome-wide association analyses of metabolites can be used to illuminate mechanisms underlying human metabolism, with a special focus on insights relevant to nephrology...
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602397/a-systems-level-view-of-renal-metabolomics
#15
REVIEW
Eugene P Rhee
The measurement of select circulating metabolites such as creatinine, glucose, and cholesterol are integral to clinical medicine, with implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Metabolomics studies in nephrology research seek to build on this paradigm, with the goal to identify novel markers and causal participants in the pathogenesis of kidney disease and its complications. This article reviews three themes pertinent to this goal. Each is rooted in long-established principles of human physiology, with recent updates enabled by metabolomics and other tools...
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602396/lipidomics-and-biomarker-discovery-in-kidney-disease
#16
REVIEW
Farsad Afshinnia, Thekkelnaycke M Rajendiran, Stefanie Wernisch, Tanu Soni, Adil Jadoon, Alla Karnovsky, George Michailidis, Subramaniam Pennathur
Technological advances in mass spectrometry-based lipidomic platforms have provided the opportunity for comprehensive profiling of lipids in biological samples and shown alterations in the lipidome that occur in metabolic disorders. A lipidomic approach serves as a powerful tool for biomarker discovery and gaining insight to molecular mechanisms of disease, especially when integrated with other -omics platforms (ie, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) in the context of systems biology. In this review, we describe the workflow commonly applied to the conduct of lipidomic studies including important aspects of study design, sample preparation, biomarker identification and quantification, and data processing and analysis, as well as crucial considerations in clinical applications...
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602395/the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-coactivator-1%C3%AE-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Szu-Yuan Li, Katalin Susztak
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a key transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Several recent studies have evaluated the role of PGC-1α in various renal cell types in healthy and disease conditions. Renal tubule cells mostly depend on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for energy generation. A decrease in PGC-1α expression and fatty acid oxidation is commonly observed in patient samples and mouse models with acute and chronic kidney disease...
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602394/the-warburg-effect-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Guanshi Zhang, Manjula Darshi, Kumar Sharma
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Defining risk factors for DKD using a reductionist approach has proven challenging. Integrative omics-based systems biology tools have shed new insights in our understanding of DKD and have provided several key breakthroughs for identifying novel predictive and diagnostic biomarkers. In this review, we highlight the role of the Warburg effect in DKD and potential regulating factors such as sphingomyelin, fumarate, and pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 in shifting glucose flux from complete oxidation in mitochondria to the glycolytic pathway and its principal branches...
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602393/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-signaling-in-diabetic-kidney-disease-oxidative-stress-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Nicole Bernadette Flemming, Linda Alba Gallo, Josephine Maree Forbes
The kidneys are highly metabolic organs that produce vast quantities of adenosine triphosphate via oxidative phosphorylation and, as such, contain many mitochondria. Although mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are involved in many physiological processes in the kidneys, there is a plethora of evidence to suggest that excessive production may be a pathologic mediator of many chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic kidney disease. Despite this, results from clinical testing of antioxidant therapies have been generally underwhelming...
March 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291764/translating-knowledge-into-therapy-for-acute-kidney-injury
#20
REVIEW
Mark de Caestecker, Raymond Harris
No therapies have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with AKI this represents an important unmet medical need. A common feature of all of the therapeutic development efforts for AKI is that none were driven by target selection or preclinical modeling that was based primarily on human data. This is important when considering a heterogeneous and dynamic condition such as AKI, in which in the absence of more accurate molecular classifications, clinical cohorts are likely to include patients with different types of injury at different stages in the injury and repair continuum...
January 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
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