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Seminars in Nephrology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772627/not-the-usual-viral-suspects-parvovirus-b19-west-nile-virus-and-human-t-cell-lymphotrophic-virus-infections-after-kidney-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Raymund R Razonable
Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing clinical disease due to uncommon opportunistic viral pathogens. Refractory anemia is classically associated with parvovirus B19 infection. West Nile virus has the propensity to cause fever and neurologic symptoms, while spastic paresis and lymphoma can be triggered by human T cell lymphotrophic virus. In this review article, the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of less common viruses are discussed in the setting of kidney transplantation...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772626/respiratory-viruses-influenza-rsv-and-adenovirus-in-kidney-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Dana J Hawkinson, Michael G Ison
Although advances in immunosuppression and antimicrobial prophylaxis have led to improved patient and graft survival, respiratory viruses continue to be a common cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. We describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment options for influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus infection in the kidney transplant population.
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772625/human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-kidney-transplantation
#3
Kathleen O Degnan, Emily A Blumberg
Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer, healthier lives on highly active antiretroviral therapy and, as a result, interest in kidney transplantation for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal disease has increased. HIV is no longer considered a contraindication to solid-organ transplantation and the number of kidney transplants performed in HIV-infected patients each year is increasing steadily. HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients have had excellent outcomes overall, but there are still significant challenges, including high rates of acute rejection, drug-drug interactions, and poor outcomes in patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772624/human-papillomavirus-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#4
REVIEW
Peter V Chin-Hong
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common infection in kidney transplant recipients. HPV causes cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and head and neck cancers. Kidney transplant recipients have a disproportionate burden of disease given prolonged immunosuppression. Given the long pre-invasive state of precancer lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) most HPV-cancers are preventable with screening and targeted treatment of disease. Pre-transplant vaccination of age-eligible kidney transplant recipients is otherwise ideal...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772623/hepatitis-viruses-in-kidney-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
Kiran Gajurel, Jack T Stapleton
Hepatitis viruses are named for their primary clinical illness, inflammation of the liver. Currently, six types of viruses are designated hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D, E, and G), although only five of these cause hepatitis. Hepatitis viruses are composed of RNA and DNA viruses from different families and with different virologic properties, some of which typically cause acute hepatitis while others cause acute and chronic hepatitis. In addition to their role in liver disease, members of this group of viruses may cause a variety of pathologic changes in the kidney and other organs, and chronic infection may lead to cirrhosis in addition to raising a variety of important issues in the management of kidney transplant recipients...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772622/bk-and-other-polyomaviruses-in-kidney-transplantation
#6
Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Deirdre Sawinski
For more than 40 years, polyomaviruses (BK virus and JC virus) have been known to cause disease in human beings. Recently, 11 new polyomaviruses were discovered. However, the majority of these viruses are rare in renal transplant recipients and BK and JC viruses remain the most important polyomaviruses to impact this population. BK virus presents as BK virus nephropathy and has, in rare instances, been associated with hemorrhagic cystitis or ureteral strictures. JC virus can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or nephropathy in this population as well, but is uncommon...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772621/oncogenic-%C3%AE-herpesviruses-ebv-and-hhv8-in-kidney-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Jade Le
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) are γ herpesviruses associated with post-transplant malignancies in kidney transplant recipients. EBV is associated with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), with increased risk in EBV-seronegative patients on intensified immunosuppression. Human herpesvirus-8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), with an increased risk in certain patient populations. Diagnosis of PTLD and KS relies on tissue biopsy. The mainstay of therapy for both PTLD and Kaposi's sarcoma is a reduction of immunosuppression, and in the case of PTLD, consideration of rituximab...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772620/cytomegalovirus-and-other-%C3%AE-herpesviruses
#8
REVIEW
Carlos A Q Santos
Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpes virus (HHV)-6, and HHV-7 are ubiquitous β-herpesviruses that can cause opportunistic infection and disease in kidney transplant recipients. Active CMV infection and disease are associated with acute allograft failure and death, and HHV-6 and HHV-7 replication are associated with CMV disease. CMV prevention strategies are used commonly after kidney transplantation, and include prophylaxis with antiviral medications and preemptive treatment upon the detection of asymptomatic viral replication in blood...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772619/%C3%AE-herpes-virus-infections-among-renal-transplant-recipients
#9
REVIEW
Cybele Lara Abad, Raymund R Razonable
The α herpes viruses HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV often reactivate in the setting of immune suppression after solid organ transplantation. Oral or genital mucocutaneous disease is the most common clinical manifestation of HSV disease while VZV manifests as varicella (or chickenpox) or reactivation herpes zoster, characterized by a diffuse rash, or a painful unilateral vesicular eruption in a dermatomal distribution, respectively. The diagnosis of HSV and VZV is primarily based on history and clinical presentation, although diagnostic tests may be necessary for atypical presentations of disease...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772618/introduction-kidney-transplantation-and-viral-infection
#10
Daniel C Brennan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475663/established-and-emerging-strategies-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Julio E Pena-Polanco, Linda F Fried
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition that has become a significant public health concern. The mainstay therapeutic approach to CKD is based on renin-angiotensin system blockade as well as blood pressure and glycemic control. Despite these interventions, the management of CKD remains suboptimal, with a large proportion of the CKD population progressing to end-stage renal disease. Newer strategies for the treatment of CKD have emerged over the past years focusing on decreasing inflammation and delaying the development of fibrosis...
July 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475662/the-economic-burden-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#12
REVIEW
Virginia Wang, Helene Vilme, Matthew L Maciejewski, L Ebony Boulware
The growing prevalence and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) raises concerns about our capacity to manage its economic burden to patients, caregivers, and society. The societal direct and indirect costs of CKD and end-stage renal disease are substantial and increase throughout disease progression. There is significant variability in the evidence about direct and indirect costs attributable to CKD and end-stage renal disease, with the most complete evidence concentrated on direct health care costs of patients with advanced to end-stage CKD...
July 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475661/consequences-of-ckd-on-functioning
#13
REVIEW
Piyawan Kittiskulnam, Anoop Sheshadri, Kirsten L Johansen
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in the United States and throughout the world,(1) with approximately 13% of adults affected.(2) In addition, according to recent estimates, almost half of patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 are 70 years of age and older.(2) In the United States, the number of prevalent end-stage renal disease cases continues to increase in patients older than age 65. In light of the demographic characteristics of patients with CKD and ESRD, there has been considerable focus on associations between CKD and cardiovascular outcomes...
July 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475660/cardiovascular-disease-consequences-of-ckd
#14
REVIEW
Alan S Go
Chronic kidney disease, defined as reduced glomerular filtration rate (estimated using serum creatinine- and/or serum cystatin C-based equations) or excess urinary protein excretion, affects approximately 13% of adult Americans and is linked to a variety of clinical complications. Although persons with end-stage renal disease requiring chronic dialysis therapy experience a substantially high cardiovascular burden, whether mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events has been more controversial...
July 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475659/the-role-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Raymond K Hsu, Chi-Yuan Hsu
There is increasing recognition that acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are closely linked and likely promote one another. Underlying CKD now is recognized as a clear risk factor for AKI because both decreased glomerular filtration rate and increased proteinuria have been shown to be associated strongly with AKI. A growing body of literature also provides evidence that AKI accelerates the progression of CKD. Individuals who suffered dialysis-requiring AKI are particularly vulnerable to worse long-term renal outcomes, including end-stage renal disease...
July 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475658/the-patterns-risk-factors-and-prediction-of-progression-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-narrative-review
#16
REVIEW
David Collister, Thomas Ferguson, Paul Komenda, Navdeep Tangri
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem that is associated with excess morbidity, mortality, and health resource utilization. The progression of CKD is defined by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and leads to a variety of metabolic abnormalities including acidosis, hypertension, anemia, and mineral bone disorder. Lower glomerular filtration rate also bears a strong relationship with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, end-stage renal disease, and death. Patterns of CKD progression include linear and nonlinear trajectories, but kidney function can remain stable for years in some individuals...
July 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475657/measuring-and-assessing-kidney-function
#17
REVIEW
Priya Vart, Morgan E Grams
Assessment of kidney function is important for the detection and management of chronic kidney disease. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and level of albuminuria are two frequently used indices of kidney function assessment. Administration of an exogenous filtration marker to measure GFR and collection of urine for 24 hours to measure albumin excretion generally are considered the gold standard for GFR and albuminuria, respectively, but they are time consuming and onerous for the patient. Thus, in routine clinical practice, other methods are used more frequently to assess GFR and albuminuria...
July 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475656/disorders-of-iron-metabolism-and-anemia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Bhupesh Panwar, Orlando M Gutiérrez
Dysregulated iron homeostasis plays a central role in the development of anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is a major contributor toward resistance to treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology requires an in-depth understanding of normal iron physiology and regulation. Recent discoveries in the field of iron biology have greatly improved our understanding of the hormonal regulation of iron trafficking in human beings and how its alterations lead to the development of anemia of CKD...
July 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475655/introduction-a-foreword-to-ckd
#19
EDITORIAL
Harold I Feldman, Amanda Hyre Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339388/the-role-of-bcl-2-family-members-in-acute-kidney-injury
#20
REVIEW
Steven C Borkan
B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family proteins gather at the biologic cross-roads of renal cell survival: the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite shared sequence and structural features, members of this conserved protein family constantly antagonize each other in a life-and-death battle. BCL-2 members innocently reside within renal cells until activated or de-activated by physiologic stresses caused by common nephrotoxins, transient ischemia, or acute glomerulonephritis. Recent experimental data not only illuminate the intricate mechanisms of apoptosis, the most familiar form of BCL-2-mediated cell death, but emphasizes their newfound roles in necrosis, necroptosis, membrane pore transition regulated necrosis, and other forms of acute cell demise...
May 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
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