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Seminars in Nephrology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413256/causal-connections-from-chronic-kidney-disease-to-cardiac-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Melanie S Hulshoff, Sandip K Rath, Xingbo Xu, Michael Zeisberg, Elisabeth M Zeisberg
Cardiovascular disease and heart failure are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Because impairment of kidney function correlates with heart failure and cardiac fibrosis, a kidney-heart axis is suspected. Although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms still is evolving, the possibility that kidney-heart messengers could be intercepted offers ample reason to focus on this clinically highly relevant problem. Here, we review the current knowledge of how kidney injury causes heart failure and fibrosis...
November 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413255/oral-anticoagulation-in-patients-with-end-stage-kidney-disease-on-dialysis-and-atrial-fibrillation
#2
REVIEW
Austin Hu, Jingbo Niu, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have an elevated incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and are at increased risk for thromboembolic events. However, these patients are also at increased risk for bleeding and it is unclear whether they benefit from an oral anticoagulant. Point prevalent on July 1, 2015, only ~28% of dialysis patients with AF were on oral anticoagulation. Warfarin was the most commonly used oral anticoagulant, followed by apixaban, while dabigatran and rivaroxaban were rarely used...
November 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413254/heart-failure-in-end-stage-kidney-disease-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Janani Rangaswami, Peter A McCullough
Heart failure (HF) is a major comorbidity in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The pathogenesis of HF in patients on renal replacement therapy represents the confluence of several traditional and nontraditional vascular risk factors, unique to the milieu of chronic kidney disease and the dialysis modality. The diagnosis of HF with ESKD is complicated by the background of frequent inevitable fluid shifts superimposed on underlying myocardial pump abnormalities and dialysis-induced myocardial stunning...
November 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413253/risk-stratification-and-treatment-of-coronary-disease-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-end-stage-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Gautam R Shroff, Tara I Chang
Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease have an enormous burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but, paradoxically, their representation in randomized trials for the evaluation and management of coronary artery disease has been limited. Clinicians therefore are faced with the conundrum of synergizing evidence from observational studies, expert opinion, and extrapolation from the general population to provide care to this complex and clinically distinct patient population. In this review, we address clinical risk stratification of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease using traditional cardiovascular risk factors, noninvasive functional and structural cardiac imaging, invasive coronary angiography, and cardiovascular biomarkers...
November 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413252/dialysis-prescription-and-sudden-death
#5
REVIEW
Connie M Rhee, Jason A Chou, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
In the United States, end-stage renal disease patients receiving hemodialysis have an exceedingly high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), accounting for 29% of death events, likely relating to their uremic milieu, recurring exposure to fluid and electrolyte fluxes, and underlying cardiovascular pathology. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies have shown that SCD events, as well as mortality and hospitalizations, occur most frequently on the first dialysis day after the long interdialytic gap, suggesting that abrupt fluctuations in the accumulation and removal of electrolytes, fluid, and uremic toxins over the dialysis cycle may be contributory...
November 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413251/cardiovascular-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Donald J Weaver, Mark Mitsnefes
The lifespan of children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), although improved over the past 2 decades, remains low compared with the general pediatric population. Similar to adults with CKD, cardiovascular disease accounts for a majority of deaths in children with CKD because these patients have a high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular alterations that cause these terminal events begin early in pediatric CKD. Initially, these act to maintain hemodynamic homeostasis...
November 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413250/update-on-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder-in-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Joseph Lunyera, Julia J Scialla
Chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder (MBD) encompasses changes in mineral ion and vitamin D metabolism that are widespread in the setting of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. MBD components associate with cardiovascular disease in many epidemiologic studies. Through impacts on hypertension, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, vascular calcification, endothelial function, and cardiac remodeling and conduction, MBD may be a direct and targetable cause of cardiovascular disease...
November 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413249/introduction-cardiovascular-disease-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
EDITORIAL
David M Charytan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177025/treatment-of-iga-nephropathy-evolution-over-half-a-century
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan Barratt, Sydney C W Tang
Fifty years into the original description of IgA nephropathy, there is still no specific therapy for this condition and general measures including blood pressure control with blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and salt restriction remain the cornerstone to slow disease progression. Although the paucity in treatment advances could be related to the disease's complex pathogenesis, which requires multiple hits, heterogeneity as reflected by diverse ethnic differences, and genetic predisposition and histopathologic variations, many nonspecific and immunomodulatory agents have been tested with variable degrees of success and tribulations...
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177024/biomarkers-and-precision-medicine-in-iga-nephropathy
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Paolo Schena, Sharon Natasha Cox
The field of biomarker research in IgA nephropathy has experienced a major boost in recent years with the publication of a large number of scientific reports. Candidate biomarkers from blood, urine, and renal tissue obtained through the use of clinical chemistry, molecular biology, and omics have been proposed for translation in clinical practice. Nevertheless, individual biomarkers often lack sensitivity and specificity with the consequent impairment of disease specificity. This review, moving on from the analysis of the four-hit hypothesis, illustrates the biomarkers linked to the abnormal glycosylation process of IgA1 and the immune complex formation...
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177023/murine-models-of-human-iga-nephropathy
#11
REVIEW
Hitoshi Suzuki, Yusuke Suzuki
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. IgAN is characterized by mesangial deposits of IgA1-containing immune complexes. IgA1 usually co-deposits with complement C3 and variable IgG and/or IgM. Exactly 50 years have passed since IgAN was described, however, the pathogenesis of disease onset and progression have not been fully clarified. Animal models can re-create the complex immunologic microenvironments that foster human autoimmunity and nephritis and provide access to tissue compartments not readily examined in patients...
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177022/the-gut-renal-connection-in-iga-nephropathy
#12
REVIEW
Rosanna Coppo
The connection between a dysregulated gut-associated lymphoid tissue and IgA nephropathy (IgAN) was supposed decades ago after the observation of increased association of IgAN with celiac disease. Pivotal studies have shown a role for alimentary antigens, particularly gliadin in developing IgAN in BALB/c mice, and a reduction in IgA antigliadin antibodies and proteinuria was reported after gluten free-diet in patients with IgAN. Recently a genome-wide association study showed that most loci associated with IgAN also are associated with immune-mediated inflammatory bowel diseases, maintenance of the intestinal barrier, and response to gut pathogens...
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177021/role-of-the-spleen-tyrosine-kinase-pathway-in-driving-inflammation-in-iga-nephropathy
#13
REVIEW
Stephen McAdoo, Frederick W K Tam
IgA nephropathy is the most common type of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. At least 25% of patients may progress to kidney failure requiring dialysis or transplantation. Treatment of IgA nephropathy using generalized immunosuppression is controversial, with concerns regarding the balance of safety and efficacy in a nonspecific approach. This review describes the recent scientific evidence, and a current clinical trial, investigating whether spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) may be a novel and selective therapeutic target for IgA nephropathy...
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177020/role-of-mesangial-podocytic-tubular-cross-talk-in-iga-nephropathy
#14
REVIEW
Joseph C K Leung, Kar Neng Lai, Sydney C W Tang
IgA nephropathy (IgAN), a common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, is associated with a substantial risk of progression to end-stage renal failure. The disease runs a highly variable clinical course with frequent involvement of tubulointerstitial damage. A subgroup of IgAN with proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) and tubulointerstitial damage often is associated with rapid progression to end-stage renal failure. Human mesangial cell-derived mediators lead to podocyte and tubulointerstitial injury via mesangial-podocytic-tubular cross-talk...
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177019/histologic-classification-of-iga-nephropathy-past-present-and-future
#15
REVIEW
Maria F S Soares, Ian S D Roberts
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide. Since its description in 1968, a number of histologic descriptions and classification systems have emerged, the most recent of which is the Oxford Classification of IgAN. We present a historical panorama of histologic classifications of IgAN and discuss the most recent developments, updates, and future challenges of the Oxford Classification of IgAN.
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177018/aberrant-glycosylation-of-the-iga1-molecule-in-iga-nephropathy
#16
REVIEW
Jan Novak, Jonathan Barratt, Bruce A Julian, Matthew B Renfrow
IgA nephropathy, the most common primary glomerulonephritis in the world and a frequent cause of end-stage renal disease, is characterized by typical mesangial deposits of IgA1, as described by Berger and Hinglaise in 1968. Since then, it has been discovered that aberrant IgA1 O-glycosylation is involved in disease pathogenesis. Progress in glycomic, genomic, clinical, analytical, and biochemical studies has shown autoimmune features of IgA nephropathy. The autoimmune character of the disease is explained by a multihit pathogenesis model, wherein overproduction of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1, galactose-deficient in some O-glycans, by IgA1-secreting cells leads to increased levels of circulatory galactose-deficient IgA1...
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177017/genetic-determinants-of-iga-nephropathy-eastern-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Ming Li, Xue-Qing Yu
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common primary glomerulonephritides throughout the world and a major cause of end-stage renal disease among the East Asian population. It is widely considered that genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. This article summarizes the recent achievements in the genetic studies of IgAN, focusing mainly on studies performed in East Asia, from the early association studies of candidate genes and family based designs, to the recent genome-wide association studies...
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177016/genetic-determinants-of-iga-nephropathy-western-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Y Dana Neugut, Krzysztof Kiryluk
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) represents a genetically complex multifactorial trait. Its prevalence and clinical features vary geographically, and the disease has a range of clinical presentations that suggest multiple subtypes. Although familial aggregation of IgAN has been reported and prior linkage studies have highlighted significant locus heterogeneity, specific genetic variants underlying familial IgAN have not yet been defined. Population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered nearly 20 IgAN risk loci, providing novel insights into disease epidemiology and molecular mechanisms, shifting old paradigms of the disease pathogenesis...
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177015/epidemiology-of-iga-nephropathy-a-global-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Francesco Paolo Schena, Ionut Nistor
IgA nephropathy (IgAN), or Berger's disease, is the most common primary glomerular disease worldwide, but varies largely in its geographic distribution. A systematic review of 1,619 publications from the five continental regions of the world was performed to assess the prevalence of IgAN in different worldwide regions and analyze factors responsible for geographic differences. All observational studies that described the prevalence and incidence data on glomerulonephritis were considered. IgAN is more frequent in Asian populations (45 cases per million population/y in Japan) than in Caucasians (31 cases per million population/y in France)...
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177014/an-overview-of-iga-nephropathy-50-years-on
#20
EDITORIAL
Sydney C W Tang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
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