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Children and Youth Services Review

Amy M Salazar, Kevin P Haggerty, Stephanie S Roe
Most youth in foster care aspire to obtain higher education, but face daunting obstacles in doing so. While societal interest and effort to support foster youth in achieving higher education has grown, very few supports have evidence to show that they are effective at improving postsecondary outcomes. In an effort to address the dearth of clearly articulated, evidence-based postsecondary support approaches for foster youth, we have developed Fostering Higher Education (FHE), a comprehensive, structured, and evaluable postsecondary access and retention intervention composed of elements (professional educational advocacy, substance abuse prevention, mentoring) that are either evidence based or promising based on the scientific literature and their ability to address the outcomes of interest...
November 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Jeffrey Waid, Brianne H Kothari, Lew Bank, Bowen McBeath
Sibling co-placement and kinship care have each been shown to protect against the occurrence of placement change for youth in substitute care. However, little is known about the effects of different combinations of sibling placement and relative caregiver status on placement change. Nor does the field fully understand how family dynamics may differ in these households. Utilizing data from the Supporting Siblings in Foster Care study, this paper examines family dynamics across four typologies of living composition, and tests the effects of living composition membership on the odds of experiencing a placement change over an 18-month period of time...
September 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Lindsay Huffhines, Angela M Tunno, Bridget Cho, Erin P Hambrick, Ilse Campos, Brittany Lichty, Yo Jackson
State social service agency case files are a common mechanism for obtaining information about a child's maltreatment history, yet these documents are often challenging for researchers to access, and then to process in a manner consistent with the requirements of social science research designs. Specifically, accessing and navigating case files is an extensive undertaking, and a task that many researchers have had to maneuver with little guidance. Even after the files are in hand and the research questions and relevant variables have been clarified, case file information about a child's maltreatment exposure can be idiosyncratic, vague, inconsistent, and incomplete, making coding such information into useful variables for statistical analyses difficult...
August 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Benjamin T Allaire, Ramesh Raghavan, Derek S Brown
BACKGROUND: Many adolescents enter foster care with high body mass index (BMI), and patterns of treatment further exacerbate the risk of morbid obesity. A principal risk factor for such exacerbation is the use of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs). We examine the association between receiving a morbid obesity diagnosis and SGA prescriptions among adolescents in foster care. METHODS: We analyzed claims from 36 states' Medicaid Analytic Extract (MAX) files for 2000 through 2003...
August 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Vered Ben-David, Melissa Jonson-Reid, Charlotte Bright, Brett Drake
While marriage and childbirth are generally considered positive adult outcomes, it is not clear that this holds true among low income young women. Beyond adolescent parenting, little empirical data exists on various types of family formation in this population. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to understand predictors of type of family formation (e.g., none, childrearing, marriage, or both) among 4,385 young women with childhood histories of poverty and/or maltreatment; and (2) to explore whether family formation patterns were associated with negative adult behavioral and health outcomes...
August 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Katherine C Pears, Hyoun K Kim, Philip A Fisher
Children in foster care are at high risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, including school failure, alcohol and other substance abuse, and criminal behaviors. Promoting healthy development by increasing broad-impact positive skills may help reduce some of the risk factors for longer-term negative outcomes. School readiness has been linked to a number of positive outcomes across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and may also boost intermediary positive skills such as self-competence. This paper presents findings from a longitudinal study involving 192 children in foster care who were 5 years old at the start of the study...
May 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Elizabeth M Z Farmer, Melissa A Lippold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Amy M Salazar, Stephanie S Roe, Jessica S Ullrich, Kevin P Haggerty
Youth transitioning from foster care to adulthood access and succeed in college at much lower rates than the general population. A variety of services exist to support youth with their postsecondary goals, but few if any have evidence for their effectiveness. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded intervention development project to design Fostering Higher Education, a structured, testable postsecondary access and retention intervention for youth transitioning from foster care to adulthood, focus groups were conducted with community stakeholders to collect recommendations for how to most effectively structure the intervention...
May 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Rachel M Schmitz, Kimberly A Tyler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Lynsay Ayer, Patricia Kohl, Rosalie Malsberger, Lane Burgette
Men are increasingly the heads of single parent households, yet are often excluded from child welfare research and practice. To better serve all families in the child welfare system, it is necessary to understand the impact of primary caregiving men on children's wellbeing. In this study we investigated the longitudinal effects of primary caregiving fathers' mental health and substance use on child mental health, and examined possible differences by child age and gender. Regression analyses were conducted with the sample of 322 youth living with a male primary caregiver at the first wave of data collection from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing-II (NSCAW-II)...
April 1, 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
A R Yakubovich, L Sherr, L D Cluver, S Skeen, I S Hensels, A Macedo, M Tomlinson
Community-based organisations (CBOs) have the potential to provide high quality services for orphaned and vulnerable children in resource-limited settings. However, evidence is lacking as to whether CBOs are reaching those who are most vulnerable, whether attending these organisations is associated with greater psychosocial wellbeing, and how they might work. This study addressed these three questions using cross-sectional data from 1848 South African children aged 9-13. Data were obtained from the Young Carers and Child Community Care studies, which both investigated child wellbeing in South Africa using standardised self-report measures...
March 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Cindy C Sangalang, Alisia G T T Tran, Stephanie L Ayers, Flavio F Marsiglia
Little is known about adolescent bullying behavior and its relationship to substance use in ethnic minority populations. In a sample of youth of Mexican heritage, the current study aimed to examine the prevalence of bullying behavior subtypes and its co-occurrence with recent alcohol, cigarette, and inhalant use. Data come from a school-based substance use prevention study in the Southwestern U.S. (n=809). We explored the prevalence of bullying behavior by status among youth classified as bullies, victims, bully-victims, and rarely-involved bully-victims in an urban context...
February 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Kate Winskell, Kim S Miller, Kristi Ann Allen, Christopher O Obong'o
Although HIV-related deaths declined globally by 30% between 2005 and 2012, those among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) rose by 50%. This discrepancy is primarily due to failure to address the specific needs of ALHIV and resulting poor clinical outcomes related to late diagnosis and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The Families Matter! Program (FMP) is an evidence-based intervention for parents and caregivers of 9-12 year-olds that promotes positive parenting practices and effective parent-child communication about sexuality and sexual risk reduction...
February 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Kym R Ahrens, Renee Spencer, Mavis Bonnar, Alexis Coatney, Tyson Hall
PURPOSE: To explore how attitudes, norms, behaviors, responses to early life experiences, and protective factors influence pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection risks from the perspectives of current and former foster youth to inform the development of prevention strategies. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured individual qualitative interviews with a diverse sample of 22 current/former foster youth aged 15-21 years (63% female; average age = 18.6 years)...
February 1, 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Tat'Yana A Kenigsberg, Willie Winston, Priscilla A Gibson, Sonya S Brady
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Monica L Oxford, Maureen Marcenko, Charles B Fleming, Mary Jane Lohr, Susan J Spieker
Birth parents, once reunified with their child after a foster care placement, are in need of in-home support services to prevent reoccurrence of maltreatment and reentry into foster care, establish a strong relationship with their child, and enhance child well-being. Few studies have addressed the efficacy of home visiting services for reunified birth parents of toddlers. This study reports on the findings from a randomized control trial of a 10-week home visiting program, Promoting First Relationships(®) (Kelly, Sandoval, Zuckerman, & Buehlman, 2008), for a subsample of 43 reunified birth parents that were part of the larger trial...
February 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Arya Ansari, Robert Crosnoe
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 6,250), this study examined whether children who display difficult behaviors early in life watch more television from year-to-year. Results revealed that 4-year-old children's hyperactive, but not aggressive, behavior was associated with an increase in television watching over the ensuing year. These potential child effects, however, were embedded in both proximate and distal ecologies. That is, the association between children's hyperactivity and increases in their television exposure over time was strongest among those in the low-end of the socioeconomic distribution and those whose parents displayed less optimal mental health...
February 1, 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Andre D Mansion, Laurie Chassin
The high rates of substance disorders in the juvenile justice system, as well as the relation between substance use and reoffending, suggest the importance of substance use treatment service and understanding the factors that influence treatment provision. The current study tested whether race/ethnicity affects the relation between substance use disorder diagnosis and the receipt of substance use treatment services among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (N=638). Findings showed that among adolescents with a substance use disorder diagnosis, there were no race/ethnicity differences in substance use treatment receipt...
February 1, 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
Aaron Gottlieb
In the second half of the 20(th) century, the United States experienced a massive increase in incarceration. In response to this growth, a burgeoning scholarship has sought to explore the collateral consequences of incarceration for young children. However, this scholarship has less frequently explored the impact of incarceration on long-term outcomes, how incarceration experienced in periods other than early childhood impacts children, and whether the incarceration of family members other than parents has negative implications for children...
February 1, 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
W Alex Mason, Stacy-Ann A January, Charles B Fleming, Ronald W Thompson, Gilbert R Parra, Kevin P Haggerty, James J Snyder
Adolescent problem behaviors are costly for individuals and society. Promoting the self-regulatory functioning of youth may help prevent the development of such behaviors. Parent-training and family intervention programs have been shown to improve child and adolescent self-regulation. This study helps fill gaps in knowledge by testing for indirect effects of the Common Sense Parenting(®) (CSP) program on reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions through previously identified short-term improvements in parents' reports of their children's emotion regulation skills...
February 1, 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
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