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Children and Youth Services Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659652/young-child-poverty-in-the-united-states-analyzing-trends-in-poverty-and-the-role-of-anti-poverty-programs-using-the-supplemental-poverty-measure
#1
Jessica Pac, JaeHyun Nam, Jane Waldfogel, Christopher Wimer
Between 1968 and 2013, the poverty rate of young children age 0 to 5 years fell by nearly one third, in large part because of the role played by anti-poverty programs. However, young children in the U.S. still face a much higher rate of poverty than do older children in the U.S. They also continue to have a much higher poverty rate than do young children in other developed countries around the world. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs in addressing poverty among young children, using an improved measure of poverty, the Supplemental Poverty Measure...
March 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458409/adverse-childhood-experiences-among-youth-aging-out-of-foster-care-a-latent-class-analysis
#2
Rebecca Rebbe, Paula S Nurius, Kym R Ahrens, Mark E Courtney
Research has demonstrated that youth who age out, or emancipate, from foster care face deleterious outcomes across a variety of domains in early adulthood. This article builds on this knowledge base by investigating the role of adverse childhood experience accumulation and composition on these outcomes. A latent class analysis was performed to identify three subgroups: Complex Adversity, Environmental Adversity, and Lower Adversity. Differences are found amongst the classes in terms of young adult outcomes in terms of socio-economic outcomes, psychosocial problems, and criminal behaviors...
March 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736465/network-indicators-of-the-social-ecology-of-adolescents-in-relative-and-non-relative-foster-households
#3
Jennifer Blakeslee, Brianne H Kothari, Bowen McBeath, Paul Sorenson, Lew Bank
Though the presence, composition, and quality of social relationships-particularly as found in family networks-has an important influence on adolescent well-being, little is known about the social ecology of youth in foster care. This study examined the social networks of foster youth participating in a large RCT of an intervention for siblings in foster care. Youth reported on the people they lived with and the relatives they were in contact with, which provided indicators of network size, composition, and relationship quality...
February 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533569/the-influence-of-concrete-support-on-child-welfare-program-engagement-progress-and-recurrence
#4
Whitney L Rostad, Tia McGill Rogers, Mark J Chaffin
Families living in poverty are significantly more likely to become involved with child welfare services, and consequently, referred to interventions that target abusive and neglectful parenting practices. Program engagement and retention are difficult to achieve, possibly because of the concrete resource insufficiencies that may have contributed to a family's involvement with services in the first place. Various strategies have been used to enhance program completion, such as motivational interventions, monetary incentives, and financial assistance with concrete needs...
January 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461713/the-great-recession-and-risk-for-child-abuse-and-neglect
#5
William Schneider, Jane Waldfogel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and four measures of the risk for maternal child abuse and neglect: (1) maternal physical aggression; (2) maternal psychological aggression; (3) physical neglect by mothers; and (4) supervisory/exposure neglect by mothers. It draws on rich longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of families in 20 U.S. cities (N = 3,177; 50% African American, 25% Hispanic; 22% non-Hispanic white; 3% other)...
January 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626280/children-s-executive-function-in-a-cps-involved-sample-effects-of-cumulative-adversity-and-specific-types-of-adversity
#6
Leslie E Roos, Hyoun K Kim, Simone Schnabler, Philip A Fisher
Prior research has identified the presence of executive function (EF) deficits in child protective service (CPS) involved (versus non-involved) children but minimal work has examined predictors that might explain individual differences within these CPS-involved children. Here, we sought to characterize EF in a large sample (N=694) of CPS-involved children and examine how specific adversities (physical abuse, neglect, caregiver domestic violence, and caregiver substance dependence) and cumulative adversity (at ages 0-3 and 3-6 years) predict EF (at approximately 5-6 years)...
December 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479647/perspectives-on-disclosure-among-children-living-with-hiv-in-india
#7
Kayur Mehta, Maria L Ekstrand, Elsa Heylen, G N Sanjeeva, Anita Shet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626279/nutritional-status-of-foster-children-in-the-u-s-implications-for-cognitive-and-behavioral-development
#8
Ursula A Tooley, Zeina Makhoul, Philip A Fisher
OBJECTIVE: Children in foster care are at greater risk for poor health, physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental outcomes than are children in the general population. Considerable research links early nutrition to later cognitive and behavioral outcomes. The aim of this narrative review is to examine the prevalence of poor nutrition and its relation to subsequent health and development in foster children. METHOD: Relevant studies for inclusion were identified from numerous sources (e...
November 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503013/to-educate-or-to-incarcerate-factors-in-disproportionality-in-school-discipline
#9
Matthew L Mizel, Jeremy N V Miles, Eric R Pedersen, Joan S Tucker, Brett A Ewing, Elizabeth J D'Amico
The school-to-prison pipeline describes the process by which school suspension/expulsion may push adolescents into the justice system disproportionately based on race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. The current study moves the field forward by analyzing a survey of a diverse sample of 2,539 students in 10(th) to 12(th) grade in Southern California to examine how demographic, individual, and family factors contribute to disparities in office referral and suspension/expulsion. African Americans, boys, and students whose parents had less education were more likely to be suspended/expelled...
November 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496286/mental-health-interventions-for-children-in-foster-care-a-systematic-review
#10
Erin P Hambrick, Shani Oppenheim-Weller, Amanda M N'zi, Heather N Taussig
Children in foster care have high rates of adverse childhood experiences and are at risk for mental health problems. These problems can be difficult to ameliorate, creating a need for rigorous intervention research. Previous research suggests that intervening with children in foster care can be challenging for several reasons, including the severity and complexity of their mental health problems, and challenges engaging this often transitory population in mental health services. The goal of this article was to systematically review the intervention research that has been conducted with children in foster care, and to identify future research directions...
November 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435178/chaotic-experiences-and-low-income-children-s-social-emotional-development
#11
Kaeley C Bobbitt, Elizabeth T Gershoff
Development in early childhood is increasingly likely to take place in multiple contexts. Continuity and discontinuity in children's experiences across multiple contexts have important implications for their development. This study examines the extent to which children experience chaos in their homes and in their preschool settings is linked with their social-emotional development over the course of the preschool year. Data from a large, representative sample of low-income preschool children attending Head Start was used to test a series of multi-level models...
November 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688522/fostering-higher-education-a-postsecondary-access-and-retention-intervention-for-youth-with-foster-care-experience
#12
Amy M Salazar, Kevin P Haggerty, Stephanie S Roe
Most youth in foster care aspire to obtain higher education, but face daunting obstacles in doing so. While societal interest and effort to support foster youth in achieving higher education has grown, very few supports have evidence to show that they are effective at improving postsecondary outcomes. In an effort to address the dearth of clearly articulated, evidence-based postsecondary support approaches for foster youth, we have developed Fostering Higher Education (FHE), a comprehensive, structured, and evaluable postsecondary access and retention intervention composed of elements (professional educational advocacy, substance abuse prevention, mentoring) that are either evidence based or promising based on the scientific literature and their ability to address the outcomes of interest...
November 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990039/foster-care-placement-change-the-role-of-family-dynamics-and-household-composition
#13
Jeffrey Waid, Brianne H Kothari, Lew Bank, Bowen McBeath
Sibling co-placement and kinship care have each been shown to protect against the occurrence of placement change for youth in substitute care. However, little is known about the effects of different combinations of sibling placement and relative caregiver status on placement change. Nor does the field fully understand how family dynamics may differ in these households. Utilizing data from the Supporting Siblings in Foster Care study, this paper examines family dynamics across four typologies of living composition, and tests the effects of living composition membership on the odds of experiencing a placement change over an 18-month period of time...
September 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529397/behavior-problems-and-children-s-academic-achievement-a-test-of-growth-curve-models-with-gender-and-racial-differences
#14
Kristen P Kremer, Andrea Flower, Jin Huang, Michael G Vaughn
The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between externalizing and internalizing behavior and children's academic achievement, particularly in terms of whether these variables varied as a function of gender and race. Data pertaining to externalizing and internalizing behavior, academic achievement, gender, and race from three waves of the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 2028) were used. Results indicate that behavior problems had a negative relationship with academic performance and some of these associations endured over time...
August 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138207/case-file-coding-of-child-maltreatment-methods-challenges-and-innovations-in-a-longitudinal-project-of-youth-in-foster-care
#15
Lindsay Huffhines, Angela M Tunno, Bridget Cho, Erin P Hambrick, Ilse Campos, Brittany Lichty, Yo Jackson
State social service agency case files are a common mechanism for obtaining information about a child's maltreatment history, yet these documents are often challenging for researchers to access, and then to process in a manner consistent with the requirements of social science research designs. Specifically, accessing and navigating case files is an extensive undertaking, and a task that many researchers have had to maneuver with little guidance. Even after the files are in hand and the research questions and relevant variables have been clarified, case file information about a child's maltreatment exposure can be idiosyncratic, vague, inconsistent, and incomplete, making coding such information into useful variables for statistical analyses difficult...
August 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990038/morbid-obesity-and-use-of-second-generation-antipsychotics-among-adolescents-in-foster-care-evidence-from-medicaid
#16
Benjamin T Allaire, Ramesh Raghavan, Derek S Brown
BACKGROUND: Many adolescents enter foster care with high body mass index (BMI), and patterns of treatment further exacerbate the risk of morbid obesity. A principal risk factor for such exacerbation is the use of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs). We examine the association between receiving a morbid obesity diagnosis and SGA prescriptions among adolescents in foster care. METHODS: We analyzed claims from 36 states' Medicaid Analytic Extract (MAX) files for 2000 through 2003...
August 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840465/family-formation-a-positive-outcome-for-vulnerable-young-women
#17
Vered Ben-David, Melissa Jonson-Reid, Charlotte Bright, Brett Drake
While marriage and childbirth are generally considered positive adult outcomes, it is not clear that this holds true among low income young women. Beyond adolescent parenting, little empirical data exists on various types of family formation in this population. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to understand predictors of type of family formation (e.g., none, childrearing, marriage, or both) among 4,385 young women with childhood histories of poverty and/or maltreatment; and (2) to explore whether family formation patterns were associated with negative adult behavioral and health outcomes...
August 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158175/decreasing-risk-factors-for-later-alcohol-use-and-antisocial-behaviors-in-children-in-foster-care-by-increasing-early-promotive-factors
#18
Katherine C Pears, Hyoun K Kim, Philip A Fisher
Children in foster care are at high risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, including school failure, alcohol and other substance abuse, and criminal behaviors. Promoting healthy development by increasing broad-impact positive skills may help reduce some of the risk factors for longer-term negative outcomes. School readiness has been linked to a number of positive outcomes across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and may also boost intermediary positive skills such as self-competence. This paper presents findings from a longitudinal study involving 192 children in foster care who were 5 years old at the start of the study...
May 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134324/the-need-to-do-it-all-exploring-the-ways-in-which-treatment-foster-parents-enact-their-complex-role
#19
Elizabeth M Z Farmer, Melissa A Lippold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065508/professional-and-youth-perspectives-on-higher-education-focused-interventions-for-youth-transitioning-from-foster-care
#20
Amy M Salazar, Stephanie S Roe, Jessica S Ullrich, Kevin P Haggerty
Youth transitioning from foster care to adulthood access and succeed in college at much lower rates than the general population. A variety of services exist to support youth with their postsecondary goals, but few if any have evidence for their effectiveness. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded intervention development project to design Fostering Higher Education, a structured, testable postsecondary access and retention intervention for youth transitioning from foster care to adulthood, focus groups were conducted with community stakeholders to collect recommendations for how to most effectively structure the intervention...
May 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
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