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Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022676/the-development-of-a-clinical-skills-laboratory-at-ross-university-school-of-medicine
#1
Bernard Grevemeyer, Andrew Knight
Dedicated clinical skills laboratories (CSLs) that make use of models, mannequins and simulators, are being increasingly established in medical and veterinary schools. These have been commonplace in medical schools for more than two decades, but their incorporation within the teaching of veterinary curricula has occurred much more recently. In 2007, a decision was taken to establish a CSL at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine. We considered the range of skills that we wished to teach, the physical space and equipment needed, the storage and air conditioning requirements, the facilities needed to deliver PowerPoint lectures and case study presentations, and other essentials necessary to handle cadaver specimens...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022675/exploring-the-use-of-alternatives-to-animals-in-undergraduate-education-in-australia
#2
Catherine Mallia, Patricia Logan, Rafael Freire
The replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use in education is part of the regulatory legislation in Australia, and requires the use of alternatives to animals where appropriate. The aims of this study were: a) to explore the extent of the replacement of animals when teaching life sciences to Australian undergraduate students; b) to understand which alternative models were being used, and the learning objectives covered; and c) to gain some insight into the circumstances facilitating the use of alternatives to animals in education...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022674/a-survey-to-understand-public-opinion-regarding-animal-use-in-medical-training
#3
Ryan Merkley, John J Pippin, Ari R Joffe
A random survey was performed by ORC International Telephone CARAVAN®, on 24-27 March 2016, by trained interviewers. The aim of this survey was to gain further understanding of public perceptions in the United States of laboratory animal use, specifically for the purposes of medical training. Five statements were read in random order to the participants, who were then asked whether they agreed or disagreed with the statement. Survey responses were obtained from 1011 participants. For the combined statements: "If effective non-animal methods are available to train a) medical students and physicians, b) emergency physicians and paramedics, and c) paediatricians, those methods should be used instead of live animals", most respondents (82-83%) agreed...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022673/characterisation-of-a-canine-epithelial-cell-line-for-modelling-the-intestinal-barrier
#4
Michelle J Farquhar, Emma McCluskey, Ruth Staunton, Kevin R Hughes, Jennifer C Coltherd
Little is known about how food interacts with the intestinal epithelium during the digestion process. However, it is known that ingredients in food can modulate the intestinal barrier, and have the potential to disrupt homeostasis of the gut. Here, we characterise a conditionally immortalised canine intestinal epithelial cell (cIEC) line for use in in vitro assays, to assess the effect of food ingredients on intestinal barrier function, permeability, cell health, and inflammation. Microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed that cIECs had a phenotype consistent with those of epithelial origin, and were able to differentiate to mature enterocytes...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022672/replacing-animal-use-in-education-and-training
#5
EDITORIAL
Michael Balls
In the USA, the general public want the use of animals in medical training to cease, but, at least in Australia, some teachers want it to continue, even when effective non-animal alternatives are available.
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856647/the-replacement-of-animal-tests
#6
Robert D Combes
Progress toward the acceptance and application of validated alternative test methods as replacements for animal tests, is being frustrated by the unsatisfactory procedures involved in approving new test guidelines and deleting existing ones.
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856646/a-review-of-the-contributions-of-cross-discipline-collaborative-european-imi-efpia-research-projects-to-the-development-of-replacement-reduction-and-refinement-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Wolfensohn
The objective of this review is to report on whether, and if so, how, scientific research projects organised and managed within collaborative consortia across academia and industry are contributing to the Three Rs (i.e. reduction, replacement and refinement of the use of animals in research). A number of major technological developments have recently opened up possibilities for more direct, human-based approaches leading to a reassessment of the role and use of experimental animals in pharmacological research and biomedicine...
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856645/murine-alveolar-epithelial-cells-and-their-lentivirus-mediated-immortalisation
#8
Sandra Sapich, Marius Hittinger, Remi Hendrix-Jastrzebski, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths, Tobias May, Dagmar Wirth, Robert Bals, Nicole Schneider-Daum, Claus-Michael Lehr
In this study, we describe the isolation and immortalisation of primary murine alveolar epithelial cells (mAEpC), as well as their epithelial differentiation and barrier properties when grown on Transwell® inserts. Like human alveolar epithelial cells (hAEpC), mAEpC transdifferentiate in vitro from an alveolar type II (ATII) phenotype to an ATI-like phenotype and exhibit features of the air-blood barrier, such as the establishment of a thin monolayer with functional tight junctions (TJs). This is demonstrated by the expression of TJ proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) and the development of high transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), peaking at 1800Ω ·cm²...
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856644/is-live-tissue-training-ethically-justified-an-evidence-based-ethical-analysis
#9
Giovanni Rubeis, Florian Steger
Trauma training is a crucial element of medical education in the civilian sector, as well as in the military sector. Its aim is to prepare physicians, medics and nurses for stressful and demanding emergency situations. Training methods include live-tissue training (LTT) on animal models and simulation-based trauma education. For LTT, blast, gunshot or stab wounds are inflicted on anaesthetised animals, mostly goats and pigs, but sometimes non-human primates. This training method raises ethical concerns, especially in the light of increasingly sophisticated simulation-based methods...
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856643/questionable-progress-in-the-application-of-the-three-rs-to-improve-science-human-well-being-and-animal-welfare
#10
EDITORIAL
Michael Balls, Robert D Combes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553797/the-use-of-animals-in-contemporary-medical-research-if-not-animals-then-who-or-what
#11
Jolanta Zwolińska
Contemporary science provides a range of opportunities for improving research methods and for eliminating animals from experiments.
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553796/the-myth-of-replacement-and-the-legal-reality
#12
Edwina Bowles
Despite EU law being in force, animals are often used where alternative methods already exist and are readily available.
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553795/applicability-of-the-monocyte-activation-test-mat-in-the-quality-control-of-the-17dd-yellow-fever-vaccine
#13
Katherine Antunes de Mattos, Elaine Cristina Azevedo Navega, Vitor Fernandes Silva, Alessandra Santos Almeida, Cristiane Caldeira da Silva, Octavio Augusto França Presgrave, Daniel da Silva Guedes Junior, Isabella Fernandes Delgado
The need for alternatives to animal use in pyrogen testing has been driven by the Three Rs concept. This has resulted in the inclusion of the monocyte activation test (MAT) in the European Pharmacopoeia, 2010. However, some technical and regulatory obstacles must be overcome to ensure the effective implementation of the MAT by the industry, especially for the testing of biological products. The yellow fever (YF) vaccine (17DD-YFV) was chosen for evaluation in this study, in view of: a) the 2016-2018 outbreak of YF in Brazil; b) the increase in demand for 17DD-YFV doses; c) the complex production process with live attenuated virus; d) the presence of possible test interference factors, such as residual process components (e...
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553794/animal-research-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-its-limited-translation-for-clinical-benefit-and-the-way-forward
#14
Zeeshan Ali, P Charukeshi Chandrasekera, John J Pippin
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have reached pandemic proportions worldwide, and considerable research efforts have been dedicated to investigating disease pathology and therapeutic options. The two hallmark features of T2DM, insulin resistance and pancreatic dysfunction, have been studied extensively by using various animal models. Despite the knowledge acquired from such models, particularly mechanistic discoveries that sometimes mimic human T2DM mechanisms or pathways, many details of human T2DM pathogenesis remain unknown, therapeutic options remain limited, and a cure has eluded research...
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553793/why-are-validated-alternatives-not-being-used-to-replace-animal-tests
#15
EDITORIAL
Michael Balls
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313705/harmonisation-of-animal-testing-alternatives-in-china
#16
REVIEW
Shujun Cheng, Xiaoting Qu, Yao Qin
More and more countries are lining up to follow the EU's approach and implement a full ban on the sale of cosmetics that have been tested on animals, which has been the case in the EU since 2013. Besides animal welfare considerations, the need for mutual acceptance of data (MAD) and harmonisation of the global market have made the move toward non-animal testing a desirable general trend for countries worldwide. Over the last 10 years, the concept of alternative methods has been gradually developing in China...
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313704/fetal-bovine-serum-fbs-a-pain-in-the-dish
#17
Jan van der Valk, Gerhard Gstraunthaler
The use of Fetal Bovine Serum in replacement alternative methods is associated with serious animal welfare concerns, as well as worrying reproducibility issues.
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313703/the-use-of-gatekeeping-procedures-in-the-statistical-planning-of-animal-experiments
#18
Benjamin Mayer, Vicky Stahl, Martina Kron
Statistical sample size calculation is essential when planning animal experiments in basic medical research. Usually, such trials involve the testing of multiple hypotheses, and interpreting them in a confirmative manner would require the appropriate adjustment of the Type 1 error. This has to be taken into account as early as possible during sample size estimation - otherwise, all the results obtained would be exploratory, i.e. without cogency. In this paper, the concept of gatekeeping is introduced, along with alternative approaches for Type 1 error adjustment...
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313702/a-comparison-of-scaffold-free-and-scaffold-based-reconstructed-human-skin-models-as-alternatives-to-animal-use
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Beste Kinikoglu
Tissue engineered full-thickness human skin substitutes have various applications in the clinic and in the laboratory, such as in the treatment of burns or deep skin defects, and as reconstructed human skin models in the safety testing of drugs and cosmetics and in the fundamental study of skin biology and pathology. So far, different approaches have been proposed for the generation of reconstructed skin, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Here, the classic tissue engineering approach, based on cell-seeded polymeric scaffolds, is compared with the less-studied cell self-assembly approach, where the cells are coaxed to synthesise their own extracellular matrix (ECM)...
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313701/does-the-stress-inherent-to-laboratory-life-and-experimentation-on-animals-adversely-affect-research-data
#20
EDITORIAL
Jarrod Bailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
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