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Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856647/the-replacement-of-animal-tests
#1
Robert D Combes
Progress toward the acceptance and application of validated alternative test methods as replacements for animal tests, is being frustrated by the unsatisfactory procedures involved in approving new test guidelines and deleting existing ones.
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856646/a-review-of-the-contributions-of-cross-discipline-collaborative-european-imi-efpia-research-projects-to-the-development-of-replacement-reduction-and-refinement-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Sarah Wolfensohn
The objective of this review is to report on whether, and if so, how, scientific research projects organised and managed within collaborative consortia across academia and industry are contributing to the Three Rs (i.e. reduction, replacement and refinement of the use of animals in research). A number of major technological developments have recently opened up possibilities for more direct, human-based approaches leading to a reassessment of the role and use of experimental animals in pharmacological research and biomedicine...
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856645/murine-alveolar-epithelial-cells-and-their-lentivirus-mediated-immortalisation
#3
Sandra Sapich, Marius Hittinger, Remi Hendrix-Jastrzebski, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths, Tobias May, Dagmar Wirth, Robert Bals, Nicole Schneider-Daum, Claus-Michael Lehr
In this study, we describe the isolation and immortalisation of primary murine alveolar epithelial cells (mAEpC), as well as their epithelial differentiation and barrier properties when grown on Transwell® inserts. Like human alveolar epithelial cells (hAEpC), mAEpC transdifferentiate in vitro from an alveolar type II (ATII) phenotype to an ATI-like phenotype and exhibit features of the air-blood barrier, such as the establishment of a thin monolayer with functional tight junctions (TJs). This is demonstrated by the expression of TJ proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) and the development of high transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), peaking at 1800Ω ·cm²...
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856644/is-live-tissue-training-ethically-justified-an-evidence-based-ethical-analysis
#4
Giovanni Rubeis, Florian Steger
Trauma training is a crucial element of medical education in the civilian sector, as well as in the military sector. Its aim is to prepare physicians, medics and nurses for stressful and demanding emergency situations. Training methods include live-tissue training (LTT) on animal models and simulation-based trauma education. For LTT, blast, gunshot or stab wounds are inflicted on anaesthetised animals, mostly goats and pigs, but sometimes non-human primates. This training method raises ethical concerns, especially in the light of increasingly sophisticated simulation-based methods...
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856643/questionable-progress-in-the-application-of-the-three-rs-to-improve-science-human-well-being-and-animal-welfare
#5
EDITORIAL
Michael Balls, Robert D Combes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553797/the-use-of-animals-in-contemporary-medical-research-if-not-animals-then-who-or-what
#6
Jolanta Zwolińska
Contemporary science provides a range of opportunities for improving research methods and for eliminating animals from experiments.
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553796/the-myth-of-replacement-and-the-legal-reality
#7
Edwina Bowles
Despite EU law being in force, animals are often used where alternative methods already exist and are readily available.
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553795/applicability-of-the-monocyte-activation-test-mat-in-the-quality-control-of-the-17dd-yellow-fever-vaccine
#8
Katherine Antunes de Mattos, Elaine Cristina Azevedo Navega, Vitor Fernandes Silva, Alessandra Santos Almeida, Cristiane Caldeira da Silva, Octavio Augusto França Presgrave, Daniel da Silva Guedes Junior, Isabella Fernandes Delgado
The need for alternatives to animal use in pyrogen testing has been driven by the Three Rs concept. This has resulted in the inclusion of the monocyte activation test (MAT) in the European Pharmacopoeia, 2010. However, some technical and regulatory obstacles must be overcome to ensure the effective implementation of the MAT by the industry, especially for the testing of biological products. The yellow fever (YF) vaccine (17DD-YFV) was chosen for evaluation in this study, in view of: a) the 2016-2018 outbreak of YF in Brazil; b) the increase in demand for 17DD-YFV doses; c) the complex production process with live attenuated virus; d) the presence of possible test interference factors, such as residual process components (e...
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553794/animal-research-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-its-limited-translation-for-clinical-benefit-and-the-way-forward
#9
Zeeshan Ali, P Charukeshi Chandrasekera, John J Pippin
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have reached pandemic proportions worldwide, and considerable research efforts have been dedicated to investigating disease pathology and therapeutic options. The two hallmark features of T2DM, insulin resistance and pancreatic dysfunction, have been studied extensively by using various animal models. Despite the knowledge acquired from such models, particularly mechanistic discoveries that sometimes mimic human T2DM mechanisms or pathways, many details of human T2DM pathogenesis remain unknown, therapeutic options remain limited, and a cure has eluded research...
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553793/why-are-validated-alternatives-not-being-used-to-replace-animal-tests
#10
EDITORIAL
Michael Balls
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313705/harmonisation-of-animal-testing-alternatives-in-china
#11
REVIEW
Shujun Cheng, Xiaoting Qu, Yao Qin
More and more countries are lining up to follow the EU's approach and implement a full ban on the sale of cosmetics that have been tested on animals, which has been the case in the EU since 2013. Besides animal welfare considerations, the need for mutual acceptance of data (MAD) and harmonisation of the global market have made the move toward non-animal testing a desirable general trend for countries worldwide. Over the last 10 years, the concept of alternative methods has been gradually developing in China...
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313704/fetal-bovine-serum-fbs-a-pain-in-the-dish
#12
Jan van der Valk, Gerhard Gstraunthaler
The use of Fetal Bovine Serum in replacement alternative methods is associated with serious animal welfare concerns, as well as worrying reproducibility issues.
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313703/the-use-of-gatekeeping-procedures-in-the-statistical-planning-of-animal-experiments
#13
Benjamin Mayer, Vicky Stahl, Martina Kron
Statistical sample size calculation is essential when planning animal experiments in basic medical research. Usually, such trials involve the testing of multiple hypotheses, and interpreting them in a confirmative manner would require the appropriate adjustment of the Type 1 error. This has to be taken into account as early as possible during sample size estimation - otherwise, all the results obtained would be exploratory, i.e. without cogency. In this paper, the concept of gatekeeping is introduced, along with alternative approaches for Type 1 error adjustment...
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313702/a-comparison-of-scaffold-free-and-scaffold-based-reconstructed-human-skin-models-as-alternatives-to-animal-use
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Beste Kinikoglu
Tissue engineered full-thickness human skin substitutes have various applications in the clinic and in the laboratory, such as in the treatment of burns or deep skin defects, and as reconstructed human skin models in the safety testing of drugs and cosmetics and in the fundamental study of skin biology and pathology. So far, different approaches have been proposed for the generation of reconstructed skin, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Here, the classic tissue engineering approach, based on cell-seeded polymeric scaffolds, is compared with the less-studied cell self-assembly approach, where the cells are coaxed to synthesise their own extracellular matrix (ECM)...
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313701/does-the-stress-inherent-to-laboratory-life-and-experimentation-on-animals-adversely-affect-research-data
#15
EDITORIAL
Jarrod Bailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112455/on-the-journey-toward-humane-education-in-brazil-first-request-for-a-total-ban-of-harmful-animal-use-in-professional-and-higher-education
#16
REVIEW
Róber Bachinski, Gutemberg Alves, Mariângela Freitas de Almeida Souza, Vanessa Carli Bones, Rita de Cassia Maria Garcia, Rosangela Gebara, Valeska Regina Reque Ruiz, Luciano da Silva Alonso, Thales Tréz, Simone Tostes Oliveira, Alexandro Aluisio Rocha, Rita Leal Paixão, Roseli Pizzigatti Klein, Débora Gasparetto, Nick Jukes, Júlia Maria Matera
The Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH( is an independent and self-managed group comprised of academics from ten different Brazilian states and a number of international collaborators. In 2016, in a concerted effort to change the educational field in Brazil and propagate humane education, RedEH sent a request to the Brazilian National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA(, asking that harmful animal use in education in professional and undergraduate courses be banned. This was the first formal request for a total replacement of harmful animal use in education in Brazil, and represented a major historic landmark in the advancement of Brazilian science education...
November 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112454/training-and-good-science-are-the-foundation-stones-for-animal-replacement
#17
REVIEW
Kelly S Davidge, J Malcolm Wilkinson
Good science, the training of energetic and enthusiastic young researchers, and the experience of industry veterans, will all be needed to drive the implementation and regulatory approval of animal replacement methods in industry.
November 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112453/new-animal-free-concepts-and-test-methods-for-developmental-toxicity-and-peripheral-neurotoxicity
#18
Marcel Leist
The complex toxicological fields of repeat dose organ toxicity (RDT) and developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) still require new concepts and approaches to achieve a fully animal-free safety assessment of chemicals. One novel approach is the generation of relevant human cell types from pluripotent stem cells, and the use of such cells for the establishment of phenotypic test methods. Due to their broad endpoints, such tests capture multiple types of toxicants, i.e. they are a readout for the activation of many adverse outcome pathways (AOPs)...
November 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112452/high-throughput-prediction-of-nephrotoxicity-in-humans
#19
Lit-Hsin Loo, Daniele Zink
The Lush Science Prize 2016 was awarded to Daniele Zink and Lit-Hsin Loo for the interdisciplinary and collaborative work between their research groups in developing alternative methods for the prediction of nephrotoxicity in humans. The collaboration has led to the establishment of a series of pioneering alternative methods for nephrotoxicity prediction, which includes: predictive gene expression markers based on pro-inflammatory responses; predictive in vitro cellular models based on pluripotent stem cell-derived proximal tubular-like cells; and predictive cellular phenotypic markers based on chromatin and cytoskeletal changes...
November 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112451/2016-lush-science-prize
#20
Jenny McCann, Terry McCann
The Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by awarding monetary prizes totalling £250,000 to the most effective projects and individuals who have been working toward the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. Prizes are awarded for developments in five strategic areas: Science; Lobbying; Training; Public Awareness; and Young Researchers. In the event of a major breakthrough leading to the replacement of animal tests in the area of 21st Century Toxicology, a Black Box Prize (equivalent to the entire annual fund of £250,000) is awarded...
November 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
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