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Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365336/brazil-starts-to-ban-animal-use-in-higher-education-a-positive-and-progressive-development
#1
Rita de Cássia Maria Garcia, Nick Jukes, Vanessa Bones, Rosangela Gebara, Mariângela Freitas de Almeida Souza, Valeska Regina Reque Ruiz, Luciano Alonso, Thales Tréz, Simone Tostes Oliveira, Alexandro Aluisio Rocha, Gutemberg Alves, Rita Leal Paixão, Rita Cassia Alves Alcântara Menezes, Claudia Dias, Monica Levy Andersen, Débora Gasparetto, Karynn Capilé, Júlia Maria Matera, Róber Bachinski
The Brazilian government has published a resolution that bans animal use in some practical classes within undergraduate and high school technical education from April 2019. Resolution No. 38/2018, issued by the National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA), bans the killing of animals for dissection purposes and animal experiments in practical classes that do not involve the acquisition of new skills. The initial call for the ban was by the Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH), an independent body comprising Brazilian professors and international collaborators dedicated to the implementation of replacement alternatives in education...
September 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365335/in-vitro-human-tissues-via-multi-material-3-d-bioprinting
#2
REVIEW
David B Kolesky, Kimberly A Homan, Mark Skylar-Scott, Jennifer A Lewis
This paper highlights the foundational research on multi-material 3-D bioprinting of human tissues, for which the Lewis Bioprinting team at Harvard University was awarded the 2017 Lush Science Prize. The team's bioprinting platform enables the rapid fabrication of 3-D human tissues that contain all of the essential components found in their in vivo counterparts: cells, vasculature (or other tubular features) and extracellular matrix. The printed 3-D tissues are housed within a customised perfusion system and are subjected to controlled microphysiological environments over long durations (days to months)...
September 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365334/2017-lush-science-prize
#3
Jenny McCann, Terry McCann
Now in its sixth year, the Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by awarding money prizes of up to £350,000 to the most effective projects and individuals who have been working towards the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. Prizes are awarded for developments in five strategic areas: Science; Lobbying; Training; Public Awareness; and Young Researchers. In the event of a major breakthrough leading to the replacement of animal tests in the area of 21st Century Toxicology, a Black Box Prize (equivalent to the entire annual fund) is awarded...
September 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365333/the-2017-lush-prize-awards
#4
EDITORIAL
Kelly BéruBé, Craig Redmond
This year saw eighteen prizewinning projects from eleven countries, and a new award in recognition of the work of Andrew Tyler.
September 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022676/the-development-of-a-clinical-skills-laboratory-at-ross-university-school-of-medicine
#5
Bernard Grevemeyer, Andrew Knight
Dedicated clinical skills laboratories (CSLs) that make use of models, mannequins and simulators, are being increasingly established in medical and veterinary schools. These have been commonplace in medical schools for more than two decades, but their incorporation within the teaching of veterinary curricula has occurred much more recently. In 2007, a decision was taken to establish a CSL at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine. We considered the range of skills that we wished to teach, the physical space and equipment needed, the storage and air conditioning requirements, the facilities needed to deliver PowerPoint lectures and case study presentations, and other essentials necessary to handle cadaver specimens...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022675/exploring-the-use-of-alternatives-to-animals-in-undergraduate-education-in-australia
#6
Catherine Mallia, Patricia Logan, Rafael Freire
The replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use in education is part of the regulatory legislation in Australia, and requires the use of alternatives to animals where appropriate. The aims of this study were: a) to explore the extent of the replacement of animals when teaching life sciences to Australian undergraduate students; b) to understand which alternative models were being used, and the learning objectives covered; and c) to gain some insight into the circumstances facilitating the use of alternatives to animals in education...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022674/a-survey-to-understand-public-opinion-regarding-animal-use-in-medical-training
#7
Ryan Merkley, John J Pippin, Ari R Joffe
A random survey was performed by ORC International Telephone CARAVAN®, on 24-27 March 2016, by trained interviewers. The aim of this survey was to gain further understanding of public perceptions in the United States of laboratory animal use, specifically for the purposes of medical training. Five statements were read in random order to the participants, who were then asked whether they agreed or disagreed with the statement. Survey responses were obtained from 1011 participants. For the combined statements: "If effective non-animal methods are available to train a) medical students and physicians, b) emergency physicians and paramedics, and c) paediatricians, those methods should be used instead of live animals", most respondents (82-83%) agreed...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022673/characterisation-of-a-canine-epithelial-cell-line-for-modelling-the-intestinal-barrier
#8
Michelle J Farquhar, Emma McCluskey, Ruth Staunton, Kevin R Hughes, Jennifer C Coltherd
Little is known about how food interacts with the intestinal epithelium during the digestion process. However, it is known that ingredients in food can modulate the intestinal barrier, and have the potential to disrupt homeostasis of the gut. Here, we characterise a conditionally immortalised canine intestinal epithelial cell (cIEC) line for use in in vitro assays, to assess the effect of food ingredients on intestinal barrier function, permeability, cell health, and inflammation. Microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed that cIECs had a phenotype consistent with those of epithelial origin, and were able to differentiate to mature enterocytes...
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022672/replacing-animal-use-in-education-and-training
#9
EDITORIAL
Michael Balls
In the USA, the general public want the use of animals in medical training to cease, but, at least in Australia, some teachers want it to continue, even when effective non-animal alternatives are available.
July 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856647/the-replacement-of-animal-tests
#10
Robert D Combes
Progress toward the acceptance and application of validated alternative test methods as replacements for animal tests, is being frustrated by the unsatisfactory procedures involved in approving new test guidelines and deleting existing ones.
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856646/a-review-of-the-contributions-of-cross-discipline-collaborative-european-imi-efpia-research-projects-to-the-development-of-replacement-reduction-and-refinement-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Wolfensohn
The objective of this review is to report on whether, and if so, how, scientific research projects organised and managed within collaborative consortia across academia and industry are contributing to the Three Rs (i.e. reduction, replacement and refinement of the use of animals in research). A number of major technological developments have recently opened up possibilities for more direct, human-based approaches leading to a reassessment of the role and use of experimental animals in pharmacological research and biomedicine...
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856645/murine-alveolar-epithelial-cells-and-their-lentivirus-mediated-immortalisation
#12
Sandra Sapich, Marius Hittinger, Remi Hendrix-Jastrzebski, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths, Tobias May, Dagmar Wirth, Robert Bals, Nicole Schneider-Daum, Claus-Michael Lehr
In this study, we describe the isolation and immortalisation of primary murine alveolar epithelial cells (mAEpC), as well as their epithelial differentiation and barrier properties when grown on Transwell® inserts. Like human alveolar epithelial cells (hAEpC), mAEpC transdifferentiate in vitro from an alveolar type II (ATII) phenotype to an ATI-like phenotype and exhibit features of the air-blood barrier, such as the establishment of a thin monolayer with functional tight junctions (TJs). This is demonstrated by the expression of TJ proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) and the development of high transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), peaking at 1800Ω ·cm²...
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856644/is-live-tissue-training-ethically-justified-an-evidence-based-ethical-analysis
#13
Giovanni Rubeis, Florian Steger
Trauma training is a crucial element of medical education in the civilian sector, as well as in the military sector. Its aim is to prepare physicians, medics and nurses for stressful and demanding emergency situations. Training methods include live-tissue training (LTT) on animal models and simulation-based trauma education. For LTT, blast, gunshot or stab wounds are inflicted on anaesthetised animals, mostly goats and pigs, but sometimes non-human primates. This training method raises ethical concerns, especially in the light of increasingly sophisticated simulation-based methods...
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856643/questionable-progress-in-the-application-of-the-three-rs-to-improve-science-human-well-being-and-animal-welfare
#14
EDITORIAL
Michael Balls, Robert D Combes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553797/the-use-of-animals-in-contemporary-medical-research-if-not-animals-then-who-or-what
#15
Jolanta Zwolińska
Contemporary science provides a range of opportunities for improving research methods and for eliminating animals from experiments.
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553796/the-myth-of-replacement-and-the-legal-reality
#16
Edwina Bowles
Despite EU law being in force, animals are often used where alternative methods already exist and are readily available.
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553795/applicability-of-the-monocyte-activation-test-mat-in-the-quality-control-of-the-17dd-yellow-fever-vaccine
#17
Katherine Antunes de Mattos, Elaine Cristina Azevedo Navega, Vitor Fernandes Silva, Alessandra Santos Almeida, Cristiane Caldeira da Silva, Octavio Augusto França Presgrave, Daniel da Silva Guedes Junior, Isabella Fernandes Delgado
The need for alternatives to animal use in pyrogen testing has been driven by the Three Rs concept. This has resulted in the inclusion of the monocyte activation test (MAT) in the European Pharmacopoeia, 2010. However, some technical and regulatory obstacles must be overcome to ensure the effective implementation of the MAT by the industry, especially for the testing of biological products. The yellow fever (YF) vaccine (17DD-YFV) was chosen for evaluation in this study, in view of: a) the 2016-2018 outbreak of YF in Brazil; b) the increase in demand for 17DD-YFV doses; c) the complex production process with live attenuated virus; d) the presence of possible test interference factors, such as residual process components (e...
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553794/animal-research-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-its-limited-translation-for-clinical-benefit-and-the-way-forward
#18
Zeeshan Ali, P Charukeshi Chandrasekera, John J Pippin
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have reached pandemic proportions worldwide, and considerable research efforts have been dedicated to investigating disease pathology and therapeutic options. The two hallmark features of T2DM, insulin resistance and pancreatic dysfunction, have been studied extensively by using various animal models. Despite the knowledge acquired from such models, particularly mechanistic discoveries that sometimes mimic human T2DM mechanisms or pathways, many details of human T2DM pathogenesis remain unknown, therapeutic options remain limited, and a cure has eluded research...
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553793/why-are-validated-alternatives-not-being-used-to-replace-animal-tests
#19
EDITORIAL
Michael Balls
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313705/harmonisation-of-animal-testing-alternatives-in-china
#20
REVIEW
Shujun Cheng, Xiaoting Qu, Yao Qin
More and more countries are lining up to follow the EU's approach and implement a full ban on the sale of cosmetics that have been tested on animals, which has been the case in the EU since 2013. Besides animal welfare considerations, the need for mutual acceptance of data (MAD) and harmonisation of the global market have made the move toward non-animal testing a desirable general trend for countries worldwide. Over the last 10 years, the concept of alternative methods has been gradually developing in China...
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
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