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Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805832/a-multi-faceted-approach-to-achieving-the-global-acceptance-of-animal-free-research-methods
#1
REVIEW
Jodie Melbourne, Patricia Bishop, Jeffrey Brown, Gilly Stoddart
In 2015, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd. was awarded the Lush Training Prize for its broad approach to education and training on the effective use of human-relevant, non-animal research techniques. The prize was awarded for work that included hosting workshops and webinars, initiating in-person training sessions and developing educational resources. The Consortium works closely with industry and regulatory agencies to identify and overcome barriers to the validation and use of alternatives to animal testing, by using an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of these methods...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805831/establishment-of-a-tumour-stroma-airway-model-oncocilair-to-accelerate-the-development-of-human-therapies-against-lung-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Christophe Mas, Bernadett Boda, Mireille Caul Futy, Song Huang, Ludovic Wisniewski, Samuel Constant
This paper highlights the work for which OncoTheis, a Swiss biotechnology company, engaged in the development of innovative bioengineered tissues and organoids for cancer research, was co-awarded the 2015 Lush Science Prize. Noting that the use of animal models failed to lead to the design of effective treatments for cancer, OncoTheis has opted to develop in vitro models based exclusively on human cells. The company currently focuses on lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with more than one million deaths per year...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805830/body-on-a-chip-systems-for-animal-free-toxicity-testing
#3
REVIEW
Gretchen J Mahler, Mandy B Esch, Tracy Stokol, James J Hickman, Michael L Shuler
Body-on-a-chip systems replicate the size relationships of organs, blood distribution and blood flow, in accordance with human physiology. When operated with tissues derived from human cell sources, these systems are capable of simulating human metabolism, including the conversion of a prodrug to its effective metabolite, as well as its subsequent therapeutic actions and toxic side-effects. The system also permits the measurement of human tissue electrical and mechanical reactions, which provide a measure of functional response...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805829/2015-lush-science-prize
#4
REVIEW
Jenny McCann, Terry McCann
The Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by rewarding the most effective projects and individuals who have been working toward the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. Prizes are awarded for developments in five strategic areas: Science; Lobbying; Training; Public Awareness; and Young Researchers. Should there be a major breakthrough in 21st century toxicology, a Black Box Prize equivalent to the entire annual fund of £250,000 is awarded. A Background Paper is prepared each year, prior to the judging process, to provide the panel with a brief overview of current developments in the field of Replacement alternatives, particularly those relevant to the concept of toxicity pathways...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805828/the-adverse-outcome-pathway-for-skin-sensitisation-moving-closer-to-replacing-animal-testing
#5
REVIEW
Terry W Schultz, Gergana Dimitrova, Sabcho Dimitrov, Ovanes G Mekenyan
This article outlines the work of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that led to being jointly awarded the 2015 Lush Black Box Prize. The award-winning work centred on the development of 'The Adverse Outcome Pathway for Skin Sensitisation Initiated by Covalent Binding to Proteins'. This Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) has provided the mechanistic basis for the integration of skin sensitisation-related information. Recent developments in integrated approaches to testing and assessment, based on the AOP, are summarised...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805827/nrf2-activation-as-a-key-event-triggered-by-skin-sensitisers-the-development-of-the-stable-keratinosens-reporter-gene-assay
#6
REVIEW
Andreas Natsch, Roger Emter
The 21st century paradigm for toxicology and the adverse outcome pathway concept envisage a future toxicology largely based on mechanistic in vitro assays and relying mainly on cellular models. In the skin sensitisation field, this concept was not intuitive at the beginning. Given the high structural diversity of skin sensitising molecules, classical receptor binding as the molecular initiating event in a cell-based assay could be excluded from the start, leaving the question of how cells could sense potential skin sensitising chemicals and be able to differentiate them from non-sensitisers...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805826/the-use-of-peptide-reactivity-assays-for-skin-sensitisation-hazard-identification-and-risk-assessment
#7
REVIEW
G Frank Gerberick
Over the past 20 years or more, investigators have been developing non-animal test methods for use in assessing the skin sensitisation potential of chemicals. In parallel with this effort, the key biological events of skin sensitisation have been well-characterised in an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) proposed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The key molecular initiating event of this AOP is haptenation or covalent modification of epidermal proteins. In this review, the strengths and limitations of the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) are described, and the more recently developed Peroxidase Peptide Reactivity Assay (PPRA)...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805825/skin-sensitisation-adverse-outcome-pathways-and-alternatives
#8
REVIEW
David Basketter
For toxicologists who are in any way associated with skin sensitisation, the last two decades have seen a series of fundamental changes. We have migrated from old-style guinea-pig assays, via the refined and reduced Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA), to witness the imminent dominance of in vitro and in silico methods. Yet, over the same period, the use of the output data for human safety assurance has evolved from 'black box' risk assessment, via the quantitative risk assessment enabled by the LLNA measurement of potency, to a new period of relative uncertainty...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805824/the-adverse-outcome-pathway-concept-a-basis-for-developing-regulatory-decision-making-tools
#9
REVIEW
Nathalie Delrue, Magdalini Sachana, Yuki Sakuratani, Anne Gourmelon, Eeva Leinala, Robert Diderich
The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) concept is expected to guide risk assessors in their work to use all existing information on the effects of chemicals on humans and wildlife, and to target the generation of additional information to the regulatory objective. AOPs will therefore be used in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) chemical safety programme, as underlying scientific rationales for the development of alternative methods for hazard assessment, such as read-across, in vitro test methods or the development of integrated testing strategies that have the potential to replace animal tests...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805823/it-takes-a-village-stakeholder-participation-is-essential-to-transforming-science
#10
REVIEW
Kristie Sullivan
Efforts toward replacing the use of animals in toxicology testing have begun to make significant headway in the last several years, due to co-operative and pragmatic efforts on the part of many stakeholders, and the public pressure that non-governmental advocacy organisations represent. Science-focused advocacy organisations have a unique role to play in these efforts, as they often have flexibility to adapt quickly to keep a project going and forge connections among different kinds of stakeholders to help encourage buy-in...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805822/the-2015-lush-prize-awards
#11
EDITORIAL
Kelly A BéruBé, Craig Redmond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685189/acute-oral-toxicity-testing-scientific-evidence-and-practicability-should-govern-three-rs-activities
#12
Roland Buesen, Uwe Oberholz, Ursula G Sauer, Robert Landsiedel
Acute oral toxicity is determined for regulatory hazard classification or non-classification. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) recommends the following modules for acute oral toxicity testing: a) the use of the in vitro 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) test to identify substances not requiring classification and to estimate starting doses for in vivo acute oral toxicity studies; and b) the use of data from sub-acute toxicity studies to identify substances not requiring classification...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685188/the-european-citizens-stop-vivisection-initiative-and-the-revision-of-directive
#13
Andre Menache
Animal experimentation is presented to the public as an ongoing debate between research scientists on one hand, and the animal protection community on the other. An opportunity to break out of this mindset presented itself in the form of a European Citizens' Initiative, Stop Vivisection, which challenged Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of animals for scientific purposes. The manifesto of the initiative called upon the European Commission to replace the existing Directive with a new proposal that does away with animal experimentation, and instead makes compulsory the use of human data as a predictive modality for the study of human diseases and responses to drugs...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685187/expectations-for-the-methodology-and-translation-of-animal-research-a-survey-of-the-general-public-medical-students-and-animal-researchers-in-north-america
#14
Ari R Joffe, Meredith Bara, Natalie Anton, Nathan Nobis
To determine what are considered acceptable standards for animal research (AR) methodology and translation rate to humans, a validated survey was sent to: a) a sample of the general public, via Sampling Survey International (SSI; Canada), Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT; USA), a Canadian city festival (CF) and a Canadian children's hospital (CH); b) a sample of medical students (two first-year classes); and c) a sample of scientists (corresponding authors and academic paediatricians). There were 1379 responses from the general public sample (SSI, n = 557; AMT, n = 590; CF, n = 195; CH, n = 102), 205/330 (62%) medical student responses, and 23/323 (7%, too few to report) scientist responses...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685186/autologous-co-culture-of-primary-human-alveolar-macrophages-and-epithelial-cells-for-investigating-aerosol-medicines-part-ii-evaluation-of-il-10-loaded-microparticles-for-the-treatment-of-lung-inflammation
#15
Marius Hittinger, Nico Alexander Mell, Hanno Huwer, Brigitta Loretz, Nicole Schneider-Daum, Claus-Michael Lehr
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is linked to inflammatory processes in the human lung. The aim of this study was to mimic in vitro the treatment of lung inflammation by using a cell-based human autologous co-culture model. As a potential trial medication, we developed a pulmonary dry powder formulation loaded with interleukin-10 (IL-10), a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. The inflammatory immune response was stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. The co-culture was combined with the Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition Device on Cell Cultures )PADDOCC), to deposit the IL-10-loaded microparticles on the inflamed co-culture model at the air-liquid interface...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685185/autologous-co-culture-of-primary-human-alveolar-macrophages-and-epithelial-cells-for-investigating-aerosol-medicines-part-i-model-characterisation
#16
Marius Hittinger, Julia Janke, Hanno Huwer, Regina Scherließ, Nicole Schneider-Daum, Claus-Michael Lehr
The development of new formulations for pulmonary drug delivery is a challenge on its own. New in vitro models which address the lung are aimed at predicting and optimising the quality, efficacy and safety of inhaled drugs, to facilitate the more rapid translation of such products into the clinic. Reducing the complexity of the in vivo situation requires that such models reproducibly reflect essential physiological factors in vitro. The choice of cell types, culture conditions and the experimental set-up, can affect the outcome and the relevance of a study...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685184/attitudes-toward-the-use-of-animals-in-chronic-versus-acute-pain-research-results-of-a-web-based-forum
#17
Elisabeth H Ormandy, Gilly Griffin
When asked about the use of animals in biomedical research, people often state that the research is only acceptable if pain and distress are minimised. However, pain is caused when the aim is to study pain itself, resulting in unalleviated pain for many of the animals involved. Consequently, the use of animals in pain research is often considered contentious. To date, no research has explored people's views toward different types of animal-based pain research (e.g. chronic or acute pain). This study used a web-based survey to explore people's willingness to support the use of mice in chronic versus acute pain research...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685183/animal-experimentation-oh-when-will-they-ever-learn
#18
Michael Balls
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494627/local-tolerance-testing-under-reach-accepted-non-animal-methods-are-not-on-equal-footing-with-animal-tests
#19
Ursula G Sauer, Erin H Hill, Rodger D Curren, Hans A Raabe, Susanne N Kolle, Wera Teubner, Annette Mehling, Robert Landsiedel
In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification...
July 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494626/exploring-waiving-opportunities-for-mammalian-acute-systemic-toxicity-tests
#20
Rabea Graepel, David Asturiol, Pilar Prieto, Andrew P Worth
A survey was carried out to explore opportunities for waiving mammalian acute systemic toxicity tests. We were interested in finding out whether data from a sub-acute toxicity test could be used to predict the outcome of an acute systemic toxicity test. The survey was directed at experts in the field of toxicity testing, and was carried out in the context of the upcoming 2018 final registration deadline for chemicals under the EU REACH Regulation. In addition to the survey, a retrospective data analysis of chemicals that had already been registered with the European Chemicals Agency, and for which both acute and sub-acute toxicity data were available, was carried out...
July 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
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