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Radiation Protection Dosimetry

C Yamauchi-Kawaura, S Yamamoto, K Fujii, M Komori, M Yamauchi, N Ohzawa, M Kozuka, N Suga, N Ito, A Fukuyama
This study proposes a new dosimetry method for the estimation of the internal radiation dose distribution of a subject undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations. In this novel method, dose distribution of a subject by CT scans was estimated based on radiophotoluminance distribution with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) resin which was cut to the average head size of a Japanese 1-year-old child. The difference in dose distribution depending on the type of bowtie filter was visualized by imaging luminance distribution with the PET phantom using a charge-coupled device camera...
February 12, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Nooreldin Fadol, Hajo Idriss, Isam Salih, Nserdin A Ragab, Safa Osman, Adam K Sam
This study was conducted to assess the level of radioactivity and the radiation hazards associated with granite rocks used for construction of buildings. The measurement of radioactivity content of the rock samples was performed with gamma-spectrometry equipped with Nal (TI) detector. From the results obtained in this study the average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 20.64, 30.50 and 295.19 Bq kg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above ground level, the annual effective dose and the gamma index were determined with the aim to assess the possible radiological impact on inhabitants of dwellings built using such rocks...
February 12, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
S M Hosseini Pooya, M R Dashtipour
According to the worldwide reports, industrial radiography is one of the highest risk radiation practices due to handling high activity sources. Therefore, an optimization of protection along with appropriate investigation level and/or dose constraint is required to achieve appropriate radiological safety. This research, presents some statistical aspects of this optimization using frequency distributions and percentiles of individual recorded dose of industrial radiographers from the years 2002 to 2016 in Iran...
February 9, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
M Janik, D Al-Azmi, S K Sahoo
Indoor measurements of radon and thoron in Kuwait were conducted during the years 2015 and 2016. In this study, 65 dwellings were selected for the long-term radon-thoron survey using passive nuclear track monitors. The monitors (at least one) were used at various locations in the dwellings for 83-306 days. Some measurements were also repeated at the same locations in different seasons. This current study is a preliminary thoron survey with relatively small sample size. The results showed that the range of thoron concentration was from below the lower limit of detection to 35 Bq m-3, whereas the range of radon concentration was within 10-202 Bq m-3...
February 9, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Constantinos Koutsojannis, Andreas Andrikopoulos, Adam Adamopoulos, Ioannis Seimenis
Microwave diathermies (MWDs) are electromagnetic (EM) radiation emitting systems that are used by physiotherapists for thermotherapy treatment. Although this form of therapy is widely available in most physiotherapy units worldwide, management of the equipment is not obligatory addressed either by clinical engineers or medical physicists. A novel quality control (QC) protocol for MWD equipment, examining mechanical, electrical and electronic condition, the power output and EM radiation distribution in the electrotherapy room, was used during a national QC survey...
February 9, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Madan M Rehani, Jenia Vassileva
A survey was conducted through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assess the use of older imaging technologies and availability of dose information in radiography, computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional machines. Responses from 55 countries indicated 55.8% having non-digital radiography systems, only 9.1% having all systems that are digital (CR and DR), nearly one-third (36.4%) still use calcium tungstate screens in radiography cassettes and only 16.9% having all mammography systems as digital...
February 9, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Wenjing Wang, Rui Qiu, Li Ren, Zechen Feng, Zhen Wu, Chunyan Li, Yantao Niu, Junli Li
Not only the mean glandular dose (MGD) but also the glandular dose distribution is important in describing the radiation exposure to breast in mammography. For a more precise knowledge of the absorbed dose distribution in the breast, experimental measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeter and Monte Carlo simulations with Geant4 were performed in this study. The experimental measurements with homogeneous physical breast phantoms were used to validate Monte Carlo simulations of homogeneous mathematical breast models undergoing mammography...
February 9, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Dennise Magill, Natalie Beckmann, Marc Felice, Megan Harkins
This study examines upper extremity skin contamination of nuclear medicine and radiation safety staff during 131I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy. Utilizing retrospective data, a methodology for performing a rapid assessment of the radiation dose to the skin of the upper extremities is presented. Using the skin contamination measurements and calculated skin dose for each contamination incident at our facility, a conversion factor (XE) was derived that estimates skin dose (DE) based on the initial contamination measurement...
February 8, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Yoshihiro Nakada, Yasuo Okuda, Tatsuya Tsuge, Jyunichi Suzuki, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Konishi, Takeshi Tsujimoto, Shigeo Nishiki, Toshimitsu Satoh, Nobukazu Aoyama, Kyohei Morimoto, Masamichi Aita, Yusuke Yamashita, Takayasu Yoshitake, Masami Mukai, Yuki Yokooka, Noriya Yokohama, Keiichi Akahane
The present work describes that we try to construct a system that collects dose information that performed CT examination from multiple facilities and unified management. The results of analysis are compared with other National diagnostic reference level (DRL), and the results are fed back to each facility and the cause of the abnormal value is investigated for dose optimization. Medical information collected 139 144 tests from 33 CT devices in 13 facilities. Although the DRL of this study is lower than that of Japan DRL, it was higher than the DRL of each country...
February 7, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Lokpati Mishra, I S Singh, H K Patni, D D Rao
In-vivo measurement of Pu/241Am in workers is carried out by placing suitable detector above lungs, liver and skeleton, as major fraction of Pu/Am is transferred to liver and skeleton, after its retention in entry organ. In this work, committed effective dose (CED) corresponding to minimum detectable activity for Type M and Type S 239Pu/241Am deposited in these organs are presented and a monitoring protocol of organ measurement giving lowest CED at different time intervals post inhalation is described. We have observed, for Type M compounds, lung measurement is most sensitive method during initial days after exposure...
February 7, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Franz Siegfried Englbrecht, Matthias Würl, Francesco Olivari, Andrea Ficorella, Christian Kreuzer, Florian H Lindner, Matteo Dalla Palma, Lucio Pancheri, Gian-Franco Dalla Betta, Jörg Schreiber, Alberto Quaranta, Katia Parodi
We report on a scintillator-based online detection system for the spectral characterization of polychromatic proton bunches. Using up to nine stacked layers of radiation hard polysiloxane scintillators, coupled to and readout edge-on by a large area pixelated CMOS detector, impinging polychromatic proton bunches were characterized. The energy spectra were reconstructed using calibration data and simulated using Monte-Carlo simulations. Despite the scintillator stack showed some problems like thickness inhomogeneities and unequal layer coupling, the prototype allows to obtain a first estimate of the energy spectrum of proton beams...
February 3, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Matea Krmpotic, Martina Rožmaric, Branko Petrinec, Tomislav Bituh, Željka Fiket, Ljudmila Benedik
Major elements concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and the activity concentrations of 226,228Ra, 234,238U, 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in northern and eastern Croatian thermal and mineral waters, collected directly from springs (or wells), are presented herein with total effective doses assessed for those waters that are considered as drinking 'cures' and are available for consumption. The methods used for radionuclide determination included alpha-particle spectrometry, gas-proportional counting and gamma-ray spectrometry, while the major element composition was determined by ICP-MS...
February 3, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Romilton Dos Santos Amaral, Elaíze Nídia de Lima Morais, José Araújo Dos Santos Júnior, Arykerne Nascimento Casado da Silva, Jairo Dias Bezerra, Otávio Pereira Dos Santos Junior
A marine phosphorus region with high concentrations of phosphate, coastwise of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, is densely inhabited. Rock phosphate deposits naturally contain uranium ore that produces ionizing radiation from it and its natural descendants, furthermore, its thorium and potassium concentrations are comparable to those usually found in soils. Radiological monitoring of this environment is important to verify the occurrence of harmful effective doses for the adjacent population. This study aimed at the in situ radiometric monitoring in four cities of the north of the Metropolitan Region of Recife-Pernambuco, estimating the effective environmental dose to which the local population is subject...
February 3, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
N G Servitzoglou, S Stoulos, D Katsantonis, M Papageorgiou, A Siountas
Naturally Occurring Radionuclide Materials (NORM) such as fertilizers, agricultural soils fertilized and wheat grain cultivated at those soils were studied regarding the radiation hazard to the public and workers. Activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was measured hermitical sealing the marinelli beaker using the Stopaq FN 2100L material that prevent 222Rn escape from the baker. The phosphate fertilization of soil did not affect natural radioactivity in comparison with non-fertilized soils and also did not affect natural radioactivity of wheat grain cultivated since only 40K was measured...
February 3, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Shunsuke Yonai, Chinatsu Arai, Kaoru Shimoyama, Nathalie Fournier-Bidoz
Radiochromic film is a very useful tool for 2D dosimetric measurements in radiotherapy because it is self-developing and has very high-spatial resolution. However, considerable care has to be taken in ion beam radiotherapy owing to the quenching effect of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In this study, the dose responses of GAFchromic EBT3 and EBT-XD films were experimentally investigated using the clinical carbon ion beam at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba. Results showed that the relations between absorbed dose and net optical density could be expressed well using an equation proposed by Reinhardt (2015)...
February 3, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Jussi Huikari, Teemu Siiskonen, Antti Kosunen, Panu Pousi
Radiation metrology laboratory at Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is Finnish national laboratory for ionizing radiation. In order to establish personal dose equivalent available for neutron calibration service, a project was started to evaluate the neutron reference fields in the present facility. The irradiation room conditions were characterized in order to establish reference conditions for personal dose equivalent. To verify the validity of the calculations, ambient dose equivalent rates and room return were measured and calculated for 241AmBe and 252Cf sources...
February 3, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Sonexay Xayheungsy, Le Hong Khiem, Le Dai Nam
The radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K natural radionuclides in Lao Portland cement samples were measured using a gamma-spectrometry with a HPGe detector. The activity concentrations were found to vary from 28.32 ± 2.23 to 65.50 ± 2.83 Bq kg-1 with a mean value of 41.12 ± 2.44 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra; from 7.25 ± 2.00 to 44.01 ± 2.45 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 16.60 ± 2.37 Bq kg-1 for 232Th and from 49.19 ± 4.27 to 196.74 ± 4.75 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 141.48 ± 4.50 Bq kg-1 for 40K, respectively...
February 3, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
R J Tanner, L G Hager, J S Eakins
The ICRU is considering amending the definition of the operational quantity for personnel monitoring. The present work investigates the impact of the proposed change on the PHE neutron personal dosemeter, which utilizes electrochemically etched PADC and is currently optimized in terms of Hp(10). The energy-dependent dose response characteristics of the dosemeter, and its performance in realistic workplace neutron fields, are calculated and compared for both the current and proposed dose quantities, for both frontal and rotationally isotropic fields...
January 30, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
J M Gómez-Ros, R Bedogni, C Domingo, J S Eakins, N Roberts, R J Tanner
This article describes the purpose, the proposed problems and the reference solutions of an international comparison on neutron spectra unfolding in Bonner spheres spectrometry, organised within the activities of EURADOS working group 6: computational dosimetry. The exercise considered four realistic situations: a medical accelerator, a workplace field, an irradiation room and a skyshine scenario. Although a detailed analysis of the submitted solutions is under preparation, the preliminary discussion of some physical aspects of the problem, e...
January 29, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
C De Angelis, A Ampollini, E Basile, E Cisbani, S Della Monaca, F Ghio, R M Montereali, L Picardi, M Piccinini, C Placido, C Ronsivalle, A Soriani, L Strigari, E Trinca, M Vadrucci
The first proton linear accelerator for tumor therapy based on an actively scanned beam up to the energy of 150 MeV, is under development and construction by ENEA-Frascati, ISS and IFO, under the Italian TOP-IMPLART project. Protons up to the energy of 7 MeV are generated by a customized commercial injector operating at 425 MHz; currently three accelerating modules allow proton delivery with energy up to 27 MeV. Beam homogeneity and reproducibility were studied using a 2D ionizing chamber, EBT3 films, a silicon diode, MOSFETs, LiF crystals and alanine dosimetry systems...
January 29, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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