journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Radiation Protection Dosimetry

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100671/fast-neutron-survey-with-compact-plastic-scintillation-detectors
#1
Rhys M Preston, James R Tickner
With the rise of the Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM), it is now practical to build compact scintillation detectors well suited to portable use. A prototype survey meter for fast-neutrons and gamma-rays, based around an EJ-299-34 plastic scintillator with SiPM readout, has been developed and tested. A custom digital pulse processor was used to perform pulse shape discrimination on-the-fly. Ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was calculated by means of two energy-dependent 'G-functions'. The sensitivity was calculated to be between 0...
January 17, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100670/two-new-single-exposure-multi-detector-neutron-spectrometers-for-radiation-protection-applications-in-workplace-monitoring
#2
J M Gómez-Ros, R Bedogni, D Bortot, C Domingo, A Esposito, M V Introini, M Lorenzoli, G Mazzitelli, M Moraleda, A Pola, D Sacco
This communication describes two new instruments, based on multiple active thermal neutron detectors arranged within a single moderator, that permit to unfold the neutron spectrum (from thermal to hundreds of MeV) and to determine the corresponding integral quantities with only one exposure. This makes them especially advantageous for neutron field characterisation and workplace monitoring in neutron-producing facilities. One of the devices has spherical geometry and nearly isotropic response, the other one has cylindrical symmetry and it is only sensitive to neutrons incident along the cylinder axis...
January 17, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096315/experimental-optimization-of-exposure-index-and-quality-of-service-in-wlan-networks
#3
David Plets, Günter Vermeeren, Eli De Poorter, Ingrid Moerman, Sotirios K Goudos, Martens Luc, Joseph Wout
This paper presents the first real-life optimization of the Exposure Index (EI). A genetic optimization algorithm is developed and applied to three real-life Wireless Local Area Network scenarios in an experimental testbed. The optimization accounts for downlink, uplink and uplink of other users, for realistic duty cycles, and ensures a sufficient Quality of Service to all users. EI reductions up to 97.5% compared to a reference configuration can be achieved in a downlink-only scenario, in combination with an improved Quality of Service...
January 17, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096314/exposure-to-recycled-uranium-contaminants-in-gaseous-diffusion-plants
#4
Jeri L Anderson, A Iulian Apostoaei, James H Yiin, Chih-Yu Tseng
As part of an ongoing study of health effects in a pooled cohort of gaseous diffusion plant workers, organ dose from internal exposure to uranium was evaluated. Due to the introduction of recycled uranium into the plants, there was also potential for exposure to radiologically significant levels of (99)Tc, (237)Np and (238,239)Pu. In the evaluation of dose response, these radionuclide exposures could confound the effect of internal uranium. Using urine bioassay data for study subjects reported in facility records, intakes and absorbed dose to bone surface, red bone marrow and kidneys were estimated as these organs were associated with a priori outcomes of interest...
January 16, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096313/opportunities-to-reduce-ct-radiation-exposure-experience-over-5-years-at-the-nih-clinical-center
#5
William C Kovacs, Jianhua Yao, David A Bluemke, Les R Folio
Our current study was undertaken in order to compare CT exposures during various dose-reduction initiatives at the National Institutes of Health Clinical center, to show trends in exposure reduction over a 5-y period, and to provide benchmarks that other facilities may use. Using an in-house extraction tool (Radiation Exposure Extraction Engine), we derived CT exposure data from Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) headers over 5 y. We present parameters used and compare most common exams between 2010 and 2015...
January 16, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096312/analysis-of-thermoluminescence-glow-curves-using-derivatives-of-different-orders
#6
Mahua Karmakar, S Bhattacharyya, A Sarkar, P S Mazumdar, S D Singh
The suitability of the second derivative method for locating component peaks in complex thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves has been investigated in this work by considering both numerically simulated and experimental TL peaks. This technique is useful to acquire knowledge of the number of component peaks in a complex TL curve which in turn serves as a basic information before applying the deconvolution technique to the glow curve. To check the consistency of the results so obtained, we have also applied the first derivative technique to TL glow curves...
January 16, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096311/the-comparison-of-health-status-between-male-and-female-medical-radiation-workers-in-china
#7
Hui Wang, Qianshu Chen, Guochao Liu, Youjia Tian, Fengmei Zhang, Jianying Qu, David Lim, Zhihui Feng
To assess the health statue of chronically exposed Chinese medical radiation workers. A cross-sectional study of 530 medical radiation workers in a city of China was conducted to document the health status and the monitored annually absorbed doses. Long-term and low-dose radiation exposure can affect a number of health indicators in the individuals, which covered the cardiovascular system, hematologic system, ophthalmology, liver and kidney's functions, chromosome aberration and micronucleus. The differences in the health status between male and female individuals were associated with job types and exposed years of service...
January 16, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074020/lead-composite-vs-nonlead-protective-garments-which-are-better-a-multivendor-comparison
#8
S M B Peters, D Zweers, F de Lange, J E M Mourik
This study aims to provide more insight in attenuation characteristics and corresponding lead (Pb) equivalences of a broad range of commercially available lead composite and nonlead protective garments. Thirty garments of five manufacturers (listed as 0.25-0.35-0.50 mm Pb equivalent) were tested. Transmission values were determined at 70, 90 and 110 kVp using an inverse broad beam geometry. Pb equivalence was determined using lead sheets as reference material. A substantial variability in photon transmission across garments was found...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074019/point-organ-radiation-dose-in-abdominal-ct-effect-of-patient-off-centering-in-an-experimental-human-cadaver-study
#9
Ranish Deedar Ali Khawaja, Sarabjeet Singh, Atul Padole, Alexi Otrakji, Diego Lira, Da Zhang, Bob Liu, Andrew Primak, George Xu, Mannudeep K Kalra
To determine the effect of patient off-centering on point organ radiation dose measurements in a human cadaver scanned with routine abdominal CT protocol. A human cadaver (88 years, body-mass-index 20 kg/m(2)) was scanned with routine abdominal CT protocol on 128-slice dual source MDCT (Definition Flash, Siemens). A total of 18 scans were performed using two scan protocols (a) 120 kV-200 mAs fixed-mA (CTDIvol 14 mGy) (b) 120 kV-125 ref mAs (7 mGy) with automatic exposure control (AEC, CareDose 4D) at three different positions (a) gantry isocenter, (b) upward off-centering and (c) downward off-centering...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074018/evaluation-of-dose-homogeneity-in-cone-beam-breast-computed-tomography
#10
Giovanni Mettivier, Matilde Costa, Nico Lanconelli, Anna Ianiro, Mariagabriella Pugliese, Maria Quarto, Paolo Russo
The aim of this study is to determine, via measurements on phantoms and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the dose distribution of absorbed dose in a cone-beam breast computed tomography scan. The absorbed dose volume distribution was measured inside a polyethylene cylindrical phantom, simulating adipose breast tissue, using LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescence dosimeters. A reasonable agreement (between 2 and 8%) between the simulated and measured data was observed. The 3D distribution of absorbed dose was evaluated at 40, 60 and 80 kV in a phantom simulating a pendant breast...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074017/the-mayak-worker-dosimetry-system-2013-treatment-of-organ-masses-in-the-calculation-of-organ-doses
#11
A Birchall, A B Sokolova
Previous Mayak worker epidemiological studies designed to quantify the risk of cancer following exposure to airborne plutonium have calculated organ doses by dividing the organ-absorbed energy by the individual's estimated organ mass. For living workers, this was done by using a relationship between organ mass and total mass and height. For autopsy cases, this was measured directly. In the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System-2013 study, organ doses are calculated by dividing this energy by a population average organ mass...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074016/cari-7a-development-and-validation
#12
Kyle Copeland
Aircrew members can be exposed to higher annual doses of natural ionizing radiation than members of the general population in most parts of the world. The principal ionizing radiation to which they are exposed is galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Among the particles present in the primary spectrum are heavy ions: relativistic nuclei of lithium and heavier elements. These ions have very high radiation weighting factors and can contribute significantly to the effective dose at altitudes above the Pfotzer maximum...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074015/electron-absorbed-fractions-in-an-image-based-microscopic-skeletal-dosimetry-model-of-chinese-adult-male
#13
Shenshen Gao, Li Ren, Rui Qiu, Zhen Wu, Chunyan Li, Junli Li
Based on the Chinese reference adult male voxel model, a set of microscopic skeletal models of Chinese adult male is constructed through the processes of computed tomography (CT) imaging, bone coring, micro-CT imaging, image segmentation, merging into macroscopic bone model and implementation in Geant4. At the step of image segmentation, a new bone endosteum (BE) segmentation method is realized by sampling. The set of model contains 32 spongiosa samples with voxel size of 19 μm cubes. The microscopic spongiosa bone data for Chinese adult male are provided...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074014/risks-and-radiation-doses-due-to-residential-radon-in-germany
#14
T R Beck
The population-averaged risk rate and the annual average effective dose due to residential radon in Germany were calculated. The calculations were based on an epidemiological approach taking into account the age- and gender-specific lung cancer incidence rates for the German population and the excess relative risk of 0.16 per 100 Bq·m(-3) for residential radon. In addition, the risk estimates adjusted for the smoking habits were determined. The population-averaged risk rate for the whole population was estimated with 4...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074013/exposure-to-radiofrequency-electromagnetic-fields-from-wi-fi-in-australian-schools
#15
Ken Karipidis, Stuart Henderson, Don Wijayasinghe, Lydiawati Tjong, Rick Tinker
The increasing use of Wi-Fi in schools and other places has given rise to public concern that the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields from Wi-Fi have the potential to adversely affect children. The current study measured typical and peak RF levels from Wi-Fi and other sources in 23 schools in Australia. All of the RF measurements were much lower than the reference levels recommended by international guidelines for protection against established health effects. The typical and peak RF levels from Wi-Fi in locations occupied by children in the classroom were of the order of 10(-4) and 10(-2)% of the exposure guidelines, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064240/a-comparison-of-remediation-after-the-chernobyl-and-fukushima-daiichi-accidents
#16
Sergey Fesenko, Mikhail Balonov, Gerhard Pröhl, Shinichi Nakayama, Brenda J Howard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028125/calculation-of-fluence-to-effective-dose-conversion-coefficients-for-the-operational-quantity-proposed-by-icru-rc26
#17
Akira Endo
Fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for photons, neutrons, electrons, positrons, protons, muons, pions and helium ions for various incident angles of radiations. The aim of this calculation is to provide a set of conversion coefficients to the Report Committee 26 (RC26) of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) for use in defining personal dose equivalent for individual monitoring. The data sets comprise effective dose conversion coefficients for incident angles of radiations from 0° to ±90° in steps of 15° and at ±180°...
December 26, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013189/evaluation-of-thyroid-radiation-dose-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#18
Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da Rocha, Guilherme de Mello Aguiar, Ana Paula Tulio, Alessandra S Ditzel, Danielle Filipov
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) became common in various dental specialties over the past decade. This technology is used by dental professionals regarding the investigation of maxillofacial structures. Due to the diagnostic quality and possibility of 3D view, this method has become an additional method of human exposure to ionizing radiation. This study aims to evaluate the amount of ionizing radiation absorbed by thyroid gland using CBCT. Measurements were performed by LiF dosimeters (TLD-100), positioned on a phantom for head and neck, which was irradiated by Newtom 3G-CBCT...
December 23, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986967/the-evaluation-of-the-real-alpha-value-in-brazil-and-its-projection-until-the-year-2050
#19
Clarice F Perez, Carlos N Ghobril, Gian Maria Sordi, Adelia Sahyun
When a cost-benefit analysis is applied to the optimization of practices involving radiation protection, the alpha value is used to determine the amount of money required to be invested in a practice to minimize radiation doses to acceptable levels. The alpha value is often linked to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, so the monetary reference value of person-Sievert can often be different in each country. Evaluation of the alpha value in Brazil was performed in 1993 and 2000 making use of the procedure advised by ICRP to produce projections up to 2015 and subsequently in 2004 by using the procedure recommended by the IAEA...
December 15, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986966/the-mayak-worker-dosimetry-system-mwds-2013-plutonium-dissolution-in-the-lungs-an-analysis-of-mayak-workers
#20
M Puncher, A Birchall, A B Sokolova, K G Suslova
Lung doses resulting from inhalation of plutonium aerosols are highly dependent on the assumed rate of particle clearance, which occurs by two competing processes: (1) particle transport clearance to the alimentary tract and to the thoracic lymph nodes and (2) clearance to systemic tissues, which occurs by dissolution of particles in lung fluid followed by uptake to blood, which is a process collectively known as absorption. Unbiased and accurate estimates of the values of lung absorption parameters are required to obtain reliable estimates of lung dose, particularly those inferred from urine bioassay...
December 15, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
journal
journal
28228
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"