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Radiation Protection Dosimetry

Taiee Liang, Johannes M Bauer, James C Liu, Sayed H Rokni
A bremsstrahlung source term has been developed by the Radiation Protection (RP) group at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for high-intensity short-pulse laser-solid experiments between 10(17) and 10(22) W cm(-2) This source term couples the particle-in-cell plasma code EPOCH and the radiation transport code FLUKA to estimate the bremsstrahlung dose yield from laser-solid interactions. EPOCH characterizes the energy distribution, angular distribution, and laser-to-electron conversion efficiency of the hot electrons from laser-solid interactions, and FLUKA utilizes this hot electron source term to calculate a bremsstrahlung dose yield (mSv per J of laser energy on target)...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Paul Leonard, Gareth Thomas
Nuclear emergency planning arrangements in the UK are continually kept under review. This work proposes to outline how experience from nuclear exercises and undertaking emergency response duties can be based on radiological knowledge of specific sites and utilised in the future. In 2014, the UK regulator, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) revised their principles for the determination of off-site emergency planning areas around nuclear sites where predetermined countermeasures and other protection measures are applied to protect those people who may be affected by a radiation emergency...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
I C Okeyode, J A Rabiu, O O Alatise, V Makinde, F G Akinboro, D Al-Azmi, A O Mustapha
A radiation monitoring system comprising a Geiger-Muller counter connected to a smart phone via Bluetooth was used for a dose rate survey in some parts of south-western Nigeria. The smart phone has the Geographical Positioning System, which provides the navigation information and saves it along with the dose rate data. A large number of data points was obtained that shows the dose rate distribution within the region. The results show that the ambient dose rates in the region range from 60 to 520 nSv (-1) and showed a bias that is attributable to the influence of geology on the ambient radiation dose in the region...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Claire-Louise Chapple, Andy Bradley, Maria Murray, Phil Orr, Jill Reay, Peter Riley, Andy Rogers, Navneet Sandhu, Jim Thurston
UK professional bodies have established a number of sectorial working parties to provide guidance on the improvement of radiation safety (RS) culture in the workplace. The medical sector provides unique challenges in this regard, and the remit of the medical group was to review the current state of RS culture and to develop a framework for improvement. The review of current RS culture was based on measurable indicators, including data from regulatory inspections, personal monitoring data and incident data. An online survey to capture the RS-related views and experience of hospital staff at all levels was carried out, and the responses provided a wealth of information on RS awareness and implementation across the country...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Stefano Mossetti, Daniela de Bartolo, Ivan Veronese, Marie Claire Cantone, Cristina Cosenza, Elisa Nava
International and national organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure at high-frequency fields. Italian legislation fixed 20 V/m as a limit for public protection from exposure to EMFs in the frequency range 0.1 MHz-3 GHz and 6 V/m as a reference level. Recently, the law was changed and the reference level must now be evaluated as the 24-hour average value, instead of the previous highest 6 minutes in a day. The law refers to a technical guide (CEI 211-7/E published in 2013) for the extrapolation techniques that public authorities have to use when assessing exposure for compliance with limits...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Hamza Boukabache, Michel Pangallo, Gael Ducos, Nicola Cardines, Antonio Bellotta, Ciarán Toner, Daniel Perrin, Doris Forkel-Wirth
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has the legal obligation to protect the public and the people working on its premises from any unjustified exposure to ionising radiation. In this context, radiation monitoring is one of the main concerns of the Radiation Protection Group. After 30 y of reliable service, the ARea CONtroller (ARCON) system is approaching the end of its lifecycle, which raises the need for new, more efficient radiation monitors with a high level of modularity to ensure better maintainability...
November 30, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
H Zutz, M Kowatari, O Hupe
A comparison has been conducted between the 6 MeV and 7 MeV (R-F) high-energy photon reference fields of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Both fields are set up according to ISO 4037. The results of both participants are in agreement within the combined uncertainties, thus the equivalence of the measurements is demonstrated.
November 30, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Eduardo Gallego, Marie Claire Cantone, Deborah H Oughton, Tanja Perko, Iztok Prezelj, Yevgeniya Tomkiv
This paper presents the results of a large study of 1340 articles published by two major newspapers in six European countries (Belgium, Italy, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Russia) in the first 2 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The focus of the analysis is on the application and overall impact of protective actions, both during the emergency phase and later, how the newspapers describe those actions, which differences were apparent between countries and what recommendations can be extracted in order to improve general communication about these issues...
November 28, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Claire Cousins
Standards in relation to radiological protection in medicine are well-documented, particularly with the recent update of the Basic Safety Standards. The principles of justification and optimisation remain key, as dose limitation is not applicable in medical practice. Appropriate justification relies on the knowledge, experience and discretion of the relevant medical practitioners and this may be overlooked in the race for diagnosis and treatment. One argument would be further regulation of medical exposures, although it is difficult to see how this could be imposed without denying patients essential investigations and treatments...
November 28, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Harold M Swartz
This paper attempts to: (1) provide a critical overview of the challenges and opportunities to extend electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) into practical applications in human subjects, based on EPR measurements made in vivo; (2) summarize the clinical applications of EPR for improving treatments in cancer, wound healing and diabetic care, emphasizing EPR's unique capability to measure tissue oxygen repeatedly and with particular sensitivity to hypoxia and (3) summarize the capabilities of in vivo EPR to measure radiation dose for triage and medical guidance after a large-scale radiation exposure...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Sergey Fesenko, Mikhail Balonov, Gerhard Pröhl, Shinichi Nakayama, Brenda J Howard
Extensive remediation was conducted on contaminated landscapes after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. A comparison is made of a range of different features relevant to each accident including the characteristics of the contamination and the landscapes affected, the radiological criteria, the designation of areas to be remediated and the remediation measures adopted.
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
L Koops
Cosmic radiation exposure in air traffic grows with flight altitude, geographical latitude and flight time. For future high-speed intercontinental point-to-point travel, the trade-off between reduced flight time and enhanced dose rate at higher flight altitudes is investigated. Various representative (partly) hypersonic cruise missions are considered and in dependence on solar activity the integral route dose is calculated for envisaged flight profiles and trajectories. Our results are compared to those for corresponding air connections served by present day subsonic airliners...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Juyub Kim, Juyoul Kim, Li-Chi Cliff Po
A conclusion from the lessons learned after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident was that Korea needs a tool to estimate consequences from a major accident that could occur at a nuclear power plant located in a neighboring country. This paper describes a suite of computer-based codes to be used by Korea's nuclear emergency response staff for training and potentially operational support in Korea's national emergency preparedness and response program. The systems of codes, Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator (NANAS), consist of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Naoki Sato, Toshioh Fujibuchi, Takatoshi Toyoda, Takato Ishida, Hiroki Ohura, Ryuichi Miyajima, Shinichi Orita, Tomonari Sueyoshi
To decrease radiation exposure to medical staff performing angiography, the dose distribution in the angiography was calculated in room using the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS), which is based on Monte Carlo code, and the source of scattered radiation was confirmed using a tungsten sheet by considering the difference shielding performance among different sheet placements. Scattered radiation generated from a flat panel detector, X-ray tube and bed was calculated using the PHITS. In this experiment, the source of scattered radiation was identified as the phantom or acrylic window attached to the X-ray tube thus, a protection curtain was placed on the bed to shield against scattered radiation at low positions...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
N Melhem, H El Balaa, G Younes, Z Al Kattar
The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission has different calibration methods for various types of dosimeters used in industrial, military and medical fields. The calibration is performed using different beams of X-rays (low and medium energy) and Gamma radiation delivered by a Cesium 137 source. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in charge of calibration services uses different protocols for the determination of high and low air kerma rate and for narrow and wide series...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
MoonChan Kim, KwangHyun Chang, JeongHoon Hwang, YoonChul Nam, DongKyoon Han, Joon Yoon
To assess the doses delivered to pediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) examinations of the brain, chest, high-resolution lung and abdomen, and to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for various age groups in Korea. Dose survey was done to the 19 hospitals performing CT on children, addressing the scan parameters, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP). Per five age group (0, 1, 2-5, 6-10, 11-17 y of age), the proposed DRLs for brain, chest, high-resolution lung and abdomen CT are, respectively, in terms of CTDIvol: 18, 23, 26, 31, 36 mGy; 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 mGy; 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 mGy; 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 mGy; and in terms of DLP: 260, 350, 420, 500, 620 mGy•cm; 50, 80, 100, 170, 340 mGy•cm; 30, 40, 60, 90, 280 mGy•cm; 70, 80, 200, 300, 500 mGy•cm...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Angelo Infantino, Gianfranco Cicoria, Giulia Lucconi, Davide Pancaldi, Sara Vichi, Federico Zagni, Domiziano Mostacci, Mario Marengo
Radiation protection (RP) in the use of medical cyclotrons involves many aspects both in the routine use and for the decommissioning of a site. Guidelines for site planning and installation, as well as for RP assessment, are given in international documents; however, the latter typically offer analytic methods of calculation of shielding and materials activation, in approximate or idealised geometry set-ups. The availability of Monte Carlo (MC) codes with accurate up-to-date libraries for transport and interaction of neutrons and charged particles at energies below 250 MeV, together with the continuously increasing power of modern computers, makes the systematic use of simulations with realistic geometries possible, yielding equipment and site-specific evaluation of the source terms, shielding requirements and all quantities relevant to RP at the same time...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
William F Blakely, Alexander Romanyukha, Selena M Hayes, Ricardo A Reyes, H Michael Stewart, Matthew H Hoefer, Anthony Williams, Thad Sharp, L Andrew Huff
The U.S. Department of Defense (USDOD) service members are at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation due to radiation accidents, terrorist attacks and national defense activities. The use of biodosimetry is a standard of care for the triage and treatment of radiation injuries. Resources and procedures need to be established to implement a multiple-parameter biodosimetry system coupled with expert medial guidance to provide an integrated radiation diagnostic system to meet USDOD requirements. Current USDOD biodosimetry capabilities were identified and recommendations to fill the identified gaps are provided...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Jing Chen
This study calculates and compares the lifetime lung cancer risks associated with indoor radon exposure based on well-known risk models in the literature; two risk models are from joint studies among miners and the other three models were developed from pooling studies on residential radon exposure from China, Europe and North America respectively. The aim of this article is to make clear that the various models are mathematical descriptions of epidemiologically observed real risks in different environmental settings...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Gérald Dumont, Fernando Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Pierre Carbonez, Doris Forkel-Wirth, Pierre Ninin, Eloy Reguero Fuentes, Stefan Roesler, Joachim Vollaire
CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, upgraded its operational dosimetry system in March 2013 to be prepared for the first Long Shutdown of CERN's facilities. The new system allows the immediate and automatic checking and recording of the dosimetry data before and after interventions in radiation areas. To facilitate the analysis of the data in context of CERN's approach to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), this new system is interfaced to the Intervention Management Planning and Coordination Tool (IMPACT)...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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