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Radiation Protection Dosimetry

Thorarin A Bjarnason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Wasana Silangam, Witaya Yoosook, Pornpimol Kongtip, Amarin Kongtawelert, Keson Theppeang
Schools are a significant location where children are exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs), which may cause adverse health effects. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine exposure levels to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) with a range of 5 Hz-32 kHz, and ELF-electric fields (ELF-EFs) with a range of 5 Hz-2 kHz in secondary schools in Bangkok, Thailand. This study was conducted in 60 classrooms from three schools during class hours. Spot measurements were taken with a Narda EFA 300 field analyzer to evaluate exposure levels...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Suleiman Ameir Suleiman, Yaping Qi, Yifei Pi, X George Xu
The use of 60Co teletherapy unit for the treatment of unilateral retinoblastoma (Rb) patients is a very common procedure in many developing countries including Tanzania. The aim of this study was to estimate organ-specific absorbed doses from an external beam radiation therapy 60Co unit for unilateral Rb and to assess the risks of the patients developing a secondary primary cancer. The absorbed dose estimations were based on a Monte Carlo method and a set of age-dependent computational male phantoms. The estimated doses were used to calculate the secondary cancer risks in out-of-field organs using the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation VII risk models...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Nicolas Hustinx, Arnaud Steyaert, Bernard le Polain de Waroux, Patrice Forget
In 2011, national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed for pain management fluoroscopic procedures in Belgium. The primary goal of this work is to compare the dose area product values (DAP) recorded at the Saint-Luc University Hospital to these DRLs. From 2012 to 2015, 7664 interventional pain management procedures (4740 epidural, 2097 medial branch and 807 transforaminal infiltrations) were performed. Uni/multivariable analyses were done regarding the influence of different factors. The fluoroscopy duration and the DAP are lower to the DRLs (p < 0...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Milan Stefanik, Pavel Bem, Mitja Majerle, Jan Novak, Eva Simeckova, Jan Stursa
Neutron field from the p+Be interaction was investigated at the NPI CAS for a proton beam energy of 35 MeV and thick beryllium target. Broad neutron spectra at close source-to-sample distances were determined using the multi-foil activation technique. Two large sets of dosimetry foils containing the Ni, Co, Au, In, Ti, Al, Y, Lu, Nb and Fe were irradiated at a distance of 74 mm at direct neutron beam axis and at a distance of 34 mm from beam axis. Supporting Monte-Carlo MCNPX calculations of the irradiation system were performed as well...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Daisuke Yamazaki, Osamu Miyazaki, Yasutaka Takei, Kosuke Matsubara, Masafumi Shinozaki, Yoshiya Shimada, Shoichi Suzuki, Yoshihisa Muramatsu
The objective of this research is to calculate the organ equivalent dose and effective dose from the scanning conditions at 165 centers in Japan using computed tomography (CT) Dose software and compare the results with the CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose length product (DLP) and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) to validate the usefulness of SSDE. The CTDIvol and DLP were significantly lower in infants than in children (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the bone marrow equivalent dose and effective dose for the torso between infants and children (p > 0...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Marcel Reginatto
Low-level neutron measurements are required for applications such as environmental monitoring, measurements of weak sources and the determination of neutron fluxes at underground laboratories. When analyzing low-level neutron measurements, it is important to be able to distinguish the signal due to neutrons from any background term that may originate within the detector. A solution to this problem has been developed for the case of measurements carried out with 3He spherical proportional counters of the type which are often used in Bonner sphere spectrometers...
November 29, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
A Bantsar, P Colautti, V Conte, G Hilgers, M Pietrzak, S Pszona, H Rabus, A Selva
Nanodosimetry is a branch of dosimetry for investigation and modeling of the interaction pattern of ionizing radiation in nanometre site-sizes (at unit density), which dates back to the 1970's (Pszona S. A track ion counter. Proceedings of Fifth Symposium on Microdosimetry EUR 5452 d-e-f, Published by the Commission of the European Communities, Luxemburg, pp. 1107-1122 (1976)). To date, the different experimental approaches have lead to developing of three fully functional nanodosimeters: the Jet Counter operated at NCBJ, the Ion Counter operated at PTB and Startrack Counter operated at INFN-LNL...
November 29, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
M Dommert, M Reginatto, M Zboril, F Fiedler, S Helmbrecht, W Enghardt, B Lutz
Bonner sphere measurements are typically analyzed using unfolding codes. It is well known that it is difficult to get reliable estimates of uncertainties for standard unfolding procedures. An alternative approach is to analyze the data using Bayesian parameter estimation. This method provides reliable estimates of the uncertainties of neutron spectra leading to rigorous estimates of uncertainties of the dose. We extend previous Bayesian approaches and apply the method to stray neutrons in proton therapy environments by introducing a new parameterized model which describes the main features of the expected neutron spectra...
November 28, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Faraj Tabeie, Parisa Honari, Isa Neshandar Asli, Mahasti Amoei, Mohammad Eftekhari, Mojtaba Ansari, Babak Shafiei
This study represents an update of Tehran population exposure from the diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures and the annual collective effective dose during 2011-14. The diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures data were collected from 58 out of 60 nuclear medicine centers in Tehran and were composed of the type and frequency of diagnostic examinations, radiopharmaceuticals used, administered activities, and age distribution of the patients. The annual number of examinations per 1000 population increased from 13...
November 24, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Gediminas Stankunas, Aljaz Cufar, Andrius Tidikas, Paola Batistoni
Irradiations with 14 MeV fusion neutrons are planned at Joint European Torus (JET) in DT operations with the objective to validate the calculation of the activation of structural materials in functional materials expected in ITER and fusion plants. This study describes the activation and dose rate calculations performed for materials irradiated throughout the DT plasma operation during which the samples of real fusion materials are exposed to 14 MeV neutrons inside the JET vacuum vessel. Preparatory activities are in progress during the current DD operations with dosimetry foils to measure the local neutron fluence and spectrum at the sample irradiation position...
November 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
M M Abuzaid, W Elshami, Christopher Steelman
Radiation dose monitoring for radiography students during clinical training is necessary to demonstrate the extent of radiation protection issues present, as well as to instill in them an awareness of safe practices that they will carry with them throughout their careers. The study assess the radiation dose incurred by the undergraduate during clinical training. 312 students were monitored using (thermoluminescence dosimetry) between 2009 and 2015. The results establish that the radiation dose received by the students is well below the dose recommended by national and international authorities...
November 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
D Radeck, M Luszik-Bhadra, T Haninger, M Reginatto
The response of albedo dosemeters depends on the energy and angle of the incident neutron radiation. For their use as personal dosemeters, a field-calibration factor has to be applied. The presently used single sphere method for field calibration can be extended and optimised by putting five albedo dosemeters on the surface of a polyethylene sphere and two TL cards in the centre. To investigate the potential of this extension, reference measurements and Monte Carlo calculations were performed and the fluence response of the detectors at different positions on and within the sphere was determined...
November 21, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
W D Newhauser, C Schneider, L Wilson, S Shrestha, W Donahue
External-beam radiation therapy is safe, effective and widely used to treat cancer. With 5-year cancer survival for adults above 70%, increasingly research is focusing on quantifying and reducing treatment-related morbidity. Reducing exposures to healthy tissues is one strategy, which can be accomplished with advanced-technology radiotherapies, such as intensity-modulated photon therapy and proton therapy. Both of these modalities provide good conformation of the therapeutic dose to the tumor volume, but they also deliver stray radiation to the whole body that increases the risk of radiogenic second cancers...
November 21, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
B M Freitas, A X da Silva, W W Pereira, C L P Mauricio
Albedo dosemeters remain the most used dosemeters in neutron individual monitoring. In Brazil, most of the neutron occupational fields are from radionuclide sources, often without any moderation, where albedo dosemeters have poor energy response. The purpose of this work is to compare the HP(10) energy response of the IRD and ALNOR TLD albedo dosemeter systems, calculated by their modelling with Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Their energy responses are similar, as expected, but the IRD system is about five times more sensitive than the ALNOR one...
November 21, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Marissa L Bartlett, Anna Forsythe, Zoe Brady, John D Mathews
We report data for all Australians aged 0-19 y who underwent publicly funded nuclear medicine studies between 1985 and 2005, inclusive. Radiation doses were estimated for individual patients for 95 different types of studies. There were 374 848 occasions of service for 277 511 patients with a collective effective dose of 1123 Sievert (Sv). Most services were either bone scans (45%) or renal scans (29%), with renal scans predominating at younger ages and bone scans at older ages. This pattern persisted despite a 4-fold increase in the annual number of procedures...
November 21, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
X Ledoux, M Aïche, M Avrigeanu, V Avrigeanu, E Balanzat, B Ban-d'Etat, G Ban, E Bauge, G Bélier, P Bém, C Borcea, T Caillaud, A Chatillon, S Czajkowski, P Dessagne, D Doré, U Fischer, M O Frégeau, J Grinyer, S Guillous, F Gunsing, C Gustavsson, G Henning, B Jacquot, K Jansson, B Jurado, M Kerveno, A Klix, O Landoas, F R Lecolley, J L Lecouey, M Majerle, N Marie, T Materna, J Mrázek, J Novák, S Oberstedt, A Oberstedt, S Panebianco, L Perrot, A J M Plompen, S Pomp, A V Prokofiev, J M Ramillon, F Farget, D Ridikas, B Rossé, O Serot, S P Simakov, E Šimecková, M Stanoiu, M Štefánik, J C Sublet, J Taïeb, D Tarrío, L Tassan-Got, I Thfoin, C Varignon
The neutrons for science (NFS) facility is a component of SPIRAL-2, the new superconducting linear accelerator built at GANIL in Caen (France). The proton and deuteron beams delivered by the accelerator will allow producing intense neutron fields in the 100 keV-40 MeV energy range. Continuous and quasi-mono-kinetic energy spectra, respectively, will be available at NFS, produced by the interaction of a deuteron beam on a thick Be converter and by the 7Li(p,n) reaction on thin converter. The pulsed neutron beam, with a flux up to two orders of magnitude higher than those of other existing time-of-flight facilities, will open new opportunities of experiments in fundamental research as well as in nuclear data measurements...
November 21, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Wei-Lin Chen, Rong-Jiun Sheu
This study thoroughly determined the flux and dose rate distributions of cosmic-ray muons and neutrons in a five-story concrete building by comparing measurements with Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic-ray showers. An angular-energy-dependent surface source comprising secondary muons and neutrons at a height of 200 m above ground level was established and verified, which was used to concatenate the shower development in the upper atmosphere with subsequent simulations of radiation transport down to ground level, including the effect of the terrain and studied building...
November 18, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Botond Papp, Alexandra Cucos Dinu, Constantin Cosma
This study presents results of a complex survey about residential, soil and water radon in the North of Mureş county (Romania). Indoor radon measurements were performed by using CR-39 track detectors, while radon concentrations in soil and in water were measured by using the LUK3C device and accessories. The indoor radon concentrations of 157 houses ranged from 9 to 414 Bq m-3, with an arithmetic mean of 131 Bq m-3 and a geometric mean of 105 Bq m-3. In ~3.2% of the investigated houses exceed the recommended reference level of 300 Bq m-3...
November 18, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Falastine Abuasbi, Adnan Lahham, Issam Rashid Abdel-Raziq
In this study, levels of extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields originated from overhead power lines were investigated in the outdoor environment in Ramallah city, Palestine. Spot measurements were applied to record fields intensities over 6-min period. The Spectrum Analyzer NF-5035 was used to perform measurements at 1 m above ground level and directly underneath 40 randomly selected power lines distributed fairly within the city. Levels of electric fields varied depending on the line's category (power line, transformer or distributor), a minimum mean electric field of 3...
November 18, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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