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Radiation Protection Dosimetry

James W Marsh, Dominique Laurier, Margot Tirmarche
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently published two reports on radon exposure; Publication 115 on lung cancer risks from radon and radon progeny and Publication 126 on radiological protection against radon exposure. A specific graded approach for the control of radon in workplaces is recommended where a dose assessment is required in certain situations. In its forthcoming publication on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides (OIR) document, Part 3, effective dose coefficients for radon and thoron will be provided...
May 16, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Antoine Delmas, Nicolas Weber, Joris Piffre, Cédric Pasquier, Jacques Felblinger, Pierre-André Vuissoz
Worker exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) is a growing concern of international commissions. A European directive from 2013 (2013/35/EU) recommend to estimate or measure EMF exposure of all exposed workers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) workers are specially concerned by this point because they work all day long in the vicinity of a very strong magnet (generally 1.5 or 3 T), which cannot be turned off. Setting up a magnetic field monitoring device on these workers would therefore be a good way to ensure their security...
May 12, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Masoumeh Parsi, Mehdi Sohrabi, Fereidoun Mianji, Reza Paydar
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the gantry angulation on dose profiles along the z-axis, the CTDIW value and the CTDIW efficiency in the head examinations. A Monte Carlo simulation model of a GE LightSpeed 16-slice CT scanner was developed by a GATE toolkit. The CTDI100 in air at the isocenter and in a head dosimetry phantom were measured using a pencil ion chamber. Dose profiles were studied in the central and peripheral holes of the head phantom using thermoluminescence LiF disc dosemeters for gantry angulations of 0°, 10° and 20°...
May 12, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Lukáš Kotík, Vera Becková, Irena Malátová, Ladislav Tomasek
The aim of the study is to make a comparison of daily 238U excretion in urine among 115 active uranium miners and its modeled values obtained from inhalation intake of long-lived alpha emitters as measured by personal dosemeters and assessed by biokinetic models for different absorption parameters settings for inhaled uranium. A total of 144 spot samples of urine were collected. The 238U content was measured using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. To obtain estimates of the daily excreted values, the daily values were calculated according to the expected daily excretion of creatinine assessed individually for each miner...
May 12, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Fuminobu Sato, Tatsuro Maekawa, Tomoharu Kariba, Sachie Kusaka, Teruya Tanaka, Isao Murata
A novel optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detector containing isotopically enriched boron was developed for thermal neutron dosimetry. Alumina containing isotopically enriched boron (Al2O3:B) was synthesised by the sol-gel method. The Al2O3:B was annealed up to ~1800 K. For X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis, the diffraction pattern of the Al2O3:B had reflex peaks corresponding to α-Al2O3. The sensitivity of Al2O3:B to photons was slightly 2% of that of a commercial Al2O3:C. The Al2O3:B detector had satisfactory linearity in X-ray dose measurement...
May 12, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Tania Berlana, Alejandro Úbeda
Occupational exposure to static and radiofrequency fields emitted by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers was assessed through systematic field metering during operation of 19 devices in nine research centers. Whereas no measurable levels of radiofrequency radiation were registered outside the spectrometers, significant exposure to static field was detected, with maximum values recorded at the user's hand (B = 683.00 mT) and head-thorax (B = 135.70 mT) during spectrometer manipulation. All values were well below the exposure limits set by the European standard for workers protection against the effects of acute field exposure only...
May 4, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Yaping Qi, Lijuan He, Zhi Wang, Yuanyuan Liu, Hongdong Liu, Wanli Huo, X George Xu, Zhi Chen
There have been few studies on the secondary cancer after radiation treatment in Chinese hospitals. This study has measured out-of-field absorbed organ doses from intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) radiotherapy for esophageal cancer in a Chinese hospital and evaluated the risks of secondary cancer. The dose measurements were based on the thermo-luminescence dosemeter (TLD) and the ATOM® phantom, which represents an adult male. Over 100 TLD chips were placed in 35 different organ sites and one group of the same TLDs was set as background contrast...
May 3, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Erik Poenitz, Clemens Walther
In several countries, the high-level radioactive waste that will be disposed of in deep geological formations has to be retrievable for a certain time. Since 2010, retrievability is required for the operation phase of a repository also in Germany. Depending on the effort and the feasibility of remote handling, a certain exposure of the involved employees to ionising radiation is caused. The estimation of the exposure requires the knowledge of the inventory of radionuclides and the radiation field around the storage containers...
May 2, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Manish K Sahai, S M Pradhan, A K Bakshi, D Datta
Thermoluminescence (TL) signal obtained during second readout of a TL dosemeter disc previously exposed to ionising radiation is termed as residual TL. The origin of residual TL has not been discussed in detail so far in the literature. In this work, experimentally obtained residual TL signal and its origin is studied for CaSO4:Dy-based TL dosemeter through numerical simulation and role of deeper traps has been discussed.
April 27, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Joël Greffier, Ahmed Larbi, Francesco Macri, Jean-Paul Beregi, Fabricio Pereira
To study the effect of patient size, anatomical location and modulation strength (MS) on image-quality and delivered dose of CT scans acquired with automatic-exposure-control system (AEC). Four anthropomorphic phantoms (three paediatric and one thin adult) were studied, and normal and obese adults were simulated by placing bolus plates around the adult phantom. Thorax and abdomen-pelvis CT were performed using an AEC system equipped with five possible MS. Modulated tube current (mAsmod) was compared to Reference mAs and image-noise was assessed...
April 27, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Sangmin Lee, Chaeyeong Lee, Eun Hyuk Shin, Sungkoo Cho, Dae-Hyun Kim, Youngyih Han, Doo Ho Choi, Sung-Joon Ye, Jin Sung Kim
The primary objective of this study was to measure secondary neutron dose during proton therapy using a detector that covers the entire neutron energy range produced in proton therapy. We analyzed and compared the neutron dose during proton treatment with passive scattering and line scanning. The neutron ambient dose equivalents were measured with a 190 MeV wobbling and line-scanning proton beam. The center of a plastic water phantom (30 × 30 × 60 cm3) was placed at the isocenter. A Wide-Energy Neutron Detection Instrument (WENDI-2) was located 1m from the isocenter at four different angles (0°, 45°, 90° and 135°)...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Cássio Vilela Komatsu, Cristiane Camargo Silva, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de Souza, Luis Fernando Gonçalves
Newborns in intensive care units are generally subjected to a great number of X-rays procedures and to the risk of radiation-induced damage. This study evaluated a possible excess radiation by excess of radiographs, excess of dose per radiograph or under-collimation of the X-ray beam. The mean of X-rays per newborn was 12 (1-65) during a mean hospitalization of 29 d (1-226 d). The mean frequency was 0.8 X-ray exposures per newborn. About 13% of X-rays were performed without a well-defined clinical motivation...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Aya Tanaka, Nodoka Minami, Yumi Yasuoka, Takeshi Iimoto, Yasutaka Omori, Hiroyuki Nagahama, Jun Muto, Takahiro Mukai
AlphaGUARD is a low-effective volume detector and one of the most popular portable radon monitors which is currently available. This study investigated whether AlphaGUARD can accurately measure the variable indoor radon levels. The consistency of the radon-concentration data obtained by AlphaGUARD is evaluated against simultaneous measurements by two other monitors (each ~10 times more sensitive than AlphaGUARD). When accurately measuring radon concentration with AlphaGUARD, we found that the net counts of the AlphaGUARD were required of at least 500 counts, <25% of the relative percent difference...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Sussan N Acho, Willem P E Boonzaier, Ina F Nel
In South African breast care centres, full-field digital mammography units provide breast imaging services to symptomatic and asymptomatic women simultaneously. This study evaluated the technical exposure parameters of 800 mammograms of which 100 mammograms had obvious mass lesions in the fibroglandular tissue. The average breast compression force of mammograms with mass lesions in the fibroglandular tissue was 18.4% less than the average breast compression force of mammograms without mass lesions. The average mean glandular dose (MGD), tube potential (kVp) and compressed breast thickness (CBT) values were 2...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Anastasia C Hadjiconstanti, Gerasimos A T Messaris, Konstantinos C Thomopoulos, George S Panayiotakis
The patient radiation doses, in conjunction with the operator experience, in therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures, performed in our hospital, were obtained. Ninety-six patients participated in the study and were divided into 3 groups, based on the operator experience. The dosemetric indices, fluoroscopy time (FT), cumulative dose (Ka,r) and air kerma-area product (PKA), were collected. For the total and weight banding group the third quartile values of the distribution of FT, Ka,r and PKA were 2...
April 17, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Kh A Allam
In this work, a new methodology is developed based on Monte Carlo simulation for tunnels and mines external dose calculation. Tunnels external dose evaluation model of a cylindrical shape of finite thickness with an entrance and with or without exit. A photon transportation model was applied for exposure dose calculations. A new software based on Monte Carlo solution was designed and programmed using Delphi programming language. The variation of external dose due to radioactive nuclei in a mine tunnel and the corresponding experimental data lies in the range 7...
April 13, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
G Hoff, D Filipov, S Paschuk, H R Schelin, V Denyak
The main objective of this work is to simulate the X-ray scattered spectra by different pediatric phantoms (simulation of children subjected to barium meal procedures) to calculate an energy correction factor (ECF) to the reading of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). To perform this evaluation, the TLDs were positioned over three areas in two occupational workers: eyes, thyroid and hands. The Geant4 toolkit was used to define the spectra collected by TLDs, making possible to calculate the ECF. This work was developed in two stages: (1) evaluation of scattered spectra by different standard phantoms (newborn, 1, 5 and 10 years old); (2) definition of the ECF to the absorbed energy by each TLD...
April 13, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Bo Yang, Rui Qiu, Jinlong Jiao, Wei Lu, Zhimeng Zhang, Weimin Zhou, Chi Ma, Hui Zhang, Junli Li
Current short-pulse high-intensity lasers can accelerate electrons and proton/ions to energies of giga-electron volts. For certain advanced applications, laser-accelerated electrons and protons are optimised for high-energy X-ray and neutron generation at the XG-III picosecond (ps) laser beamline. These energetic X-ray and neutron beams can significantly affect radiation safety at the facility; therefore, proper evaluation of the radiological hazards induced by laser-driven X-ray and neutron sources is required...
April 13, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Huailiang Li, Yigang Yang, Qibiao Wang, Xianguo Tuo, Mark Julian Henderson, Jérémie Courtois
The fluence rate of cosmic-ray-induced neutrons (CRINs) varies with many environmental factors. While many current simulation and experimental studies have focused mainly on the altitude variation, the specific rule that the CRINs vary with geomagnetic cutoff rigidity (which is related to latitude and longitude) was not well considered. In this article, a double-exponential fitting function F=(A1e-A2CR+A3)eB1Al, is proposed to evaluate the CRINs' fluence rate varying with geomagnetic cutoff rigidity and altitude...
April 13, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Hongyu Zhu, Rui Qiu, Zhen Wu, Li Ren, Chunyan Li, Hui Zhang, Junli Li
The human eye lens is sensitive to radiation. ICRP-118 publication recommended a reduction of the occupational annual equivalent dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv, averaged over defined periods of 5 y. Therefore, it is very important to build a detailed eye model for the accurate dose assessment and radiation risk evaluation of eye lens. In this work, a detailed eye model was build based on the characteristic anatomic parameters of the Chinese adult male. This eye model includes seven main structures, which are scleral, choroid, lens, iris, cornea, vitreous body and aqueous humor...
April 12, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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