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Radiation Protection Dosimetry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307569/elevation-of-gamma-dose-rate-by-construction-of-the-asian-highway-3-ah3-between-ulaanbaatar-and-sainshand-mongolia
#1
Yasutaka Omori, Atsuyuki Sorimachi, Manlaijav Gun-Aajav, Nyamdavaa Enkhgerel, Galnemekh Oyunbolor, Enkhtuya Palam, Chieri Yamada
The present study aimed at examining changes of gamma radiation level associated with road construction in Mongolia. A car-borne survey of gamma dose rate was made for a paved, ~450-km long part of the Asian Highway 3 between Ulaanbaatar and Sainshand. The gamma dose rates ranged from 48 to 173 nGy/h. Elevation of the gamma dose rates was observed only on a 86-km long segment of the survey route which was newly constructed from 2011 to 2013. The gamma dose rates over the newer paved segment were twice as high as those over the bare dirt surface alongside it...
October 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289545/an-assessment-of-radiation-exposure-doses-in-patients-undergoing-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-based-on-angiographic-records
#2
M Maghbool, M A Hosseini
The stochastic and non-stochastic (deterministic) effects of radiation dose in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) have been investigated using data recorded by an angiographic monitoring system. A total of 132 patients with acute myocardial infarction referred to the angiography department of Vali-Asr hospital, Fasa, Iran, during the second half of 2016 were recruited. Quantities like dose-area product (DAP), total air kerma (Ka,r) and fluoroscopy time (FT) were calculated and converted into effective dose (ED) and peak skin dose (PSD)...
October 5, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289542/estimation-of-organ-doses-and-effective-doses-based-on-in-phantom-dosimetry-for-infant-diagnostic-cardiac-catheterisations-with-novel-x-ray-imaging-technology
#3
Toshio Kawasaki, Masami Sakakubo, Kanako Ito
The present study evaluated the organ and effective doses in infant diagnostic cardiac catheterisation performed using a modern x-ray imaging unit by in-phantom dosimetry. In addition, conversion factors from dose-area product (DAP) to effective dose were determined. The organ and effective doses in 1-year old during diagnostic cardiac catheterisations were measured using radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters implanted into an infant anthropomorphic phantom. The mean effective doses, evaluated according to the International Commission on Radiologic Protection Publication 103, were 4...
October 5, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289509/radiation-dose-to-patients-in-coronary-interventional-procedures-a-survey
#4
A Brindhaban
The objective of this study was to evaluate dose-area product (DAP) and peak skin dose (PSD) for coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The DAP and PSD of 300 randomly selected patients who were referred to CA and/or PCI, over a period of 3 months were recorded and analyzed. The mean DAP of 32 Gy cm2 and mean PSD of 412 mGy for CA were lower than 118 Gy cm2 and 857 mGy, respectively, for PCI. The DAP range of 2-84 Gy cm2 for CA and 12-378 mGy for PCI were also established. The maximum value of PSD for PCI procedures reached above the 2 Gy threshold for erythema...
October 5, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289503/natural-radioactivity-and-evaluation-of-radiation-hazards-in-soils-from-granitoide-granite-geological-formation-in-cuba
#5
C M Alonso-Hernández, A L Toledo-Sibello, A Guillén-Arruebarrena, R Sibello-Hernández, Y Morera-Gómez, H A Cartas-Águila
The natural radioactivity and the associated radiation hazards of soils from the Cumanayagua Granitoide-Granitic massif in the central south of Cuba have been studied. Mass activities of the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K varied in the ranges 10.4-33, 4.6-21.7 and 381-1201 Bq kg-1, respectively. The radium equivalent activity (91.4 ± 22.1 Bq kg-1), absorbed dose rate (45.6 ± 11.1 nGy h-1), annual effective dose rate (56.1 ± 13.7 μSv y-1) and the external hazard index (0.25 ± 0.06) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values...
October 5, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289501/a-screening-survey-exercise-for-thyroid-internal-exposure-from-radioiodine-after-a-nuclear-accident
#6
Kazuaki Yajima, Eunjoo Kim, Kotaro Tani, Hideo Tatsuzaki, Chunsheng Li, Osamu Kurihara
In the aftermath of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, a screening survey for thyroid internal exposure from intake of radioiodine was performed on 1080 children using handheld NaI(Tl) survey meters. This article presents the design and results of a practical exercise conducted to develop the skills of personnel who would be potentially engaged in such a survey. Participants of this exercise were asked to measure manikin heads in which point sources were installed under normal (~0.05 μSv h-1) and elevated (~0...
October 5, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289498/patient-doses-in-common-diagnostic-x-ray-examinations
#7
Vasileios I Metaxas, Gerasimos A Messaris, Aristea N Lekatou, Theodore G Petsas, George S Panayiotakis
A local survey was conducted, to evaluate the radiation dose to adult patients who underwent diagnostic X-ray examinations. Patient-related and technical data were recorded, in 1504 patients, for each of the 11 individual projections, of the 7 most common examinations performed in an X-ray room, with 1 digital radiography system. The patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and the effective dose (ED) were calculated based on the X-ray tube output and the exposure parameters, as well as utilisation of suitable conversion coefficients, respectively...
October 5, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289495/the-investigation-of-micronuclei-frequency-distribution-for-exposed-and-unexposed-personnel-to-ionizing-radiation
#8
Lucia Raluca Barbu, Doina Carmen Obreja, O G Duliu
To establish at which extent the micronuclei (MN) frequency is influenced by occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, peripheral blood samples collected from 2151 subjects of both genders, smokers and non-smokers were analyzed. Among them, 378 (17.6%) were unexposed while the other 1773 (82.4%) were exposed to ionizing radiation for periods between 1 year and more than 30 years, at levels never overpassing legally regulated limits. The final results showed that for all investigated categories, MN frequency monotonously increases with the age by 1...
October 5, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289490/exposure-assessment-of-portable-wireless-devices-above-6-ghz
#9
Eduardo Carrasco, Davide Colombi, Kenneth R Foster, Marvin Ziskin, Quirino Balzano
The emerging 5 G wireless devices working at frequencies above 6 GHz are expected to have antenna arrays formed by dipoles, slots, patches or their combination. At lower frequencies, the accepted criteria for exposure compliance is stated in terms of specific absorption rate. IEEE and ICNIRP are adopting epithelial or transmitted power density (PD through body surface) as the dosimetric reference for frequencies above 6 GHz, which entails the measurement of free space PD. Theoretical and numerical results presented in this article show that it is possible to perform meaningful free space PD assessments at half wave (λ/2) distance from arrays and, with the proper instrumentation, as close as λ/(2π)...
October 5, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272224/the-german-dose-rate-monitoring-network-and-implemented-data-harmonization-techniques
#10
U Stöhlker, M Bleher, H Doll, H Dombrowski, W Harms, I Hellmann, R Luff, B Prommer, S Seifert, F Weiler
Environmental radiation monitoring networks have been established in Europe and world-wide for the purpose of protecting population and environment against ionizing radiation. Some of these networks had been established during the cold war period and were improved after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Today, the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) operates an early warning network with roughly 1800 ambient dose equivalent rate (ADER) stations equally distributed over the German territory. The hardware and software of all network components are developed in-house allowing the continuous optimization of all relevant components...
October 1, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272222/analytical-model-to-estimate-equivalent-dose-from-internal-neutrons-in-proton-therapy-of-children-with-intracranial-tumors
#11
Kyle J Gallagher, Phillip J Taddei
This study developed a computationally efficient and easy-to-implement analytical model to estimate the equivalent dose from secondary neutrons originating in the bodies ('internal neutrons') of children receiving intracranial proton radiotherapy. A two-term double-Gaussian mathematical model was fit to previously published internal neutron equivalent dose per therapeutic absorbed dose versus distance from the field edge calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The model was trained using three intracranial proton fields of a 9-year-old girl...
October 1, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272212/performance-of-the-instadosetm-dosemeter-for-interventional-radiology-and-cardiology-application
#12
W J Garzón, H Khoury, S A M Ovalle, R B Medeiros
The aim of this article was to verify the performance of the Mirion InstadoseTM dosemeter under clinical conditions and to compare its response in typical X-ray fields used during interventional and cardiology procedures with the TLD-100, usually used for radiation dosimetry. It was also objective of this study to verify the feasibility of using the InstadoseTM dosemeter response at the chest level for estimation of occupational eye lens dose in cardiology and interventional radiology. Initially the response of the dosemeter was tested using continuous X-ray beams and the results showed that the Instadose dosemeter present a satisfactory behavior of the most important dosimetric properties based on the tests as described in the IEC 62387 standard...
October 1, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265363/radon-in-groundwater-of-magadi-taluk-ramanagara-district-in-karnataka
#13
P Vipin Kumar, S B Gudennavar, M S Chandrashekara, S G Bubbly, K S Hamsa
Radon is a water-soluble radioactive noble gas produced from the alpha decay of 226Ra in uranium series. Its presence in drinking water and open air increases the risk of lung and intestinal cancers in human beings. In view of this, radon concentration in groundwater and its dose due to inhalation and ingestion to the population of Magadi taluk of Ramanagara district in Karnataka state, India was studied. The groundwater samples were analyzed for radon concentration using emanometry technique. The study showed that the radon concentration in this area varied from 27...
September 28, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30260449/wall-thickness-optimisation-of-an-ionisation-chamber-for-directional-dose-equivalent-rate-measurement-at-low-and-medium-photon-energies
#14
Sunil K Singh, M S Kulkarni
A thin and plane wall ionisation chamber having 900 cc volume was designed and fabricated to study the calibration coefficient dependency on ionisation chamber wall thickness for directional dose equivalent rate (H'(d)) at various low and medium energy X-ray beam qualities. Optimised wall thickness was established through measurements to achieve a near flat energy response using the developed ionisation chamber. The measurement shows that in the energy range 12-213 keV, the average calibration coefficient for directional dose equivalent rate lies within ±10% for wall thickness 1...
September 27, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30260437/retrospective-analysis-of-patient-radiation-doses-in-digital-coronary-angiography-and-interventions
#15
Amna J Al-Jabri, Khalid Alzimami, K Alsafi, Abdulaziz S Alaamer, M A Al-Rajhi, I I Suliman
This study sought to assess patient and operator eye lens doses in diagnostic coronary angiography (DCA) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in a University hospital in Oman. Kerma area product (PkA), cumulative air kerma (CAK) and fluoroscopic time (FT) were retrospectively recorded from the DICOM header for 264 patients. The median (interquartile range) of FT, PKA and CAK were: 5.3 min (2.6-10.5), 60.9 Gy cm2 (41.3-91.4) and 0.86 Gy (0.61-1.29), respectively, for DCA procedures, and they were 20...
September 27, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30260433/a-study-of-a-dose-constraint-for-occupationally-exposed-workers-in-the-us-nuclear-power-plants
#16
Tae Young Kong, Gamal Akabani, John W Poston
One of the most important issues in the nuclear power industry is the implementation of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published in ICRP Publication 103. These recommendations include the implementation of the concept of dose constraints for occupationally exposed workers at nuclear power plants (NPPs). When considering these changes from a cost-benefit standpoint, the implementation of dose constraints is still highly controversial. This study analysed annual occupational dose distributions to determine whether a dose constraint is needed for occupationally exposed workers at the US NPPs...
September 27, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247702/survey-of-key-radiation-safety-practices-in-interventional-radiology-an-irish-and-english-study
#17
L O'Hora, M L Ryan, L Rainford
Interventional radiology is a rapidly evolving speciality with potential to deliver high patient radiation doses, as a result high standards of radiation safety practice are imperative. IR radiation safety practice must be considered before during and after procedures through appropriate patient consent, dose monitoring and patient follow-up. This questionnaire-based study surveyed fixed IR departments across Ireland and England to establish clinical practice in relation to radiation safety. Pre-procedure IR patient consent includes all radiation effects in 11% of cases...
September 22, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247729/development-of-a-miniaturized-version-of-dicentric-chromosome-assay-tool-for-radiological-triage
#18
Adayabalam S Balajee, Tammy Smith, Terri Ryan, Maria Escalona, Nicholas Dainiak
Use of ionizing radiation (IR) in various industrial, medical and other applications can potentially increase the risk of medical, occupational or accidental human exposure. Additionally, in the event of a radiological or nuclear (R/N) incident, several tens of hundreds and thousands of people are likely to be exposed to IR. IR causes serious health effects including mortality from acute radiation syndrome and therefore it is imperative to determine the absorbed radiation dose, which will enable physicians in making an appropriate clinical 'life-saving' decision...
September 21, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239877/preliminary-results-of-the-icidose-2017-international-inter-comparison-on-internal-dose-assessment
#19
C M Castellani, A Andrási, A Giussani, T Pázmándi, G Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239880/development-and-application-of-solid-forms-of-caso4-dy-thermoluminescent-dosemeters-in-radiation-protection-dosimetry-a-review
#20
Arunachalam Lakshmanan
CaSO4:Dy is a reliable high-sensitive themoluminescent phosphor useful for low-level and high-level radiation measurements as it exhibits fading free linear dose response with a single glow peak at ~230°C in these dose regions. For large-scale radiation protection dosimetry service, it is embedded in Teflon matrix with varying thicknesses. Extensive studies have been carried out with such CaSO4:Dy Teflon discs in individual and environmental radiation monitoring applications including its capability to measure International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements operational quantities...
September 19, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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