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Journal of Neuroimmunology

A Achiron, R Zilkha-Falb, R Mashiach, M Gurevich
Targeting Polymerase-1 (POL1) transcription machinery is a new strategy for suppression of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity that is based on suppression of ribosomal biogenesis and subsequent activation of apoptosis. We developed an oral POL1 inhibiting compound RAM-589.555, that suppress ribosomal biogenesis as an innovative therapeutic approach to ameliorate MS. RAM-589.555 shows high permeability, specificity to POL1 pathway, ability to induce apoptosis and to inhibit proliferation and viability of activated lymphocytes both in-vitro and in-vivo...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sajad Karampoor, Hamid Zahednasab, Sreeram Ramagopalan, Masoud Mehrpour, Hossein Keyvani
A growing body of evidence suggests that angiogenesis plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Animal models of MS show a significant improvement when the process of angiogenesis is halted. In this study, we measured the serum levels of vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble Endoglin (sEng), angiopoietin 1(Ang-1), angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2), and uric acid (UA) as well as serum anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA-1 IgG in 50 MS patients (including 20 newly diagnosed and 30 patients taking IFN-beta for >6months) and 40 healthy individuals...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Yongbo Zhang, Guoyi Liu, Yuanli Duan, Xinwen Han, Huihua Dong, Jia Geng
OBJECTIVE: It's hypothesized that gastrointestinal microbiota might play an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in MS patients compared with sex and age matched controls without MS. METHODS: The present study was a case-control type, it included 118 patients with definitive MS and 118 age-sex matched controls. Progression of disability was assessed using the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Ruxandra Covacu, Lou Brundin
The adult mammalian spinal cord (SC) harbors neural stem cells (NSCs). The SC-NSCs are mostly quiescent during physiological conditions but are quickly activated in traumatic injury models. The SC-NSCs generate mostly glia, but are able to differentiate into neurons when affected by favourable conditions. An example is the inflammatory milieu in the SC of rat EAE, where the SC-NSCs migrate into demyelinated lesions and give rise to both glia and neurons. In MS, cells with progenitor phenotypes accumulate in inflammatory lesions both in brain and SC, but the extent to which these cells contribute to repair remains to be revealed...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Debra E Lyon, Ronald Cohen, Huaihou Chen, Debra L Kelly, Nancy L McCain, Angela Starkweather, Hyochol Ahn, Jamie Sturgill, Colleen K Jackson-Cook
: Cancer and its treatment are frequently associated with cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). While CRCI has been associated with linked to chemotherapy, there is increasing evidence that the condition may start prior to treatment and for some, remain unresolved after active treatment and into survivorship. Although the pathophysiology of the condition is complex, alterations in systemic cytokines, signaling molecules activated in response to infection or injury that trigger inflammation, are a possible mechanism linked to cognitive dysfunction in breast cancer and other conditions...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Alex Portes, Elizabeth Giestal-de-Araujo, Aline Fagundes, Pablo Pandolfo, Arnaldo de Sá Geraldo, Marie Luce Flores Lira, Veronica Figueiredo Amaral, Jussara Lagrota-Candido
Neurological symptoms have been associated with Leishmania infection, however little is known about how the nervous system is affected in leishmaniasis. This work aimed to analyze parasitic load, production of cytokines/neurotrophins in the prefrontal cortex and behavioral changes in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis. At 2 and 4months post-infection, infected mice showed a decrease in IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 cytokines and BDNF and NGF neurotrophins in prefrontal cortex associated with increased anxiety behavior...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Kazuo Iwasa, Yutaka Furukawa, Hiroaki Yoshikawa, Masahito Yamada
Caveolin-3 is a muscle-specific membrane protein that localizes to the sarcolemma and T-tubule system. Caveolin-3 is needed for muscle repair and skeletal muscle development. The objective of this study was to compare caveolin-3 expression in myasthenia gravis (MG) and control muscles. Caveolin-3 was abnormally expressed in the MG muscle membrane, with partial loss of expression and overexpression in 5/15 and 10/15 patients, respectively. Caveolin-3 mRNA and protein levels were higher in MG than in control muscles, suggesting that partial deficiency of caveolin-3 is occasionally detected in MG muscle and that caveolin-3 overexpression may be required after MG muscle damage...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Masato Kadoya, Kenichi Kaida, Haruki Koike, Hiroshi Takazaki, Hidenori Ogata, Kota Moriguchi, Jun Shimizu, Eiichiro Nagata, Shunya Takizawa, Atsuro Chiba, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun-Ichi Kira, Gen Sobue, Katsunori Ikewaki
We aimed to validate the diagnostic utility of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of anti-neurofascin (NF) 155 antibody in 191 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Human NF155-based ELISA clearly distinguished between anti-NF155 antibody-positive and -negative sera. Fifteen CIDP patients (8%) were IgG4 anti-human NF155 antibody-positive, which were confirmed by western blot, cell-based assay and immunohistochemical study. None of disease controls or healthy subjects had positive results...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Yu Song, Lili Huang, Jianfeng Yu
Anthocyanins, which are abundant in blueberries, provide significant protection against many chronic diseases. We investigated the effects of blueberry anthocyanins (BA) on diabetes-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rat retinas. Male rats were divided randomly into five groups. Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60mg/kg) was used to induce a rat diabetes model. BA at 20, 40, and 80mg/kg were given orally for about 12weeks. The results showed that BA could prevent diabetes-induced weight loss and increased blood glucose...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Thaise Campos Mondin, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Fernada Pedrotti Moreira, Carolina Wiener, Jean Pierre Oses, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Karen Jansen, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flávio Kapczinski, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva
OBJECTIVE: To assess circadian preference among a community sample of people with bipolar disorder, major depression and without any mood disorders. Secondly, we investigated the association of circadian preference with cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), uric acid and Protein Carbonyl Content (PCC). METHOD: A cross-sectional study nested in a population-based sample...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Zhanyun Lv, Qiguang Shi, Wenhui Huang, Chunye Xing, Yanlei Hao, Xungang Feng, Yan Yang, Aimei Zhang, Qingxia Kong, Nobuhiro Yuki, Yuzhong Wang
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease affecting the peripheral nervous system. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in the process of various diseases. The miRNAs in GBS were less studied. In this study, using microarray technology, we found two miRNAs including has-miR-4717-5p and has-miR-642b-5p were upregulated in patients with GBS, which were further confirmed by PCR analysis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that the dysregulated miRNAs may be involved in the mechanism of GBS by affecting the cellular differentiation, cell survival and axonal outgrowth...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sérgio M de Almeida, Indianara Rotta, Clea E Ribeiro, Davey Smith, Ruiyi Wang, Jennifer Judicello, Michael Potter, Florin Vaida, Scott Letendre, Ronald J Ellis
HIV infection is persistent in the CNS, to evaluate the compartmentalization of the CNS immune response to HIV, we compared soluble markers of cellular immunity in the blood and CSF among HIV- (n=19) and HIV+ (n=68), as well as among HIV participants with or without CSF pleocytosis. Dysfunction of the blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) was common in HIV participants. CSF levels of TNFα, IFNγ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IP-10, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES were significantly higher in participants with CSF pleocytosis (P<0...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Miyuki Morikawa, Motoi Kuwahara, Rino Ueno, Makoto Samukawa, Yukihiro Hamada, Susumu Kusunoki
We performed a serological investigation using glycoarray in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Antibodies to 10 glycolipids and 45 glycolipid complexes were tested. Anti-GM1/sulfatide and anti-GA1/sulfatide IgG antibodies were common in GBS (20.0% and 19.0%, respectively). Anti-GQ1b/sulfatide IgG antibody was detected in 14.0% of GBS patients. IgG antibodies to antigens containing GQ1b were significantly correlated with ophthalmoplegia in GBS (p<0...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Vanessa Cunill, Susana Arboleya, Maria de Los Reyes Jiménez, Antoni Campins, Patricia Herbera, LLuïsa Mestre, Antonio Clemente, Maria Inés Barceló, Maria Leyes, Francesca Canellas, Maria Rosa Julià
Neuronal surface antibodies (NSA) involved in autoimmune encephalitis (AE) have been related to relapses in HVS encephalitis. Their role in non-encephalitic psychosis is controversial. We previously reported an HIV-infected patient, NSA-positive, only presenting psychosis. Therefore, we determined the NSA prevalence in a prospective cohort of 22 HIV-positive patients with psychosis and we analyzed the frequency of HIV infection among NSA tested patients due to AE suspicion. We found no NSA in the prospective cohort...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jürgen Haas, Alexander Schwarz, Mirjam Korporal-Kuhnke, Sven Jarius, Brigitte Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are functionally defective in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and this dysfunction is related to an imbalanced composition of naïve and memory Treg subtypes. Several lines of evidence indicate that these abnormalities might result from a premature decline in thymic-dependent Treg neogenesis. Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) critically determine Treg differentiation in the thymus, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) expressed on mDCs is a key component of the signaling pathways involved in this process...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Rina Aharoni, Chava Rosen, Elias Shezen, Dekel D Bar-Lev, Ofra Golani, Yair Reisner, Michael Sela, Ruth Arnon
The lack of biomarkers is a major obstacle for investigating myelin repair. We used metabolic incorporation of the choline analog - propargyl-choline (P-Cho) to label and visualize newly synthesized myelin in the CNS of mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We further developed unbiased colocalization analysis to quantify P-Cho incorporation specifically into the myelin. Our findings indicate that P-Cho injection to mice recovering from EAE, either spontaneously or following glatiramer acetate treatment, results in significant elevation of its incorporation into the myelin, offering a novel strategy for assessing remyelination in animal models and the remyelination potential of candidate drugs...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Makoto Samukawa, Motoi Kuwahara, Miyuki Morikawa, Rino Ueno, Yukihiro Hamada, Kazuo Takada, Makito Hirano, Yoshiyuki Mitsui, Masahiro Sonoo, Susumu Kusunoki
Whether patients who have GBS with antibodies to galactocerebroside (Gal-C) and gangliosides (Gal-C-GS-GBS) more often have demyelinating or axonal neuropathy remains controversial. We assessed the electrophysiological data from 16 patients with Gal-C-GS-GBS based on the two established criteria to clarify this issue. In this largest cohort of Gal-C-GS-GBS, eight patients had demyelinating neuropathy and none exhibited axonal neuropathy on either criterion. These data indicated that antibodies to Gal-C, a myelin antigen, might predominantly be associated with demyelinating neuropathy, even in the presence of concomitant antibodies to gangliosides...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Anne H Cross, Sheng-Kwei Song
We describe a novel imaging method to assess central nervous system pathology called "Diffusion Basis Spectrum Imaging" (DBSI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to estimate axonpathology and demyelination. However, in the settings of acute inflammation and chronic tissue loss asare common in multiple sclerosis, DTI signals can lead to false interpretations. DBSI is a computationallynovel method that separates isotropic from anisotropic components in imaging voxels. Isotropicdiffusion is believed to reflect inflammatory components (cells, edema), as well as intrinsic cells andextracellular space...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Pietro Maggi, Pascal Sati, Luca Massacesi
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as for the study of the disease pathophysiology. Because of its strong clinical, radiological and histopathological similarities with the human disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset has been studied more intensively over the past several years. Here, we review the current knowledge on MRI in the marmoset EAE, and we outline the physiopathological significance and translational values of these studies with respect to MS...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Noriko Itoh, Roy Kim, Mavis Peng, Emma DiFilippo, Hadley Johnsonbaugh, Allan MacKenzie-Graham, Rhonda R Voskuhl
Protective effects of pregnancy during MS have led to clinical trials of estriol, the pregnancy estrogen, in MS. Since estriol binds to estrogen receptor (ER) beta, ER beta ligand could represent a "next generation estriol" treatment. Here, ER beta ligand treatment was protective in EAE in both sexes and across genetic backgrounds. Neuroprotection was shown in spinal cord, sparing myelin and axons, and in brain, sparing neurons and synapses. Longitudinal in vivo MRIs showed decreased brain atrophy in cerebral cortex gray matter and cerebellum during EAE...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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