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Journal of Neuroimmunology

Jun-Ichi Kira, Noriko Isobe
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize >50% of the entire human population. Generally, H. pylori infect the human stomach in infancy when parietal cells secreting gastric acids, which reduce the survival of H. pylori, are not well matured. Once acquired, the bacterium persists for life. Thus, H. pylori infection reflects sanitary conditions during childhood. >10 studies performed in various Eastern and Western countries as well as two meta-analyses collectively indicated the H. pylori infection rate is significantly lower in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) than in healthy controls...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Stefanie Haase, Nicola Wilck, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Dominik N Müller, Ralf A Linker
The detrimental effects of a high-salt diet on human health have received much attention in the past few years. While it has been well established that high dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular diseases, there is growing evidence that excess salt also affects the immune system and might be considered as a risk factor in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Several studies have implicated T helper 17 cells (Th17) in the pathogenesis of MS. We and others recently demonstrated that excessive salt enhances the differentiation of Th17 cells, inducing a highly pathogenic phenotype that aggravates experimental neuroinflammation...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Reza Saberi, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Sargis A Aghayan, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Davood Anvari, Tooran Nayeri Chegeni, Zahra Hosseininejad, Ahmad Daryani
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii with a globally widespread distribution. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to characterize the association between T. gondii infection and multiple sclerosis (MS). The data were systematically collected from the English electronic databases up to April 2017. The research process resulted in the identification of five studies related to the subject of interest entailing 669 MS patients and 770 controls. The pooled prevalence rates of T...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Paolo Fagone, Emanuela Mazzon, Eugenio Cavalli, Alessia Bramanti, Maria Cristina Petralia, Katia Mangano, Yousef Al-Abed, Placido Bramati, Ferdinando Nicoletti
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine with pleiotropic actions involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, including Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We have first evaluated in silico the involvement of MIF, its homologue D-DT, and the receptors CD74, CD44, CXCR2 and CXCR4 in encephalitogenic T cells from a mouse model of MS, the Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis (EAE), as well as in circulating T helper cells from MS patients. We show an upregulation of the receptors involved in MIF signaling both in the animal model and in patients...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Roger N Rosenberg, Min Fu, Doris Lambracht-Washington
Aβ immunotherapies with anti-Aβ antibody responses have high potential as possible prevention treatment for Alzheimer's disease. We have previously shown that active DNA Aβ1-42 immunization via gene gun delivery led to a non-inflammatory immune response resulting in decreased Aβ levels in brains of an immunized AD mouse model. To make DNA vaccination more applicable for clinical use, we used here intradermal electroporation. With fine tuning of the electropulse parameters, high antibody levels and low levels of inflammatory cytokines in the cellular immunoassays were observed...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Monica M Sauter, Aaron W Kolb, Curtis R Brandt
The purpose of this study was to characterize cell-specific expression patterns of Toll-like receptors (TLR) in non-human primate (NHP) neural retina tissue. TLR 4, 5, 6, and 7 proteins were detected by immunblotting of macaque retina tissue lysates and quantitative PCR (qPCR) demonstrated TLRs 4-7 mRNA expression. Immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy detected TLRs 4-7 in multiple cell types in macaque neural retina including Muller, retinal ganglion cells (RGC), amacrine, and bipolar cells. These results demonstrate that TLRs 4-7 are constitutively expressed by neurons in the NHP retina raising the possibility that these cells could be involved in retinal innate inflammatory responses...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Eman Y Abu-Rish, Lina A Dahabiyeh, Yasser Bustanji, Yehia S Mohamed, Michael J Browning
Alteration in cytokine levels, particularly, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine (LTG), an antiepileptic drug with mood stabilizing properties, has documented immunomodulatory effects. However, its effect on cytokine secretion in vivo has not been examined. Besides, studies have reported inconsistent results of the in vitro effects of LTG on cytokine secretion. Hence, we used murine models of inflammation to characterize the in vivo and the in vitro effects of LTG on the secretion of the aforementioned cytokines, using ELISA...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jeffrey L Dupree, Douglas L Feinstein
Numerous studies have shown that diet influences the development of autoimmune diseases. However, the influence of diet on axonal damage occurring in EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis) has not been examined. In the current study we compared changes in axonal damage and myelin thickness in spinal cords of sham- and MOG (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein) peptide-immunized mice kept on a standard mouse chow (Teklad 7012) versus AIN-93 M chow which was developed for improved animal health. Despite that the development of clinical signs was similar in the 2 groups, there were significant differences in axonal caliber and myelin thickness...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Michala Krestova, Jan Ricny, Ales Bartos
The presence of pre-existing natural antibodies against Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological proteins might interfere with immune responses to therapeutic vaccination with these proteins. We aimed to compare levels of antibodies in CSF and serum: We observed higher reactivity of natural tau-reactive antibodies towards phosphorylated bovine tau protein than to human recombinant (non-phosphorylated) tau protein. Males with MCI-AD had higher amounts of these antibodies than corresponding controls. Concentrations of antibodies were lower in females with the MCI-AD than in control females...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Johanna Breuer, Karin Loser, Nadine Mykicki, Heinz Wiendl, Nicholas Schwab
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of presumed auto-immune origin. Long-standing observations such as the correlation between MS incidence and geographical latitude or the levels of Vitamin D (Vit D) in the serum have implicated the environmental factors UVB radiation and diet in the etiology of the disease. Clinical trials have been conducted and are currently underway to elucidate whether a Vit D enriched diet or treatment with UVB can influence MS incidence, -severity, and -progression, as well as the ideal time point for treatment...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Shiori Muneoka, Saki Murayama, Yousuke Nakano, Seiji Miyata
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) recognizes bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the present study, we found that intraperitoneal LPS activated nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB) in TLR4-expressing neural stem cells (NSCs) in the circumventricular brain regions of mice. Intracerebroventricular preadministration of low-dose TLR4 inhibitors significantly augmented hyperthermia together with the inhibition of NF-κB activation in circumventricular NSCs of LPS-inflamed animals. Moreover, intracerebroventricular administration of high-dose TLR4 inhibitors induced hyperthermia and Fos activation in circumventricular NSCs and hypothalamic neurons...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Dirk M Hermann, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Matthias Gunzer
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) orchestrate the removal of cell debris in ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. In both pathologies, high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios in peripheral blood are predictive of poor outcome in human stroke patients. Following earlier studies indicating that the cerebral microvasculature forms an efficient barrier that impedes neutrophil brain entry, intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry in the meantime unequivocally revealed the accumulation of PMN in the ischemic and hemorrhagic brain parenchyma...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Samuel David, Antje Kroner, Andrew D Greenhalgh, Juan G Zarruk, Rubén López-Vales
The past decade has revealed much about the complexity of the local inflammatory response after spinal cord injury (SCI). A major challenge is to distinguish between microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) to determine their phenotype and function. Transcriptome studies have revealed microglia-selective genes but are still limited in scope because many markers are downregulated after injury. Additionally, new genetic reporter mice are available to study microglia and MDMs. There is more evidence now for the plasticity and heterogeneity of microglia and MDMs...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Kazuki Okamoto, Natsuko Hitora-Imamura, Hiroyuki Hioki, Yuji Ikegaya
Social deficits are one of the major symptoms of psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanism remains ill-defined. Here, we focused on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain region that is related to social behaviors, of mice that received poly(I:C)-induced maternal immune activation. Offspring born from poly(I:C)-treated dams exhibited social deficits in a three-chamber task at juvenile stages. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings, we found that layer 2/3 pyramidal cells were hyperactive in acute ACC slices prepared from poly(I:C)-treated mice compared to those from saline-treated mice...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Lu Chen, Chen Chen, Xiaonan Zhong, Xiaobo Sun, Haixia Zhu, Xiaojing Li, Hui Yang, Yaqing Shu, Yanyu Chang, Xueqiang Hu, Zhengqi Lu, Lisheng Peng, Wei Qiu
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) is a potential demyelinating disease-associated autoantibody. Whether clinical features of MOG antibody-associated demyelinating diseases change with age remains unclear. OBJECT: To investigate the different clinical features between pediatric-onset and adult-onset MOG-IgG-seropositive patients in a relatively large cohort. METHODS: A total of 816 consecutive patients with suspected demyelinating disease were prospectively enrolled from three tertiary academic centers in South China from February 2016 to December 2016...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Matthew A J Chedrawe, Scott P Holman, Anna-Claire Lamport, Turgay Akay, George S Robertson
Recent evidence suggests that clozapine and quetiapine (atypical antipsychotics), tamoxifen (selective-estrogen receptor modulator) and pioglitazone (PPARγ agonist) may improve functional recovery in multiple sclerosis (MS). We have compared the effectiveness of oral administration of these drugs, beginning at peak disease, at reducing ascending paralysis, motor deficits and demyelination in mice subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Mice were immunized with an immunogenic peptide corresponding to amino acids 35-55 of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 ) in complete Freund's adjuvant and injected with pertussis toxin to induce EAE...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sawsan Feki, Saba Gargouri, Sabrina Mejdoub, Mariem Dammak, Hend Hachicha, Olfa Hadiji, Lamia Feki, Adnen Hammami, Chokri Mhiri, Hela Karray, Hatem Masmoudi
We tested the performance of MRZ-reaction, an intrathecal humoral immune response against-Measles (M), Rubella (R) and Varicella Zoster (Z) viruses, in multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis. The MRZ-reaction was significantly more positive in MS than in non-MS group with a specificity of 91.9%. In MS group, the RZ-profile was the most prevalent and the R-specific antibody-index was correlated to the number of oligoclonal bands (OCB) in CSF. Interestingly, the MRZ-reaction was detected in 53% of OCB-negative-MS patients...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Agnes E Nystad, Øivind Torkildsen, Stig Wergeland
Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis and associated with higher disease activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on axonal damage during de- and remyelination in the cuprizone model. We found significantly less reduction of neurofilament immunopositive axons in the high vs. low cholecalciferol group, while high dose calcitriol, given during remyelination, did not influence axonal regeneration. Our results indicate that high dose vitamin D could protect against axonal loss in an experimental model for demyelination, if given before and during the demyelination...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
E Kosek, A Finn, C Ultenius, A Hugo, C Svensson, A S Ahmed
The primary aim was to identify cytokines involved in blood borne, neuroimmune joint-to-CNS signalling in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients indicating neuroinflammation. Significant positive correlations were found for MCP1 across CSF, serum and synovial fluid (SF), in female, but not male patients. The results revealed sex differences in neuroimmune signalling and implicated MCP1 in blood borne joint-to-CNS signalling in female patients...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Paolo Fagone, Emanuela Mazzon, Tinatin Chikovani, Andrea Saraceno, Santa Mammana, Giuseppe Colletti, Katia Mangano, Placido Bramanti, Ferdinando Nicoletti
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated acute disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Despite treatment, there is an associated mortality and severe disability in 9 to 17% of the cases. Decitabine (DAC) is a hypomethylating drug used in myelodisplastic syndrome, that has been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects. We have evaluated the effects of DAC in two rodent models of GBS, the Experimental Allergic Neuritis (EAN). Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with DAC ameliorated the clinical course of EAN, increasing the numbers of thymic regulatory T cells and reducing the production of proinflammmatory cytokines...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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