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Journal of Neuroimmunology

Elise Allender, Harvinderjeet Deol, Sarah Schram, Kathleen J Maheras, Alexander Gow, Eleanor H Simpson, Fei Song
Neuregulin1 (NRG1) is a differentiation factor that regulates glial development, survival, synaptogenesis, axoglial interactions, and microglial activation. We previously reported that a targeted NRG1 antagonist (HBD-S-H4) given intrathecally, reduces inflammatory microglial activation in a spinal cord pain model and a neurodegenerative disease mouse model in vivo, suggesting that it may have effects in neuroninflammatory and neuronal disorders. We hypothesized that expression of HBD-S-H4 in the central nervous system (CNS) could reduce disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Virginia D McLane, Saurabh Kumar, Reno Leeming, Sanjay Rau, Colin L Willis, Ling Cao
Opioid use accelerates neurocognitive impairment in HIV/AIDS patients. We assessed the effect of chronic morphine treatment and LP-BM5/murine AIDS (MAIDS) infection on cognition, cytokine production, and type 1 interferon (IFN) expression in the murine CNS. Morphine treatment decreased expression of pro-inflammatory factors (CCL5, iNOS) and reduced cognitive performance in LP-BM5-infected mice, correlating to increased hippocampal viral load and a blunted type 1 IFN response. In the striatum, morphine reduced viral load while increasing IFN-α RNA expression...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Fernanda Pedrotti Moreira, Carolina David Wiener, Karen Jansen, Luis Valmor Portela, Diogo R Lara, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Jean Pierre Oses
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of childhood trauma in cytokine serum levels of individuals with MDD. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study population-based, with people aged 18 to 35. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) measured to current major depressive disorder (MDD). To evaluate traumatic experiences during childhood, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was applied. Serum TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA using a commercial kit...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Paul A Smith, Cindy Schmid, Stefan Zurbruegg, Magali Jivkov, Arno Doelemeyer, Diethilde Theil, Valérie Dubost, Nicolau Beckmann
Longitudinal brain atrophy quantification is a critical efficacy measurement in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical trials and the determination of No Evidence of Disease Activity (NEDA). Utilising fingolimod as a clinically validated therapy we evaluated the use of repeated brain tissue volume measures during chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a new preclinical efficacy measure. Brain volume changes were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 Tesla and correlated to treatment-induced brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) measured in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, spinal cord and brain...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Fereshte Ashtari, Nafiseh Esmaeil, Marjan Mansourian, Parinaz Poursafa, Omid Mirmosayyeb, Mahdi Barzegar, Hajar Pourgheisari
The evidence for an impact of ambient air pollution on the incidence and severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still limited. In the present study, we assessed the association between daily air pollution levels and MS prevalence and severity in Isfahan city, Iran. Data related to MS patients has been collected from 2008 to 2016 in a referral university clinic. The air quality index (AQI) data, were collected from 6 monitoring stations of Isfahan department of environment. The distribution map presenting the sites of air pollution monitoring stations as well as the residential address of MS patients was plotted on geographical information system (GIS)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Marco Bo, Magdalena Niegowska, Giannina Arru, Elia Sechi, Sara Mariotto, Chiara Mancinelli, Alessia Farinazzo, Daniela Alberti, Alberto Gajofatto, Sergio Ferrari, Ruggero Capra, Salvatore Monaco, GianPietro Sechi, Leonardo A Sechi
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the main environmental agent associated to neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Following to studies reporting an increased prevalence of antibodies against peptides derived from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) homologous to EBV and human epitopes (MBP85-98 , IRF5424-434 ) in multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated whether seroreactivity to these antigens display a NMOSD-specific pattern. The sera of 34 NMOSD patients showed elevated levels of antibodies against MAP and MBP compared to healthy controls (44% vs...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jelena M Janjic, Kiran Vasudeva, Muzamil Saleem, Andrea Stevens, Lu Liu, Sravan Patel, John A Pollock
Neuroinflammation involving macrophages elevates Prostaglandin E2 , associated with neuropathic pain. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibits cyclooxygenase, reducing PGE2 . However, NSAIDs cause physiological complications. We developed nanoemulsions incorporating celecoxib and near infrared dye. Intravenous injected nanoemulsion is incorporated into monocytes that accumulate at the injury; revealed in live animals by fluorescence. A single dose (celecoxib 0.24 mg/kg) provides targeted delivery in chronic constriction injury rats, resulting in significant reduction in the visualized inflammation, infiltration of macrophages, COX-2 and PGE2 ...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Mark Barbour, Rachel Wood, Shehla U Hridi, Chelsey Wilson, Grant McKay, Trevor J Bushell, Hui-Rong Jiang
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice were administered with murine anti-CD52 antibody to investigate its therapeutic effect and whether the treatment modulates IL-33 and ST2 expression. EAE severity and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation were reduced following the treatment, which was accompanied by peripheral T and B lymphocyte depletion and reduced production of various cytokines including IL-33, while sST2 was increased. In spinal cords of EAE mice, while the number of IL-33+ cells remained unchanged, the extracellular level of IL-33 protein was significantly reduced in anti-CD52 antibody treated mice compared with controls...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Andreia Monteiro, Catarina Cruto, Pedro Rosado, António Martinho, Luiza Rosado, Mafalda Fonseca, Artur Paiva
We characterized circulating gamma-delta T cells in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients, during remission and relapse phases. In relapse, we observed a decrease of circulating CCR5+ γδ TEMRA cell subset, together with a decrease in EOMES and granzyme B mRNA expression in γδ T cells, suggesting a reduction of the cytotoxic potential of this subset. Moreover, we also found a higher frequency of IFNγ+ γδ T cells, which may indicate that these cells are assuming a more regulatory function associated to a Th1 profile...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Priscilla Martinez, Lars Lien, Sarah Zemore, Jørgen G Bramness, Sudan Prasad Neupane
BACKGROUND: Psychological distress is common among people with a substance abuse disorder in treatment. Identifying correlates of psychological distress may serve as points of intervention to improve substance abuse treatment outcomes. Immune function measured as cytokine levels have been associated with psychological distress, but this association remains unexplored among people with a substance abuse disorder in treatment. This study aimed to examine whether cytokine levels in patients treated for a substance use disorder were related to depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress, and to observe these associations separately among people with a past year alcohol use disorder and those with a past year drug use disorder...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Peng-Peng Ip, Chen-Yen Chung, Chien-Ching Chang, Yu-Fang Lee, Hui-Min Wang, Ie-Bin Lian, Cathy Shen-Jang Fann, Chih-Chao Yang, Fang Liao
Differential diagnosis for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is always doubtful. To differentiate these diseases, we studied the immune status in the blood of patients with MS (n = 45) or NMOSD (n = 23) at remission phase. Remitting NMOSD patients had increased levels of CXCL13 and memory B cells, while remitting MS patients had elevated levels of galectin-9 and Th1 cells. A diagnostic model with these four variables is built to distinguish remitting NMOSD from MS with a sensitivity of 91...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Marco A Lana-Peixoto, Denison Pedrosa, Natália Talim, Juliana M S S Amaral, Alice Horta, Rodrigo Kleinpaul
Dengue virus infection is a disease with high incidence in some tropical and subtropical countries. A variety of neurological complications of dengue fever (DF) has been described including two cases with the phenotype of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, aquaporin-4 serostatus was unknown or negative in these patients. We report two patients with NMOSD occurring in association with DF. The first patient presented with brainstem symptoms and the second one with isolated unilateral optic neuritis...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Chunling Liu, Hui Liu, Hongjun Jin, Xuyi Yue, Zonghua Luo, Zhude Tu
Cholinergic dysfunction in the central nervous system is an important characteristic of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). By using a rat EAE model, upregulation of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) level in the EAE rat lumbar spinal cord was detected by western blot and immunostaining, and was associated with lymphocyte filtration and glial activation. Ex vivo and in vitro autoradiography studies with [18 F]VAT, a VAChT-specific radioligand, also revealed increased tracer uptake in EAE rat lumbar spinal cord compared with shams...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Haoran Zhao, Lihua Wan, Yan Chen, He Zhang, Yun Xu, Shuwei Qiu
Inflammation responses involving the crosstalk between infiltrated T cells and microglia play crucial roles in ischemia stroke. Recent studies showed that Fas ligand (FasL) mutation could reduce post-stroke T cell invasion and microglia activation. In this study, we demonstrated that CD4+ T cells could induce M1 microglia polarization through NF-κB signaling pathway, whereas FasL mutant CD4+ T cells significantly reversed this effect. Besides, Th17/Treg cells balance was skewed into Treg cells after FasL mutation...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Lyudmyla Koval, Olena Kalashnyk, Olena Lykhmus, Maryna Skok
This study demonstrates that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate mouse B lymphocyte proliferation and IgM production in ion-independent manner. The high α7 nAChR levels were found in CD5+ and Foxp3+ B cells; induction of Foxp3+ cells in vitro was attenuated in the absence or upon inhibition of α7 nAChRs. The adoptively transferred B lymphocytes, stimulated in presence of methyllicaconitine, decreased the IgM response and abolished the IgG response in the host. The data obtained demonstrate the importance of cholinergic regulation for the antibody immune response and immunosuppression...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jyh Yung Hor, Thien Thien Lim, Mei Chih Cheng, Yuen Kang Chia, Chee Keong Wong, Su Min Lim, Chun Fai Cheah, Kenny Tan, P E Samuel Easaw, M Isabel Leite
Thymoma is associated with a wide spectrum of autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes, though it is uncommon for multiple paraneoplastic syndromes to be present in a single individual. We report a rare case of an elderly gentleman who was found to have thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis and LGI1-encephalitis with myokymia, who presented with nephrotic syndrome (minimal change glomerulopathy) after thymectomy. The latter two paraneoplastic syndromes had manifested when prednisolone was tapered down to low dose...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Yuh-Feng Lin, Tsung-Ta Liu, Chou-Hui Hu, Chun-Chi Chen, Jia-Yi Wang
Despite growing evidence that cytokines and chemokines are expressed in humans and rats after heat stress, the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects on the brain after heatstroke (HS) are not fully understood. In this study, we observed time course changes of chemokines in rat brain tissues and elucidated what kinds of cortical cells were affected after HS. Male SD rats were anesthetized and randomly separated into two groups as follows: (a) normothermic sham and (b) HS rats. Rats were sacrificed at different time points (0, 1, 3, 6, and 12h after heat exposure, n=5 in each group) to the end of the experiment in order to extract the mRNA/proteins of cortical tissues...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Deepashri Rao, Ravi Vasanthapuram, P Satishchandra, Anita Desai
Neurotuberculosis is one of the commonest HIV-associated opportunistic infections (OI) of the CNS. Cross-talk between HIV, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host immune responses may alter expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), thereby affecting cytokine profiles and functional responses. We examined PRR mRNA expression and cytokine and granzyme levels in HIV infected individuals with neurotuberculosis and found significant downregulation of TLR9 and increased MDA5 expression compared to healthy subjects...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Afrouzeh Hashemi-Monfared, Masoumeh Firouzi, Zahra Bahrami, Hamid Zahednasab, Mohammad Hossein Harirchian
Microglia are the resident macrophages patrolling the central nervous system (CNS) to find dangerous signals and infectious agents mediating catastrophic cascades resulting in neuronal degeneration. Their morphological and biochemical properties made them enable to swift activation in response to neural insults and site-directed phagocytosis. Beside of beneficial roles in homeostasis of the brain and spinal cord, microglia can be participating in neuronal destruction and propagation of inflammation when they are unregulated or hyper-activated...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jingwei Lv, Ling Li, Wei Li, Kunqian Ji, Ying Hou, Chuanzhu Yan, Tingjun Dai
To explore the possible mechanism implicated in the recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), we investigated the expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR3, CXCR4, and CCR7 on intramuscular and circulating pDCs from patients with dermatomyositis (DM). Using immunohistochemistry, preferential expression of CXCR3, CXCR4 and CCR7 was identified in the perivascular inflammatory infiltrates within the perimysium in DM muscle. Western-blot analysis showed marked up-regulation of expression of CXCR3, CXCR4 and CCR7 in muscle homogenate from patients with DM compared with that in non-diseased controls...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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