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Journal of Neuroimmunology

Tadaatsu Imaizumi, Naoko Sassa, Shogo Kawaguchi, Tomoh Matsumiya, Hidemi Yoshida, Kazuhiko Seya, Toshihiro Shiratori, Koji Hirono, Hiroshi Tanaka
Brain capillary endothelial cells are the component of blood brain barrier, and the first line of defense against viruses invading into brain. We demonstrate that treatment of hCMEC/D3 cells, a human brain capillary endothelial cell line, with a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC) induces the expression of interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 60 (ISG60), and this reaction was mediated by IFN-β. Knockdown of ISG60 increased the poly IC-induced expression of IFN-β and an IFN-β-inducible chemokine CXCL10...
September 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sara Salama, Hazem Marouf, M Ihab Reda, Amal R Mansour, Osama ELKholy, Michael Levy
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that was previously thought to be a subtype of multiple sclerosis (MS). Epidemiology studies of NMOSD are rare in both Middle East and North African countries. To our knowledge, there are no such studies in Egypt. Herein, we describe a case series of NMOSD patients from North Egyptian Nile Delta region and compare them to NMOSD in other parts in the Middle East and the world...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sanna Hagman, Aliisa Mäkinen, Laura Ylä-Outinen, Heini Huhtala, Irina Elovaara, Susanna Narkilahti
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease, where neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation has been suggested as a potential neuroprotective therapeutic strategy. Since the effect of inflammation on NPCs is poorly known, their effect on the survival and functionality of human NPCs were studied. Treatment with interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ did not induced cytotoxicity, but IFN-γ treatment showed decreased proliferation and neuronal migration...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
N N Santos-Junior, C H R Catalão, L H A Costa, A O Souza, C M D Mota, L C Alberici, L G S Branco, M J A Rocha
Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality in intensive care units besides causing profound alterations in the brain. One of the structures notably affected during sepsis is the hypothalamus, resulting in important physiopathological consequences. Recently, we provided evidence that the presence of neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of septic rats, is accompanied by impairment of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion. We had also demonstrated that sepsis survivor animals present attenuated AVP secretion after osmotic challenge, suggesting a persistent inflammation in the hypothalamus...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Hannah E Salapa, Chloe Johnson, Catherine Hutchinson, Bogdan F Popescu, Michael C Levin
Dysfunction of the RNA binding protein (RBP) heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein A1 (hnRNP A1) has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, but its involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) is largely unknown. In a neuronal cell line, interferon-γ caused hnRNP A1 nucleocytoplasmic mislocalization; colocalization of hnRNP A1 in stress granules (SGs); and inhibition of translation. Neurons in the brain of a MS patient showed pathogenic RBP dysfunction, including nuclear depletion of hnRNP A1, its mislocalization to the cytoplasm, and its colocalization in SGs...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Huiqing Hou, Runjing Cao, Moyuan Quan, Yafei Sun, Huilian Sun, Jing Zhang, Bin Li, Li Guo, Xiujuan Song
Rapamycin prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and activates the MAPK/ERK pathway in EAE. Thus, we hypothesized combining rapamycin and fingolimod treatments would have synergistic effects in EAE. We show that combination therapy ameliorated EAE and regulated spinal cord IL-17 and TGF-β levels in EAE mice. Combination therapy also modulated IL-17 and TGF-β concentration, RoRγt and Foxp3 mRNA levels, and Th17 cell and Treg frequencies in the spleen. Moreover, rapamycin decreased ps6k and increased pAkt and pERK, while combination therapy downregulated pAkt, ps6 k and pERK in EAE mice...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Chiara Fenoglio, Emanuela Oldoni, Maria Serpente, Milena A De Riz, Marina Arcaro, Marianna D'Anca, Anna M Pietroboni, Alberto Calvi, Elisabetta Lecchi, An Goris, Klara Mallants, Bénédicte Dubois, Cristoforo Comi, Roberto Cantello, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti
LncRNA PCR arrays containing 90 common LncRNAs were used to screen lncRNA expression levels in PBMC from a discovery population of patients with MS. Data from discovery and replications cohorts showed a generalized dysregulation of lncRNA levels in MS patients compared with controls. MALAT1, MEG9, NRON, ANRIL, TUG1, XIST, SOX2OT, GOMAFU, HULC, BACE-1AS were significantly downregulated in MS patients in comparison with controls. Therefore, we performed a validation analysis in an independent cohort of Belgian origin...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Samuel D Perez, Christine A Molinaro, Laren Tan, Srinivasan ThyagaRajan, Dianne Lorton, Denise L Bellinger
Senescence of innate and adaptive responses and low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) hallmarks normal aging, which increases vulnerability to infectious diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. In normal aging, sympathetic dysregulation contributes to the dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity and inflammaging. Sympathetic innervation of immune cells in secondary immune organs regulates immune responses. Previously in Fischer 344 (F344) rats, we reported an age-related increase in sympathetic tone and sympathetic dysfunction in beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling of splenic lymphocytes that contributes to immune senescence, although the responsible mechanisms remains unexplored...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Peter Roos, Marina Rode von Essen, Troels Tolstrup Nielsen, Peter Johannsen, Jette Stokholm, Anne Sigaard Bie, Gunhild Waldemar, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Amanda Heslegrave, Henrik Zetterberg, Finn Sellebjerg, Jørgen Erik Nielsen
Histopathological studies and animal models have suggested an inflammatory component in the pathomechanism of the CHMP2B associated frontotemporal dementia (FTD-3). In this cross-sectional study, serum and cerebrospinal fluid were analyzed for inflammatory markers in CHMP2B mutation carriers. Serum levels of CCL4 were increased throughout life. Serum levels of IL-15, CXCL10, CCL22 and TNF-α were significantly associated with cognitive decline, suggesting a peripheral inflammatory response to neurodegeneration...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jiaxin Yuan, Li Gong, Hongliang Wu, Qi Chen, Jiahui Wang, Weiyi Chen, Xiaotong Wang, Chao Ren
PURPOSE: It will provide a reference for early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment of atypical primary Sjogren syndrome with neurological impairment as the first symptom. METHODS: Case report and Literature review. RESULTS: Here we report a 30-year-old woman diagnosed with trigeminal damage secondary to pSS who presented atypical trigeminal neuralgia of numbness of the right head and face and persistent prickling-like pain not associated with eating, talking or tooth-brushing, and had no "trigger point"...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Emőke Horváth, Adina Huțanu, Liviu Chiriac, Minodora Dobreanu, Alex Orădan, Előd-Ernő Nagy
Clinical and experimental observations emphasize that inflammation is a direct risk factor for stroke. We performed a detailed histological and immunohistochemical analysis, assisted by digital morphometry, to compare the representative brain lesions in the ischemic core and penumbra in a rat model. Focal neuronal necrosis and degeneration were significantly more intense in the core, whereas inflammatory infiltration, MPO, CD68, CD3, FXIII, Cox-2, iNOS2, Arg-1 expressions were stronger in the penumbra. Our findings indicate that neuroinflammation affects the penumbra more than the core and suggest that targeted modulation of the cellular infiltrate could be exploited to save brain volume...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sachiko Miyake, Takashi Yamamura
Commensal bacteria have maintained a symbolic relationship with the human body including the immune system and central nervous systems by co-evolving with humans for more than five million years. Recently, however, dysbiosis has emerged as a risk factor for various disorders including immune-mediated diseases. In this review, we discuss the interactions between commensal microbiota and the immune system and the association of immune-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis with microbial components and metabolic products as well as the presence of dysbiosis recently reported in multiple sclerosis patients...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jun-Ichi Kira, Noriko Isobe
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize >50% of the entire human population. Generally, H. pylori infect the human stomach in infancy when parietal cells secreting gastric acids, which reduce the survival of H. pylori, are not well matured. Once acquired, the bacterium persists for life. Thus, H. pylori infection reflects sanitary conditions during childhood. >10 studies performed in various Eastern and Western countries as well as two meta-analyses collectively indicated the H. pylori infection rate is significantly lower in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) than in healthy controls...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Stefanie Haase, Nicola Wilck, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Dominik N Müller, Ralf A Linker
The detrimental effects of a high-salt diet on human health have received much attention in the past few years. While it has been well established that high dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular diseases, there is growing evidence that excess salt also affects the immune system and might be considered as a risk factor in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Several studies have implicated T helper 17 cells (Th17) in the pathogenesis of MS. We and others recently demonstrated that excessive salt enhances the differentiation of Th17 cells, inducing a highly pathogenic phenotype that aggravates experimental neuroinflammation...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Ilaria Rossetti, Laura Zambusi, Annamaria Finardi, Antonella Bodini, Luciano Provini, Roberto Furlan, Stefano Morara
Activation states of immune cells (among them, the so-called pro- or anti-inflammatory states) influence the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) can exert a pro- or anti-inflammatory role in a context-dependent manner. In mice CGRP was found to attenuate the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a common MS animal model). We analyzed CGRP effects on the expression of cytokines and markers of activation states, as well as its intracellular cascade, following intrathecal administration during EAE immunization...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Milo Careaga, Sandra L Taylor, Carolyn Chang, Alex Chiang, Katherine M Ku, Robert F Berman, Judy A Van de Water, Melissa D Bauman
Maternal infection during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring neurodevelopmental disorders. The preclinical Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyIC) model has become one of the most widely used approaches in maternal immune activation (MIA) research. However, variability in molecular weight may impact the immune activating potential of PolyIC. Nulliparous rats injected with high molecular weight PolyIC exhibit pronounced cytokine response and sickness behavior that was not observed in rats injected low molecular weight PolyIC...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Uta Rickert, François Cossais, Marvin Heimke, Philipp Arnold, Andrea Preuße-Prange, Henrik Wilms, Ralph Lucius
Honokiol has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Activation of glial cells plays an essential role in neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we show that Honokiol reduces the inflammatory response to LPS of primary cultures of microglia and astrocytes through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators (iNOS, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α) and the simultaneous stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10). Expression of KLF4 was induced in microglia and astrocytes after treatment with LPS and this response was mitigated by Honokiol...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Silje Stokke Kvistad, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Trygve Holmøy, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Stig Wergeland, Antonie G Beiske, Kristian S Bjerve, Harald Hovdal, Rune Midgard, Jørn V Sagen, Øivind Torkildsen
Adipokines secreted by fatty tissue have inflammatory properties and are suggested biomarkers of MS disease activity. To assess this, 88 MS patients were followed with nine repeated measurements of leptin and adiponectin and 12 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for two years; six months without any immunomodulatory treatment followed by 18 months during interferon-beta (IFNB) treatment. Serum levels of leptin dropped and adiponectin increased upon initiation of IFNB-therapy, but were not associated with clinical or MRI disease activity or with treatment response...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Divyanshu Dubey, Naga Kothapalli, Andrew McKeon, Eoin P Flanagan, Vanda A Lennon, Christopher J Klein, Jeffrey W Britton, Elson So, Bradley F Boeve, Jan-Mendelt Tillema, Reza Sadjadi, Sean J Pittock
Recognition of autoimmunity as a cause of encephalopathy has increased. Recent studies have validated the use of Antibody-Prevalence-in-Epilepsy (APE) and Responsive-to-immunotherapy-in-Epilepsy (RITE) scores in the evaluation and management of autoimmune-epilepsy. We aim to assess the utility of these models for patients with cognitive dysfunction. Among the evaluated patients, 17% had antibodies universally associated with autoimmune-encephalopathy. NMDA-R-IgG and LGI1-IgG were the most common antibody specificities...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Manjari Baluni, Sneha Ghildiyal, Dharamveer Singh, D Himanshu Reddy, Rashmi Kumar, Tapan N Dhole
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic mosquito-borne Flavivirus, mainly prevalent in Asia. It is the most important causative agent of acute viral encephalitis in humans. Recently, micro RNAs are discovered as a key regulator of inflammatory and immune responses in various diseases including neurological and viral infections. Thus, this study was proposed to check whether changes in cellular miRNA expression due to JE virus infection, can be detected in circulation which would be helpful in diagnosis and treatment...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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