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Journal of Neuroimmunology

Hideto Nakajima, Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Yuiko Inaba, Chiharu Tsutsumi, Kiichi Unoda, Takafumi Hosokawa, Fumiharu Kimura, Toshiaki Hanafusa, Masamichi Date, Haruko Kitaoka
To determine clinical features of neurologic disorders associated with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD-Ab), we examined titers and time-dependent changes of anti-GAD-Ab. Six patients, stiff person syndrome (2), cerebellar ataxia (1), limbic encephalitis (1), epilepsy (1), brainstem encephalitis (1), were compared with 87 type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients without neurologic disorders. Anti-GAD-Ab titers and index were higher in neurologic disorders than in T1DM, suggesting intrathecal antibody synthesis...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Aida Loshaj-Shala, Mara Colzani, Katerina Brezovska, Ana Poceva Panovska, Ljubica Suturkova, Giangiacomo Beretta
Immunoproteomics is become a potent methodology used for identifying immunoreactive proteins. In this study, an immunoproteomic approach based on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and immunoblotting combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify immunoreactive proteins that might be involved in mechanisms of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) development, regardless of their potential reciprocal molecular mimicry. Proteins isolated from C. jejuni and human peripheral nerve tissue (HPN) were separated with 2D SDS-PAGE and subjected to western blotting using serum samples from GBS patients...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Alberto Vogrig, Giada Pauletto, Enrico Belgrado, Enrico Pegolo, Carla Di Loreto, Veronique Rogemond, Jerome Honnorat, Roberto Eleopra
Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is an increasingly recognized manifestation of autoimmune encephalitis, which can occur either as a paraneoplastic or non-paraneoplastic disorder. The effect of tumor removal in paraneoplastic status epilepticus has never been explored systematically, although early tumor treatment is usually recommended. In this study, we report clinical, pathological and EEG findings of a patient who developed RSE as one of multiple paraneoplastic manifestations of thymoma and the effect of thymectomy on seizure outcome...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Natalia Baulina, Olga Kulakova, Ivan Kiselev, German Osmak, Ekaterina Popova, Alexey Boyko, Olga Favorova
MiRNAs were shown to participate in development of autoimmune inflammatory process in multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate miRNAs involvement in relapse-remission MS course, we analyzed expression of immune-related miRNAs in PBMC of treatment-naïve relapsing and remitting MS patients and healthy controls. The upregulation of miR-126-3p, miR-146b-5p, miR-155, miR-196a-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-326 and miR-379-5p in remission compared to relapse was observed; when apply gender stratification, miR-223-3p and miR-379-5p were upregulated only in men...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Xingyu Wang, Wanming Zhao, Richard M Ransohoff, Lan Zhou
Acute skeletal muscle injury repair requires an adequate inflammatory response predominated by macrophage infiltration. We studied the activation of infiltrating macrophages by analyzing the expression of M1/M2 signature genes. Most of the intramuscular macrophages were Ly6Chi at day 1 after BaCl2 injection, while many were Ly6Clo at day 3. Ly6Chi macrophages at day 1 expressed a high level of both M1 and M2 genes, and the Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo macrophages at day 3 expressed a similar level of many M1/M2 genes...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Hiroki Masuda, Masahiro Mori, Kenta Umehara, Tomomi Furihata, Tomohiko Uchida, Akiyuki Uzawa, Satoshi Kuwabara
Serum soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) has been reported to positively correlate with the albumin quotient, a marker of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To clarify the mechanisms of sCD40L in MS pathophysiology, sCD40L was administered to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice and a human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC)-based BBB model. The high-dose sCD40L group showed a worse EAE score than the low-dose and control groups. BBB permeability was increased by administering sCD40L in a HBMEC-based BBB model...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
C Ozkul, A Guclu-Gunduz, C Irkec, I Fidan, Y Aydin, T Ozkan, G Yazici
BACKGROUND: Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are important immunologic, and neurotrophic factors for MS pathogenesis. The impact of exercise on these factors is yet to be fully elucidated in patients with MS. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effect of 8-week combined exercise training on serum concentrations of SOCS1, SOCS3, and BDNF. The secondary aim is to determine the effects of combined exercise training on balance, functional exercise capacity, and fatigue in patients with MS...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Lisa M Deuel, Marjorie E Bunch
Neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorders are demyelinating conditions that are typically idiopathic, though various case reports have demonstrated an association with malignancy. We present the case of a 64year old woman with NMOSD in the setting of small cell lung cancer. She had longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and left eye optic neuritis; aquaporin-4 antibodies were elevated. Biopsy of mediastinal adenopathy was positive for SCLC. Malignancy should be considered in any patient with an atypical presentation of NMOSD, or who does not respond to traditional therapies...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Barbara Detrick, Sapna Gangaputra, Doreen N Palsgrove, Christopher D Heaney, John J Hooks, H Nida Sen
Autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is a rare immune-mediated retinopathy associated with circulating antiretinal antibodies (ARAs). Other prominent features of AIR include visual field deficits and photoreceptor dysfunction in the setting of progressive unexplained vision loss. The role of inflammation is poorly understood in AIR. Since cytokines play a central role in the initiation and development of inflammation, we evaluated the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in AIR patient sera. We demonstrate that IL-6 and CXCL9 are both elevated in AIR patient sera...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Ting Li, Lin-Jie Zhang, Qiu-Xia Zhang, Chun-Sheng Yang, Chao Zhang, Yu-Jing Li, Fu-Dong Shi, Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Rituximab is a mouse-human chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and has been increasingly used for preventing relapses in NMOSDs. The clinical relevance of Anti-Rituximab antibodies (ARA) against Rituximab in NMOSDs is unknown. METHODS: Nineteen NMOSDs patients receiving repeated 100mg Rituximab treatment were recruited. The ARA was quantitatively analyzed by enzyme linked immunoassay. Annualized relapse rate (ARR) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were analyzed concurrently...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Dongsoo Kim, Hyojin Koo, Kicheol Cheon
Relationships between behavioral sidedness and immune responses in previous studies have differed depending on behavior tests and severity of biological stress in mice. It was necessary to elucidate the psychophysiological mediators that connect behavioral sidedness and immune responses. This study investigated interrelationships among anxiety-like behavior, the HPA axis responsiveness, and host-resistance to bacterial infection. Mice that preferred clockwise circling had lower locomotor activities, higher anxiety-like behavior, and faster activation of the HPA axis than mice that preferred counterclockwise circling...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jaime Imitola, Javad Rasouli, Fumihiro Watanabe, Kader Mahajan, Aswhini D Sharan, Bogoljub Ciric, Guang-Xian Zhang, Abdolmohamad Rostami
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease that disproportionately affects young adults, leading to disability and high costs to society. Infiltration of T cells and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) is critical for disease initiation and progression. However, despite a great deal of effort the molecular mechanisms by which immune cells initiate and perpetuate CNS damage in MS have not yet been elucidated. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) produced by pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells is critical for the recruitment of monocytes into the CNS during the initial stage of disease...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Matylda Barbara Mielcarska, Magdalena Bossowska-Nowicka, Felix Ngosa Toka
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a severe neurological disease in children and adults caused by herpes simplex virus. This review discusses recent findings on the role of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) deficiencies in the HSE development. Critical checkpoints in the TLR3 signaling that contribute to innate response are discussed, including the importance of TLR3 ligand recognition site and transportation in the cell. We also indicate unresolved issues in the TLR3 functioning that might lead to thorough understanding of immunity during HSE...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Tiina Alapirtti, Kai Lehtimäki, Riina Nieminen, Riikka Mäkinen, Jani Raitanen, Eeva Moilanen, Jussi Mäkinen, Jukka Peltola
Experimental and clinical reports highlight the role of cytokines in pathophysiological processes in underpinning epilepsy, but the clinical data remains somewhat limited. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6 were measured in serum from 49 patients with refractory epilepsy [temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n=23), extratemporal lobe epilepsy (XLE, n=22), and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE, n=4)] before and after the first verified seizure (IS; index seizure) during inpatient video-electroencephalographic (VEEG) monitoring...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Rajen Dey, Sahin Sultana, Biswadev Bishayi
Microglial activation is the most common phenomenon in S. aureus induced brain abscesses as well as other common neurodegenerative diseases. The main objective of this study is to reduce the microglial inflammation with effective bacterial elimination. Ciprofloxacin and celecoxib were used in combination to regulate S. aureus induced oxidative stress and inflammation in primary murine microglial cells. Our results showed that combination treatment effectively killed viable S. aureus and reduced the inflammatory consequences...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Alexandro Andrade, Guilherme Torres Vilarino, Sofia Mendes Sieczkowska, Danilo Reis Coimbra, Ricardo de Azevedo Klumb Steffens, Giovanna Grünewald Vietta
OBJECTIVE: In patients with fibromyalgia (FM), exercise is indicated for symptomatic treatment. However, little is known about the inflammatory response to acute exercise in these patients. This study examines the acute effects of exercise on the inflammatory response in patients with FM. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Scopus, Virtual Health Library (VHL), and Cochrane Library databases. RESULTS: Six studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis; three of them evaluated the effects of resistive exercise, while three evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Hai-Yun Wu, Xue-Qi Tang, Hao Liu, Xiao-Fang Mao, Yong-Xiang Wang
GLP-1 receptor agonists, exenatide and GLP-1, promoted M2 type polarization in monocytes/macrophages and microglial cells. This study explored the signal basis underlying exenatide-stimulated expression of M2 microglia-specific genes, including the cytoplasmic marker Arg 1, surface marker CD206, and secretion protein marker IL-4. Treatment with exenatide in cultured primary microglial cells concentration dependently stimulated the expression of Arg 1, CD206 and IL-4, but did not significantly alter LPS-stimulated expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Justin D Glenn, Patrick Xue, Katharine A Whartenby
Pro-inflammatory T cells are critical to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the potential for the anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic drug gemcitabine to affect development of MS-relevant effector TH1, TH17, and Treg cells. Gemcitabine directly suppressed proliferation, activation, and induced apoptosis of all effector subsets in subtype and dose-dependent fashion. This drug also prevented development of disease in the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and significantly reduced the abundance of TH1 and TH17 cells...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jens Bansi, Christina Koliamitra, Wilhelm Bloch, Niklas Joisten, Alexander Schenk, Matthew Watson, Jan Kool, Dawn Langdon, Ulrik Dalgas, Jürg Kesselring, Philipp Zimmer
Disturbances in Tryptophan metabolism play a crucial role in multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise is suspected to counteract the progress of MS and its side effects. Current research suggests alterations of Tryptophan metabolism in healthy individuals in response to exercise. We investigated the influence of acute aerobic exercise and training on Tryptophan metabolism in 57 inpatients with relapsing remitting ((RRMS) n=33) and secondary progressive ((SPMS) n=24) MS. Serotonin increased after training, whereas the kynurenine pathway was only activated in persons with RRMS...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Liyun Xu, Zhinan Ye, Binda Wang, Yanyan Huang, Lin Zhou, Chunyan Liu, Dongdong Chen, Maojun Sun, Fangyu Dai, Shuyi Guan, Weiguo Tang
T cell immunoglobin and mucin domain (Tim)-4 on monocytes is involved in immune regulation. Here, we investigated Tim-4 expression on circulating monocytes and in plasma of ischemic stroke. Tim-4 expression was significantly increased on day 2 and day 5 after stroke. Furthermore, stroke severity was positively correlated with Tim-4 expression on monocytes or in plasma. Increased Tim-4 expression was related to stroke associated with infection (SAI) on day 2. Up-regulated Tim-4 expression on monocytes or in plasma on day 2 was a risk predictor of outcome...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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