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Journal of Neuroimmunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606377/comparative-morphology-and-phagocytic-capacity-of-primary-human-adult-microglia-with-time-lapse-imaging
#1
Natalie Levtova, Luke M Healy, Catalina Marysol Carvajal Gonczi, Brandon Stopnicki, Manon Blain, Timothy E Kennedy, Craig S Moore, Jack P Antel, Peter J Darlington
Microglia provide immune surveillance within the brain and spinal cord. Various microglial morphologies include ramified, amoeboid, and pseudopodic. The link between form and function is not clear, especially for human adult microglia which are limited in availability for study. Here, we examined primary human microglia isolated from normal-appearing white matter. Pseudopodic and amoeboid microglia were effective phagocytes, taking up E. coli bioparticles using ruffled cell membrane sheets and retrograde transport...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601295/b-cells-from-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-induce-cell-death-via-apoptosis-in-neurons-in-vitro
#2
Robert P Lisak, Liljana Nedelkoska, Joyce A Benjamins, Dana Schalk, Beverly Bealmear, Hanane Touil, Rui Li, Gillian Muirhead, Amit Bar-Or
B cells mediate multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis by mechanisms unrelated to immunoglobulin (Ig). We reported that supernatants (Sup) from cultured B cells from blood of relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients, but not normal controls (NC), were cytotoxic to rat oligodendrocytes (OL). We now show that RRMS blood B cells, not stimulated in vitro, secrete factor/s toxic to rat and human neurons. Cytotoxicity is independent of Ig and multiple cytokines, not complement-mediated, and involves apoptosis. The factor/s have an apparent mw of >300kDa...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601294/the-c-abl-inhibitor-nilotinib-as-a-potential-therapeutic-agent-for-chronic-cerebellar-ataxia
#3
Woo-Jin Lee, Jangsup Moon, Tae-Joon Kim, Jin-Sun Jun, Han Sang Lee, Young Jin Ryu, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Nilotinib is a potent inhibitor of tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL that penetrates the blood-brain barrier. To evaluate the effect of nilotinib in chronic cerebellar ataxia, twelve patients with chronic cerebellar ataxia nonresponsive to other treatment options (modified Rankin scale [mRS] scores: >2) and received nilotinib therapy (daily doses: 150-300mg) for >4 (range 5-16) weeks were reviewed. At follow-up, improved mRS scores were found in 7/12 (58.3%) patients and favorable mRS scores (≤2) were found in 6/12 (50...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601293/from-dizziness-to-severe-ataxia-and-dysarthria-new-cases-of-anti-ca-arhgap26-autoantibody-associated-cerebellar-ataxia-suggest-a-broad-clinical-spectrum
#4
Ulrike Wallwitz, Sebastian Brock, Antje Schunck, Brigitte Wildemann, Sven Jarius, Frank Hoffmann
In 2010, a novel anti-neuronal autoantibody, termed anti-Ca, was described in a patient with subacute cerebellar ataxia, and Rho GTPase-activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26) was identified as the target antigen. Recently, three additional cases of anti-Ca-positive cerebellar ataxia have been published. In addition to ataxia, cognitive decline and depression have been observed in some patients. Here, we report two new cases of anti-Ca-associated autoimmune cerebellar ataxia. Patient 1 presented with dizziness and acute yet mild limb and gait ataxia...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601292/hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells-prevent-chronic-stress-induced-lymphocyte-apoptosis
#5
Yu Zhou, Hui Li, Nausheen Siddiqui, Yi Caudle, Haiju Zhang, Mohamed Elgazzar, Deling Yin
Physical or psychological chronic stress can suppress the immune system. However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of hematopoietic stem-progenitor cells (HSPCs) on chronic stress-induced the alterations of immune responses. We demonstrate that HSPCs prevents stress-induced lymphocyte apoptosis. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the protective effect of HSPCs on stress-induced lymphocyte reduction exerts by steroid hormones. Furthermore, we reveal that chronic stress-induced T cell-mediated immune responses contributes to the protective effect of HSPCs...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601291/absence-of-autoreactive-cd4-t-cells-targeting-hla-dqa1-01-02-dqb1-06-02-restricted-hypocretin-orexin-epitopes-in-narcolepsy-type-1-when-detected-by-elispot
#6
Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Kristoffer Sølvsten Burgdorf, Anja Holm, Henrik Ullum, Poul Jennum, Stine Knudsen
Narcolepsy type 1, a neurological sleep disorder strongly associated with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-)DQB1*06:02, is caused by the loss of hypothalamic neurons producing the wake-promoting neuropeptide hypocretin (hcrt, also known as orexin). This loss is believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction. To test whether hcrt itself could be a possible target in the autoimmune attack, CD4(+) T-cell reactivity towards six different 15-mer peptides from prepro-hypocretin with high predicted affinity to the DQA1*01:02/DQB1*06:02 MHC class II dimer was tested using EliSpot in a cohort of 22 narcolepsy patients with low CSF hcrt levels, and 23 DQB1*06:02 positive healthy controls...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601290/suspected-bacterial-meningomyelitis-the-first-presenting-clinical-feature-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#7
Xiang Li, Jie Lin, Sipei Pan, Yiyun Weng, Jia Li, Xu Zhang, Junhui Xia, Qiaowen Tong
A rare case of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, suspected to be bacterial meningomyelitis as the initial manifestation, is reported. The patient presented with initial symptoms of meningomyelitis and fever. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis (1280×10(6)/L [98% lymphocytes]) and glucose level of 1.8mmol/L. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed >3 vertebral, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and area postrema lesions. Right optic neuritis was experienced 20months after the first attack...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601289/anti-inflammatory-and-immunomodulatory-potential-of-human-immunoglobulin-applied-intrathecally-in-lewis-rat-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis
#8
Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Felix Kohle, Jeremias Motte, Oluwaseun Fatoba, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Ralf Gold, Min-Suk Yoon
Intravenous human immunoglobulins dominate in the treatment of autoimmune neuropathies. We introduce intrathecal application as a new option for experimental autoimmune neuritis in Lewis rats. After immunisation with neuritogenic P2 peptide, we show a therapeutic and preventive effect of intrathecal human immunoglobulins (5-40mg/kg) on clinical and electrophysiological neuritis signs. Histology corroborated a lower degree of inflammation, demyelination, ICAM-1-dependent blood-nerve-barrier permeability and complement activation in the sciatic nerve...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601288/autoantibodies-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-the-detection-and-subtyping-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Cassandra DeMarshall, Eric L Goldwaser, Abhirup Sarkar, George A Godsey, Nimish K Acharya, Umashanger Thayasivam, Benjamin A Belinka, Robert G Nagele
The goal of this preliminary proof-of-concept study was to use human protein microarrays to identify blood-based autoantibody biomarkers capable of diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS). Using sera from 112 subjects, including 51 MS subjects, autoantibody biomarkers effectively differentiated MS subjects from age- and gender-matched normal and breast cancer controls with 95.0% and 100% overall accuracy, but not from subjects with Parkinson's disease. Autoantibody biomarkers were also useful in distinguishing subjects with the relapsing-remitting form of MS from those with the secondary progressive subtype...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601287/cd4-cd8-ratio-during-natalizumab-treatment-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#10
Antonio Carotenuto, Giulia Scalia, Francesco Ausiello, Marcello Moccia, Cinzia Valeria Russo, Francesco Saccà, Anna De Rosa, Chiara Criscuolo, Luigi Del Vecchio, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Roberta Lanzillo
Although improved, the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a constant threat for patient affected by multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab. We performed a 24months longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the total WBC and lymphocytes subsets modifications and their correlations with anti-JCV antibody index after 1 and 2years of natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab induced an increase of WBC, total and C19+ lymphocytes together with a decrease of CD3+, CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD4/CD8 ratio, which was positively related to anti-JCV antibodies index at month 0, 12 and 24...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601286/autoantibody-responses-to-nodal-and-paranodal-antigens-in-chronic-inflammatory-neuropathies
#11
E K Mathey, N Garg, S B Park, T Nguyen, S Baker, N Yuki, C Yiannikas, C S Lin, J M Spies, R Ghaoui, M H Barnett, S Vucic, J D Pollard, M C Kiernan
Autoantibodies to nodal/paranodal proteins have been reported in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). To determine the frequency of anti-paranodal antibodies in our cohort of CIDP patients and to validate the presence anti-nodal antibodies in MMN, sera were screened for IgG against human neurofascin 155, contactin-1, neurofascin 186 and gliomedin using ELISA. In CIDP patients, 7% were anti-NF155 IgG4 positive and 7% were anti-CNTN1 IgG4 positive...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601285/cytomegalovirus-and-varicella-zoster-virus-seropositivity-of-iranian-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-population-based-study
#12
Sajad Karampoor, Hamid Zahednasab, Sreeram Ramagopalan, Masoud Mehrpour, Masoud Etemadifar, Fereshteh Alsahebfosoul, Hossein Keyvani
Multiple Sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting young individuals with age range of 20-40years of age. The precise mechanism underlying the disease is still unclear. Some viruses have been proposed to play roles in disease causation. In this study, we recruited 800 MS patients along with 1000 healthy individuals to determine the seropositivity of anti-CMV and anti-VZV IgG titers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed significant higher titers of anti-CMV and anti-VZV IgG titers in serum of MS patients with respect to healthy individuals (for both p<0...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601284/aquaporin-4-antibody-positive-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-associated-with-esophageal-cancer
#13
Tomoya Kon, Tatsuya Ueno, Chieko Suzuki, Jinichi Nunomura, Shohei Igarashi, Tsugumi Sato, Masahiko Tomiyama
Autoimmune diseases are sometimes associated with neoplasms. A 70-year-old Japanese woman with myelitis, seropositive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody, was diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD); thereafter an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was identified. Immunohistochemically, her cancer was anti-AQP4 antibody negative. Her symptoms, imaging findings and AQP4 titer markedly improved with corticosteroid and anti-cancer therapies. Although AQP4 may be a paraneoplastic antigen, paraneoplastic syndrome could not be definitively diagnosed in this case...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601283/the-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-foki-polymorphism-and-multiple-sclerosis-in-a-northern-portuguese-population
#14
Andreia Bettencourt, Daniela Boleixa, Ana Luísa Guimarães, Bárbara Leal, Cláudia Carvalho, Sandra Brás, Raquel Samões, Ernestina Santos, Paulo Pinho Costa, Berta Silva, Ana Martins da Silva
BACKGROUND: The cause of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood, but it is widely believed to be an autoimmune disease occurring in genetically susceptible individuals after exposure to as-yet undefined environmental factors. One of these environmental factors is vitamin D, a well-known immune modulator. The biologically active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, has been shown to exert its immune modulatory properties through its nuclear receptor (VDR) namely by inhibiting the proliferation of Th cells...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601282/kflc-index-utility-in-multiple-sclerosis-diagnosis-further-confirmation
#15
M Pieri, M Storto, S Pignalosa, R Zenobi, F Buttari, S Bernardini, D Centonze, M Dessi
The Multiple Sclerosis (MS) diagnosis is based on dissemination of focal lesions in time and space. The free light chains (FLCs) determination might be a sensitive alternative to oligoclonal bands assay. The study aim was to redefine sensitivity, specificity of the kFLC Index cut-off. We analyzed serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 176 patients, with different neurological disorders. We obtained a cut off of 12,3 for kFLC Index with a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 100% respectively. Our data confirm that the kFLC Index is a valid tool in the diagnosis of MS...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601281/association-of-cd58-gene-polymorphisms-with-nmo-spectrum-disorders-in-a-han-chinese-population
#16
Ju Liu, Ziyan Shi, Zhiyun Lian, Hongxi Chen, Qin Zhang, Huiru Feng, Xiaohui Miao, Qin Du, Hongyu Zhou
This study aimed to perform a comprehensive assessment of the association between CD58 polymorphisms and the risk of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) in a Han Chinese population. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 230 NMOSD patients and 487 healthy controls. Five SNPs were significantly associated with an increased risk of NMOSD (rs2300747, rs1335532, rs56302466, rs1016140, and rs12044852). The haplotype TAGCCCAA significantly increased the risk of NMOSD, while TATTACGG reduced the risk...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601280/staining-of-hla-dr-iba1-and-cd68-in-human-microglia-reveals-partially-overlapping-expression-depending-on-cellular-morphology-and-pathology
#17
Debbie A E Hendrickx, Corbert G van Eden, Karianne G Schuurman, Jörg Hamann, Inge Huitinga
HLA-DR, Iba1 and CD68 are widely used microglia markers in human tissue. However, due to differences in gene regulation, they may identify different activation stages of microglia. Here, we directly compared the expression of HLA-DR, Iba1 and CD68 in microglia with different phenotypes, ranging from ramified to amoeboid, to foamy phagocytizing macrophages, in adjacent sections immunocytochemically double stained for two of the markers. Material was used from patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and control subjects because together they contain all the microglia activation stages in an acute and a chronic inflammatory setting...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601279/escitalopram-or-novel-herbal-treatments-differentially-alter-cytokine-and-behavioral-responses-to-immune-challenge
#18
Ronit Avitsur, Shalva Paley, Motty Franko, Nizan Wolff, Nir Eyal, Ravid Doron
Studies suggest that inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study examined the effects of the commonly used antidepressant escitalopram, in comparison with a novel herbal treatment (NHT) consisted of Crataegus pinnatifida, Triticum aestivum, Lilium brownii and Fructus Ziziphus jujuba, on cytokine and behavioral responses to an immune challenge. Escitalopram augmented lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α peripheral secretion and induced a faster kinetics of interleukin-1β secretion, while marginally reducing sickness behavior...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601278/laquinimod-has-no-effects-on-brain-volume-or-cellular-cns-composition-in-the-f1-3xtg-ad-c3h-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Rehana Z Hussain, William A Miller-Little, Doris Lambracht-Washington, Tom C Jaramillo, Masaya Takahashi, Shanrong Zhang, Min Fu, Gary R Cutter, Liat Hayardeny, Craig M Powell, Roger N Rosenberg, Olaf Stüve
BACKGROUND: Laquinimod is an anti-inflammatory agent with good central nervous system (CNS) bioavailability, and neuroprotective and myelorestorative properties. A clinical trial in patients with multiple sclerosis demonstrated that laquinimod significantly reduced loss of brain volume. The cellular substrate or molecular events underlying that treatment effect are unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore laquinimod's potential effects on brain volume, animal behavior, cellular numbers and composition of CNS-intrinsic cells and mononuclear cells within the CNS, amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation and tau phosphorylation in the F1 3xTg-AD/C3H mouse model of Alzheimer's disease...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601277/late-onset-neuromyelitis-optica-mimicking-an-acute-stroke-in-an-elderly-patient
#20
Kushak Suchdev, Sara Razmjou, Praveen Venkatachalam, Omar A Khan, Wazim Mohamed, Mohammed S Ibrahim
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) was recently proposed as a unifying term for Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and related syndromes to incorporate patients with NMO antibody but without the full clinical spectrum. NMO is a rare, demyelinating condition which predominantly affects females with a peak incidence in the third and fourth decade of life. We report a case of NMOSD in an elderly patient with extremely late onset (>80years) of disease. The patient presented with findings of sudden onset unilateral symptoms, which is extremely unusual for NMOSD...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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