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Journal of Neuroimmunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335992/varicella-zoster-virus-vasculopathy-the-expanding-clinical-spectrum-and-pathogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Maria A Nagel, Dallas Jones, Ann Wyborny
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous, human alphaherpesvirus that produces varicella on primary infection then becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. In elderly and immunocompromised individuals, VZV reactivates and travels along nerve fibers peripherally resulting in zoster. However, VZV can also spread centrally and infect cerebral and extracranial arteries (VZV vasculopathy) to produce transient ischemic attacks, stroke, aneurysm, sinus thrombosis and giant cell arteritis, as well as granulomatous aortitis...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291542/molecular-mechanisms-of-neuroinflammation-and-injury-during-acute-viral-encephalitis
#2
REVIEW
Katherine D Shives, Kenneth L Tyler, J David Beckham
Viral infections in the central nervous system are a major cause of encephalitis. West Nile virus (WNV) and Herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the most common causes of viral encephalitis in the United States. We review the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of WNV and HSV infections in the central nervous system (CNS). We discuss the role of the innate and cell-mediated immune responses in peripheral control of viral infection, viral invasion of the CNS, and in inflammatory-mediated neuronal injury...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302316/defining-nervous-system-susceptibility-during-acute-and-latent-herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection
#3
REVIEW
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
Herpes simplex viruses are neurotropic human pathogens that infect and establish latency in peripheral sensory neurons of the host. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) readily infects the facial mucosa that can result in the establishment of a latent infection in the sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG). From latency, HSV-1 can reactivate and cause peripheral pathology following anterograde trafficking from sensory neurons. Under rare circumstances, HSV-1 can migrate into the central nervous system (CNS) and cause Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE), a devastating disease of the CNS...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363461/hsv1-latent-transcription-and-non-coding-rna-a-critical-retrospective
#4
REVIEW
Dane Phelan, Enrico R Barrozo, David C Bloom
Virologists have invested great effort into understanding how the herpes simplex viruses and their relatives are maintained dormant over the lifespan of their host while maintaining the poise to remobilize on sporadic occasions. Piece by piece, our field has defined the tissues in play (the sensory ganglia), the transcriptional units (the latency-associated transcripts), and the responsive genomic region (the long repeats of the viral genomes). With time, the observed complexity of these features has compounded, and the totality of viral factors regulating latency are less obvious...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285789/zika-virus-history-epidemiology-transmission-and-clinical-presentation
#5
REVIEW
Byung-Hak Song, Sang-Im Yun, Michael Woolley, Young-Min Lee
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), is now causing an unprecedented large-scale outbreak in the Americas. Historically, ZIKV spread eastward from equatorial Africa and Asia to the Pacific Islands during the late 2000s to early 2010s, invaded the Caribbean and Central and South America in 2015, and reached North America in 2016. Although ZIKV infection generally causes no symptoms or only a mild self-limiting illness, it has recently been linked to a rising number of severe neurological diseases, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237622/theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus-infection-of-sjl-j-and-c57bl-6j-mice-models-for-multiple-sclerosis-and-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Ana Beatriz DePaula-Silva, Tyler J Hanak, Jane E Libbey, Robert S Fujinami
Mouse models are great tools to study the mechanisms of disease development. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus is used in two distinct viral infection mouse models to study the human diseases multiple sclerosis (MS) and epilepsy. Intracerebral (i.c.) infection of the SJL/J mouse strain results in persistent viral infection of the central nervous system and a MS-like disease, while i.c. infection of the C57BL/6J mouse strain results in acute seizures and epilepsy. Our understanding of how the immune system contributes to the development of two disparate diseases caused by the same virus is presented...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187911/what-kaplan-meier-survival-curves-don-t-tell-us-about-cns-disease
#7
Katelyn D Miller, Glenn F Rall
Central nervous system consequences of viral infections are rare, but when they do occur, they are often serious and clinically challenging to manage. Our awareness of the perils of neuroinvasion by viruses is growing: the recently appreciated impact of Ebola and Zika virus infections on CNS integrity, decreases in vaccination coverage for potentially neurotropic viruses such as measles, and increased neurovirulence of some influenza strains collectively highlight the need for a better understanding of the viral-neural interaction...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139244/microrna-155-and-viral-induced-neuroinflammation
#8
REVIEW
Laura L Dickey, Timothy M Hanley, Thomas B Huffaker, Andrew G Ramstead, Ryan M O'Connell, Thomas E Lane
MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation of gene expression is becoming an increasingly recognized mechanism by which host immune responses are governed following microbial infection. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that repress translation of target genes, and have been implicated in a number of activities that modulate host immune responses, including the regulation of immune cell proliferation, survival, expansion, differentiation, migration, polarization, and effector function. This review highlights several examples in which mammalian-encoded miR-155 influences immune responses following viral infection of the CNS...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385191/stz-causes-depletion-of-immune-cells-in-sciatic-nerve-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-in-experimental-diabetes
#9
Asa S Hidmark, Peter P Nawroth, Thomas Fleming
Streptozotocin (STZ) treatment, a common model for inducing diabetes in rodent models, induces thermal hyperalgesia and neuronal toxicity independently of hyperglycemia by oxidizing and activating TRPA1 and TRPV1. Following treatment with STZ, CD45(+) immune cells were found to be depleted in sciatic nerve (SN) and DRG in mice, prior to hyperglycemia. Macrophages were also lost in DRG and NFκB-p65-activation was increased in SN macrophages. Immune cells were significantly reduced in both SN and DRG up to three weeks, post-treatment...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385190/whole-brain-and-grey-matter-volume-of-japanese-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Tetsuya Akaishi, Ichiro Nakashima, Shunji Mugikura, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara
We evaluated the brain volume and rate of atrophy in 85 Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The mean brain volume was smaller and the rate of atrophy appeared to be more rapid in MS patients than in normal subjects. The brain atrophy seemed to exist from the early stage of MS and was prominent in the grey matter. Patients with progressive MS showed severer atrophy. We show the existence of pathological brain atrophy in Japanese MS patients for the first time, although the rate of atrophy may be much slower than in Caucasian patients...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385189/suppression-of-nk-and-cd8-t-cells-reduces-astrogliosis-but-accelerates-cerebellar-dysfunction-and-shortens-life-span-in-a-mouse-model-of-sandhoff-disease
#11
Elizabeth J White, Bernardo L Trigatti, Suleiman A Igdoura
Sandhoff disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease, resulting from the deficiency of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A and B enzyme activity. The Hexb-/- mouse model recapitulates human disease and leads to fatal neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. IL-15 is important for the proliferation of NK, NK T, and CD8(+) cytotoxic/memory T cells. In order to determine how changes to IL-15-dependent immune cell populations would alter the course of Sandhoff disease in mice, we generated a Hexb-/-Il-15-/- double knockout mouse and used motor behaviour tests, analyzed peripheral blood and brain leukocyte immunophenotypes, cytokine secretion, as well as examined markers of microgliosis, astrogliosis and apoptosis...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385188/levels-of-peripheral-neopterin-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#12
LETTER
Keith Fluegge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385187/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-oleuropein-on-microglia-through-regulation-of-drp1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission
#13
Junghyung Park, Ju-Sik Min, Unbin Chae, Joon Yeop Lee, Kyung-Sik Song, Hyun-Shik Lee, Hong Jun Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Dong-Seok Lee
Oleuropein is a primary phenolic compound found in olive leaf and Fraxinus rhynchophylla. Here, we investigated the impact of oleuropein on LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Oleuropein suppressed the LPS-induced increase in pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, via inhibition of ERK/p38/NF-κB activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, it suppressed LPS-induced excessive mitochondrial fission, which regulates mitochondrial ROS generation and pro-inflammatory response by diminishing Drp1 dephosphorylation...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385186/untreated-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients-show-antibody-production-against-latent-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-antigens-mainly-in-the-periphery-and-innate-immune-il-8-responses-preferentially-in-the-cns
#14
Sofia Sisay, Lorena Lopez-Lozano, Marius Mickunas, Antonio Quiroga-Fernández, Jacqueline Palace, Gary Warnes, Roberto Alvarez Lafuente, Priyamvada Dua, Ute-Christiane Meier
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Reliable biomarkers are urgently needed for its diagnosis and management, and as clues to its pathogenesis, in which EBV is implicated. OBJECTIVE: To measure IgG antibodies against EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and innate inflammation status in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from untreated relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385185/antibody-responses-to-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-of-toxin-treated-spastic-equinus-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-two-injection-schedules
#15
Minako Oshima, Philip Deitiker, Tandy Hastings-Ison, K Roger Aoki, H Kerr Graham, M Zouhair Atassi
We have conducted a 26-month-long comparative study involving young patients (2-6years old) with a clinical diagnosis of spastic equinus secondary to cerebral palsy who have been treated with BoNT/A (BOTOX®, Allergan) tri-annually or annually. Serum samples were obtained to determine the presence or absence of blocking antibodies (Abs) by a mouse protection assay (MPA) and levels of anti-BoNT/A Abs by radioimmune assay (RIA). HLA DQ alleles were typed using blood samples to determine the possible association of certain HLA type(s) with the disease or with the Ab status...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385184/cerebrospinal-fluid-markers-of-neuronal-and-glial-cell-damage-in-patients-with-autoimmune-neurologic-syndromes-with-and-without-underlying-malignancies
#16
Radu Constantinescu, David Krýsl, Kerstin Andrén, Fredrik Asztély, Filip Bergquist, Henrik Zetterberg, Ulf Andreasson, Markus Axelsson, Elinor Ben Menachem, Daniel Jons, Ubah Mahamud, Clas Malmeström, Lars Rosengren, Kaj Blennow
Autoimmune neurologic syndromes can be paraneoplastic (associated with malignancies and/or onconeural antibodies), or non-paraneoplastic. Their clinical presentation is often similar. As prognosis is related to malignancy treatment, better biomarkers are needed to identify patients with malignancy. We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of neuronal (neurofilament light chain, NFL and total tau protein, T-tau) and glial (glial fibrillary acidic protein) damage. CSF-NFL and T-tau were increased in both paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic autoimmune syndromes...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385183/vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-in-mexican-adults
#17
Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales, Geny Fierros, Roberto Lopez Lopez, Gaby Martínez-Nava, Mario Flores-Aldana, José Flores-Rivera, Carlos Hernández-Girón
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults. More than 50 genomic regions have been associated with MS susceptibility. Due the important immune-modulating properties of Vitamin D, Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms - which interfere with the actions of Vitamin D- could be related to increased risk of MS. METHODS: We studied 120 patients fulfilling the McDonald criteria for MS (81 females and 39 males) and 180 healthy unrelated controls, nested in a case-Control study, and were recruited from the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Manuel Velasco Suárez in Mexico City...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385182/author-s-response-to-letter-to-the-editor-by-n-messaoudani-r-djidjik-and-m-ghaffor-published-in-jni-266-2014-entitled-comments-on-csf-%C3%AE%C2%BAflc-assay-evaluation-in-assessing-intrathecal-synthesis
#18
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385181/genetic-predisposition-of-il-10-promoter-polymorphisms-with-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-meta-analysis
#19
V Ramakrishnan, R S Akram Husain, Shiek Ssj Ahmed
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a anti-inflammatory cytokine, which controls inflammation by inhibiting the synthesis of several cytokines produced by Th1 cells and macrophages. The association between Interleukin-10 promoter polymorphisms with the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains inconclusive. In this study, a meta-analysis has been performed to assess the relationship between IL-10 gene polymorphisms rs1800896, rs1800871 and rs1800872 with the risk of MS. Nine case-control studies were selected involving 2755 participants...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385180/the-role-of-exosomes-in-cns-inflammation-and-their-involvement-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Igor Selmaj, Marcin P Mycko, Cedric S Raine, Krzysztof W Selmaj
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a putative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which autoreactive immune cells recognizing myelin antigens lead to demyelination and axonal injury. Mechanisms relevant to the pathogenesis of MS have not been fully elucidated, particularly those underlying initiation of immune system dysfunction. For example, it is not known how reactivity against CNS components is generated within the peripheral immune system. In this review, we propose that a significant contribution to the immunoregulatory events may derive from a cell-to-cell communication system involving the production, secretion and transfer of extracellular vesicles known as exosomes...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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