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Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524356/association-between-yap-expression-in-neoplastic-and-non-neoplastic-breast-tissue-with-arsenic-urinary-levels
#1
Gladis Michel-Ramirez, Rogelio Recio-Vega, Guadalupe Ocampo-Gomez, Eduardo Palacios-Sanchez, Manuel Delgado-Macias, Manuel Delgado-Gaona, Robert Clark Lantz, Jay Gandolfi, Tania Gonzalez-Cortes
The Hippo pathway regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis and it has been noted that loss of critical components of this pathway can lead to uncontrolled cell growth. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an important component of this Hippo pathway because YAP is the nuclear effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway and it is crucial for the response to oxidative stress induced by cellular process and by different xenobiotics, including arsenic. It has been proposed that YAP dysregulation can contribute to a malignant cellular phenotype acting as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524252/in-vivo-noninvasive-analysis-of-graphene-nanomaterial-pharmacokinetics-using-photoacoustic-flow-cytometry
#2
Dmitry A Nedosekin, Jacqueline Nolan, Chengzhong Cai, Shawn E Bourdo, Zeid Nima, Alexandru S Biris, Vladimir P Zharov
Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) are quickly revolutionizing modern electronics, energy generation and storage, clothing and biomedical devices. Due to GBN's variety of physical and chemical parameters that define their toxicity and their aggregation in suspension, interpreting its toxicology without accurate information on graphene's distribution and behavior in live organisms is challenging. In this work, we present a laser-based optical detection methodology for noninvasive detection and pharmacokinetics analysis of GBNs directly in blood flow in mice using in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485474/graphene-and-carbon-nanotubes-activate-different-cell-surface-receptors-on-macrophages-before-and-after-deactivation-of-endotoxins
#3
Mohamed H Lahiani, Kuppan Gokulan, Katherine Williams, Mariya V Khodakovskaya, Sangeeta Khare
Nanomaterial synthesis and handling in a non-sterile environment can result in the final product becoming contaminated with bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPB). During toxicological testing, the effects caused by endotoxin-contaminated nanomaterials can be misinterpreted in the end-point analysis (such as cytotoxicity and immune responses) and could result in erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study was twofold: (i) to test different carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) [pristine graphene and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)] for the presence of endotoxin and develop strategies for depyrogenation, and (ii) to compare the immune response exhibited by macrophages after exposure to native CBNs versus depyrogenated CBNs...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485473/adhesive-force-between-graphene-nanoscale-flakes-and-living-biological-cells
#4
Radwan Al Faouri, Ralph Henry, Alexandru S Biris, Rob Sleezer, Gregory J Salamo
We report on a measurement technique that quantifies the adhesive force between multi-layers of graphene flakes and the cell wall of live Escherichia coli cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in-fluid Peak Force- Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping mode. To measure the adhesive force, we made use of the negative charge of E. coli cells to allow them to stick to positively charged surfaces, such as glass or silicon, that were covered by poly-L-Lysine. With this approach, cells were held in place for AFM characterization...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466983/review-of-mechanisms-of-deoxynivalenol-induced-anorexia-the-role-of-gut-microbiota
#5
REVIEW
Zhao Peng, Liangkai Chen, Jie Xiao, Xiaoqi Zhou, Andreas K Nüssler, Liegang Liu, Jinping Liu, Wei Yang
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important mycotoxins in cereal-based foods or other food productions, produced by Fusarium species. Because of the high occurrence of DON in food combined with vast consumption of cereals and grain worldwide, the DON-contaminated food is a very harmful factor for human and animal health. DON has been reported to induce anorexia at lower or chronic doses in animal models. However, further researches for DON-induced anorexia are limited. Previous publications demonstrated a close link between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, two kinds of gut microbiota, with weight loss and the effect of low administration of DON on neurotransmitters in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus and pons/medulla...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448685/adult-neurobehavioral-alterations-in-male-and-female-mice-following-developmental-exposure-to-paracetamol-acetaminophen-characterization-of-a-critical-period
#6
Gaëtan Philippot, Torsten Gordh, Anders Fredriksson, Henrik Viberg
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used non-prescription drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Among pregnant women and young children, paracetamol is one of the most frequently used drugs and is considered the first-choice treatment for pain and/or fever. Recent findings in both human and animal studies have shown associations between paracetamol intake during brain development and adverse behavioral outcomes later in life. The present study was undertaken to investigate if the induction of these effects depend on when the exposure occurs during a critical period of brain development and if male and female mice are equally affected...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436085/effect-of-triclosan-on-anuran-development-and-growth-in-a-larval-amphibian-growth-and-development-assay
#7
Douglas J Fort, Michael B Mathis, Sascha Pawlowski, Jeffrey C Wolf, Robert Peter, Samantha Champ
A larval amphibian growth and development assay was performed to evaluate the potential effects of environmentally-relevant concentrations of triclosan (TCS) on amphibian development and growth. Xenopus laevis were exposed to TCS 0.0 (control), 6.3, 12.5 and 25.0 μg l(-1) (estimated maximum tolerable concentration) until 10 weeks post-metamorphosis. At median metamorphosis time (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 62), five larvae per replicate were collected for snout-vent length, hind limb length and body weight measurements, and histopathological examination of thyroid glands...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425640/profiling-of-the-silica-induced-molecular-events-in-lung-epithelial-cells-using-the-rna-seq-approach
#8
Judy Y W Chan, Joseph C C Tsui, Patrick T W Law, Winnie K W So, Doris Y P Leung, Michael M K Sham, Stephen K W Tsui, Carmen W H Chan
Silicosis is a prolonged, irreversible and incurable occupational disease, and there is a significant number of newly diagnosed cases every year in Hong Kong. Due to the long latency of the disease, the diagnosis can be missed until detailed clinical examination at a later stage. For a better control of this deadly disease, detailing the pro-inflammatory and fibrotic events in the macrophage would be instrumental in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease and essential for the significant biomarkers discovery...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425621/p53-competent-cells-and-p53-deficient-cells-display-different-susceptibility-to-oxygen-functionalized-graphene-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity
#9
Dayton M Petibone, Thikra Mustafa, Shawn E Bourdo, Andersen Lafont, Wei Ding, Alokita Karmakar, Zeid A Nima, Fumiya Watanabe, Daniel Casciano, Suzanne M Morris, Vasily N Dobrovolsky, Alexandru S Biris
Due to the distinctive physical, electrical, and chemical properties of graphene nanomaterials, numerous efforts pursuing graphene-based biomedical and industrial applications are underway. Oxidation of pristine graphene surfaces mitigates its otherwise hydrophobic characteristic thereby improving its biocompatibility and functionality. Yet, the potential widespread use of oxidized graphene derivatives raises concern about adverse impacts on human health. The p53 tumor suppressor protein maintains cellular and genetic stability after toxic exposures...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425566/gender-specific-histopathological-response-in-guppies-poecilia-reticulata-exposed-to-glyphosate-or-its-metabolite-aminomethylphosphonic-acid
#10
Adriana Maria Antunes, Thiago Lopes Rocha, Fernando Santiago Pires, Meire Alves de Freitas, Vanessa Rafaela Milhomem Cruz Leite, Sarah Arana, Paulo César Moreira, Simone Maria Teixeira Sabóia-Morais
Ecotoxicity of glyphosate (GLY) and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) was investigated in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We tested the effects of these chemicals on the gills and liver of both male and female guppies using qualitative and quantitative histopathological analyses associated with histopathological condition indexes. Both genders showed similar median lethal concentration (LC50 ) at 96 h for GLY (68.78 and 70.87 mg l(-1) ) and AMPA (180 and 164.32 mg l(-1) ). However, the histopathological assessment of both fish organs exposed to sublethal concentrations of GLY (35 mg l(-1) ) and AMPA (82 mg l(-1) ) for 96 h showed a tissue- and gender-specific histopathological response...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425113/environmental-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-exposure-drives-t-cell-activation-in-bottlenose-dolphins
#11
Adam C Soloff, Bethany Jacobs Wolf, Natasha D White, Derek Muir, Sean Courtney, Gary Hardiman, Gregory D Bossart, Patricia A Fair
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly stable compounds that have been associated with immunotoxicity in epidemiologic studies and experimental rodent models. Lengthy half-lives and resistance to environmental degradation result in bioaccumulation of PFAAs in humans and wildlife. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), the most prevalent PFAA detected within the environment, is found at high levels in occupationally exposed humans. We have monitored the environmental exposure of dolphins in the Charleston, SC region for over 10 years and levels of PFAAs, and PFOS in particular, were significantly elevated...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418071/chronic-exposure-to-graphene-based-nanomaterials-induces-behavioral-deficits-and-neural-damage-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Ping Li, Tiantian Xu, Siyu Wu, Lili Lei, Defu He
Nanomaterials of graphene and its derivatives have been widely applied in recent years, but whose impacts on the environment and health are still not well understood. In the present study, the potential adverse effects of graphite (G), graphite oxide nanoplatelets (GO) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) on the motor nervous system were investigated using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the assay system. After being characterized using TEM, SEM, XPS and PLE, three nanomaterials were chronically exposed to C...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397974/genome-resequencing-analysis-of-salmonella-typhimurium-lt-2-strains-ta98-and-ta100-for-the-establishment-of-a-next-generation-sequencing-based-mutagenicity-assay
#13
Shoji Matsumura, Yuichi Ito, Osamu Morita, Hiroshi Honda
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a potentially useful technology to achieve a more precise evaluation of chemical mutagenicity. To establish NGS-based mutagenicity assays, which enable the direct detection of chemically induced mutations in a whole genome manner, the selection of appropriate biological resources and their precise genome sequences are essential. Here, we performed genome re-sequencing analyses of Salmonella typhimurium LT-2 strains TA98 and TA100, which have been frequently used in mutagenicity assays...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383141/the-use-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-huvecs-as-an-in-vitro-model-to-assess-the-toxicity-of-nanoparticles-to-endothelium-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Yi Cao, Yu Gong, Liangliang Liu, Yiwei Zhou, Xin Fang, Cao Zhang, Yining Li, Juan Li
With the rapid development of nanotechnologies, nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly produced and used in many commercial products, which could lead to the contact of human blood vessels with NPs. Thus, it is necessary to understand the adverse effects of NPs to relevant cells lining human blood vessels, especially endothelial cells (ECs) that cover the lumen of blood vessels. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are among one of the most popular models used for ECs in vitro. In the present review, we discussed studies that have used HUVECs as a model to investigate the EC-NP interactions, the toxic effects of NPs on ECs and the mechanisms...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383113/diphenyl-diselenide-protects-against-methylmercury-induced-inhibition-of-thioredoxin-reductase-and-glutathione-peroxidase-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells-a-comparison-with-ebselen
#15
Daiane F Meinerz, Vasco Branco, Michael Aschner, Cristina Carvalho, João Batista T Rocha
Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), an important environmental toxicant, may lead to serious health risks, damaging various organs and predominantly affecting the brain function. The toxicity of MeHg can be related to the inhibition of important selenoenzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Experimental studies have shown that selenocompounds play an important role as cellular detoxifiers and protective agents against the harmful effects of mercury. The present study investigated the mechanisms by which diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2 ] and ebselen interfered with the interaction of mercury (MeHg) and selenoenzymes (TrxR and GPx) in an in vitro experimental model of cultured human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382686/methylparaben-induced-decrease-in-collagen-production-and-viability-of-cultured-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#16
Natalia Majewska, Ilona Zaręba, Arkadiusz Surażyński, Anna Galicka
Parabens owing to their many advantageous properties are widely applied in cosmetics, food products and pharmaceuticals. However, recent research results have shown that they possess the ability to accumulate in the human body and exert many adverse effects. In this study, the impact of methylparaben (MP) as the most frequently used preservative in cosmetics, on human dermal fibroblasts and collagen production was evaluated. In cells treated with 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05% MP a dose-dependent decrease in collagen biosynthesis was revealed, which was positively correlated with the activity of prolidase responsible for the recovery of proline...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370166/mechanism-of-arsenite-toxicity-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#17
Naimisha Beeravolu, Christina McKee, G Rasul Chaudhry
Environmental arsenite exposure has been linked to cancer as well as other diseases, presenting an important and serious public health problem. Toxicity of inorganic arsenite (iAs) has been investigated using animal models and cell culture, yet its developmental effects are poorly understood. This study investigated the molecular mechanism of iAs toxicity to ascertain insight into development and differentiation processes using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The results showed that iAs exposure affected morphology and integrity of ESC colonies as well as inhibited cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner, excluding concentrations <1 μM iAs which stimulated ESC growth...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370171/a-review-on-acridinylthioureas-and-its-derivatives-biological-and-cytotoxic-activity
#18
REVIEW
Mária Kožurková, Danica Sabolová, Pavol Kristian
Acridines possess two characteristics that have led many researchers to consider the agents interesting targets for future development as potential farmacophores: the planar acridine skeleton, which is able to intercalate into DNA, and the intense fluorescence of the agents. This review offers a study of the multifunctional character of acridines and the synthesis of novel acridine derivatives, with particular focus being placed on isothiocyanates and their congeners, e.g. thioureas, isothioureas, quaternary ammonium salts and platinum/gold conjugates...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337774/alumina-at-50-and-13%C3%A2-nm-nanoparticle-sizes-have-potential-genotoxicity
#19
Qinli Zhang, Haiyang Wang, Cuicui Ge, Jeremy Duncan, Kaihong He, Samuel O Adeosun, Huaxin Xi, Huiting Peng, Qiao Niu
Although nanomaterials have the potential to improve human life, their sideline effects on human health seem to be inevitable and still are unknown. Some studies have investigated the genotoxicity of alumina nanoparticles (AlNPs); however, this effect is still unclear due to insufficient evaluation and conflicting results. Using a battery of standard genotoxic assays, the present study offers evidence of the genotoxicity associated with aluminum oxide (alumina) at NP sizes of 50 and 13 nm, when compared with bulk alumina (10 μm)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332723/evidence-for-persistent-organochlorine-pollutants-in-the-human-adrenal-cortex
#20
Enza Fommei, Roberta Turci, Andrea Ripoli, Silvana Balzan, Fabrizio Bianchi, Luca Morelli, Alessio Coi
Environmental pollutants may act as endocrine disruptors in animals. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) enter the food chain and may accumulate in the fatty animal tissues, including adrenals. To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated their presence in the human normal adrenal (NA) cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). Surgical fragments of APA from 11 patients and NA from 8 kidney donors were analyzed for 16 PCBs congeners and 10 OCPs. A Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD) method for simultaneous determination of the target compounds in cortex homogenates was developed...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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