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Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT

Hufei Wang, Jiamin Chen, Megumi Suda, Yukie Yanagiba, Zuquan Weng, Rui-Sheng Wang
1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) is used as an industrial solvent, insecticide fumigant and household dry cleaning product. Carcinogenicity caused by long-term exposure to 1,2-DCP is well established. However, the possible liver damage and related toxic mechanisms associated with acute inhalation exposure to 1,2-DCP are rarely reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of individual and combined exposure to 1,2-DCP and dichloromethane (DCM) on mice liver. The results showed that 1,2-DCP significantly caused liver necrosis, possibly due to 1,2-DCP-induced inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I-IV activities, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and extreme ATP consumption...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Gabriel Adan Araujo Leite, Jorge Willian Franco de Barros, Airton da Cunha Martins, Janete Aparecida Anselmo-Franci, Fernando Barbosa, Wilma De Grava Kempinas
Dyslipidemias are occurring earlier in the population due to the augmentation of obesity. Rosuvastatin reduces cholesterol and triglycerides; however, previous studies have shown that it may affect male reproduction. Ascorbic acid (AA), an antioxidant compound, plays a protective role in the male reproductive system. This study aimed to evaluate whether pre-pubertal exposure to rosuvastatin may impair testicular structure and antioxidant status in male rats and if supplementation with AA may alleviate these damages...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Elise K Tigani, Drago Skrtic, Michael S Valerio, Gili Kaufman
Leachables from dental restoratives induce toxicity in gingival and pulp tissues and affect tissue regeneration/healing. Appropriate testing of these materials requires a platform that mimics the in vivo environment and allows the architectural self-assembly of cells into tissue constructs. In this study, we employ a new 3D model to assess the impact of triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) on early organization and advanced recruitment/accumulation of immortalized mouse gingival fibroblasts (GFs) and dental papilla mesenchymal cells (DPMCs) in extracellular matrix...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Sofie Moyson, Raewyn M Town, Steven Joosen, Steven J Husson, Ronny Blust
Using the well-documented model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, a combined analysis of metal speciation in the exposure medium and body burdens of metals (Zn, Cu and Cd) was performed, and factors that are predictive of toxicological endpoints in single metal and mixed metal exposures were identified. Cu, and to a lesser extent Cd, is found to associate with Escherichia coli in the exposure medium (the food source for C. elegans) as evidenced by the observed decrease in both their dissolved and free metal ion concentrations...
September 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Masaharu Fujita, Yusuke Yamamoto, Shinichi Watanabe, Tsunetsugu Sugawara, Koji Wakabayashi, Yu Tahara, Nobuyuki Horie, Keiichi Fujimoto, Kei Kusakari, Yoshihiko Kurokawa, Tsuyoshi Kawakami, Kohichi Kojima, Hajime Kojima, Atsushi Ono, Yasuhiro Katsuoka, Hideto Tanabe, Hiroshi Yokoyama, Toshihiko Kasahara
The amino acid derivative reactivity assay (ADRA) is an in chemico alternative to animal testing for skin sensitization that solves certain problems found in the use of the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA). During a recent validation study conducted at multiple laboratories as part of the process to include ADRA in an existing OECD test guideline, one of the nucleophilic reagents used in ADRA-N-(2-(1-naphthyl)acetyl)-l-cysteine (NAC)-was found to be susceptible to oxidation in much the same manner that the cysteine peptide used in DPRA was...
September 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Magdalena Mężyńska, Malgorzata M Brzóska
Recently, the growing attention of the scientific community has been focused on the threat to health created by environmental pollutants, including toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd), and on the need of finding effective ways to prevent and treat the unfavorable health effects of exposure to them. Particularly promising for Cd, and thus arousing the greatest interest, is the possibility of using various ingredients present in plants, including mainly polyphenolic compounds. As the liver is one of the target organs for this toxic metal and disturbances in the proper functioning of this organ have serious consequences for health, the aim of the present review was to discuss the possibility of using polyphenol-rich food products (e...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Douglas J Fort, Michael B Mathis, Patrick D Guiney, John A Weeks
A 150-day post-metamorphosis (dpm) partial lifecycle study exposing Silurana tropicalis to <0.03 (control), 0.06, 0.13 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was conducted. A subset of specimens from the control and each treatment were evaluated at metamorphic completion. A significant increase in the median metamorphosis time was observed in the 1.0 mg/L PFOS treatment relative to the control. A modest increase in the occurrence, but not severity, of mild follicular hypertrophy was found in thyroid glands from organisms exposed to the 0...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Takahiro Tanaka, Taisen Iguchi, Hitoshi Miyakawa
Environmental waters are polluted by various chemicals originating from human activities. Recently, the environmental risk of juvenile hormones (JHs) to aquatic microcrustaceans has been recognized by risk assessors and researchers. JH is a major arthropod hormone that regulates molting and reproduction and has analogs that have been used as insect growth regulators. JHs are known to disturb the sex determination system of Daphnia, which is a keystone animal in limnetic ecosystems and is not the target of extermination...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Qi Zhang, Shuang Wu, Lu Liu, Xiaohong Hou, Jianjun Jiang, Xuetao Wei, Weidong Hao
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used as the raw material for the production of plastics and paper products. People can be exposed to BPA through dermal contact, particularly for cashiers in contact with thermal paper every day. BPA is a known endocrine disruptor that has been shown to be carcinogenic. Many tumors show weak gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of BPA's action on GJIC of human HaCaT skin cells. The results showed that BPA increased cell proliferation rates, prolonged GJIC photobleaching fluorescence recovery times and reduced overall fluorescence recovery rates at 0...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Sangeeta Khare, Kuppan Gokulan, Katherine Williams, Shasha Bai, Kathleen M Gilbert, Sarah J Blossom
The developing immune system is particularly sensitive to immunotoxicants. This study assessed trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced effects on the gut microbiome and cytokine production during the development in mice. Mice were exposed to TCE (0.05 or 500 μg/mL) at the levels that approximate to environmental or occupational exposure, respectively. Mice were subjected to a continuous developmental exposure to these doses encompassing gestation, lactation and continuing directly in the drinking water postnatally for 154 days (PND154) or PND259...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Weijia Han, Qiao Wu, Xiaohui Zhang, Zhongping Duan
Many categories of drugs can induce hepatotoxicity, so improving the prediction of toxic drugs is important. In vitro models using human hepatocytes are more accurate than in vivo animal models. Good in vitro models require an abundance of metabolic enzyme activities and normal cellular polarity. However, none of the in vitro models can completely simulate hepatocytes in the human body. There are two ways to overcome this limitation: enhancing the metabolic function of hepatocytes and changing the cultural environment...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Megumi Yamamoto, Eriko Motomura, Rie Yanagisawa, Van Anh Thi Hoang, Masaki Mogi, Tomohisa Mori, Masaaki Nakamura, Motohiro Takeya, Komyo Eto
Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to cause neurobehavioral impairment in human and experimental animals. We previously reported that MeHg (5 mg Hg/kg) induced severe neurobehavioral dysfunction in 4-week-old KK-Ay mice, although it is difficult to evaluate quantitatively the neurobehavioral impairment in MeHg-treated KK-Ay mice because of their obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate MeHg-induced neurobehavioral dysfunction in KK-Ay mice using the dynamic weight-bearing test, which analyzes the animal's weight distribution between the four limbs...
September 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Dejian Yan, Jimin Long, Jikai Liu, Yi Cao
Understanding the possible role of physicochemical properties in determining the toxicity of ZnO nanomaterials (NMs) is crucial for the safe use of ZnO-based materials. In this study, we synthesized four types of ZnO NMs, and characterized them as ZnO nanorods (NRs; length 400-500 nm, diameter 150-200 nm), ZnO Mini-NRs (length 50-100 nm, diameter 15-20 nm), amorphous ZnO microspheres (a-ZnO MS) and crystalline ZnO MS (c-ZnO MS; the a/c-ZnO MS are nanoflowers with an extensive growth of sheet-like structures)...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Jie Lu, Meng Tang, Ting Zhang
In recent years, quantum dots (QDs) have potential applications in technology, research and medicine. The small particle size is coupled to their unique chemical and physical properties and their excellent fluorescence characteristics. A growing number of studies have shown that QDs are distributed to secondary organs through multiple pathways, while the liver is the main reservoir of QDs. Here, we review current liver toxicity studies of QDs in vivo and in vitro. Mechanisms of hepatotoxicity are discussed and the problem of extrapolating knowledge gained from cell-based studies into animal studies is highlighted...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Da Huo, Bing Zhang, Qi Peng, Hongyue Li, Hui Wang, Qilin Yu, Mingchun Li
Graphene oxide (GO) is an important type of 2D nanomaterial and widely used in biomedicine, sensors, photocatalysis and electronic materials. With the extensive exposure of GO, its biological effect is debatable. In this study, we found a novel biological effect of GO, ie, suppression of deoxyribonuclease (DNase). GO inhibited DNA degradation when DNA or the DNA/RNA mixture was exposed to DNase. Moreover, GO suppressed nuclear fragmentation when the nuclei were treated with DNase. Interestingly, GO neither interacted with DNA nor influenced the interaction between DNase and DNA...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Meran Keshawa Ediriweera, Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon, Sameera Ranganath Samarakoon
Development of a cancer is a multistep process and six major hallmarks of cancer that are known to control malignant transformation have been described. Anticancer drug development is a tedious process, requiring a number of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. In vitro assays provide an initial platform for cancer drug discovery approaches. A wide range of in vitro assays/techniques have been developed to evaluate each hallmark feature of cancer and selection of a particular in vitro assay or technique mainly depends on the specific research question (s) to be examined...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Katharina Ruthsatz, Kathrin H Dausmann, Claudia Drees, Laura I Becker, Lisa Hartmann, Janica Reese, Nikita M Sabatino, Myron A Peck, Julian Glos
Chemical, physical and biological environmental stressors may affect the endocrine system, such as the thyroid hormone (TH) axis in larval amphibians with consequences for energy partitioning among development, growth and metabolism. We studied the effects of two TH level affecting compounds, exogenous l-thyroxine (T4 ) and sodium perchlorate (SP), on various measures of development and body condition in larvae of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). We calculated the scaled mass index, hepatosomatic index and relative tail muscle mass as body condition indices to estimate fitness...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Wen-Jie Zhao, Zi-Jin Zhang, Zhen-Yu Zhu, Qun Song, Wei-Juan Zheng, Xin Hu, Li Mao, Hong-Zhen Lian
Cadmium is considered one of the most harmful carcinogenic heavy metals in the human body. Although many scientists have performed research on cadmium toxicity mechanism, the toxicokinetic process of cadmium toxicity remains unclear. In the present study, the kinetic response of proteome in/and A549 cells to exposure of exogenous cadmium was profiled. A549 cells were treated with cadmium sulfate (CdSO4 ) for different periods and expressions of proteins in cells were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Eun Mi Choi, Kwang Sik Suh, Woon-Won Jung, So Young Park, Sang Ouk Chin, Sang Youl Rhee, Youngmi Kim Pak, Suk Chon
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has various toxicological effects in adipose tissue. Evidence is accumulating that glabridin, a flavonoid extracted from licorice, has beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this study, we investigated whether glabridin suppresses TCDD-induced loss of adipogenic action using 3T3-L1 adipocytes as a cell culture model of wasting syndrome. Glabridin effectively suppressed TCDD-induced loss of lipid accumulation in this model. Pretreating cells with glabridin increased the gene expression of not only the adipogenesis-associated key transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, but also lipoprotein lipase in the presence of TCDD...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Nao Kagawa, Tetsuji Nagao
Acetamiprid (ACE) belongs to a widely used class of pesticides known as neonicotinoids. ACE binds selectively to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and was previously considered relatively safe in mammalian species; however, recent studies have demonstrated ACE-mediated toxicity related to vertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation. The potential for neurotoxicity following exposure to ACE in utero is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of repeated prenatal ACE exposure (5 mg/kg, oral doses administered to pregnant dams) on neurogenesis, neuronal distribution and microglial activation in the dorsal telencephalon on embryonic day (E)14 and in the neocortex on postnatal day 14...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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