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Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896850/zebrafish-larva-as-a-reliable-model-for-in-vivo-assessment-of-membrane-remodeling-involvement-in-the-hepatotoxicity-of-chemical-agents
#1
Normand Podechard, Martine Chevanne, Morgane Fernier, Arnaud Tête, Aurore Collin, Doris Cassio, Olivier Kah, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Odile Sergent
The easy-to-use in vivo model, zebrafish larva, is being increasingly used to screen chemical-induced hepatotoxicity, with a good predictivity for various mechanisms of liver injury. However, nothing is known about its applicability in exploring the mechanism called membrane remodeling, depicted as changes in membrane fluidity or lipid raft properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to substantiate the zebrafish larva as a suitable in vivo model in this context. Ethanol was chosen as a prototype toxicant because it is largely described, both in hepatocyte cultures and in rodents, as capable of inducing a membrane remodeling leading to hepatocyte death and liver injury...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896817/lack-of-in-vivo-mutagenicity-of-1-2-dichloropropane-and-dichloromethane-in-the-livers-of-gpt-delta-rats-administered-singly-or-in-combination
#2
Tadashi Hirata, Young-Man Cho, Takeshi Toyoda, Jun-Ichi Akagi, Isamu Suzuki, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, Kumiko Ogawa
1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and dichloromethane (DCM) are possible causative agents associated with the development of cholangiocarcinoma in employees working in printing plant in Osaka, Japan. However, few reports have demonstrated an association between these agents and cholangiocarcinoma in rodent carcinogenicity studies. Moreover, the combined effects of these compounds have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo mutagenicity of 1,2-DCP and DCM, alone or combined, in the livers of gpt delta rats...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885692/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether-and-tertiary-butyl-alcohol-in-rats-contribution-of-binding-to-%C3%AE-2u-globulin-in-male-rats-and-high-exposure-nonlinear-kinetics-to-toxicity-and-cancer-outcomes
#3
Susan J Borghoff, Caroline Ring, Marcy I Banton, Teresa L Leavens
In cancer bioassays, inhalation, but not drinking water exposure to ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), caused liver tumors in male rats, while tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), an ETBE metabolite, caused kidney tumors in male rats following exposure via drinking water. To understand the contribution of ETBE and TBA kinetics under varying exposure scenarios to these tumor responses, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed based on a previously published model for methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a structurally similar chemical, and verified against the literature and study report data...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866382/immunotoxic-effects-of-in-vitro-exposure-of-dolphin-lymphocytes-to-louisiana-sweet-crude-oil-and-corexit%C3%A2
#4
Natasha D White, Celine Godard-Codding, Sarah J Webb, Gregory D Bossart, Patricia A Fair
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Response efforts to reduce the magnitude of the oil slick included the use of thousands of gallons of the chemical dispersant Corexit™ in surface and deep-water environments. The immunotoxicity of Louisiana sweet crude oil and the chemical dispersant Corexit was examined using lymphocyte proliferation (LP) and natural killer cell (NK) assays as measures of impact on the adaptive (LP) and innate (NK) immune response in bottlenose dolphins...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866379/effects-of-oral-exposure-to-the-phthalate-substitute-acetyl-tributyl-citrate-on-female-reproduction-in-mice
#5
Lindsay M Rasmussen, Nivedita Sen, Xiaosong Liu, Zelieann R Craig
Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC), is a phthalate substitute used in food and medical plastics, cosmetics and toys. Although systemically safe up to 1000 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , its ability to cause reproductive toxicity in females at levels below 50 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) has not been examined. This study evaluated the effects of lower ATBC exposures on female reproduction using mice. Adult CD-1 females (n = 7-8 per treatment) were dosed orally with tocopherol-stripped corn oil (vehicle), 5 or 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) ATBC daily for 15 days, and then bred with a proven breeder male...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862064/cytotoxicity-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-induced-by-zno-nanoparticles-in-endothelial-cells-interaction-with-palmitate-or-lipopolysaccharide
#6
Yu Gong, Yuejia Ji, Fang Liu, Juan Li, Yi Cao
Recent studies showed that ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) might induce the toxicity to human endothelial cells. However, little is known about the interaction between ZnO NPs and circulatory components, which is likely to occur when NPs enter the blood. In this study, we evaluated ZnO NP-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), with the emphasis on the interaction with palmitate (PA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), because PA and LPS are normal components in human blood that increase in metabolic diseases...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813112/developmental-toxicity-of-auranofin-in-zebrafish-embryos
#7
Xiao-Yan Gao, Kang Li, Ling-Ling Jiang, Ming-Fang He, Cun-Hai Pu, Dongzhou Kang, Jingjing Xie
Auranofin (AF) is used in clinic for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, repurposing of AF as an anticancer drug has just finished a phase I/II clinical trial, but the developmental toxicity of AF remains obscure. This study focused on its developmental toxicity by using zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different concentrations (1, 2.5, 5, 10 μm) of AF from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 72 hpf. At 72 hpf, two major developmental defects caused by AF were found, namely severe pericardial edema and hypopigmentation, when embryos were exposed to concentrations higher than 2...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813108/antagonistic-effect-of-n-ethylmaleimide-on-arsenic-mediated-oxidative-stress-induced-poly-adp-ribosyl-ation-and-cytotoxicity
#8
Alexander Sheng-Shin Wang, Yu-Ting Chou, Yeong-Shiau Pu
Long-term exposure to arsenic has been known to induce neoplastic initiation and progression in several organs; however, the role of arsenic (As2 O3 ) in oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage remains elusive. One of the immediate cellular responses to DNA damage is poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), which mediates DNA repair and enhances cell survival. In this study, we found that oxidative stress (H2 O2 )-induced PARylation was suppressed by As2 O3 exposure in different human cancer cells. Moreover, As2 O3 treatment promoted H2 O2 -induced DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to increased cell death...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785833/the-inadequacies-of-pre-market-chemical-risk-assessment-s-toxicity-studies-the-implications
#9
REVIEW
Anthony C Tweedale
Industry provides essentially all the data for most (pre-market) chemical risk assessments (RA); academics study a chemical once it is marketed. For two randomly-chosen high production chemicals, despite new European Union mandates to evaluate all data, just 13% of the herbicide bentazon and 15% of the flame-retardant hexabromocyclododecane's published toxicity studies were found in their pre-market RA, and a systematic review on bentazon concludes it has greater hazards than indicated in its RA. More important, for both, academia's toxicity studies were designated as lower quality than industries were, despite showing hazards at lower doses...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774651/toxicokinetics-and-toxicodynamics-of-chlorpyrifos-is-altered-in-embryos-of-japanese-medaka-exposed-to-oil-sands-process-affected-water-evidence-for-inhibition-of-p-glycoprotein
#10
Hattan A Alharbi, Jane Alcorn, Ahmed Al-Mousa, John P Giesy, Steve B Wiseman
Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated during extraction of bitumen in the surface mining oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada. Studies were performed in vitro by use of Caco-2 cells, and in vivo with larvae of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to determine if organic compounds from the aqueous phase of OSPW inhibit ATP binding cassette protein ABCB1 (permeability-glycoprotein, P-gp). Neutral and basic fractions of OSPW inhibited activity of P-gp in Caco-2 cells by 1.9- and 2.0-fold, respectively, while the acidic fraction had the least effect...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714829/biological-factor-related-to-asian-sand-dust-particles-contributes-to-the-exacerbation-of-asthma
#11
Akiko Honda, Takahiro Sawahara, Tomohiro Hayashi, Kenshi Tsuji, Wataru Fukushima, Mizuki Oishi, Gaku Kitamura, Hitomi Kudo, Sho Ito, Seiichi Yoshida, Takamichi Ichinose, Kayo Ueda, Hirohisa Takano
Epidemiologic studies have revealed that Asian sand dust particles (ASDs) can affect respiratory and immune health represented by asthma. Factors responsible for the exacerbation of asthma remain unclear. The fungus Bjerkandera adusta (B.ad) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) have been identified in ASDs collected from the atmosphere when an ASD event occurred. We investigated the effects of B.ad and BaP related to ASDs on respiratory and immune systems. Bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and splenocytes from atopic prone NC/Nga mice and human airway epithelial cells were exposed to the B...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714827/immunomodulatory-effects-of-metal-salts-at-sub-toxic-concentrations
#12
Carmen Steinborn, Christoph Diegel, Manuel Garcia-Käufer, Carsten Gründemann, Roman Huber
Because different metals are used in complementary medicine for the treatment of diseases related to a dysfunction of the immune system, this study aimed at determining the immunomodulatory potential of Pb(NO3 )2 , AuCl3 , Cu(NO3 )2 , HgCl2 , AgNO3 , SnCl2 , AsCl3 and SbCl3 at sub-toxic concentrations and at assessing possible toxic side effects of low-concentrated metal preparations. The influence of the metal salts on primary human mononuclear cells was analyzed by measuring cell viability using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay, apoptosis and necrosis induction by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and proliferation by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining and flow cytometry...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714835/comparison-of-the-local-pulmonary-distribution-of-nanoparticles-administered-intratracheally-to-rats-via-gavage-needle-or-microsprayer-delivery-devices
#13
Guihua Zhang, Naohide Shinohara, Yutaka Oshima, Toshio Kobayashi, Nobuya Imatanaka, Kenji Kawaguchi, Masashi Gamo
Intratracheal administration methods are used to conduct toxicological assessments of inhaled nanoparticles (NPs), and gavage needles or microsprayers are common intratracheal delivery devices. The NP suspension is delivered in a liquid state via gavage needle and as a liquid aerosol via microsprayer. The differences in local pulmonary NP distribution (called the microdistribution) arising from the different states of the NP suspension cause differential pulmonary responses; however, this has yet to be investigated...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696470/disposition-of-intravenously-or-orally-administered-silver-nanoparticles-in-pregnant-rats-and-the-effect-on-the-biochemical-profile-in-urine
#14
Timothy R Fennell, Ninell P Mortensen, Sherry R Black, Rodney W Snyder, Keith E Levine, Eric Poitras, James M Harrington, Christopher J Wingard, Nathan A Holland, Wimal Pathmasiri, Susan C J Sumner
Few investigations have been conducted on the disposition and fate of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in pregnancy. The distribution of a single dose of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized AgNP was investigated in pregnant rats. Two sizes of AgNP, 20 and 110 nm, and silver acetate (AgAc) were used to investigate the role of AgNP diameter and particle dissolution in tissue distribution, internal dose and persistence. Dams were administered AgNP or AgAc intravenously (i.v.) (1 mg kg(-1) ) or by gavage (p...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687502/can-cuo-nanoparticles-lead-to-epigenetic-regulation-of-antioxidant-enzyme-system
#15
Sandesh Chibber, Rishi Shanker
Copper has been used from ancient time in various applications. Scientists have exploited its means of exposure and consequences to living organisms. The peculiar property of nanomaterials that is a high surface to volume ratio has increased the range of application in products. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used in industrial applications such as semiconductor devices, gas sensor, batteries, solar energy converter, microelectronics, heat transfer fluids and consumer products. In contrast, acute toxicity of CuO NPs has also been reported...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682190/autophagy-function-and-its-relationship-to-pathology-clinical-applications-drug-metabolism-and-toxicity
#16
Dayton M Petibone, Waqar Majeed, Daniel A Casciano
Autophagy is a cellular process that facilitates nutrient turnover and removal of expended macromolecules and organelles to maintain homeostasis. The recycling of cytosolic macromolecules and damaged organelles by autophagosomes occurs through the lysosomal degradation pathway. Autophagy can also be upregulated as a prosurvival pathway in response to stress stimuli such as starvation, hypoxia or cell damage. Over the last two decades, there has been a surge in research revealing the basic molecular mechanisms of autophagy in mammalian cells...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682001/association-between-perfluorooctanoic-acid-exposure-and-degranulation-of-mast-cells-in-allergic-inflammation
#17
Jun-Kyoung Lee, Soyoung Lee, Moon-Chang Baek, Byung-Heon Lee, Hyun-Shik Lee, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Pil-Hoon Park, Tae-Yong Shin, Dongwoo Khang, Sang-Hyun Kim
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has wide applications, including as a raw material for converted paper and packaging products. With the widespread use of PFOA, concerns regarding its potential environmental and health impacts have increased. In spite of the known hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of PFOA, correlation with PFOA and allergic inflammation is not well known. In this study, the effect of PFOA on the degranulation of mast cells and mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation in the presence of FcεRI cross-linking was evaluated...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671914/toxicological-role-of-an-acyl-glucuronide-metabolite-in-diclofenac-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#18
Shingo Oda, Yuji Shirai, Sho Akai, Akira Nakajima, Koichi Tsuneyama, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
The acyl glucuronide (AG) metabolites of carboxylic acid-containing drugs are potentially chemically reactive and are suggested to be implicated in toxicity, including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and drug hypersensitivity reactions. However, it remains unknown whether AG formation is related to toxicity in vivo. In this study, we sought to determine whether AG is involved in the pathogenesis of liver injury using a mouse model of diclofenac (DIC)-induced liver injury. Mice that were administered DIC alone exhibited significantly increased plasma alanine aminotransferase levels, whereas mice that were pretreated with the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inhibitor (-)-borneol (BOR) exhibited suppressed alanine aminotransferase levels at 3 and 6 h after DIC administration although not significant at 12 h...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652576/natural-remedies-for-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-induced-toxicity
#19
Jerine Peter Simon, Sabina Evan Prince
The liver is an important organ of the body, which has a vital role in metabolic functions. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac causes hepato-renal toxicity and gastric ulcers. NSAIDs are noted to be an agent for the toxicity of body organs. This review has elaborated various scientific perspectives of the toxicity caused by diclofenac and its mechanistic action in affecting the vital organ. This review suggests natural products are better remedies than current clinical drugs against the toxicity caused by NSAIDs...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633481/toxic-effects-of-4-methylthio-3-butenyl-isothiocyanate-raphasatin-in-the-rat-urinary-bladder-without-genotoxicity
#20
Isamu Suzuki, Young-Man Cho, Tadashi Hirata, Takeshi Toyoda, Jun-Ichi Akagi, Yasushi Nakamura, Azusa Sasaki, Takako Nakamura, Shigehisa Okamoto, Koji Shirota, Noboru Suetome, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, Kumiko Ogawa
We recently reported that 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) exerts chemopreventive effects on the rat esophageal carcinogenesis model at a low dose of 80 ppm in a diet. In contrast, some isothiocyanates (ITCs) have been reported to cause toxic effects, promotion activity, and/or carcinogenic potential in the urinary bladder of rats. In the present study, we investigated whether MTBITC had toxic effects in the urinary bladder similar to other ITCs, such as phenethyl ITC (PEITC). First, to examine the early toxicity of MTBITC, rats were fed a diet supplemented with 100, 300 or 1000 ppm MTBITC for 14 days...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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