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Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186360/threshold-limit-values-of-the-cadmium-concentration-in-rice-in-the-development-of-itai-itai-disease-using-benchmark-dose-analysis
#1
Kazuhiro Nogawa, Masaru Sakurai, Masao Ishizaki, Teruhiko Kido, Hideaki Nakagawa, Yasushi Suwazono
The aim of this study was to estimate the benchmark dose (BMD) as the threshold limit level of the cadmium (Cd) concentration in rice for itai-itai disease and/or suspected disease; it was based on the data that previously evaluated the association for such diseases with the Cd concentration in rice by using a logistic regression model. From 1971 to 1976, a total of 2446 rice samples were analyzed across the 88 hamlets in the Jinzu river basin. The mean Cd concentration in rice in each hamlet was used as the index of external Cd exposure of the entire population of the hamlet...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186326/automated-image-analysis-of-intra-tumoral-and-peripheral-endocrine-organ-vascular-bed-regression-using-fibrelength-as-a-novel-structural-biomarker
#2
Adam Hargreaves, Alison Bigley, Shirley Price, Jane Kendrew, Simon T Barry
The study of vascular modulation has received a great deal of attention in recent years as knowledge has increased around the role of angiogenesis within disease contexts such as cancer. Despite rapidly expanding insights into the molecular processes involved and the concomitant generation of a number of anticancer vascular modulating chemotherapeutics, techniques used in the measurement of structural vascular change have advanced more modestly, particularly with regard to the preclinical quantification of off-target vascular regression within systemic, notably endocrine, blood vessels...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176351/role-of-connexin-43-in-cadmium-induced-proliferation-of-human-prostate-epithelial-cells
#3
Qingping Liu, Xiaoli Ji, Zehe Ge, Haipeng Diao, Xiuli Chang, Lihua Wang, Qing Wu
Connexins (Cxs), the subunits of gap junction channels, are involved in many physiological processes. Aberrant control of Cxs and gap junction intercellular communication may contribute to many diseases, including the promotion of cancer. Cd exposure is associated with increased risk of human prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The roles of Cxs in the effects of Cd on the prostate have, however, not been reported previously. In this study, the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 was exposed to Cd...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176338/effects-of-neonatal-17%C3%AE-ethinyloestradiol-exposure-on-female-paced-mating-behaviour-in-the-rat
#4
Chiaki Komine, Shingo Nakajima, Yasuhiko Kondo, Yasuyuki Horii, Midori Yoshida, Maiko Kawaguchi
Correct perinatal oestrogen levels are critical for sexual differentiation. For example, perinatal exposure to oestrogen causes masculinization and defeminization of the brain in female rats and also induces delayed effects after maturation characterized by early onset of abnormal oestrus cycling. However, the mechanisms underlying the above effects of oestrogen remain to be fully determined. 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE), a common synthetic oestrogen widely used in oral contraceptives, binds specifically to oestrogen receptors...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165156/pancreatic-impairment-and-igf2-hypermethylation-induced-by-developmental-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-can-be-counteracted-by-maternal-folate-supplementation
#5
Zhenxing Mao, Wei Xia, Wenqian Huo, Tongzhang Zheng, Bryan A Bassig, Huailong Chang, Tian Chen, Feie Li, Yunxin Pan, Yang Peng, Yuanyuan Li, Shunqing Xu
Increasing evidence indicates that bisphenol A (BPA), a widely manufactured environmental pollutant, can induce changes in DNA methylation paatterns, which is a potential mechanism linking this environmental exposure to disease development. We investigated the influence of developmental exposure to BPA on pancreatic DNA methylation patterns and whether maternal folate supplementation can modify the epigenetic status and pancreatic impairment induced by BPA. Our results showed that maternal dietary folate supplementation in rats exposed to BPA counteracted the observed BPA-induced pancreatic impairments in the offspring, which included disrupted insulin secretion and glucose intolerance, and impaired morphology and ultrastructure of β cells...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165151/horseradish-extract-promotes-urinary-bladder-carcinogenesis-when-administered-to-f344-rats-in-drinking-water
#6
Young-Man Cho, Mai Hasumura, Toshio Imai, Shigeaki Takami, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, Kumiko Ogawa
Horseradish extract (HRE), consisting mainly of a mixture of allyl isothiocyanate and other isothiocyanates, has been used as a food additive. To evaluate the potential hazards of HRE, a 104-week chronic study, a 2-week analysis of cell proliferation in the urinary bladder and a medium-term promotion bioassay of HRE were conducted with administration at concentrations of up to 0.04% HRE in the drinking water to male F344 rats. In the 104-week chronic study with 32 male rats per group, no treatment-related increases in the incidences of neoplastic lesions in any organ, including urinary bladder, were observed, except for simple hyperplasia in the urinary bladder in rats treated with HRE at concentrations of more than 0...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165139/carboxylated-nanodiamonds-can-be-used-as-negative-reference-in-in-vitro-nanogenotoxicity-studies
#7
H Moche, V Paget, D Chevalier, E Lorge, N Claude, H A Girard, J C Arnault, S Chevillard, F Nesslany
Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising nanomaterials for biomedical applications. However, a few studies highlighted an in vitro genotoxic activity for detonation NDs, which was not evidenced in one of our previous work quantifying γ-H2Ax after 20 and 100 nm high-pressure high-temperature ND exposures of several cell lines. To confirm these results, in the present work, we investigated the genotoxicity of the same 20 and 100 nm NDs and added intermediate-sized NDs of 50 nm. Conventional in vitro genotoxicity tests were used, i...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165137/preclinical-safety-assessments-of-nano-sized-constructs-on-cardiovascular-system-toxicity-a-case-for-telemetry
#8
REVIEW
Hoay Yan Cheah, Lik Voon Kiew, Hong Boon Lee, Nina Japundžić-Žigon, Marίa J Vicent, See Ziau Hoe, Lip Yong Chung
While nano-sized construct (NSC) use in medicine has grown significantly in recent years, reported unwanted side effects have raised safety concerns. However, the toxicity of NSCs to the cardiovascular system (CVS) and the relative merits of the associated evaluation methods have not been thoroughly studied. This review discusses the toxicological profiles of selected NSCs and provides an overview of the assessment methods, including in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models and how they are related to CVS toxicity...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139008/oxidative-stress-mediated-developmental-toxicity-induced-by-isoniazide-in-zebrafish-embryos-and-larvae
#9
Yu Zou, Yun Zhang, Liwen Han, Qiuxia He, Hairong Hou, Jian Han, Ximin Wang, Chengyun Li, Juan Cen, Kechun Liu
Isoniazide (INH) is an important first-line drug that is used to treat tuberculosis. However, the effect of INH on fetal growth has not yet been elucidated, and the mechanism of INH-induced developmental toxicity is still unknown. In the present study, we employed zebrafish embryos and larvae to investigate the developmental toxicity of INH. The survival rates of the embryos and larvae as well as the hatching rates of embryos were significantly reduced. Morphological abnormalities, including spinal curvature, yolk retention, swimming bladder absence, tail bending and shorter body lengths were induced by INH...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139006/comparison-of-protocols-measuring-diffusion-and-partition-coefficients-in-the-stratum-corneum
#10
H Rothe, C Obringer, J Manwaring, C Avci, W Wargniez, J Eilstein, N Hewitt, R Cubberley, H Duplan, D Lange, C Jacques-Jamin, M Klaric, A Schepky, S Grégoire
Partition (K) and diffusion (D) coefficients are important to measure for the modelling of skin penetration of chemicals through the stratum corneum (SC). We compared the feasibility of three protocols for the testing of 50 chemicals in our main studies, using three cosmetics-relevant model chemicals with a wide range of logP values. Protocol 1: SC concentration-depth profile using tape-stripping (measures KSC/v and DSC /HSC(2) , where HSC is the SC thickness); Protocol 2A: incubation of isolated SC with chemical (direct measurement of KSC/v only) and Protocol 2B: diffusion through isolated SC mounted on a Franz cell (measures KSC/v and DSC /HSC(2) , and is based on Fick's laws)...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138998/current-and-prospective-sights-in-mechanism-of-deoxynivalenol-induced-emesis-for-future-scientific-study-and-clinical-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Liangkai Chen, Zhao Peng, Andreas K Nüssler, Liegang Liu, Wei Yang
Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of trichothecene mycotoxins produced by the fungus Fusarium, is commonly detected in cereal foods and in secondary food production across the world. Lower concentrations of DON induce a dose-related feed refusal (anorexia), whereas it acts as a potent emetic agent at higher levels. DON-induced emesis in humans and livestock can be observed and recorded in both undeveloped and developed regions such as Lixian, Guide and Huangzhong in China and Illinois in the USA. Some studies with different animal models (pigs and minks) suggested that DON could change expressions of 5-hydroxytryptamine, peptide YY, neuropeptide Y2 receptor and nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 in plasma and different areas of the brain...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138994/megakaryocyte-expansion-and-macrophage-infiltration-in-bone-marrow-of-rats-subchronically-treated-with-mnx-n-nitroso-environmental-degradation-product-of-munitions-compound-rdx-hexahydro-1-3-5-trinitro-1-3-5-triazine
#12
Sindhura Ramasahayam, Sridhar Jaligama, Sahar M Atwa, Joshua T Salley, Marissa Thongdy, Benny L Blaylock, Sharon A Meyer
Hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), environmental degradation product of munitions hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), causes seizures in rats with acute oral exposure like parent RDX. Our previous studies have additionally reported hematotoxicity with acute MNX exposure manifested as myelosuppression, anemia and splenic hemosiderosis. This study explored whether MNX administered subchronically continued to target bone marrow to elicit peripheral blood cytopenia. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged daily for 4 or 6 weeks with 47 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) MNX (¼ LD50 ) or vehicle (5% dimethyl sulfoxide in corn oil) and hematological and clinical chemistry parameters, spleen weights, spleen and bone marrow histopathology and immunohistochemistry with ED1 anti-CD68 macrophage marker were evaluated 24 h after the last dose...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138993/arachidonic-acid-containing-phosphatidylcholine-characterized-by-consolidated-plasma-and-liver-lipidomics-as-an-early-onset-marker-for-tamoxifen-induced-hepatic-phospholipidosis
#13
Kosuke Saito, Keisuke Goda, Akio Kobayashi, Naohito Yamada, Kyoko Maekawa, Yoshiro Saito, Shoichiro Sugai
Lipid profiling has emerged as an effective approach to not only screen disease and drug toxicity biomarkers but also understand their underlying mechanisms of action. Tamoxifen, a widely used antiestrogenic agent for adjuvant therapy against estrogen-positive breast cancer, possesses side effects such as hepatic steatosis and phospholipidosis (PLD). In the present study, we administered tamoxifen to Sprague-Dawley rats and used lipidomics to reveal tamoxifen-induced alteration of the hepatic lipid profile and its association with the plasma lipid profile...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138972/glaucarubulone-glucoside-from-castela-macrophylla-suppresses-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cell-growth-and-attenuates-benzo-a-pyrene-mediated-cyp1a-gene-induction
#14
Simone A M Badal, Malyn M Asuncion Valenzuela, Dain Zylstra, George Huang, Pallavi Vendantam, Sheena Francis, Ashley Quitugua, Louisa H Amis, Willie Davis, Tzuen-Rong J Tzeng, Helen Jacobs, David J Gangemi, Greg Raner, Leah Rowland, Jonathan Wooten, Petreena Campbell, Eileen Brantley, Rupika Delgoda
Quassinoids often exhibit antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. Emerging evidence suggests that these natural metabolites also display chemopreventive actions. In this study, we investigated the potential for the quassinoid glaucarubulone glucoside (Gg), isolated from the endemic Jamaican plant Castela macrophylla (Simaroubaceae), to display potent cytotoxicity and inhibit human cytochrome P450s (CYPs), particularly CYP1A enzymes, known to convert polyaromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic metabolites...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138971/evaluation-of-divided-attention-psychophysical-task-performance-and-effects-on-pupil-sizes-following-smoked-vaporized-and-oral-cannabis-administration
#15
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Megan E Taylor, Osama A Abulseoud, Thomas H Woodward, Marilyn A Huestis
Establishing science-based driving per se blood Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) limits is challenging, in part because of prolonged THC detection in chronic, frequent users. Therefore, documenting observable signs of impairment is important for driving under the influence of drugs. We evaluated frequent and occasional cannabis smokers' performance on the modified Romberg balance, one leg stand (OLS), and walk and turn (WAT) tasks, and pupil size effects following controlled placebo (0.001% THC), smoked, vaporized and oral (6...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138970/prediction-of-drug-induced-liver-injury-using-keratinocytes
#16
Rika Hirashima, Tomoo Itoh, Robert H Tukey, Ryoichi Fujiwara
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the most common adverse drug reactions. DILI is often accompanied by skin reactions, including rash and pruritus. However, it is still unknown whether DILI-associated genes such as S100 calcium-binding protein A and interleukin (IL)-1β are involved in drug-induced skin toxicity. In the present study, most of the tested hepatotoxic drugs such as pioglitazone and diclofenac induced DILI-associated genes in human and mouse keratinocytes. Keratinocytes of mice at higher risk for DILI exhibited an increased IL-1β basal expression...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138964/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-aniline-and-chlorinated-anilines-on-zebrafish-embryos-and-larvae
#17
Yoshifumi Horie, Takahiro Yamagishi, Masaaki Koshio, Taisen Iguchi, Norihisa Tatarazako
Environmental risk assessments show increased attention to the sublethal effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) established the "Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages" (OECD test 212) to predict lethal effects. It is still unclear, however, whether this test can predict sublethal effects. Although their sublethal effects are still unknown, chlorinated anilines are widely used in various fields. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to investigate sublethal effects of chlorinated anilines using OECD test 212 with zebrafish, and to examine the correlation of several sublethal effects between embryo and larval stages...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124374/the-dental-resin-monomers-hema-and-tegdma-have-inhibitory-effects-on-osteoclast-differentiation-with-low-cytotoxicity
#18
Hiroyuki Inamitsu, Kuniaki Okamoto, Eiko Sakai, Kazuhisa Nishishita, Hiroshi Murata, Takayuki Tsukuba
The dental resin monomers 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) are released from the resin matrix due to unpolymerized monomers; once released, they influence various biological functions and the viability of cells in the oral environment. Although HEMA and TEGDMA have various effects on cells, including inflammation, inhibition of cell proliferation or differentiation, and apoptosis, the effects of these monomers on osteoclasts remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of HEMA and TEGDMA on osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages or murine monocytic cell line RAW-D...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074598/prediction-of-skin-sensitization-potency-using-machine-learning-approaches
#19
Qingda Zang, Michael Paris, David M Lehmann, Shannon Bell, Nicole Kleinstreuer, David Allen, Joanna Matheson, Abigail Jacobs, Warren Casey, Judy Strickland
The replacement of animal use in testing for regulatory classification of skin sensitizers is a priority for US federal agencies that use data from such testing. Machine learning models that classify substances as sensitizers or non-sensitizers without using animal data have been developed and evaluated. Because some regulatory agencies require that sensitizers be further classified into potency categories, we developed statistical models to predict skin sensitization potency for murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and human outcomes...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996102/current-sights-for-mechanisms-of-deoxynivalenol-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-prospective-views-for-future-scientific-research-a-mini-review
#20
REVIEW
Zhao Peng, Liangkai Chen, Andreas K Nüssler, Liegang Liu, Wei Yang
Deoxynivalenol (DON) belongs to the group B trichothecenes, which are the most common mycotoxins in cereal commodities. It is very stable within the temperature range 170-350 °C, showing no reduction in its concentration after 30 min at 170 °C. This chemical property is a very dangerous factor for human and animal health. Liver is also responsible for the detoxification and formation of DON-glucuronide in both human and animals. Some studies already demonstrated that DON could induce liver damage remarkably through DON altering expressions of p53, caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8 and Bax in different cell lines...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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