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Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814131/what-factors-influence-women-s-perceptions-of-their-systemic-recurrence-risk-after-breast-cancer-treatment
#1
Kamaria L Lee, Nancy K Janz, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher, Reshma Jagsi, Lauren P Wallner, Allison W Kurian, Steven J Katz, Paul Abrahamse, Sarah T Hawley
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer patients' misunderstanding of their systemic cancer recurrence risk has consequences on decision-making and quality of life. Little is known about how women derive their risk estimates. METHODS: Using Los Angeles and Georgia's SEER registries (2014-2015), a random sample of early-stage breast cancer patients was sent surveys about 2 to 3 months after surgery ( N = 3930; RR, 68%). We conducted an inductive thematic analysis of open-ended responses about why women chose their risk estimates in a uniquely large sub-sample ( N = 1,754)...
August 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806143/whose-preferences-matter-a-patient-centered-approach-for-eliciting-treatment-goals
#2
Nananda F Col, Andrew J Solomon, Vicky Springmann, Calvin P Garbin, Carolina Ionete, Lori Pbert, Enrique Alvarez, Brenda Tierman, Ashli Hopson, Christen Kutz, Idanis Berrios Morales, Carolyn Griffin, Glenn Phillips, Long H Ngo
BACKGROUND: Patients facing a high-stakes clinical decision are often confronted with an overwhelming array of options. High-quality decisions about treatment should reflect patients' preferences as well as their clinical characteristics. Preference-assessment instruments typically focus on pre-selected clinical outcomes and attributes chosen by the investigator. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a patient-centered approach to elicit and compare the treatment goals of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthcare providers (HCPs)...
August 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735563/a-gaussian-approximation-approach-for-value-of-information-analysis
#3
Hawre Jalal, Fernando Alarid-Escudero
Most decisions are associated with uncertainty. Value of information (VOI) analysis quantifies the opportunity loss associated with choosing a suboptimal intervention based on current imperfect information. VOI can inform the value of collecting additional information, resource allocation, research prioritization, and future research designs. However, in practice, VOI remains underused due to many conceptual and computational challenges associated with its application. Expected value of sample information (EVSI) is rooted in Bayesian statistical decision theory and measures the value of information from a finite sample...
July 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699382/an-adaptive-approach-to-locating-mobile-hiv-testing-services
#4
Gregg S Gonsalves, Forrest W Crawford, Paul D Cleary, Edward H Kaplan, A David Paltiel
BACKGROUND: Public health agencies suggest targeting "hotspots" to identify individuals with undetected HIV infection. However, definitions of hotspots vary. Little is known about how best to target mobile HIV testing resources. METHODS: We conducted a computer-based tournament to compare the yield of 4 algorithms for mobile HIV testing. Over 180 rounds of play, the algorithms selected 1 of 3 hypothetical zones, each with unknown prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, in which to conduct a fixed number of HIV tests...
July 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691551/who-decides-me-or-we-family-involvement-in-medical-decision-making-in-eastern-and-western-countries
#5
Dana L Alden, John Friend, Ping Yein Lee, Yew Kong Lee, Lyndal Trevena, Chirk Jenn Ng, Sorapop Kiatpongsan, Khatijah Lim Abdullah, Miho Tanaka, Supanida Limpongsanurak
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that desired family involvement (FI) in medical decision making may depend on cultural values. Unfortunately, the field lacks cross-cultural studies that test this assumption. As a result, providers may be guided by incomplete information or cultural biases rather than patient preferences. METHODS: Researchers developed 6 culturally relevant disease scenarios varying from low to high medical seriousness. Quota samples of approximately 290 middle-aged urban residents in Australia, China, Malaysia, India, South Korea, Thailand, and the USA completed an online survey that examined desired levels of FI and identified individual difference predictors in each country...
July 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675959/adding-events-to-a-markov-model-using-dice-simulation
#6
J Jaime Caro, Jörgen Möller
BACKGROUND: Health care decisions are often made under uncertainty and modeling is used to inform the choices and possible consequences. State-transition ("Markov") models are commonly used but they represent the problem solely in terms of states; events are not explicitly considered. METHODS: Discretely integrated condition event (DICE) simulation provides for both aspects that persist over time ("conditions") and for those happening at a point in time ("events")...
July 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662601/a-discrete-event-simulation-model-of-patient-flow-in-a-general-hospital-incorporating-infection-control-policy-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-vre
#7
Erica S Shenoy, Hang Lee, Erin E Ryan, Taige Hou, Rochelle P Walensky, Winston Ware, David C Hooper
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients are assigned to available staffed beds based on patient acuity and services required. In hospitals with double-occupancy rooms, patients must be additionally matched by gender. Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) must be bedded in single-occupancy rooms or cohorted with other patients with similar MRSA/VRE flags. METHODS: We developed a discrete event simulation (DES) model of patient flow through an acute care hospital...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649904/debiasing-health-related-judgments-and-decision-making-a-systematic-review
#8
Ramona Ludolph, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND: Being confronted with uncertainty in the context of health-related judgments and decision making can give rise to the occurrence of systematic biases. These biases may detrimentally affect lay persons and health experts alike. Debiasing aims at mitigating these negative effects by eliminating or reducing the biases. However, little is known about its effectiveness. This study seeks to systematically review the research on health-related debiasing to identify new opportunities and challenges for successful debiasing strategies...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627302/taking-costs-and-diagnostic-test-accuracy-into-account-when-designing-prevalence-studies-an-application-to-childhood-tuberculosis-prevalence
#9
Zhuoyu Wang, Nandini Dendukuri, Madhukar Pai, Lawrence Joseph
BACKGROUND: When planning a study to estimate disease prevalence to a pre-specified precision, it is of interest to minimize total testing cost. This is particularly challenging in the absence of a perfect reference test for the disease because different combinations of imperfect tests need to be considered. We illustrate the problem and a solution by designing a study to estimate the prevalence of childhood tuberculosis in a hospital setting. METHODS: All possible combinations of 3 commonly used tuberculosis tests, including chest X-ray, tuberculin skin test, and a sputum-based test, either culture or Xpert, are considered...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627297/a-bayesian-simulation-model-for-breast-cancer-screening-incidence-treatment-and-mortality
#10
Xuelin Huang, Yisheng Li, Juhee Song, Donald A Berry
BACKGROUND: The important but complicated research questions regarding the optimization of mammography screening for the detection of breast cancer are unable to be answered through any single trial or a simple meta-analysis of related trials. The Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Network (CISNET) breast groups provide answers using complex statistical models to simulate population dynamics. Among them, the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Model M) takes a unique approach by not making any assumptions on the natural history of breast cancer, such as the distribution of the indolent time before detection, but simulating only the observable part of a woman's disease and life...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622083/the-importance-of-considering-differences-in-study-design-in-network-meta-analysis-an-application-using-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-drugs-for-ulcerative-colitis
#11
Chris Cameron, Emmanuel Ewara, Florence R Wilson, Abhishek Varu, Peter Dyrda, Brian Hutton, Michael Ingham
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adaptive trial designs present a methodological challenge when performing network meta-analysis (NMA), as data from such adaptive trial designs differ from conventional parallel design randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We aim to illustrate the importance of considering study design when conducting an NMA. METHODS: Three NMAs comparing anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs for ulcerative colitis were compared and the analyses replicated using Bayesian NMA...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618918/does-guiding-toward-task-relevant-information-help-improve-graph-processing-and-graph-comprehension-of-individuals-with-low-or-high-numeracy-an-eye-tracker-experiment
#12
Carmen Keller, Alex Junghans
BACKGROUND: Individuals with low numeracy have difficulties with understanding complex graphs. Combining the information-processing approach to numeracy with graph comprehension and information-reduction theories, we examined whether high numerates' better comprehension might be explained by their closer attention to task-relevant graphical elements, from which they would expect numerical information to understand the graph. Furthermore, we investigated whether participants could be trained in improving their attention to task-relevant information and graph comprehension...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528557/-naming-and-framing-the-impact-of-labeling-on-health-state-values-for-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Colin Green, Elizabeth Goodwin, Annie Hawton
INTRODUCTION: Health state valuation is a key input in many economic evaluations that inform resource allocation across competing healthcare interventions. Empirical evidence has shown that, in preference elicitation surveys, respondents may value a health state differently if they are aware of the condition causing it ('labeling effects'). This study investigates the impact of including a multiple sclerosis (MS) label for valuation of MS health states. METHODS: Health state values for MS were elicited using two internet-based surveys in representative samples of the UK population ( n = 1702; n = 1788)...
August 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490227/utilization-of-continuous-spinners-to-communicate-risk
#14
Rachel F Eyler, Sara Cordes, Benjamin R Szymanski, Liana Fraenkel
BACKGROUND: As patients become more involved in their medical care, they must consider the specific probabilities of both positive and negative outcomes associated with different treatments. Patients who are low in numeracy may be at a disadvantage when making these decisions. This study examined the use of a "spinner" to present probabilistic information compared to a numerical format and icon array. DESIGN: Subjects ( n = 151) were asked to imagine they suffered from chronic back pain...
August 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453945/an-approach-to-reconciling-competing-ethical-principles-in-aggregating-heterogeneous-health-preferences
#15
Barry Dewitt, Alexander Davis, Baruch Fischhoff, Janel Hanmer
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores are used extensively to quantify the effectiveness of medical interventions. Societal preference-based HRQL scores aim to produce societal valuations of health by aggregating valuations from individuals in the general population, where each aggregation procedure embodies different ethical principles, as explained in social choice theory. METHODS: Using the Health Utilities Index as an exemplar, we evaluate societal preference-based HRQL measures in the social choice theory framework...
August 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441098/how-robust-are-value-judgments-of-health-inequality-aversion-testing-for-framing-and-cognitive-effects
#16
Shehzad Ali, Aki Tsuchiya, Miqdad Asaria, Richard Cookson
BACKGROUND: Empirical studies have found that members of the public are inequality averse and value health gains for disadvantaged groups with poor health many times more highly than gains for better off groups. However, these studies typically use abstract scenarios that involve unrealistically large reductions in health inequality and face-to-face survey administration. It is not known how robust these findings are to more realistic scenarios or anonymous online survey administration...
August 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398836/providing-quantitative-information-and-a-nudge-to-undergo-stool-testing-in-a-colorectal-cancer-screening-decision-aid-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Peter H Schwartz, Susan M Perkins, Karen K Schmidt, Paul F Muriello, Sandra Althouse, Susan M Rawl
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend that patient decision aids should provide quantitative information about probabilities of potential outcomes, but the impact of this information is unknown. Behavioral economics suggests that patients confused by quantitative information could benefit from a "nudge" towards one option. We conducted a pilot randomized trial to estimate the effect sizes of presenting quantitative information and a nudge. METHODS: Primary care patients (n = 213) eligible for colorectal cancer screening viewed basic screening information and were randomized to view (a) quantitative information (quantitative module), (b) a nudge towards stool testing with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) (nudge module), (c) neither a nor b, or (d) both a and b...
August 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380316/choice-blindness-and-health-state-choices-among-adolescents-and-adults
#18
Ernest H Law, Annika L Pickard, Anika Kaczynski, A Simon Pickard
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and validity of using a discrete choice experiment format to elicit health preferences in adolescents by comparing illogical choices and choice-blindness rates between adults and adolescents; and to explore the relationship between personality traits and health-state choices. METHODS: A convenience sample of adults and adolescents (12 to 17 y old) were recruited from around Chicago, USA. A personality inventory was administered, followed by pairwise comparisons of 6 health-state scenarios which asked each candidate to select their preferred choice...
August 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363033/using-an-internet-based-breast-cancer-risk-assessment-tool-to-improve-social-cognitive-precursors-of-physical-activity
#19
Stephanie L Fowler, William M P Klein, Linda Ball, Jaclyn McGuire, Graham A Colditz, Erika A Waters
BACKGROUND: Internet-based cancer risk assessment tools might serve as a strategy for translating epidemiological risk prediction research into public health practice. Understanding how such tools affect key social-cognitive precursors of behavior change is crucial for leveraging their potential into effective interventions. PURPOSE: To test the effects of a publicly available, Internet-based, breast cancer risk assessment tool on social-cognitive precursors of physical activity...
August 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355975/the-potential-of-collective-intelligence-in-emergency-medicine-pooling-medical-students-independent-decisions-improves-diagnostic-performance
#20
Juliane E Kämmer, Wolf E Hautz, Stefan M Herzog, Olga Kunina-Habenicht, Ralf H J M Kurvers
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that pooling multiple independent diagnoses can improve diagnostic accuracy in well-defined tasks. We investigated whether this is also the case for diagnostics in emergency medicine, an ill-defined task environment where diagnostic errors are rife. METHODS: A computer simulation study was conducted based on empirical data from 2 published experimental studies. In the computer experiments, 285 medical students independently diagnosed 6 simulated patients arriving at the emergency room with dyspnea...
August 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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