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Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629848/setting-dead-at-zero-applying-scale-properties-to-the-qaly-model
#1
Bram Roudijk, A Rogier T Donders, Peep F M Stalmeier
INTRODUCTION: Scaling severe states can be a difficult task. First, the method of measurement affects whether a health state is considered better or worse than dead. Second, in discrete choice experiments, different models to anchor health states on 0 (dead) and 1 (perfect health) produce varying amounts of health states worse than dead. RESEARCH QUESTION: Within the context of the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) model, this article provides insight into the value assigned to dead and its consequences for decision making...
April 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629847/understanding-the-cognitive-and-affective-mechanisms-that-underlie-proxy-risk-perceptions-among-caregivers-of-asthmatic-children
#2
James A Shepperd, Nikolette P Lipsey, Thorsten Pachur, Erika A Waters
OBJECTIVE: Medical decisions made on behalf of another person-particularly those made by adult caregivers for their minor children-are often informed by the decision maker's beliefs about the treatment's risks and benefits. However, we know little about the cognitive and affective mechanisms influencing such "proxy" risk perceptions and about how proxy risk perceptions are related to prominent judgment phenomena. METHODS: Adult caregivers of minor children with asthma ( N = 132) completed an online, cross-sectional survey assessing 1) cognitions and affects that form the basis of the availability, representativeness, and affect heuristics; 2) endorsement of the absent-exempt and the better-than-average effect; and 3) proxy perceived risk and unrealistic comparative optimism of an asthma exacerbation...
April 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611459/physician-specific-maximum-acceptable-risk-in-personalized-medicine-implications-for-medical-decision-making
#3
Marco Boeri, Alan J McMichael, Joseph P M Kane, Francis A O'Neill, Frank Kee
BACKGROUND: In discrete-choice experiments (DCEs), respondents are presented with a series of scenarios and asked to select their preferred choice. In clinical decision making, DCEs allow one to calculate the maximum acceptable risk (MAR) that a respondent is willing to accept for a one-unit increase in treatment efficacy. Most published studies report the average MAR for the whole sample, without conveying any information about heterogeneity. For a sample of psychiatrists prescribing drugs for a series of hypothetical patients with schizophrenia, this article demonstrates how heterogeneity accounted for in the DCE modeling can be incorporated in the derivation of the MAR...
April 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611458/a-personalized-approach-of-patient-health-care-provider-communication-regarding-colorectal-cancer-screening-options
#4
M Gabriela Sava, James G Dolan, Jerrold H May, Luis G Vargas
BACKGROUND: Current colorectal cancer screening guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force endorse multiple options for average-risk patients and recommend that screening choices should be guided by individual patient preferences. Implementing these recommendations in practice is challenging because they depend on accurate and efficient elicitation and assessment of preferences from patients who are facing a novel task. OBJECTIVE: To present a methodology for analyzing the sensitivity and stability of a patient's preferences regarding colorectal cancer screening options and to provide a starting point for a personalized discussion between the patient and the health care provider about the selection of the appropriate screening option...
April 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608866/improving-understanding-of-diagnostic-test-outcomes
#5
Alaina N Talboy, Sandra L Schneider
BACKGROUND: Understanding diagnostic test outcomes requires determining the positive predictive value (PPV) of the test, which most laypeople and medical professionals struggle to do. Despite advances found with frequency formats and visual aids, less than 40% of people can typically identify this value. This study tests the impact of using congruent reference classes in problem-question pairings, evaluates the role of numeracy, and assesses how diagnostic value estimates affect the reported likelihood to use the test...
March 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607730/a-validation-study-of-the-rank-preserving-structural-failure-time-model-confidence-intervals-and-unique-multiple-and-erroneous-solutions
#6
Mario Ouwens, Ole Hauch, Stefan Franzén
BACKGROUND: The rank-preserving structural failure time model (RPSFTM) is used for health technology assessment submissions to adjust for switching patients from reference to investigational treatment in cancer trials. It uses counterfactual survival (survival when only reference treatment would have been used) and assumes that, at randomization, the counterfactual survival distribution for the investigational and reference arms is identical. Previous validation reports have assumed that patients in the investigational treatment arm stay on therapy throughout the study period...
March 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596031/incorporating-genuine-prior-information-about-between-study-heterogeneity-in-random-effects-pairwise-and-network-meta-analyses
#7
Shijie Ren, Jeremy E Oakley, John W Stevens
BACKGROUND: Pairwise and network meta-analyses using fixed effect and random effects models are commonly applied to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials. The models differ in their assumptions and the interpretation of the results. The model choice depends on the objective of the analysis and knowledge of the included studies. Fixed effect models are often used because there are too few studies with which to estimate the between-study SD from the data alone. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to propose a framework for eliciting an informative prior distribution for the between-study SD in a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis model to genuinely represent heterogeneity when data are sparse...
March 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592585/individual-value-clarification-methods-based-on-conjoint-analysis-a-systematic-review-of-common-practice-in-task-design-statistical-analysis-and-presentation-of-results
#8
Marieke G M Weernink, Janine A van Til, Holly O Witteman, Liana Fraenkel, Maarten J IJzerman
BACKGROUND: There is an increased practice of using value clarification exercises in decision aids that aim to improve shared decision making. Our objective was to systematically review to which extent conjoint analysis (CA) is used to elicit individual preferences for clinical decision support. We aimed to identify the common practices in the selection of attributes and levels, the design of choice tasks, and the instrument used to clarify values. METHODS: We searched Scopus, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science to identify studies that developed a CA exercise to elicit individual patients' preferences related to medical decisions...
March 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577814/a-two-step-markov-processes-approach-for-parameterization-of-cancer-state-transition-models-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#9
Chaitra Gopalappa, Jiachen Guo, Prashant Meckoni, Buyannemekh Munkhbat, Carel Pretorius, Jeremy Lauer, André Ilbawi, Melanie Bertram
Implementation of organized cancer screening and prevention programs in high-income countries (HICs) has considerably decreased cancer-related incidence and mortality. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), screening and early diagnosis programs are generally unavailable, and most cancers are diagnosed in late stages when survival is very low. Analyzing the cost-effectiveness of alternative cancer control programs and estimating resource needs will help prioritize interventions in LMICs. However, mathematical models of natural cancer onset and progression needed to conduct the economic analyses are predominantly based on populations in HICs because the longitudinal data on screening and diagnoses required for parameterization are unavailable in LMICs...
March 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529923/decision-criterion-and-value-of-information-analysis-optimal-aspirin-dosage-for-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events
#10
Anirban Basu, David Meltzer
BACKGROUND: In value of information (VOI) calculations, such as the expected value of perfect information (EVPI), partial perfect information (EVPPI), sample information (EVSI) or implementation (EVIM), the maximum expected value criterion defines the decision making criterion for the adoption of decisions for treatments. However, because decision makers are often risk averse, the uncertainty that accompanies a decision problem may influence adoption decisions. METHODS: VOI estimates were studied based on 2 alternate decision making criteria: 1) maximum expected value and 2) 95% credible intervals...
March 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529918/establishing-the-value-of-diagnostic-and-prognostic-tests-in-health-technology-assessment
#11
Marta O Soares, Simon Walker, Stephen J Palmer, Mark J Sculpher
In recent years, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) processes specific to diagnostics and prognostic tests have been created in response to the increased pressure on health systems to decide not only which tests should be used in practice but also the best way to proceed, clinically, from the information they provide. These technologies differ in the way value is accrued to the population of users, depending critically on the value of downstream health care choices. This paper defines an analytical framework for establishing the value of diagnostic and prognostic tests for HTA in a way that is consistent with methods used for the evaluation of other health care technologies...
March 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683792/decision-making-for-healthcare-resource-allocation-joint-v-separate-decisions-on-interacting-interventions
#12
Helen Dakin, Alastair Gray
Standard guidance for allocating healthcare resources based on cost-effectiveness recommends using different decision rules for independent and mutually exclusive alternatives, although there is some confusion around the definition of "mutually exclusive." This paper reviews the definitions used in the literature and shows that interactions (i.e., non-additive effects, whereby the effect of giving 2 interventions simultaneously does not equal the sum of their individual effects) are the defining feature of mutually exclusive alternatives: treatments cannot be considered independent if the costs and/or benefits of one treatment are affected by the other treatment...
May 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587047/microsimulation-modeling-for-health-decision-sciences-using-r-a-tutorial
#13
Eline M Krijkamp, Fernando Alarid-Escudero, Eva A Enns, Hawre J Jalal, M G Myriam Hunink, Petros Pechlivanoglou
Microsimulation models are becoming increasingly common in the field of decision modeling for health. Because microsimulation models are computationally more demanding than traditional Markov cohort models, the use of computer programming languages in their development has become more common. R is a programming language that has gained recognition within the field of decision modeling. It has the capacity to perform microsimulation models more efficiently than software commonly used for decision modeling, incorporate statistical analyses within decision models, and produce more transparent models and reproducible results...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587046/medical-decision-making-and-mdm-policy-practice-reviewers-2017
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587045/mean-rank-equipercentile-and-regression-mapping-of-world-health-organization-quality-of-life-brief-whoqol-bref-to-euroqol-5-dimensions-5-levels-eq-5d-5l-utilities
#15
Hwee Lin Wee, Khung Keong Yeo, Kok Joon Chong, Eric Yin Hao Khoo, Yin Bun Cheung
BACKGROUND: Existing methods to link preference-based and profile-based health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires have their limitations. Hence, we developed a new mapping method (the mean rank method, MRM) and applied it to map the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) to the EuroQoL 5 Dimensions 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L). We then compared the new MRM with current methods; i.e., regression-mapped (OLS method) and equipercentile method (EPM). METHODS: Singapore residents, aged ≥21 y, were recruited from the general population and 2 outpatient clinics in acute care hospitals...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554473/a-molecular-subtype-specific-stochastic-simulation-model-of-us-breast-cancer-incidence-survival-and-mortality-trends-from-1975-to-2010
#16
Diego F Munoz, Cong Xu, Sylvia K Plevritis
We present a Monte Carlo simulation model that reproduces US invasive breast cancer incidence and mortality trends from 1975 to 2010 as a function of screening and adjuvant treatment. This model was developed for multiple purposes, including to quantify the impact of screening and adjuvant therapy on past and current trends, predict future trends, and evaluate potential outcomes under hypothetical screening and treatment interventions. The model first generates the life histories of individual breast cancer patients by determining the patient's age, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER) status, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status, SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) historic stage, detection mode at time of detection, preclinical tumor course, and death age and cause of death (breast cancer v...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554472/introduction-to-the-cancer-intervention-and-surveillance-modeling-network-cisnet-breast-cancer-models
#17
Oguzhan Alagoz, Donald A Berry, Harry J de Koning, Eric J Feuer, Sandra J Lee, Sylvia K Plevritis, Clyde B Schechter, Natasha K Stout, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Jeanne S Mandelblatt
The Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) Breast Cancer Working Group is a consortium of National Cancer Institute-sponsored investigators who use statistical and simulation modeling to evaluate the impact of cancer control interventions on long-term population-level breast cancer outcomes such as incidence and mortality and to determine the impact of different breast cancer control strategies. The CISNET breast cancer models have been continuously funded since 2000. The models have gone through several updates since their inception to reflect advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of breast cancer, changes in the prevalence of common risk factors, and improvements in therapy and early detection technology...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554471/comparing-cisnet-breast-cancer-models-using-the-maximum-clinical-incidence-reduction-methodology
#18
Jeroen J van den Broek, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Jeanne S Mandelblatt, Mucahit Cevik, Clyde B Schechter, Sandra J Lee, Hui Huang, Yisheng Li, Diego F Munoz, Sylvia K Plevritis, Harry J de Koning, Natasha K Stout, Marjolein van Ballegooijen
BACKGROUND: Collaborative modeling has been used to estimate the impact of potential cancer screening strategies worldwide. A necessary step in the interpretation of collaborative cancer screening model results is to understand how model structure and model assumptions influence cancer incidence and mortality predictions. In this study, we examined the relative contributions of the pre-clinical duration of breast cancer, the sensitivity of screening, and the improvement in prognosis associated with treatment of screen-detected cases to the breast cancer incidence and mortality predictions of 5 Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) models...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554470/the-university-of-wisconsin-breast-cancer-epidemiology-simulation-model-an-update
#19
Oguzhan Alagoz, Mehmet Ali Ergun, Mucahit Cevik, Brian L Sprague, Dennis G Fryback, Ronald E Gangnon, John M Hampton, Natasha K Stout, Amy Trentham-Dietz
The University of Wisconsin Breast Cancer Epidemiology Simulation Model (UWBCS), also referred to as Model W, is a discrete-event microsimulation model that uses a systems engineering approach to replicate breast cancer epidemiology in the US over time. This population-based model simulates the lifetimes of individual women through 4 main model components: breast cancer natural history, detection, treatment, and mortality. A key feature of the UWBCS is that, in addition to specifying a population distribution in tumor growth rates, the model allows for heterogeneity in tumor behavior, with some tumors having limited malignant potential (i...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554469/simulating-the-impact-of-risk-based-screening-and-treatment-on-breast-cancer-outcomes-with-miscan-fadia
#20
Jeroen J van den Broek, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Eveline A Heijnsdijk, Harry J de Koning
The MISCAN-Fadia microsimulation model uses continuous tumor growth to simulate the natural history of breast cancer and has been used extensively to estimate the impact of screening and adjuvant treatment on breast cancer incidence and mortality trends. The model simulates individual life histories from birth to death, with and without breast cancer, in the presence and in the absence of screening and treatment. Life histories are simulated according to discrete events such as birth, tumor inception, the tumor's clinical diagnosis diameter in the absence of screening, and death from breast cancer or death from other causes...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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