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Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649904/debiasing-health-related-judgments-and-decision-making-a-systematic-review
#1
Ramona Ludolph, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND: Being confronted with uncertainty in the context of health-related judgments and decision making can give rise to the occurrence of systematic biases. These biases may detrimentally affect lay persons and health experts alike. Debiasing aims at mitigating these negative effects by eliminating or reducing the biases. However, little is known about its effectiveness. This study seeks to systematically review the research on health-related debiasing to identify new opportunities and challenges for successful debiasing strategies...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627302/taking-costs-and-diagnostic-test-accuracy-into-account-when-designing-prevalence-studies-an-application-to-childhood-tuberculosis-prevalence
#2
Zhuoyu Wang, Nandini Dendukuri, Madhukar Pai, Lawrence Joseph
BACKGROUND: When planning a study to estimate disease prevalence to a pre-specified precision, it is of interest to minimize total testing cost. This is particularly challenging in the absence of a perfect reference test for the disease because different combinations of imperfect tests need to be considered. We illustrate the problem and a solution by designing a study to estimate the prevalence of childhood tuberculosis in a hospital setting. METHODS: All possible combinations of 3 commonly used tuberculosis tests, including chest X-ray, tuberculin skin test, and a sputum-based test, either culture or Xpert, are considered...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627297/a-bayesian-simulation-model-for-breast-cancer-screening-incidence-treatment-and-mortality
#3
Xuelin Huang, Yisheng Li, Juhee Song, Donald A Berry
BACKGROUND: The important but complicated research questions regarding the optimization of mammography screening for the detection of breast cancer are unable to be answered through any single trial or a simple meta-analysis of related trials. The Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Network (CISNET) breast groups provide answers using complex statistical models to simulate population dynamics. Among them, the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Model M) takes a unique approach by not making any assumptions on the natural history of breast cancer, such as the distribution of the indolent time before detection, but simulating only the observable part of a woman's disease and life...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622083/the-importance-of-considering-differences-in-study-design-in-network-meta-analysis-an-application-using-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-drugs-for-ulcerative-colitis
#4
Chris Cameron, Emmanuel Ewara, Florence R Wilson, Abhishek Varu, Peter Dyrda, Brian Hutton, Michael Ingham
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adaptive trial designs present a methodological challenge when performing network meta-analysis (NMA), as data from such adaptive trial designs differ from conventional parallel design randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We aim to illustrate the importance of considering study design when conducting an NMA. METHODS: Three NMAs comparing anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs for ulcerative colitis were compared and the analyses replicated using Bayesian NMA...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618918/does-guiding-toward-task-relevant-information-help-improve-graph-processing-and-graph-comprehension-of-individuals-with-low-or-high-numeracy-an-eye-tracker-experiment
#5
Carmen Keller, Alex Junghans
BACKGROUND: Individuals with low numeracy have difficulties with understanding complex graphs. Combining the information-processing approach to numeracy with graph comprehension and information-reduction theories, we examined whether high numerates' better comprehension might be explained by their closer attention to task-relevant graphical elements, from which they would expect numerical information to understand the graph. Furthermore, we investigated whether participants could be trained in improving their attention to task-relevant information and graph comprehension...
June 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564551/a-framework-for-treatment-decision-making-at-prostate-cancer-recurrence
#6
Jane M Lange, Bruce J Trock, Roman Gulati, Ruth Etzioni
BACKGROUND: Of the 50,000 men in the US who elect for radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer, 24% to 40% will have a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence (PSA-R) within 10 years. Deciding whether to administer salvage therapy (ST) at PSA-R presents challenges, as treatment reduces the risk of progression to clinical metastasis but incurs unnecessary side effects should the man die before metastasis. We have developed a new harm-benefit framework using a clinical cohort to inform shared decision making between patients and physicians at PSA-R...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564550/d%C3%A3-j%C3%A3-vu-introducing-operations-research-to-health-care
#7
Todd H Wagner, Jeffrey K Jopling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538110/the-effect-of-individual-movements-and-interventions-on-the-spread-of-influenza-in-long-term-care-facilities
#8
Mehdi Najafi, Marek Laskowski, Pieter T de Boer, Evelyn Williams, Ayman Chit, Seyed M Moghadas
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial influenza poses a serious risk among residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the effect of resident and staff movements and contact patterns on the outcomes of various intervention strategies for influenza control in an LTCF. METHODS: We collected contact frequency data in Canada's largest veterans' LTCF by enroling residents and staff into a study that tracked their movements through wireless tags and signal receivers...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528557/-naming-and-framing-the-impact-of-labeling-on-health-state-values-for-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Colin Green, Elizabeth Goodwin, Annie Hawton
INTRODUCTION: Health state valuation is a key input in many economic evaluations that inform resource allocation across competing healthcare interventions. Empirical evidence has shown that, in preference elicitation surveys, respondents may value a health state differently if they are aware of the condition causing it ('labeling effects'). This study investigates the impact of including a multiple sclerosis (MS) label for valuation of MS health states. METHODS: Health state values for MS were elicited using two internet-based surveys in representative samples of the UK population ( n = 1702; n = 1788)...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525725/a-comparison-of-the-validity-and-responsiveness-of-the-eq-5d-5l-and-sf-6d-for-measuring-health-spillovers-a-study-of-the-family-impact-of-meningitis
#10
Arjun Bhadhuri, Sue Jowett, Kate Jolly, Hareth Al-Janabi
BACKGROUND: The "health spillover" of patient illness on family members is important to capture in economic evaluation. This study compares the construct validity and responsiveness of 2 widely used health-related quality-of-life instruments, the EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D, in capturing health spillover effects for family members with and without an informal care role (carers and noncarers). METHODS: Construct validity and responsiveness were assessed using data from a 2012 UK survey of the family impact of meningitis-related sequelae...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525723/effectiveness-of-a-decision-aid-in-potentially-vulnerable-patients-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-chest-pain-choice-multicenter-randomized-trial
#11
Kristin L Rising, Judd E Hollander, Jason T Schaffer, Jeffrey A Kline, Carlos A Torres, Deborah B Diercks, Russell Jones, Kelly P Owen, Zachary F Meisel, Michel Demers, Annie Leblanc, Nilay D Shah, Jonathan Inselman, Jeph Herrin, Victor M Montori, Erik P Hess
BACKGROUND: We test the hypotheses that use of the Chest Pain Choice (CPC) decision aid (DA) would be similarly effective in potentially vulnerable subgroups but increase knowledge more in patients with higher education and trust in physicians more in patients from racial minority groups. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial in adults with chest pain potentially due to acute coronary syndrome. The trial compared an intervention group engaged in shared decision making (SDM) using CPC to a control group receiving usual care (UC)...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490271/validation-of-a-cardiovascular-disease-policy-micro-simulation-model-using-both-survival-and-receiver-operating-characteristic-curves
#12
Ankur Pandya, Stephen Sy, Sylvia Cho, Sartaj Alam, Milton C Weinstein, Thomas A Gaziano
BACKGROUND: Despite some advances, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death and healthcare costs in the United States. We therefore developed a comprehensive CVD policy simulation model that identifies cost-effective approaches for reducing CVD burden. This paper aims to: 1) describe our model in detail; and 2) perform model validation analyses. METHODS: The model simulates 1,000,000 adults (ages 35 to 80 years) using a variety of CVD-related epidemiological data, including previously calibrated Framingham-based risk scores for coronary heart disease and stroke...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490230/acceptability-of-in-utero-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-sickle-cell-disease
#13
Ryan M Antiel, Scott D Halpern, Evelyn M Stevens, Jesse D Vrecenak, Chavis A Patterson, Trudy Tchume-Johnson, Kim Smith-Whitley, William H Peranteau, Alan W Flake, Lamia P Barakat
BACKGROUND: In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCT) has curative potential for sickle cell disease (SCD) but carries a risk of fetal demise. METHODS: We assessed the conditions under which parents of children with SCD and young adults with SCD would consider IUHCT in a future pregnancy, given a 5% fixed risk of fetal demise. Participants were randomized to consider a hypothetical cure rate (20%, 40%, or 70%). Subsequently, cure rate was either increased or decreased depending on the previous answer to reveal the lowest acceptable rate...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490227/utilization-of-continuous-spinners-to-communicate-risk
#14
Rachel F Eyler, Sara Cordes, Benjamin R Szymanski, Liana Fraenkel
BACKGROUND: As patients become more involved in their medical care, they must consider the specific probabilities of both positive and negative outcomes associated with different treatments. Patients who are low in numeracy may be at a disadvantage when making these decisions. This study examined the use of a "spinner" to present probabilistic information compared to a numerical format and icon array. DESIGN: Subjects ( n = 151) were asked to imagine they suffered from chronic back pain...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474962/effects-of-anti-versus-pro-vaccine-narratives-on-responses-by-recipients-varying-in-numeracy-a-cross-sectional-survey-based-experiment
#15
Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Annika Wallin, Andrew M Parker, JoNell Strough, Janel Hanmer
BACKGROUND: To inform their health decisions, patients may seek narratives describing other patients' evaluations of their treatment experiences. Narratives can provide anti-treatment or pro-treatment evaluative meaning that low-numerate patients may especially struggle to derive from statistical information. Here, we examined whether anti-vaccine (v. pro-vaccine) narratives had relatively stronger effects on the perceived informativeness and judged vaccination probabilities reported among recipients with lower (v...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453945/an-approach-to-reconciling-competing-ethical-principles-in-aggregating-heterogeneous-health-preferences
#16
Barry Dewitt, Alexander Davis, Baruch Fischhoff, Janel Hanmer
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores are used extensively to quantify the effectiveness of medical interventions. Societal preference-based HRQL scores aim to produce societal valuations of health by aggregating valuations from individuals in the general population, where each aggregation procedure embodies different ethical principles, as explained in social choice theory. METHODS: Using the Health Utilities Index as an exemplar, we evaluate societal preference-based HRQL measures in the social choice theory framework...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441507/new-metrics-for-economic-evaluation-in-the-presence-of-heterogeneity-focusing-on-evaluating-policy-alternatives-rather-than-treatment-alternatives
#17
David D Kim, Anirban Basu
BACKGROUND: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) methods fail to acknowledge that where cost-effectiveness differs across subgroups, there may be differential adoption of technology. Also, current CEA methods are not amenable to incorporating the impact of policy alternatives that potentially influence the adoption behavior. Unless CEA methods are extended to allow for a comparison of policies rather than simply treatments, their usefulness to decision makers may be limited. METHODS: We conceptualize new metrics, which estimate the realized value of technology from policy alternatives, through introducing subgroup-specific adoption parameters into existing metrics, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and Incremental Net Monetary Benefits (NMBs)...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441098/how-robust-are-value-judgments-of-health-inequality-aversion-testing-for-framing-and-cognitive-effects
#18
Shehzad Ali, Aki Tsuchiya, Miqdad Asaria, Richard Cookson
BACKGROUND: Empirical studies have found that members of the public are inequality averse and value health gains for disadvantaged groups with poor health many times more highly than gains for better off groups. However, these studies typically use abstract scenarios that involve unrealistically large reductions in health inequality and face-to-face survey administration. It is not known how robust these findings are to more realistic scenarios or anonymous online survey administration...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423982/from-data-to-improved-decisions-operations-research-in-healthcare-delivery
#19
Muge Capan, Anahita Khojandi, Brian T Denton, Kimberly D Williams, Turgay Ayer, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Murat Kurt, Jennifer Mason Lobo, Mark S Roberts, Greg Zaric, Shengfan Zhang, J Sanford Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The Operations Research Interest Group (ORIG) within the Society of Medical Decision Making (SMDM) is a multidisciplinary interest group of professionals that specializes in taking an analytical approach to medical decision making and healthcare delivery. ORIG is interested in leveraging mathematical methods associated with the field of Operations Research (OR) to obtain data-driven solutions to complex healthcare problems and encourage collaborations across disciplines. This paper introduces OR for the non-expert and draws attention to opportunities where OR can be utilized to facilitate solutions to healthcare problems...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410564/a-review-of-methods-for-analysis-of-the-expected-value-of-information
#20
Anna Heath, Ioanna Manolopoulou, Gianluca Baio
In recent years, value-of-information analysis has become more widespread in health economic evaluations, specifically as a tool to guide further research and perform probabilistic sensitivity analysis. This is partly due to methodological advancements allowing for the fast computation of a typical summary known as the expected value of partial perfect information (EVPPI). A recent review discussed some approximation methods for calculating the EVPPI, but as the research has been active over the intervening years, that review does not discuss some key estimation methods...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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