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Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978726/double-conjunction-fallacies-in-physicians-probability-judgment
#1
Vincenzo Crupi, Fabrizio Elia, Franco Aprà, Katya Tentori
We report the first empirical data showing a significant amount of double conjunction fallacies in physicians' probability judgments concerning prognosis and diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that physicians' probability judgments are guided by assessments of evidential impact between diagnostic conditions and clinical signs. Moreover, we show that, contrary to some influential views, double conjunction fallacies represent an experimentally replicable reasoning bias. We discuss how the phenomenon eludes major current accounts of uncertain reasoning in medicine and beyond and how it relates to clinical practice...
July 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962272/reducing-i-don-t-know-responses-and-missing-survey-data-implications-for-measurement
#2
Deanna C Denman, Austin S Baldwin, Andrea C Betts, Amy McQueen, Jasmin A Tiro
BACKGROUND: "I don't know" (DK) responses are common in health behavior research. Yet analytic approaches to managing DK responses may undermine survey validity and researchers' ability to interpret findings. OBJECTIVE: Compare the usefulness of a methodological strategy for reducing DK responses to 3 analytic approaches: 1) excluding DKs as missing data, 2) recoding them to the neutral point of the response scale, and 3) recoding DKs with the mean. METHODS: We used a 4-group design to compare a methodological strategy, which encourages use of the response scale after an initial DK response, to 3 methods of analytically treating DK responses...
June 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958065/corrigendum
#3
(no author information available yet)
John-Baptiste A, Schapira MM, Cravens C, et al. The role of decision models in health care policy: A case study. Med Decis Making. 2016;36(5):666-679. Original DOI: 10.1177/0272989X16646732 On page 667, in the paragraph beginning "In May 2008…" the article did not fully describe the process of requesting decision models for the study. A more complete and accurate description is given below: The coverage and analysis group (CAG) requested a report from The Technology Assessment Program (TAP) at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)...
June 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957107/estimating-a-preference-based-single-index-measuring-the-quality-of-life-impact-of-self-management-for-diabetes
#4
Donna Rowen, Alexander Labeit, Katherine Stevens, Jackie Elliott, Brendan Mulhern, Jill Carlton, Hasan Basarir, John Brazier
OBJECTIVE: Self-management is becoming increasingly important in diabetes but is neglected in conventional preference-based measures. The objective of this paper was to generate health state utility values for a novel classification system measuring the quality-of-life impact of self-management for diabetes, which can be used to generate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). METHODS: A large online survey was conducted using a discrete choice experiment (DCE), with duration as an additional attribute, on members of the UK general population ( n = 1,493) to elicit values for health (social limitations, mood, vitality, hypoglycaemia) and non-health (stress, hassle, control, support) aspects of self-management in diabetes...
June 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944456/estimation-of-a-preference-based-summary-score-for-the-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-the-promis-%C3%A2-preference-propr-scoring-system
#5
Barry Dewitt, David Feeny, Baruch Fischhoff, David Cella, Ron D Hays, Rachel Hess, Paul A Pilkonis, Dennis A Revicki, Mark S Roberts, Joel Tsevat, Lan Yu, Janel Hanmer
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) preference-based scores are used to assess the health of populations and patients and for cost-effectiveness analyses. The National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS® ) consists of patient-reported outcome measures developed using item response theory. PROMIS is in need of a direct preference-based scoring system for assigning values to health states. OBJECTIVE: To produce societal preference-based scores for 7 PROMIS domains: Cognitive Function-Abilities, Depression, Fatigue, Pain Interference, Physical Function, Sleep Disturbance, and Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities...
June 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916784/medical-maximizing-minimizing-preferences-predict-responses-to-information-about-prostate-specific-antigen-screening
#6
Laura D Scherer, Jeffrey T Kullgren, Tanner Caverly, Aaron M Scherer, Victoria A Shaffer, Angela Fagerlin, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
PURPOSE: The recently developed Medical Maximizer-Minimizer Scale (MMS) assesses individual differences in preferences for active v. passive medical treatment. We hypothesized that men's maximizing-minimizing preferences might have relevance in the case of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, since there is considerable variability in men's preference for being screened even among men who are informed that harm is more likely than benefit. The current research examined whether MMS preferences predict how men respond to didactic information and narrative stories about PSA screening...
June 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877163/how-significant-are-high-correlations-between-eq-5d-value-sets
#7
Franz Ombler, Michael Albert, Paul Hansen
The calculation of quality-adjusted life years, as used for cost-utility analysis, depends on the availability of value sets representing people's preferences with respect to health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A value set consists of HRQoL index values for all health states representable by the particular descriptive system used, of which the EQ-5D (EuroQoL, 5 Dimensions) is by far the most widely used. High correlation coefficients for EQ-5D value sets derived from different samples-across countries and/or using different valuation techniques-are conventionally interpreted as evidence that the people in the respective samples have similar HRQoL preferences...
June 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799803/sponsorship-bias-in-base-case-values-and-uncertainty-bounds-of-health-economic-evaluations-a-systematic-review-of-herpes-zoster-vaccination
#8
Joke Bilcke, Frederik Verelst, Philippe Beutels
BACKGROUND: New health technologies are more likely adopted when they have lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and/or when their ICER is presented with more certainty. Industry-funded (IF) health economic evaluations use often more favorable base-case values, leading to more favorable conclusions. PURPOSE: To study whether IF health economic evaluations of varicella-zoster virus vaccination in the elderly use more favorable base-case values and account for less uncertainty than non-industry-funded (NIF) evaluations...
May 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847253/patients-and-clinicians-perceptions-of-antibiotic-prescribing-for-upper-respiratory-infections-in-the-acute-care-setting
#9
David A Broniatowski, Eili Y Klein, Larissa May, Elena M Martinez, Chelsea Ware, Valerie F Reyna
Reducing inappropriate prescribing is key to mitigating antibiotic resistance, particularly in acute care settings. Clinicians' prescribing decisions are influenced by their judgments and actual or perceived patient expectations. Fuzzy trace theory predicts that patients and clinicians base such decisions on categorical gist representations that reflect the bottom-line understanding of information about antibiotics. However, due to clinicians' specialized training, the categorical gists driving clinicians' and patients' decisions might differ, which could result in mismatched expectations and inefficiencies in targeting interventions...
July 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847252/the-effect-of-total-cost-information-on-consumer-treatment-decisions-an-experimental-survey
#10
Regina Kwon, Larry A Allen, Laura D Scherer, Jocelyn S Thompson, Madiha F Abdel-Maksoud, Colleen K McIlvennan, Daniel D Matlock
BACKGROUND: Unrestrained use of expensive, high-risk interventions runs counter to the idea of a limited medical commons. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of displaying the total first-year cost of implanting a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) on a hypothetical treatment decision and whether this effect differs when choosing for oneself versus for another person. DESIGN: We conducted an online survey in February 2016. The survey described the clinical course of end-stage heart failure and the risks and benefits of an LVAD...
July 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847251/a-decision-aid-to-promote-appropriate-colorectal-cancer-screening-among-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Carmen L Lewis, Christine E Kistler, Alexandra F Dalton, Carolyn Morris, Renée Ferrari, Colleen Barclay, Noel T Brewer, Rowena Dolor, Russell Harris, Maihan Vu, Carol E Golin
BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised about both over- and underutilization of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in older patients and the need to align screening behavior with likelihood of net benefit. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a novel use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) to promote appropriate CRC screening in older adults. METHODS: A total of 424 patients ages 70 to 84 y who were not up to date with CRC screening participated in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of a PtDA targeted to older adults making decisions about whether to undergo CRC screening from March 2012 to February 2015...
July 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629847/understanding-the-cognitive-and-affective-mechanisms-that-underlie-proxy-risk-perceptions-among-caregivers-of-asthmatic-children
#12
James A Shepperd, Nikolette P Lipsey, Thorsten Pachur, Erika A Waters
OBJECTIVE: Medical decisions made on behalf of another person-particularly those made by adult caregivers for their minor children-are often informed by the decision maker's beliefs about the treatment's risks and benefits. However, we know little about the cognitive and affective mechanisms influencing such "proxy" risk perceptions and about how proxy risk perceptions are related to prominent judgment phenomena. METHODS: Adult caregivers of minor children with asthma ( N = 132) completed an online, cross-sectional survey assessing 1) cognitions and affects that form the basis of the availability, representativeness, and affect heuristics; 2) endorsement of the absent-exempt and the better-than-average effect; and 3) proxy perceived risk and unrealistic comparative optimism of an asthma exacerbation...
July 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611459/physician-specific-maximum-acceptable-risk-in-personalized-medicine-implications-for-medical-decision-making
#13
Marco Boeri, Alan J McMichael, Joseph P M Kane, Francis A O'Neill, Frank Kee
BACKGROUND: In discrete-choice experiments (DCEs), respondents are presented with a series of scenarios and asked to select their preferred choice. In clinical decision making, DCEs allow one to calculate the maximum acceptable risk (MAR) that a respondent is willing to accept for a one-unit increase in treatment efficacy. Most published studies report the average MAR for the whole sample, without conveying any information about heterogeneity. For a sample of psychiatrists prescribing drugs for a series of hypothetical patients with schizophrenia, this article demonstrates how heterogeneity accounted for in the DCE modeling can be incorporated in the derivation of the MAR...
July 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611458/a-personalized-approach-of-patient-health-care-provider-communication-regarding-colorectal-cancer-screening-options
#14
M Gabriela Sava, James G Dolan, Jerrold H May, Luis G Vargas
BACKGROUND: Current colorectal cancer screening guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force endorse multiple options for average-risk patients and recommend that screening choices should be guided by individual patient preferences. Implementing these recommendations in practice is challenging because they depend on accurate and efficient elicitation and assessment of preferences from patients who are facing a novel task. OBJECTIVE: To present a methodology for analyzing the sensitivity and stability of a patient's preferences regarding colorectal cancer screening options and to provide a starting point for a personalized discussion between the patient and the health care provider about the selection of the appropriate screening option...
July 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608866/improving-understanding-of-diagnostic-test-outcomes
#15
Alaina N Talboy, Sandra L Schneider
BACKGROUND: Understanding diagnostic test outcomes requires determining the positive predictive value (PPV) of the test, which most laypeople and medical professionals struggle to do. Despite advances found with frequency formats and visual aids, less than 40% of people can typically identify this value. This study tests the impact of using congruent reference classes in problem-question pairings, evaluates the role of numeracy, and assesses how diagnostic value estimates affect the reported likelihood to use the test...
July 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683792/decision-making-for-healthcare-resource-allocation-joint-v-separate-decisions-on-interacting-interventions
#16
Helen Dakin, Alastair Gray
Standard guidance for allocating healthcare resources based on cost-effectiveness recommends using different decision rules for independent and mutually exclusive alternatives, although there is some confusion around the definition of "mutually exclusive." This paper reviews the definitions used in the literature and shows that interactions (i.e., non-additive effects, whereby the effect of giving 2 interventions simultaneously does not equal the sum of their individual effects) are the defining feature of mutually exclusive alternatives: treatments cannot be considered independent if the costs and/or benefits of one treatment are affected by the other treatment...
May 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607730/a-validation-study-of-the-rank-preserving-structural-failure-time-model-confidence-intervals-and-unique-multiple-and-erroneous-solutions
#17
Mario Ouwens, Ole Hauch, Stefan Franzén
BACKGROUND: The rank-preserving structural failure time model (RPSFTM) is used for health technology assessment submissions to adjust for switching patients from reference to investigational treatment in cancer trials. It uses counterfactual survival (survival when only reference treatment would have been used) and assumes that, at randomization, the counterfactual survival distribution for the investigational and reference arms is identical. Previous validation reports have assumed that patients in the investigational treatment arm stay on therapy throughout the study period...
May 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596031/incorporating-genuine-prior-information-about-between-study-heterogeneity-in-random-effects-pairwise-and-network-meta-analyses
#18
Shijie Ren, Jeremy E Oakley, John W Stevens
BACKGROUND: Pairwise and network meta-analyses using fixed effect and random effects models are commonly applied to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials. The models differ in their assumptions and the interpretation of the results. The model choice depends on the objective of the analysis and knowledge of the included studies. Fixed effect models are often used because there are too few studies with which to estimate the between-study SD from the data alone. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to propose a framework for eliciting an informative prior distribution for the between-study SD in a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis model to genuinely represent heterogeneity when data are sparse...
May 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577814/a-two-step-markov-processes-approach-for-parameterization-of-cancer-state-transition-models-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#19
Chaitra Gopalappa, Jiachen Guo, Prashant Meckoni, Buyannemekh Munkhbat, Carel Pretorius, Jeremy Lauer, André Ilbawi, Melanie Bertram
Implementation of organized cancer screening and prevention programs in high-income countries (HICs) has considerably decreased cancer-related incidence and mortality. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), screening and early diagnosis programs are generally unavailable, and most cancers are diagnosed in late stages when survival is very low. Analyzing the cost-effectiveness of alternative cancer control programs and estimating resource needs will help prioritize interventions in LMICs. However, mathematical models of natural cancer onset and progression needed to conduct the economic analyses are predominantly based on populations in HICs because the longitudinal data on screening and diagnoses required for parameterization are unavailable in LMICs...
May 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529923/decision-criterion-and-value-of-information-analysis-optimal-aspirin-dosage-for-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events
#20
Anirban Basu, David Meltzer
BACKGROUND: In value of information (VOI) calculations, such as the expected value of perfect information (EVPI), partial perfect information (EVPPI), sample information (EVSI) or implementation (EVIM), the maximum expected value criterion defines the decision making criterion for the adoption of decisions for treatments. However, because decision makers are often risk averse, the uncertainty that accompanies a decision problem may influence adoption decisions. METHODS: VOI estimates were studied based on 2 alternate decision making criteria: 1) maximum expected value and 2) 95% credible intervals...
May 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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