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Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423982/from-data-to-improved-decisions-operations-research-in-healthcare-delivery
#1
Muge Capan, Anahita Khojandi, Brian T Denton, Kimberly D Williams, Turgay Ayer, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Murat Kurt, Jennifer Mason Lobo, Mark S Roberts, Greg Zaric, Shengfan Zhang, J Sanford Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The Operations Research Interest Group (ORIG) within the Society of Medical Decision Making (SMDM) is a multidisciplinary interest group of professionals that specializes in taking an analytical approach to medical decision making and healthcare delivery. ORIG is interested in leveraging mathematical methods associated with the field of Operations Research (OR) to obtain data-driven solutions to complex healthcare problems and encourage collaborations across disciplines. This paper introduces OR for the non-expert and draws attention to opportunities where OR can be utilized to facilitate solutions to healthcare problems...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410564/a-review-of-methods-for-analysis-of-the-expected-value-of-information
#2
Anna Heath, Ioanna Manolopoulou, Gianluca Baio
In recent years, value-of-information analysis has become more widespread in health economic evaluations, specifically as a tool to guide further research and perform probabilistic sensitivity analysis. This is partly due to methodological advancements allowing for the fast computation of a typical summary known as the expected value of partial perfect information (EVPPI). A recent review discussed some approximation methods for calculating the EVPPI, but as the research has been active over the intervening years, that review does not discuss some key estimation methods...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399375/understanding-the-value-of-individualized-information-the-impact-of-poor-calibration-or-discrimination-in-outcome-prediction-models
#3
Natalia Olchanski, Joshua T Cohen, Peter J Neumann, John B Wong, David Kent
BACKGROUND: Risk prediction models allow for the incorporation of individualized risk and clinical effectiveness information to identify patients for whom therapy is most appropriate and cost-effective. This approach has the potential to identify inefficient (or harmful) care in subgroups at different risks, even when the overall results appear favorable. Here, we explore the value of personalized risk information and the factors that influence it. METHODS: Using an expected value of individualized care (EVIC) framework, which monetizes the value of customizing care, we developed a general approach to calculate individualized incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) as a function of individual outcome risk...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384413/comparative-effectiveness-of-tacrolimus-based-steroid-sparing-versus-steroid-maintenance-regimens-in-kidney-transplantation-results-from-discrete-event-simulation
#4
Vibha C A Desai, Yann Ferrand, Teresa M Cavanaugh, Christina M L Kelton, J Jaime Caro, Jens Goebel, Pamela C Heaton
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids used as immunosuppressants to prevent acute rejection (AR) and graft loss (GL) following kidney transplantation are associated with serious cardiovascular and other adverse events. Evidence from short-term randomized controlled trials suggests that many patients on a tacrolimus-based immunosuppressant regimen can withdraw from steroids without increased AR or GL risk. OBJECTIVES: To measure the long-term tradeoff between GL and adverse events for a heterogeneous-risk population and determine the optimal timing of steroid withdrawal...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380316/choice-blindness-and-health-state-choices-among-adolescents-and-adults
#5
Ernest H Law, Annika L Pickard, Anika Kaczynski, A Simon Pickard
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and validity of using a discrete choice experiment format to elicit health preferences in adolescents by comparing illogical choices and choice-blindness rates between adults and adolescents; and to explore the relationship between personality traits and health-state choices. METHODS: A convenience sample of adults and adolescents (12 to 17 y old) were recruited from around Chicago, USA. A personality inventory was administered, followed by pairwise comparisons of 6 health-state scenarios which asked each candidate to select their preferred choice...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398836/providing-quantitative-information-and-a-nudge-to-undergo-stool-testing-in-a-colorectal-cancer-screening-decision-aid
#6
Peter H Schwartz, Susan M Perkins, Karen K Schmidt, Paul F Muriello, Sandra Althouse, Susan M Rawl
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend that patient decision aids should provide quantitative information about probabilities of potential outcomes, but the impact of this information is unknown. Behavioral economics suggests that patients confused by quantitative information could benefit from a "nudge" towards one option. We conducted a pilot randomized trial to estimate the effect sizes of presenting quantitative information and a nudge. METHODS: Primary care patients (n = 213) eligible for colorectal cancer screening viewed basic screening information and were randomized to view (a) quantitative information (quantitative module), (b) a nudge towards stool testing with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) (nudge module), (c) neither a nor b, or (d) both a and b...
March 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379779/a-procedure-for-deriving-formulas-to-convert-transition-rates-to-probabilities-for-multi-state-markov-models
#7
Edmund Jones, David Epstein, Leticia García-Mochón
For health-economic analyses that use multi-state Markov models, it is often necessary to convert from transition rates to transition probabilities, and for probabilistic sensitivity analysis and other purposes it is useful to have explicit algebraic formulas for these conversions, to avoid having to resort to numerical methods. However, if there are four or more states then the formulas can be extremely complicated. These calculations can be made using packages such as R, but many analysts and other stakeholders still prefer to use spreadsheets for these decision models...
March 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363265/two-stage-biomarker-protocols-for-improving-the-precision-of-early-detection-of-prostate-cancer
#8
Christine L Barnett, Scott A Tomlins, Daniel J Underwood, John T Wei, Todd M Morgan, James E Montie, Brian T Denton
BACKGROUND: New cancer biomarkers are being discovered at a rapid pace; however, these tests vary in their predictive performance characteristics, and it is unclear how best to use them. METHODS: We investigated 2-stage biomarker-based screening strategies in the context of prostate cancer using a partially observable Markov model to simulate patients' progression through prostate cancer states to mortality from prostate cancer or other causes. Patients were screened every 2 years from ages 55 to 69...
March 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363033/using-an-internet-based-breast-cancer-risk-assessment-tool-to-improve-social-cognitive-precursors-of-physical-activity
#9
Stephanie L Fowler, William M P Klein, Linda Ball, Jaclyn McGuire, Graham A Colditz, Erika A Waters
BACKGROUND: Internet-based cancer risk assessment tools might serve as a strategy for translating epidemiological risk prediction research into public health practice. Understanding how such tools affect key social-cognitive precursors of behavior change is crucial for leveraging their potential into effective interventions. PURPOSE: To test the effects of a publicly available, Internet-based, breast cancer risk assessment tool on social-cognitive precursors of physical activity...
March 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355975/the-potential-of-collective-intelligence-in-emergency-medicine
#10
Juliane E Kämmer, Wolf E Hautz, Stefan M Herzog, Olga Kunina-Habenicht, Ralf H J M Kurvers
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that pooling multiple independent diagnoses can improve diagnostic accuracy in well-defined tasks. We investigated whether this is also the case for diagnostics in emergency medicine, an ill-defined task environment where diagnostic errors are rife. METHODS: A computer simulation study was conducted based on empirical data from 2 published experimental studies. In the computer experiments, 285 medical students independently diagnosed 6 simulated patients arriving at the emergency room with dyspnea...
March 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355938/extrapolation-of-survival-data-in-cost-effectiveness-analyses
#11
Neil Hawkins, Richard Grieve
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199180/marketing-authorization-procedures-for-advanced-cancer-drugs
#12
Christel Protière, Rachel Baker, Dominique Genre, Anthony Goncalves, Patrice Viens
BACKGROUND: The past decades have seen advances in cancer treatments in terms of toxicity and side effects but progress in the treatment of advanced cancer has been modest. New drugs have emerged improving progression free survival but with little impact on overall survival, raising questions about the criteria on which to base decisions to grant marketing authorizations and about the authorization procedure itself. For decisions to be fair, transparent and accountable, it is necessary to consider the views of those with relevant expertise and experience...
February 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199179/experienced-probabilities-increase-understanding-of-diagnostic-test-results-in-younger-and-older-adults
#13
Bonnie Armstrong, Julia Spaniol
BACKGROUND: With advancing age, the frequency of medical screening increases. Interpreting the results of medical tests involves estimation of posterior probabilities such as positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs). Both laypeople and experts are typically poor at estimating posterior probabilities when the relevant statistics are communicated descriptively. The current study examined whether an experience format would improve posterior probability judgments in younger and older adults, relative to a description format...
February 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199178/response-to-comment-on-decisional-conflict-regret-and-the-burden-of-rational-decision-making
#14
Andrew Vickers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199177/comment-on-decisional-conflict-regret-and-the-burden-of-rational-decision-making
#15
Anita D Misra-Hebert, Michael W Kattan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199176/handling-protest-responses-in-contingent-valuation-surveys
#16
Mark Pennington, Manuel Gomes, Cam Donaldson
OBJECTIVES: Protest responses, whereby respondents refuse to state the value they place on the health gain, are commonly encountered in contingent valuation (CV) studies, and they tend to be excluded from analyses. Such an approach will be biased if protesters differ from non-protesters on characteristics that predict their responses. The Heckman selection model has been commonly used to adjust for protesters, but its underlying assumptions may be implausible in this context. We present a multiple imputation (MI) approach to appropriately address protest responses in CV studies, and compare it with the Heckman selection model...
February 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195755/prioritizing-rare-diseases
#17
Johanna Wiss, Lars-Ake Levin, David Andersson, Gustav Tinghög
BACKGROUND: Measuring societal preferences for rarity has been proposed to determine whether paying premium prices for orphan drugs is acceptable. OBJECTIVE: To investigate societal preferences for rarity and how psychological factors affect such preferences. METHOD: A postal survey containing resource allocation dilemmas involving patients with a rare disease and patients with a common disease, equal in severity, was sent out to a randomly selected sample of the population in Sweden (return rate 42...
February 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192029/the-n-by-t-target-discharge-strategy-for-inpatient-units
#18
Pratik J Parikh, Nicholas Ballester, Kylie Ramsey, Nan Kong, Nancy Pook
BACKGROUND: Ineffective inpatient discharge planning often causes discharge delays and upstream boarding. While an optimal discharge strategy that works across all units at a hospital is likely difficult to identify and implement, a strategy that provides a reasonable target to the discharge team appears feasible. METHODS: We used observational and retrospective data from an inpatient trauma unit at a Level 2 trauma center in the Midwest US. Our proposed novel n-by-T strategy-discharge n patients by the Tth hour-was evaluated using a validated simulation model...
February 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061041/other-ways-of-knowing
#19
Negin Hajizadeh, Melissa J Basile, Andrzej Kozikowski, Meredith Akerman, Tara Liberman, Thomas McGinn, Michael A Diefenbach
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may suffer severe respiratory exacerbations and need to decide between accepting life-sustaining treatments versus foregoing these treatments (choosing comfort care only). We designed the InformedTogether decision aid to inform this decision and describe results of a pilot study to assess usability focusing on participants' trust in the content of the decision aid, acceptability, recommendations for improvement, and emotional reactions to this emotionally laden decision...
April 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061040/the-role-of-qualitative-research-methods-in-discrete-choice-experiments
#20
Caroline Vass, Dan Rigby, Katherine Payne
BACKGROUND: The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. METHODS: DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive)...
April 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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