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Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879412/modeling-individual-patient-preferences-for-colorectal-cancer-screening-based-on-their-tolerance-for-complications-risk
#1
Glen B Taksler, Adam T Perzynski, Michael W Kattan
INTRODUCTION: Recommendations for colorectal cancer screening encourage patients to choose among various screening methods based on individual preferences for benefits, risks, screening frequency, and discomfort. We devised a model to illustrate how individuals with varying tolerance for screening complications risk might decide on their preferred screening strategy. METHODS: We developed a discrete-time Markov mathematical model that allowed hypothetical individuals to maximize expected lifetime utility by selecting screening method, start age, stop age, and frequency...
November 22, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856827/maximizing-health-or-sufficient-capability-in-economic-evaluation-a-methodological-experiment-of-treatment-for-drug-addiction
#2
Ilias Goranitis, Joanna Coast, Ed Day, Alex Copello, Nick Freemantle, Emma Frew
Conventional practice within the United Kingdom and beyond is to conduct economic evaluations with "health" as evaluative space and "health maximization" as the decision-making rule. However, there is increasing recognition that this evaluative framework may not always be appropriate, and this is particularly the case within public health and social care contexts. This article presents a methodological case study designed to explore the impact of changing the evaluative space within an economic evaluation from health to capability well-being and the decision-making rule from health maximization to the maximization of sufficient capability...
November 17, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803362/toward-optimal-decision-making-among-vulnerable-patients-referred-for-cardiac-surgery-a-qualitative-analysis-of-patient-and-provider-perspectives
#3
Ryan A Gainer, Janet Curran, Karen J Buth, Jennie G David, Jean-Francois Légaré, Gregory M Hirsch
OBJECTIVES: Comprehension of risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options has been shown to be poor among patients referred for cardiac interventions. Patients' values and preferences are rarely explicitly sought. An increasing proportion of frail and older patients are undergoing complex cardiac surgical procedures with increased risk of both mortality and prolonged institutional care. We sought input from patients and caregivers to determine the optimal approach to decision making in this vulnerable patient population...
November 1, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803361/a-markov-decision-process-model-for-cervical-cancer-screening-policies-in-colombia
#4
Raha Akhavan-Tabatabaei, Diana Marcela Sánchez, Thomas G Yeung
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women around the world, and the human papillomavirus (HPV) is universally known as the necessary agent for developing this disease. Through early detection of abnormal cells and HPV virus types, cervical cancer incidents can be reduced and disease progression prevented. We propose a finite-horizon Markov decision process model to determine the optimal screening policies for cervical cancer prevention. The optimal decision is given in terms of when and what type of screening test to be performed on a patient based on her current diagnosis, age, HPV contraction risk, and screening test results...
November 1, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698003/estimation-of-survival-probabilities-for-use-in-cost-effectiveness-analyses-a-comparison-of-a-multi-state-modeling-survival-analysis-approach-with-partitioned-survival-and-markov-decision-analytic-modeling
#5
Claire Williams, James D Lewsey, Daniel F Mackay, Andrew H Briggs
Modeling of clinical-effectiveness in a cost-effectiveness analysis typically involves some form of partitioned survival or Markov decision-analytic modeling. The health states progression-free, progression and death and the transitions between them are frequently of interest. With partitioned survival, progression is not modeled directly as a state; instead, time in that state is derived from the difference in area between the overall survival and the progression-free survival curves. With Markov decision-analytic modeling, a priori assumptions are often made with regard to the transitions rather than using the individual patient data directly to model them...
October 3, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694286/reliability-validity-and-feasibility-of-direct-elicitation-of-children-s-preferences-for-health-states-a-systematic-review
#6
R Trafford Crump, Lauren M Beverung, Ryan Lau, Rita Sieracki, Mateo Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Children's preferences for health states represent an important perspective when comparing the value of alternative health care interventions related to pediatric medicine, and are fundamental to comparative effectiveness research. However, there is debate over whether these preference data can be collected and used. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish psychometric properties of eliciting preferences for health states from children using direct methods...
September 30, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681992/sensitivity-analysis-in-sequential-decision-models-a-probabilistic-approach
#7
Qiushi Chen, Turgay Ayer, Jagpreet Chhatwal
BACKGROUND: Sequential decision problems are frequently encountered in medical decision making, which are commonly solved using Markov decision processes (MDPs). Modeling guidelines recommend conducting sensitivity analyses in decision-analytic models to assess the robustness of the model results against the uncertainty in model parameters. However, standard methods of conducting sensitivity analyses cannot be directly applied to sequential decision problems because this would require evaluating all possible decision sequences, typically in the order of trillions, which is not practically feasible...
September 28, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681991/disclosing-the-uncertainty-associated-with-prognostic-estimates-in-breast-cancer-current-practices-and-patients-perceptions-of-uncertainty
#8
Ellen G Engelhardt, Arwen H Pieterse, Paul K J Han, Nanny van Duijn-Bakker, Frans Cluitmans, Ed Maartense, Monique M E M Bos, Nir I Weijl, Cornelis J A Punt, Patricia Quarles van Ufford-Mannesse, Harm Sleeboom, Johanneke E A Portielje, Koos J M van der Hoeven, F J Sherida Woei-A-Jin, Judith R Kroep, Hanneke C J M de Haes, Ellen M A Smets, Anne M Stiggelbout
BACKGROUND: Treatment decision making is often guided by evidence-based probabilities, which may be presented to patients during consultations. These probabilities are intrinsically imperfect and embody 2 types of uncertainties: aleatory uncertainty arising from the unpredictability of future events and epistemic uncertainty arising from limitations in the reliability and accuracy of probability estimates. Risk communication experts have recommended disclosing uncertainty. We examined whether uncertainty was discussed during cancer consultations and whether and how patients perceived uncertainty...
September 28, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681990/extrapolation-of-survival-curves-from-cancer-trials-using-external-information
#9
Patricia Guyot, A E Ades, Matthew Beasley, Béranger Lueza, Jean-Pierre Pignon, Nicky J Welton
BACKGROUND: Estimates of life expectancy are a key input to cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models for cancer treatments. Due to the limited follow-up in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), parametric models are frequently used to extrapolate survival outcomes beyond the RCT period. However, different parametric models that fit the RCT data equally well may generate highly divergent predictions of treatment-related gain in life expectancy. Here, we investigate the use of information external to the RCT data to inform model choice and estimation of life expectancy...
September 28, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681989/understanding-the-effects-of-competition-for-constrained-colonoscopy-services-with-the-introduction-of-population-level-colorectal-cancer-screening-a-discrete-event-simulation-model
#10
Leslie Anne Campbell, John T Blake, George Kephart, Eva Grunfeld, Donald MacIntosh
BACKGROUND: Median wait times for gastroenterology services in Canada exceed consensus-recommended targets and have worsened substantially over the past decade. Meanwhile, efforts to control colorectal cancer have shifted their focus to screening asymptomatic, average-risk individuals. Along with increasing prevalence of colorectal cancer due to an aging population, screening programs are expected to add substantially to the existing burden on colonoscopy services, and create competition for limited services among individuals of varying risk...
September 28, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681988/using-discrete-choice-experiments-with-duration-to-model-eq-5d-5l-health-state-preferences-testing-experimental-design-strategies
#11
Brendan Mulhern, Nick Bansback, Arne Risa Hole, Aki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: Discrete choice experiments incorporating duration can be used to derive health state values for EQ-5D-5L. Yet, methodological issues relating to the duration attribute and the optimal way to select health states remain. The aims of this study were to: test increasing the number of duration levels and choice sets where duration varies (aim 1); compare designs with zero and non-zero prior values (aim 2); and investigate a novel, two-stage design to incorporate prior values (aim 3)...
September 28, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646567/progression-and-transmission-of-hiv-aids-path-2-0-a-new-agent-based-model-to-estimate-hiv-transmissions-in-the-united-states
#12
Chaitra Gopalappa, Paul G Farnham, Yao-Hsuan Chen, Stephanie L Sansom
BACKGROUND: HIV transmission is the result of complex dynamics in the risk behaviors, partnership choices, disease stage and position along the HIV care continuum-individual characteristics that themselves can change over time. Capturing these dynamics and simulating transmissions to understand the chief sources of transmission remain important for prevention. METHODS: The Progression and Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PATH 2.0) is an agent-based model of a sample of 10,000 people living with HIV (PLWH), who represent all men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals living with HIV in the U...
September 19, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646566/exploring-differences-between-tto-and-dce-in-the-valuation-of-health-states
#13
Angela Robinson, Anne E Spencer, José Luís Pinto-Prades, Judith A Covey
There is recent interest in using discrete choice experiments (DCEs) to derive health state utility values, and results can differ from time tradeoff (TTO). Clearly, DCE is "choice based," whereas TTO is generally considered a "matching" task. We explore whether procedural adaptations to the TTO, which make the method more closely resemble a DCE, make TTO and choice converge. In particular, we test whether making the matching procedure in TTO less "transparent" to the respondent reduces disparities between TTO and DCE...
September 19, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899746/author-index-for-abstracts
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899745/exploring-provider-reactions-to-decision-aid-distribution-and-shared-decision-making-lessons-from-two-specialties
#15
Clarissa Hsu, David T Liss, Dominick L Frosch, Emily O Westbrook, David Arterburn
BACKGROUND: A critical component of shared decision making (SDM) is the role played by health care providers in distributing decision aids (DAs) and initiating SDM conversations. Existing literature indicates that decisions about designing and implementing DAs must take provider perspectives into account. However, little is known about how differences in provider attitudes across specialties may impact DA implementation and how provider attitudes may shift after DA implementation. Group Health's Decision Aid Implementation project was carried out in six specialties using 12 video-based DAs for preference-sensitive conditions; this study focused on two of the six specialties...
January 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899744/decisional-conflict-regret-and-the-burden-of-rational-decision-making
#16
EDITORIAL
Andrew J Vickers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856826/the-influence-of-varying-cost-formats-on-preferences
#17
Charles Changchuan Jiang, Liana Fraenkel
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have found that cost strongly influences patients' decision making. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of varying cost formats on patients' preferences. METHODS: Mechanical Turk workers completed a choice-based conjoint (CBC) survey. The CBC survey was designed to examine stated preferences for the use of second-line agents to treat diabetes across 5 attributes: route of administration, efficacy, risk of low blood sugar, frequency of checking blood sugar levels, and cost...
January 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765897/the-bifocal-lens-model-and-equation-examining-the-linkage-between-clinical-judgments-and-decisions
#18
Jason W Beckstead
BACKGROUND: Brunswik's Lens Model and lens model equation (LME) have been applied extensively in medical decision making. Clinicians often face the dual challenge of formulating a judgment of patient risk for some adverse outcome and making a yes or no decision regarding a particular risk-reducing treatment option. OBJECTIVE: In this article, I examine the correlation between clinical risk judgments and treatment-related decisions, referring to this linkage as "cohesion"...
January 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510740/physician-recommendations-trump-patient-preferences-in-prostate-cancer-treatment-decisions
#19
Karen A Scherr, Angela Fagerlin, Timothy Hofer, Laura D Scherer, Margaret Holmes-Rovner, Lillie D Williamson, Valerie C Kahn, Jeffrey S Montgomery, Kirsten L Greene, Biqi Zhang, Peter A Ubel
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of patient preferences and urologist recommendations in treatment decisions for clinically localized prostate cancer. METHODS: We enrolled 257 men with clinically localized prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen <20; Gleason score 6 or 7) seen by urologists (primarily residents and fellows) in 4 Veterans Affairs medical centers. We measured patients' baseline preferences prior to their urology appointments, including initial treatment preference, cancer-related anxiety, and interest in sex...
January 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491557/in-search-of-cognitive-dignity-the-diagnostic-challenges-of-primary-care
#20
EDITORIAL
Paul Clay Sorum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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