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Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198412/discrepancy-between-health-care-rationing-at-the-bedside-and-policy-level
#1
Emil Persson, David Andersson, Lovisa Back, Thomas Davidson, Emma Johannisson, Gustav Tinghög
BACKGROUND: Whether doctors at the bedside level should be engaged in health care rationing is a controversial topic that has spurred much debate. From an empirical point of view, a key issue is whether there exists a behavioral difference between rationing at the bedside and policy level. Psychological theory suggests that we should indeed expect such a difference, but existing empirical evidence is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether rationing decisions taken at the bedside level are different from rationing decisions taken at the policy level...
September 10, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188244/value-of-information-choices-that-influence-estimates-a-systematic-review-of-prevailing-considerations
#2
Hendrik Koffijberg, Claire Rothery, Kalipso Chalkidou, Janneke Grutters
BACKGROUND: Although value of information (VOI) analyses are increasingly advocated and used for research prioritization and reimbursement decisions, the interpretation and usefulness of VOI outcomes depend critically on the underlying choices and assumptions used in the analysis. In this article, we present a structured overview of all items reported in literature to potentially influence VOI outcomes. Use of this overview increases awareness and transparency of choices and assumptions underpinning VOI outcomes...
September 6, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179585/optimal-information-collection-policies-in-a-markov-decision-process-framework
#3
Lauren E Cipriano, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Shan Liu, Thomas A Weber
BACKGROUND: The cost-effectiveness and value of additional information about a health technology or program may change over time because of trends affecting patient cohorts and/or the intervention. Delaying information collection even for parameters that do not change over time may be optimal. METHODS: We present a stochastic dynamic programming approach to simultaneously identify the optimal intervention and information collection policies. We use our framework to evaluate birth cohort hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening...
September 4, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156470/estimation-of-a-relative-risk-effect-size-when-using-continuous-outcomes-data-an-application-of-methods-in-the-prevention-of-major-depression-and-eating-disorders
#4
Yong Yi Lee, Long Khanh-Dao Le, Emily A Stockings, Phillipa Hay, Harvey A Whiteford, Jan J Barendregt, Cathrine Mihalopoulos
INTRODUCTION: The raw mean difference (RMD) and standardized mean difference (SMD) are continuous effect size measures that are not readily usable in decision-analytic models of health care interventions. This study compared the predictive performance of 3 methods by which continuous outcomes data collected using psychiatric rating scales can be used to calculate a relative risk (RR) effect size. METHODS: Three methods to calculate RR effect sizes from continuous outcomes data are described: the RMD, SMD, and Cochrane conversion methods...
August 29, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132410/economically-efficient-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-prioritization-improves-health-outcomes-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-prioritization
#5
Lauren E Cipriano, Shan Liu, Kaspar S Shahzada, Mark Holodniy, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert
BACKGROUND: The total cost of treating the 3 million Americans chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a substantial affordability challenge requiring treatment prioritization. This study compares the health and economic outcomes of alternative treatment prioritization schedules. METHODS: We developed a multiyear HCV treatment budget allocation model to evaluate the tradeoffs of 7 prioritization strategies. We used optimization to identify the priority schedule that maximizes population net monetary benefit (NMB)...
August 22, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132393/picture-this-presenting-longitudinal-patient-reported-outcome-research-study-results-to-patients
#6
Elliott Tolbert, Michael Brundage, Elissa Bantug, Amanda L Blackford, Katherine Smith, Claire Snyder
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) results from clinical trials and research studies can inform patient-clinician decision making. However, data presentation issues specific to PROs, such as scaling directionality (higher scores may represent better or worse outcomes) and scoring strategies (normed v. nonnormed scores), can make the interpretation of PRO scores uniquely challenging. OBJECTIVE: To identify the association of PRO score directionality, score norming, and other factors on a) how accurately PRO scores are interpreted and b) how clearly they are rated by patients, clinicians, and PRO researchers...
August 22, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132386/comparison-of-logistic-regression-and-bayesian-networks-for-risk-prediction-of-breast-cancer-recurrence
#7
Annemieke Witteveen, Gabriela F Nane, Ingrid M H Vliegen, Sabine Siesling, Maarten J IJzerman
PURPOSE: For individualized follow-up, accurate prediction of locoregional recurrence (LRR) and second primary (SP) breast cancer risk is required. Current prediction models employ regression, but with large data sets, machine-learning techniques such as Bayesian Networks (BNs) may be better alternatives. In this study, logistic regression was compared with different BNs, built with network classifiers and constraint- and score-based algorithms. METHODS: Women diagnosed with early breast cancer between 2003 and 2006 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) ( N = 37,320)...
August 22, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125510/exploring-the-effects-of-early-censoring-and-analysis-of-clinical-trial-survival-data-on-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-estimation-through-a-case-study-in-advanced-breast-cancer
#8
Adrian Bagust, Sophie J Beale
Interim analyses of clinical trial data are frequently used to provide evidence to obtain marketing authorization for new drugs. However, results from such analyses may not reflect true estimates of relative effectiveness when trial follow-up is complete. Survival results, available at 2 time points from a breast cancer clinical trial, were compared to test the hypothesis that using immature data and a widely used right-censoring rule leads to biased survival estimates. Kaplan-Meier progression-free and overall survival data from 2 published CLEOPATRA trial reports (2012 and 2014) were digitized...
August 20, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102868/bayesian-multiparameter-evidence-synthesis-to-inform-decision-making-a-case-study-in-metastatic-hormone-refractory-prostate-cancer
#9
Sze Huey Tan, Keith R Abrams, Sylwia Bujkiewicz
In health technology assessment, decisions are based on complex cost-effectiveness models that require numerous input parameters. When not all relevant estimates are available, the model may have to be simplified. Multiparameter evidence synthesis combines data from diverse sources of evidence, which results in obtaining estimates required in clinical decision making that otherwise may not be available. We demonstrate how bivariate meta-analysis can be used to predict an unreported estimate of a treatment effect enabling implementation of a multistate Markov model, which otherwise needs to be simplified...
August 13, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074882/prediction-of-real-world-drug-effectiveness-prelaunch-case-study-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Eva-Maria Didden, Yann Ruffieux, Noemi Hummel, Orestis Efthimiou, Stephan Reichenbach, Sandro Gsteiger, Axel Finckh, Christine Fletcher, Georgia Salanti, Matthias Egger
BACKGROUND: Decision makers often need to assess the real-world effectiveness of new drugs prelaunch, when phase II/III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) but no other data are available. OBJECTIVE: To develop a method to predict drug effectiveness prelaunch and to apply it in a case study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The approach 1) identifies a market-approved treatment ( S) currently used in a target population similar to that of the new drug ( N); 2) quantifies the impact of treatment, prognostic factors, and effect modifiers on clinical outcome; 3) determines the characteristics of patients likely to receive N in routine care; and 4) predicts treatment outcome in simulated patients with these characteristics...
August 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074881/17th-biennial-european-meeting-of-the-society-for-medical-decision-making-leiden-the-netherlands-june-10-12-2018
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074880/17th-biennial-european-meeting-of-the-society-for-medical-decision-making-leiden-the-netherlands-june-10-12-2018
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074879/an-exploratory-application-of-eye-tracking-methods-in-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#13
Caroline Vass, Dan Rigby, Kelly Tate, Andrew Stewart, Katherine Payne
BACKGROUND: Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used to elicit preferences for benefit-risk tradeoffs. The primary aim of this study was to explore how eye-tracking methods can be used to understand DCE respondents' decision-making strategies. A secondary aim was to explore if the presentation and communication of risk affected respondents' choices. METHOD: Two versions of a DCE were designed to understand the preferences of female members of the public for breast screening that varied in how risk attributes were presented...
August 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009678/understanding-the-effect-of-information-presentation-order-and-orientation-on-information-search-and-treatment-evaluation
#14
Claire Louise Heard, Tim Rakow, Tom Foulsham
BACKGROUND: Past research finds that treatment evaluations are more negative when risks are presented after benefits. This study investigates this order effect: manipulating tabular orientation and order of risk-benefit information, and examining information search order and gaze duration via eye-tracking. DESIGN: 108 (Study 1) and 44 (Study 2) participants viewed information about treatment risks and benefits, in either a horizontal (left-right) or vertical (above-below) orientation, with the benefits or risks presented first (left side or at top)...
August 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978726/double-conjunction-fallacies-in-physicians-probability-judgment
#15
Vincenzo Crupi, Fabrizio Elia, Franco Aprà, Katya Tentori
We report the first empirical data showing a significant amount of double conjunction fallacies in physicians' probability judgments concerning prognosis and diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that physicians' probability judgments are guided by assessments of evidential impact between diagnostic conditions and clinical signs. Moreover, we show that, contrary to some influential views, double conjunction fallacies represent an experimentally replicable reasoning bias. We discuss how the phenomenon eludes major current accounts of uncertain reasoning in medicine and beyond and how it relates to clinical practice...
August 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962272/reducing-i-don-t-know-responses-and-missing-survey-data-implications-for-measurement
#16
Deanna C Denman, Austin S Baldwin, Andrea C Betts, Amy McQueen, Jasmin A Tiro
BACKGROUND: "I don't know" (DK) responses are common in health behavior research. Yet analytic approaches to managing DK responses may undermine survey validity and researchers' ability to interpret findings. OBJECTIVE: Compare the usefulness of a methodological strategy for reducing DK responses to 3 analytic approaches: 1) excluding DKs as missing data, 2) recoding them to the neutral point of the response scale, and 3) recoding DKs with the mean. METHODS: We used a 4-group design to compare a methodological strategy, which encourages use of the response scale after an initial DK response, to 3 methods of analytically treating DK responses...
August 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957107/estimating-a-preference-based-single-index-measuring-the-quality-of-life-impact-of-self-management-for-diabetes
#17
Donna Rowen, Alexander Labeit, Katherine Stevens, Jackie Elliott, Brendan Mulhern, Jill Carlton, Hasan Basarir, John Brazier
OBJECTIVE: Self-management is becoming increasingly important in diabetes but is neglected in conventional preference-based measures. The objective of this paper was to generate health state utility values for a novel classification system measuring the quality-of-life impact of self-management for diabetes, which can be used to generate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). METHODS: A large online survey was conducted using a discrete choice experiment (DCE), with duration as an additional attribute, on members of the UK general population ( n = 1,493) to elicit values for health (social limitations, mood, vitality, hypoglycaemia) and non-health (stress, hassle, control, support) aspects of self-management in diabetes...
August 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944456/estimation-of-a-preference-based-summary-score-for-the-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-the-promis-%C3%A2-preference-propr-scoring-system
#18
Barry Dewitt, David Feeny, Baruch Fischhoff, David Cella, Ron D Hays, Rachel Hess, Paul A Pilkonis, Dennis A Revicki, Mark S Roberts, Joel Tsevat, Lan Yu, Janel Hanmer
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) preference-based scores are used to assess the health of populations and patients and for cost-effectiveness analyses. The National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS® ) consists of patient-reported outcome measures developed using item response theory. PROMIS is in need of a direct preference-based scoring system for assigning values to health states. OBJECTIVE: To produce societal preference-based scores for 7 PROMIS domains: Cognitive Function-Abilities, Depression, Fatigue, Pain Interference, Physical Function, Sleep Disturbance, and Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities...
August 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916784/medical-maximizing-minimizing-preferences-predict-responses-to-information-about-prostate-specific-antigen-screening
#19
Laura D Scherer, Jeffrey T Kullgren, Tanner Caverly, Aaron M Scherer, Victoria A Shaffer, Angela Fagerlin, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
PURPOSE: The recently developed Medical Maximizer-Minimizer Scale (MMS) assesses individual differences in preferences for active v. passive medical treatment. We hypothesized that men's maximizing-minimizing preferences might have relevance in the case of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, since there is considerable variability in men's preference for being screened even among men who are informed that harm is more likely than benefit. The current research examined whether MMS preferences predict how men respond to didactic information and narrative stories about PSA screening...
August 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877163/how-significant-are-high-correlations-between-eq-5d-value-sets
#20
Franz Ombler, Michael Albert, Paul Hansen
The calculation of quality-adjusted life years, as used for cost-utility analysis, depends on the availability of value sets representing people's preferences with respect to health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A value set consists of HRQoL index values for all health states representable by the particular descriptive system used, of which the EQ-5D (EuroQoL, 5 Dimensions) is by far the most widely used. High correlation coefficients for EQ-5D value sets derived from different samples-across countries and/or using different valuation techniques-are conventionally interpreted as evidence that the people in the respective samples have similar HRQoL preferences...
August 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
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