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American Journal of Primatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992652/shifting-through-the-forest-home-range-movement-patterns-and-diet-of-the-eastern-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-schweinfurthii-in-nyungwe-national-park-rwanda
#1
Jennifer F Moore, Felix Mulindahabi, Gratien Gatorano, Protais Niyigaba, Innocent Ndikubwimana, Chloé Cipolletta, Michel K Masozera
Populations of the endangered eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) are declining throughout their range. Although Nyungwe National Park (NNP) harbors the largest remaining eastern chimpanzee population in Rwanda, we know little about their space use and dietary patterns. We studied home range, movement, and diet of two communities of chimpanzees in NNP using daily tracking data (6:00 am to 6:00 pm) collected from 2000 to 2015. One community, Mayebe, resided in the forest center, and the other community, Cyamudongo, inhabited a forest fragment located about 10 km from the main forest...
July 10, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984842/the-microbial-reproductive-ecology-of-white-faced-capuchins-cebus-capucinus
#2
Elizabeth K Mallott, Katherine R Amato
Changes in reproductive status influence energy and nutrient requirements in female primates. The gut microbiota may buffer changes in energy demands, with shifts in community composition increasing the energy production potential of the gut during pregnancy and lactation. In this study, we examine changes in the gut microbiome of wild, female white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) across different reproductive states. Fecal samples (n = 39) were collected from five adult females over the course of a year...
July 9, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931777/weak-effects-of-common-genetic-variation-in-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-receptor-genes-on-rhesus-macaque-social-behavior
#3
Seth Madlon-Kay, Michael J Montague, Lauren J N Brent, Samuel Ellis, Brian Zhong, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Julie E Horvath, Jesse Haynes Pate Skene, Michael L Platt
The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) influence pair bonding, attachment, and sociality, as well as anxiety and stress responses in humans and other mammals. The effects of these peptides are mediated by genetic variability in their associated receptors, OXTR and the AVPR gene family. However, the role of these genes in regulating social behaviors in non-human primates is not well understood. To address this question, we examined whether genetic variation in the OT receptor gene OXTR and the AVP receptor genes AVPR1A and AVPR1B influence naturally-occurring social behavior in free-ranging rhesus macaques-gregarious primates that share many features of their biology and social behavior with humans...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923328/effects-of-group-size-and-rank-on-mother-infant-relationships-and-reproductive-success-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#4
Bo-Jun Liu, Cheng-Feng Wu, Paul A Garber, Peng Zhang, Ming Li
In the present study, we compared mother-infant relationships in 57 mother-infant dyads residing in two wild, semi-provisioned (22 mother-infant dyads in 2014, 35 dyads in 2015) groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Nanwan Nature Reserve for Rhesus Macaques, Hainan, China. We also compared reproductive success between these two groups. The ecology and provisioning regime for each group was similar. These groups differed however, in size. Group 1 contained ∼35 individuals and Group 2 contained ∼120 individuals...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923206/bridging-the-gap-between-rodents-and-humans-the-role-of-non-human-primates-in-oxytocin-research
#5
REVIEW
Philip T Putnam, Larry J Young, Katalin M Gothard
Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide that acts in the brain as a neuromodulator, has been long known to shape maternal physiology and behavior in mammals, however its role in regulating social cognition and behavior in primates has come to the forefront only in the recent decade. Many of the current perspectives on the role of OT in modulating social behavior emerged first from studies in rodents, where invasive techniques with a high degree of precision have permitted the mechanistic dissection of OT-related behaviors, as well as their underlying neural circuits in exquisite detail...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896810/comprehensive-phylogenomic-analysis-reveals-a-novel-cluster-of-simian-endogenous-retroviral-sequences-in-colobinae-monkeys
#6
Masaki Ikeda, Kazuhiro Satomura, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Kentaro Hanada, Toshinori Endo, Naoki Osada
Simian retrovirus (SRV) is a type-D betaretrovirus infectious to the Old World monkeys causing a variety of symptoms. SRVs are also present in the Old World monkey genomes as endogenous forms, which are referred to as Simian endogenous retroviruses (SERVs). Although many SERV sequences have been identified in Cercopithecinae genomes, with potential of encoding all functional genes, the distribution of SERVs in genomes and evolutionary relationship between exogeneous SRVs and SERVs remains unclear. In this study, we comprehensively investigated seven draft genome sequences of the Old World monkeys, and identified a novel cluster of SERVs in the two Rhinopithecus (R...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893498/season-age-and-sex-affect-the-fecal-mycobiota-of-free-ranging-tibetan-macaques-macaca-thibetana
#7
Binghua Sun, Zhiyuan Gu, Xi Wang, Michael A Huffman, Paul A Garber, Lori K Sheeran, Dao Zhang, Yong Zhu, Dong-Po Xia, Jin-Hua Li
Recent studies highlight that the gut mycobiota play essential roles in mammalian metabolic and immune systems, but to date we lack information on the forces that naturally shape the gut mycobiota of wild primates. To investigate the contributions of host and environmental factors in the taxonomic variation of the gut mycobiota, we examined the effects of age, sex, and season on the fecal mycobiota in wild-living Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana). Using next generation sequencing and a longitudinal set of fecal samples collected over 1 year, we identified a set of core fungal taxa present in the Tibetan macaque's fecal samples...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882365/nutrient-intake-and-balancing-among-female-colobus-angolensis-palliatus-inhabiting-structurally-distinct-forest-areas-effects-of-group-season-and-reproductive-state
#8
Noah T Dunham, Luis E Rodriguez-Saona
Understanding intraspecific behavioral and dietary variation is critical for assessing primate populations' abilities to persist in habitats characterized by increasing anthropogenic disturbances. While it is evident that some species exhibit considerable dietary flexibility (in terms of species-specific plant parts) in relation to habitat disturbance, it is unclear if primates are characterized by similar variation and flexibility regarding nutrient intake. This study examined the effects of group, season, and reproductive state on nutrient intake and balancing in adult female Colobus angolensis palliatus in the Diani Forest, Kenya...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862532/quantification-of-hair-cortisol-concentration-in-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus-and-tufted-capuchins-cebus-apella
#9
Kimberley A Phillips, Alyson N Tukan, Anna D Rigodanzo, Ryan T Reusch, Kathleen M Brasky, Jerrold S Meyer
Quantifying cortisol concentration in hair is a non-invasive biomarker of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation, and thus can provide important information on laboratory animal health. Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and capuchins (Cebus apella) are New World primates increasingly used in biomedical and neuroscience research, yet published hair cortisol concentrations for these species are limited. Review of the existing published hair cortisol values from marmosets reveals highly discrepant values and the use of variable techniques for hair collection, processing, and cortisol extraction...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797339/oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-containing-fibers-in-the-cortex-of-humans-chimpanzees-and-rhesus-macaques
#10
Christina N Rogers, Amy P Ross, Shweta P Sahu, Ethan R Siegel, Jeromy M Dooyema, Mary Ann Cree, Edward G Stopa, Larry J Young, James K Rilling, H Elliott Albers, Todd M Preuss
Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are involved in the regulation of complex social behaviors across a wide range of taxa. Despite this, little is known about the neuroanatomy of the OT and AVP systems in most non-human primates, and less in humans. The effects of OT and AVP on social behavior, including aggression, mating, and parental behavior, may be mediated primarily by the extensive connections of OT- and AVP-producing neurons located in the hypothalamus with the basal forebrain and amygdala, as well as with the hypothalamus itself...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797338/urinary-oxytocin-in-capuchin-monkeys-validation-and-the-influence-of-social-behavior
#11
Marcela E Benítez, Meghan J Sosnowski, Olivia B Tomeo, Sarah F Brosnan
In highly social species, like primates, oxytocin plays an important role in cooperation, and in the formation and maintenance of social relationships. Despite recent interest in the relationship between oxytocin and social behavior in nonhuman primates, relatively little is known about endogenous oxytocin in social New World Monkeys. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between oxytocin and affiliative behaviors in socially-housed captive capuchin monkeys (Sapajus [Cebus] apella) by first validating methods of analysis of urinary oxytocin in this species and, second, examining the effects of grooming and fur-rubbing behavior on oxytocin concentrations and further affiliative behavior...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797332/brain-size-growth-in-wild-and-captive-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#12
Zachary Cofran
Despite many studies of chimpanzee brain size growth, intraspecific variation is under-explored. Brain size data from chimpanzees of the Taï Forest and the Yerkes Primate Research Center enable a unique glimpse into brain growth variation as age at death is known for individuals, allowing cross-sectional growth curves to be estimated. Because Taï chimpanzees are from the wild but Yerkes apes are captive, potential environmental effects on neural development can also be explored. Previous research has revealed differences in growth and health between wild and captive primates, but such habitat effects have yet to be investigated for brain growth...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767414/variation-in-reproduction-of-the-smallest-bodied-primate-radiation-the-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-spp-a-synopsis
#13
Mamy Rina Evasoa, Ute Radespiel, Alida F Hasiniaina, Solofonirina Rasoloharijaona, Blanchard Randrianambinina, Romule Rakotondravony, Elke Zimmermann
Reproduction is a fundamental trait in the life history of any species and contributes to species diversity and evolution. Here, we aim to review the barely known variation in reproductive patterns of the smallest-bodied primate radiation, the Malagasy mouse lemurs, focusing on twelve species of four phylogenetic clades. We present a new reproductive field dataset collected between May and November 1996-2016 for nine species (Microcebus murinus, M. myoxinus, M. ravelobensis, M. bongolavensis, M. danfossi, M...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756649/measuring-peripheral-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-in-nonhuman-primates
#14
REVIEW
Toni E Ziegler
Studying the neural and hormonal changes that modulate behavior is critical to understanding social relationships. Of particular interest is measuring oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) peripherally, and preferably, non-invasively, in nonhuman primates. Due to these peptides' neural origin and their stimulation of brain areas that influence social behavior, there has been debate whether peripheral measures in blood, urine, and saliva reflect central levels in the brain. This review elucidates the challenges of OT measurement and the solutions that provide valuable data on OT's role in social behavior...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862519/the-gut-microbiome-of-nonhuman-primates-lessons-in-ecology-and-evolution
#15
REVIEW
Jonathan B Clayton, Andres Gomez, Katherine Amato, Dan Knights, Dominic A Travis, Ran Blekhman, Rob Knight, Steven Leigh, Rebecca Stumpf, Tiffany Wolf, Kenneth E Glander, Francis Cabana, Timothy J Johnson
The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to trillions of bacteria that play a substantial role in host metabolism and immunity. While progress has been made in understanding the role that microbial communities play in human health and disease, much less attention has been given to host-associated microbiomes in nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here we review past and current research exploring the gut microbiome of NHPs. First, we summarize methods for characterization of the NHP gut microbiome. Then we discuss variation in gut microbiome composition and function across different NHP taxa...
June 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767431/vocal-repertoire-of-free-ranging-adult-golden-snub-nosed-monkeys-rhinopithecus-roxellana
#16
Penglai Fan, Xuecong Liu, Ruoshuang Liu, Fang Li, Tianpeng Huang, Feng Wu, Hui Yao, Dingzhen Liu
Vocal signaling represents a primary mode of communication for most nonhuman primates. A quantitative description of the vocal repertoire is a critical step in in-depth studies of the vocal communication of particular species, and provides the foundation for comparative studies to investigate the selective pressures in the evolution of vocal communication systems. The present study was the first attempt to establish the vocal repertoire of free-ranging adult golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) based on quantitative methods...
June 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756687/comparing-the-sniffing-behavior-of-great-apes
#17
Susann Jänig, Brigitte M Weiß, Anja Widdig
The importance of smell in humans is well established but we know little about it in regard to our closest relatives, the great apes, as systematic studies on their olfactory behavior are still lacking. Olfaction has long been considered to be of lesser importance in hominids given their relatively smaller olfactory bulbs, fewer functional olfactory receptor genes than other species and absence of a functional vomeronasal organ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of olfaction in hominids...
June 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756654/effect-of-reward-type-on-object-discrimination-learning-in-socially-monogamous-coppery-titi-monkeys-callicebus-cupreus
#18
Sara M Freeman, Nancy Rebout, Karen L Bales
Highly valued food items are often used as rewards to reinforce an animal's behavior. For social species, social interaction is rewarding and can drive an individual's behavior as well. In the currently study, we wanted to compare the efficacy of a food reward and a social reward on object discrimination learning in socially monogamous titi monkeys. We hypothesized that titi monkeys would perform more accurately for a social reward (their pair mate) than for a food reward (a highly desired food item). Eleven adult titi monkeys were tested with a two-object visual discrimination task for both types of reward...
June 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756650/stillbirth-rates-across-three-ape-species-in-accredited-american-zoos
#19
Sana T Saiyed, Rebecca C Liubicich, Mason Fidino, Stephen R Ross
Stillbirths, or births of infants that died in the womb, represent a failure of the materno-feto-placental unit to maintain a suitable fetal environment. Typical studies of nonhuman primate (NHP) stillbirth patterns are primarily descriptive and focus on macaques (genus Macaca). Thus, less is known about other NHP species and rarer still are studies that examine possible biological factors that influence stillbirth rates across taxa. To examine possible contributors to stillbirths in great apes, we analyzed 36 years (1980-2016) of historical data documenting births of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 391), western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, N = 491), and orangutans (Pongo spp, N = 307) in accredited zoological parks in the United States...
June 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722034/surviving-in-the-urban-rural-interface-feeding-and-ranging-behavior-of-brown-howlers-alouatta-guariba-clamitans-in-an-urban-fragment-in-southern-brazil
#20
Fabiana M Corrêa, Óscar M Chaves, Rodrigo C Printes, Helena P Romanowski
Wild primates that live in urban areas face extreme threats that are less frequent in nonurban fragments, such as the presence of dangerous matrix elements (e.g., roads, power lines, buildings, and a high density of domestic dogs near food patches), that could influence their movements, feeding behavior, and survival. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hinders our understanding of the behavioral adjustments that favor the survival of primates in urban areas. For 12 months, we studied a six-individual group of brown howlers (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in an urban fragment to determine (i) their diet richness and its relationships with food availability, (ii) their daily path length (DPL) and the matrix elements used during movement, and (iii) the main ecological drivers of the DPL...
June 2018: American Journal of Primatology
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