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American Journal of Primatology

Rebecca L Chancellor, Aaron S Rundus, Sylvain Nyandwi
: Primate seed dispersal plays an important role in forest regeneration. It may be particularly important to anthropogenically disturbed habitats such as forest fragments. However, few studies have examined primate seed dispersal in these types of environments. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are frugivorous and large-bodied, and are therefore able to disperse both large and small seeds, making them an important seed dispersal species. We examined chimpanzee seed dispersal in Gishwati forest, a 14 km(2) montane rainforest fragment in Rwanda...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Erin R Vogel, Shauhin E Alavi, Sri Suci Utami-Atmoko, Maria A van Noordwijk, Timothy D Bransford, Wendy M Erb, Astri Zulfa, Fransiska Sulistyo, Wartika Rosa Farida, Jessica M Rothman
: The spatial and temporal variation in food abundance has strong effects on wildlife feeding and nutrition. This variation is exemplified by the peatland forests of Central Kalimantan, which are characterized by unpredictable fruiting fluctuations, relatively low levels of fruit availability, and low fruit periods (<3% of trees fruiting) that can last nearly a year. Challenged by these environments, large, arboreal frugivores like orangutans must periodically rely on non-preferred, lower-quality foods to meet their nutritional needs...
November 27, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Katie Hall, Mike W Oram, Matthew W Campbell, Timothy M Eppley, Richard W Byrne, Frans B M de Waal
: Tactical deception has been widely reported in primates on a functional basis, but details of behavioral mechanisms are usually unspecified. We tested a pair of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the informed forager paradigm, in which the subordinate saw the location of hidden food and the dominant did not. We employed cross-correlations to examine temporal contingencies between chimpanzees' behavior: specifically how the direction of the subordinate's gaze and movement functioned to manipulate the dominant's searching behavior through two tactics, withholding, and misleading information...
November 27, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Alexander Bjarnason, Christophe Soligo, Sarah Elton
Pitheciids, one of the major radiations of New World monkeys endemic to South and Central America, are distributed in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, and include Callicebus, Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia. Molecular phylogenetics strongly support pitheciid monophyly, whereas morphological analyses infer a range of phylogenies including a sister relationship between Aotus and Callicebus. We collected geometric morphometric cranial data from pitheciids and Aotus, and used cranial data for distance-based phylogenetic analysis and tests of phylogenetic signal...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Talitha Mayumi Francisco, Karina Lucas Barbosa Lopes-Mattos, Edgard Augusto de Toledo Picoli, Dayvid Rodrigues Couto, Juraci Alves Oliveira, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão, Ita de Oliveira Silva, Vanner Boere
Primates of the genus Callithrix often obtain exudates from plants of the family Fabaceae. This study characterizes the chemical composition of exudates, and the anatomy and hystochemistry of the secretory ducts in the bark of Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg. var. peregrina (Fabaceae). Exudates from this tree species represent an important component of the diet of hybrid marmosets, Callithrix spp. (Primates: Cebidae). A. peregrina was selected as the focal study tree because it is the only gum tree species exploited by Callithrix groups present within five urban forest fragments in the municipality of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Christophe Boesch, Ammie K Kalan, Anthony Agbor, Mimi Arandjelovic, Paula Dieguez, Vincent Lapeyre, Hjalmar S Kühl
Wild chimpanzees regularly use tools, made from sticks, leaves, or stone, to find flexible solutions to the ecological challenges of their environment. Nevertheless, some studies suggest strong limitations in the tool-using capabilities of chimpanzees. In this context, we present the discovery of a newly observed tool-use behavior in a population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in the Bakoun Classified Forest, Guinea, where a temporary research site was established for 15 months. Bakoun chimpanzees of every age-sex class were observed to fish for freshwater green algae, Spirogrya sp...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Michele Bahia, Flávia de Nazaré Leite Barros, Paulo Cesar Magalhães-Matos, Thamirys de Souza Gonçalves, Laerzio Chiesorin Neto, Diogo Cesar Lagroteria Oliveira Faria, Sandra Aparecida Romeiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros Monteiro, Gustavo Góes-Cavalcante, Alessandra Scofield
The aim of this study was to detect the infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in captive Neotropical primates in the Brazilian Amazon. From February 2013 to July 2014, 112 blood samples were collected from Neotropical primates from the Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará States, north of Brazil. The subjects belonged to the families Cebidae (N = 59), Atelidae (N = 41), Callitrichidae (N = 5), Pitheciidae (N = 4), and Aotidae (N = 3). Blood smears also were examined for the presence of trypomastigotes by optical microscopy...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
John F Aristizabal, Jessica M Rothman, Luis M García-Fería, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva
Two methods are commonly used to describe the feeding behavior of wild primates, one based on the proportion of time animals spent feeding on specific plant parts ("time-based" estimates) and one based on estimates of the actual amounts of different plant materials ingested ('"weight-based" estimates). However, studies based on feeding time may not be accurate for making quantitative assessments of animals' nutrient and energy intake. We analyzed the diet of two groups of Alouatta pigra living in forest fragments using two different methods (time- and dry weight-based estimates), to explore how these alternative approaches impact estimates of (a) the contribution of each food type to the diet and (b) the macronutrient composition of the diet, including available protein (AP), non-protein energy (NPE), and total energy (TE) intake...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Flávia Koch, Joerg U Ganzhorn, Jessica M Rothman, Colin A Chapman, Claudia Fichtel
Fluctuations in food availability are a major challenge faced by primates living in seasonal climates. Variation in food availability can be especially challenging for females, because of the high energetic costs of reproduction. Therefore, females must adapt the particular demands of the different reproductive stages to the seasonal availability of resources. Madagascar has a highly seasonal climate, where food availability can be extremely variable. We investigated the seasonal changes in diet composition, nutrient and energy intake of female and male sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi) in a dry deciduous forest in western Madagascar...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Michael L Power, Jay Schulkin, Heather Drought, Lauren A Milligan, Katie L Murtough, Robin M Bernstein
In addition to nutrients, milk contains signaling molecules that influence offspring development. Human milk is similar in nutrient composition to that of apes, but appears to differ in other aspects such as immune function. We examine the longitudinal patterns across lactation of macronutrients, the metabolic hormone adiponectin, the growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2), and two receptors for these growth factors (EGF-R and TGF-β2-RIII) in milk samples collected between days 175 and 313 postpartum from a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and between days 3 and 1,276 from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and compare the results with human data from the literature...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Caroline M Hostetler, Katherine Hinde, Nicole Maninger, Sally P Mendoza, William A Mason, Douglas J Rowland, Guobao B Wang, David Kukis, Simon R Cherry, Karen L Bales
Pair bonding leads to increases in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) binding in the nucleus accumbens of monogamous prairie voles. In the current study, we hypothesized that there is similar up-regulation of D1R in a monogamous primate, the titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus). Receptor binding of the D1R antagonist [(11) C]-SCH23390 was measured in male titi monkeys using PET scans before and after pairing with a female. We found that within-subject analyses of pairing show significant increases in D1R binding in the lateral septum, but not the nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, or ventral pallidum...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Srichan Bunlungsup, Hiroo Imai, Yuzuru Hamada, Kazunari Matsudaira, Suchinda Malaivijitnond
Macaca fascicularis fascicularis is distributed over a wide area of Southeast Asia. Thailand is located at the center of their distribution range and is the bridge connecting the two biogeographic regions of Indochina and Sunda. However, only a few genetic studies have explored the macaques in this region. To shed some light on the evolutionary history of M. f. fascicularis, including hybridization with M. mulatta, M. f. fascicularis and M. mulatta samples of known origins throughout Thailand and the vicinity were analyzed by molecular phylogenetics using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including the hypervariable region 1, and Y-chromosomal DNA, including SRY and TSPY genes...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Darcy L Hannibal
In this article, I describe a previously unreported maxillary lateral incisor defect (MLID) of the enamel in great apes and evaluate potential general causes (genetic, systemic stress, or localized disturbance), as well as examine differences in prevalence among the represented taxa. This defect occurred only on the labial surface of the maxillary lateral incisor and extended from the cervical-mesial quarter of the crown to the mesial edge of the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). The study sample consisted of 136 great ape specimens, including 41 gorillas, 25 chimpanzees, and 70 orangutans from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History great ape collection...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Samuel T Turvey, Jessica V Bryant, Clare Duncan, Michelle H G Wong, Zhenhua Guan, Hanlan Fei, Changyong Ma, Xiaojiang Hong, Helen C Nash, Bosco P L Chan, Yang Xu, Pengfei Fan
For Critically Endangered "species of extreme rarity," there is an urgent need to clarify the potential survival of remnant populations. Such populations can be difficult to detect using standard field methods. Local ecological knowledge (LEK) represents an important alternative source of information, but anecdotal reports of rare or possibly extinct species can contain uncertainty and error. The Hainan gibbon (Nomascus hainanus), the world's rarest primate species, is confirmed to only survive as a tiny remnant population in Bawangling National Nature Reserve, China, but unverified gibbon sightings have been reported from other forest areas on Hainan...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Bidyut Sarania, Ashalata Devi, Awadhesh Kumar, Kuladip Sarma, Atul Kumar Gupta
The present study reports the population of Macaca munzala in Tawang and West Kameng districts and its predictive distribution range in Arunachal Pradesh, estimated using ecological niche modeling. Environmental variables and occurrence data from a preliminary survey were used in the MaxEnt modeling, a statistical model to know the potential distribution area of the enigmatic species in Arunachal Pradesh. Later, a population survey was carried out in Tawang and West Kameng districts of the state following existing trails and paths...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Kimberly S Grant, Julie M Worlein, Jerrold S Meyer, Melinda A Novak, Rose Kroeker, Kendra Rosenberg, Caroline Kenney, Thomas M Burbacher
Cortisol is a well-known glucocorticoid that can be used as a biomarker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity. To explore basal cortisol physiology during pregnancy and infancy in Macaca nemestrina monkeys, hair was collected from a convenience sample of 22 healthy mother-infant dyads. Adult females were housed in pairs as part of a small breeding colony at the Washington National Primate Research Center and infants were reared in a specialized nursery. Maternal samples were collected from females during a pregnancy-detection ultrasound and immediately following labor and delivery...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Michelle C Huffman, Jonathan B Santo, Jeffrey A French
The timing of reproductive maturation is susceptible to hormonal and environmental influences, and variation in this timing can be partially attributed to the prenatal and post-natal environment. We examined associations between prenatal steroid exposure and the post-natal family environment on the variability in reproductive maturation timing in young marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi). Urine samples from pregnant females were analyzed for cortisol (CORT) and androgens (uA). Post-natal uA was measured in males to determine age (in days) of adult-like levels of androgens associated with spermatogenesis; post-natal pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG) was measured in females to determine age (in days) of first ovulation...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Joyce A Parga, Michelle L Sauther, Frank P Cuozzo, Ibrahim Antho Youssouf Jacky, Richard R Lawler, Robert W Sussman, Lisa Gould, Jennifer Pastorini
In group-living species with male dominance hierarchies where receptive periods of females do not overlap, high male reproductive skew would be predicted. However, the existence of female multiple mating and alternative male mating strategies can call into question single-male monopolization of paternity in groups. Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are seasonally breeding primates that live in multi-male, multi-female groups. Although established groups show male dominance hierarchies, male dominance relationships can break down during mating periods...
December 2016: American Journal of Primatology
James E Loudon, Paul A Sandberg, Richard W Wrangham, Babette Fahey, Matt Sponheimer
Stable isotope analysis has long been used to study the dietary ecology of living and fossil primates, and there has been increasing interest in using stable isotopes to study primate habitat use and anthropogenic impacts on non-human primates. Here, we examine the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from seven communities in Uganda across a continuum of habitat structure (closed to more open) and access to anthropogenic resources (no reliance to heavy reliance)...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Bryce A Carlson, Brooke E Crowley
Stable isotope values in primate tissues can be used to reconstruct diet in the absence of direct observation. However, in order to make dietary inferences, one must first establish isotopic variability for potential food sources. In this study we examine stable carbon isotope (δ(13) C) values for chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) food resources from two Ugandan forests: Ngogo (Kibale National Park), and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. Mean δ(13) C values for plant samples are equivalent at both sites. Plant δ(13) C values are best explained by a multivariate linear model including plant part (leaves, pith, flowers, and fruit), vertical position within the canopy (canopy vs...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
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