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American Journal of Primatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926116/a-molar-microwear-texture-analysis-of-pitheciid-primates
#1
Anna J Ragni, Mark F Teaford, Peter S Ungar
Dental microwear textures have been examined for a broad range of extant primates to assess their efficacy for reconstructing diets of fossil species. To date though, no dental microwear texture data have been published for pitheciid molars, despite reported variation in degree of sclerocarpy and, by extension, the fracture properties of foods these platyrrhines eat. While all pitheciids eat hard or tough seeds, Chiropotes and Pithecia have been documented to consume more than Callicebus. In this study, we explored whether measures of molar microwear texture complexity discriminate taxa following variation in reliance upon seeds, and whether dispersion among variables is greatest in Callicebus, which has the most variable diet...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902417/genetic-variants-related-to-disease-susceptibility-and-immunotolerance-in-the-duffy-antigen-receptor-for-chemokines-darc-fy-gene-in-the-black-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-chrysopygus-primates
#2
Ashley Ansel, James D Lewis, Don J Melnick, Cristiana Martins, Claudio Valladares-Padua, Beatriz Perez-Sweeney
The DARC (Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines) gene encodes the DARC protein, which serves multiple roles in the immune system, as a binding site for the malarial parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, a promiscuous chemokine receptor and a blood group antigen. Variation in DARC may play particularly significant roles in innate immunity, immunotolerance and pathogen entry in callitrichines, such as the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus). We compared amino acid sequences of DARC in the black lion tamarin (BLT) to non-human Haplorhine primates and Homo sapiens...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898502/reduced-range-of-the-endangered-crested-capuchin-monkey-sapajus-robustus-and-a-possible-hybrid-zone-with-sapajus-nigritus
#3
Waldney Pereira Martins, Jessica Lynch Alfaro, Anthony B Rylands
The crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) is an endangered species endemic to the highly fragmented Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Surveys for S. robustus were carried out over a 25-month period (2003-2005) to obtain more precise geographical limits for the western range of the species. Previously published localities for S. robustus were mapped, and each point was given a 25-km radius "buffer zone." The largest forest remnants in the buffer zones (>300 ha) in Minas Gerais were visited in order to interview the local people and/or survey the forests directly using playback recordings of S...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898440/low-lactobacilli-abundance-and-polymicrobial-diversity-in-the-lower-reproductive-tract-of-female-rhesus-monkeys-do-not-compromise-their-reproductive-success
#4
Wellington Z Amaral, Gabriele R Lubach, Amita Kapoor, Alexandra Proctor, Gregory J Phillips, Mark Lyte, Christopher L Coe
The lower reproductive tract of nonhuman primates is colonized with a diverse microbiota, resembling bacterial vaginosis (BV), a gynecological condition associated with negative reproductive outcomes in women. Our 4 aims were to: (i) assess the prevalence of low Lactobacilli and a BV-like profile in female rhesus monkeys; (ii) quantify cytokines in their cervicovaginal fluid (CVF); (iii) examine the composition and structure of their mucosal microbiota with culture-independent sequencing methods; and (iv) evaluate the potential influence on reproductive success...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892192/estimating-activity-of-japanese-macaques-macaca-fuscata-using-accelerometers
#5
John C M Sha, Akihisa Kaneko, Naoko Suda-Hashimoto, Tianmeng He, Makiko Take, Peng Zhang, Goro Hanya
Accelerometers have been used to study both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife, mainly for mammal and bird species. In terrestrial mammals, there is a bias toward ungulates and carnivores, with fewer studies on nonhuman primates. In this study, we tested the use of accelerometers for studying the activity of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). We modeled the activity of a male and a female subject by matching continuous focal observations from video recordings to sensor parameters derived from collar-mounted accelerometers...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877369/diet-and-feeding-behavior-of-a-group-of-42-phayre-s-langurs-in-a-seasonal-habitat-in-mt-gaoligong-yunnan-china
#6
Chi Ma, Peng-Fei Fan, Zhong-Yuan Zhang, Jia-Hong Li, Xiao-Chun Shi, Wen Xiao
In habitats such as temperate evergreen forests, fruit, and seed productivity is reported to exhibit marked changes in seasonal availability, such that fruit is most available in summer and seeds are most available in autumn. Primates living in these habitats, therefore, are expected to adjust their diets in response to the spatial and temporal variation in these food resources. We studied the diet and feeding behavior of a group of 42 Phayre's langurs (Trachypithecus phayrei) living in a northern (24°48'N) montane habitat (1,700-2,350 m) in Mt...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877364/are-great-apes-able-to-reason-from-multi-item-samples-to-populations-of-food-items
#7
Johanna Eckert, Hannes Rakoczy, Josep Call
Inductive learning from limited observations is a cognitive capacity of fundamental importance. In humans, it is underwritten by our intuitive statistics, the ability to draw systematic inferences from populations to randomly drawn samples and vice versa. According to recent research in cognitive development, human intuitive statistics develops early in infancy. Recent work in comparative psychology has produced first evidence for analogous cognitive capacities in great apes who flexibly drew inferences from populations to samples...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846149/using-video-and-theater-to-increase-knowledge-and-change-attitudes-why-are-gorillas-important-to-the-world-and-to-congo
#8
Thomas Breuer, Franck Barrel Mavinga, Ron Evans, Kristen E Lukas
Applying environmental education in primate range countries is an important long-term activity to stimulate pro-conservation behavior. Within captive settings, mega-charismatic species, such as great apes are often used to increase knowledge and positively influence attitudes of visitors. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of a short-term video and theater program developed for a Western audience and adapted to rural people living in two villages around Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo. We assessed the knowledge gain and attitude change using oral evaluation in the local language (N = 111)...
August 28, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833343/correlates-of-androgens-in-wild-male-barbary-macaques-testing-the-challenge-hypothesis
#9
Alan V Rincon, Laëtitia Maréchal, Stuart Semple, Bonaventura Majolo, Ann MacLarnon
Investigating causes and consequences of variation in hormonal expression is a key focus in behavioral ecology. Many studies have explored patterns of secretion of the androgen testosterone in male vertebrates, using the challenge hypothesis (Wingfield, Hegner, Dufty, & Ball, 1990; The American Naturalist, 136(6), 829-846) as a theoretical framework. Rather than the classic association of testosterone with male sexual behavior, this hypothesis predicts that high levels of testosterone are associated with male-male reproductive competition but also inhibit paternal care...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763579/sleeping-above-the-enemy-sleeping-site-choice-by-black-fronted-titi-monkeys-callicebus-nigrifrons
#10
Christini B Caselli, Carla C Gestich, Mariana B Nagy-Reis
The costs imposed by predation may result in behavioral adaptations to reduce mortality risk, including the choice and use of sleeping sites. The threat of predation, however, is rarely the sole force shaping sleeping site choice, which is likely to reflect other factors such as foraging needs as well. Here we describe the use of sleeping sites by three groups of small Neotropical monkeys, the black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons), and evaluate the role of predation pressure and foraging optimization in their choice of sleeping sites...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762524/resilience-of-experimentally-seeded-dietary-traditions-in-wild-vervets-evidence-from-group-fissions
#11
Erica van de Waal, Carel P van Schaik, Andrew Whiten
Controlled laboratory experiments have delivered extensive and compelling evidence for the diffusion and maintenance of socially learned behavior in primates and other animals. Such evidence is rarer in the wild, but we show that a behavior seeded in a majority of individuals within vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythus) groups may be sustained across several years. Here, we report results of two natural fission events in such groups that offer novel evidence of the resilience of socially transmitted group norms of behavior...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749595/morbidity-and-mortality-in-infant-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-a-46-year-retrospective-review
#12
James M Hassell, Dawn Zimmerman, Michael R Cranfield, Kirsten Gilardi, Antoine Mudakikwa, Jan Ramer, Elisabeth Nyirakaragire, Linda J Lowenstine
Long-term studies of morbidity and mortality in free-ranging primates are scarce, but may have important implications for the conservation of extant populations. Infants comprise a particularly important age group, as variation in survival rates may have a strong influence on population dynamics. Since 1968, the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (MGVP, Inc.) and government partners have conducted a comprehensive health monitoring and disease investigation program on mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783206/high-mortality-associated-with-tapeworm-parasitism-in-geladas-theropithecus-gelada-in-the-simien-mountains-national-park-ethiopia
#13
India Schneider-Crease, Randi H Griffin, Megan A Gomery, Thore J Bergman, Jacinta C Beehner
Despite increasing appreciation for parasitism as an important component of primate ecology and evolution, surprisingly few studies have demonstrated the costs of helminth parasitism in primates. Detecting parasite-related costs in primates is particularly difficult because it requires detailed, long-term data on individual host reproductive success, survival, and parasitism. The identification of the larval tapeworm Taenia serialis in geladas under intensive long-term study in the Ethiopian Highlands (Nguyen et al...
September 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763107/membership-analysis-of-the-american-society-of-primatologists-through-2015-and-planning-for-future
#14
EDITORIAL
Kimberley A Phillips, Marilyn A Norconk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671715/the-critically-endangered-western-chimpanzee-declines-by-80
#15
Hjalmar S Kühl, Tenekwetche Sop, Elizabeth A Williamson, Roger Mundry, David Brugière, Genevieve Campbell, Heather Cohen, Emmanuel Danquah, Laura Ginn, Ilka Herbinger, Sorrel Jones, Jessica Junker, Rebecca Kormos, Celestin Y Kouakou, Paul K N'Goran, Emma Normand, Kathryn Shutt-Phillips, Alexander Tickle, Elleni Vendras, Adam Welsh, Erin G Wessling, Christophe Boesch
African large mammals are under extreme pressure from unsustainable hunting and habitat loss. Certain traits make large mammals particularly vulnerable. These include late age at first reproduction, long inter-birth intervals, and low population density. Great apes are a prime example of such vulnerability, exhibiting all of these traits. Here we assess the rate of population change for the western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, over a 24-year period. As a proxy for change in abundance, we used transect nest count data from 20 different sites archived in the IUCN SSC A...
September 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671714/significant-differentiation-in-the-apolipoprotein-a-lipoprotein-a-trait-between-chimpanzees-from-western-and-central-africa
#16
Asma Noureen, Claudius Ronke, Mahmoud Khalifa, Michel Halbwax, Anne Fischer, Claudine André, Rebeca Atencia, Rosa Garriga, Lawrence Mugisha, Uta Ceglarek, Joachim Thiery, Gerd Utermann, Konrad Schmidt
Elevated Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) plasma concentrations are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in humans, largely controlled by the LPA gene encoding apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)). Lp(a) is composed of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apo(a) and restricted to Catarrhini. A variable number of kringle IV (KIV) domains in LPA lead to a size polymorphism of apo(a) that is inversely correlated with Lp(a) concentrations. Smaller apo(a) isoforms and higher Lp(a) levels in central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes [PTT]) compared to humans from Europe had been reported...
September 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631840/the-effect-of-infant-vocalization-in-alloparental-responsiveness-of-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#17
Maricele Nascimento Barbosa, Maria Teresa da Silva Mota, Marcela Nascimento Barbosa
Among mammals, alloparental care can be influenced by hormones as well as by previous experience and sensory stimuli from the infants, such as sight and sound, smell, and physical contact with the infant. To determine the responsiveness of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) nonreproductive females and males with and without previous experience in caretaking to infant sensory cues, we exposed 12 females and 12 males to vocalization recordings for 10 min under two conditions: (1) exposure to adult conspecific vocalization recordings, and (2) exposure to infant vocalization recordings...
September 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608982/high-reproductive-effort-is-associated-with-decreasing-mortality-late-in-life-in-captive-ruffed-lemurs
#18
Morgane Tidière, Jean-François Lemaître, Guillaume Douay, Mylisa Whipple, Jean-Michel Gaillard
Evolutionary theories of senescence predict that a high allocation to reproduction during early life should have long-term deleterious consequences on future reproduction or survival because individuals have to face an energy allocation trade-off between reproductive effort and the maintenance of body condition. Using a high-quality dataset from 1,721 red ruffed lemurs (RRL, Varecia rubra) and 3,637 black and white ruffed lemurs (BWRM, V. variegata) living in captivity, we tested the existence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and late-life survival after accounting for possible confounding effects of natal environmental conditions...
September 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605039/infant-titi-monkey-behavior-in-the-open-field-test-and-the-effect-of-early-adversity
#19
Rebecca H Larke, Alice Toubiana, Katrina A Lindsay, Sally P Mendoza, Karen L Bales
The open field test is commonly used to measure anxiety-related behavior and exploration in rodents. Here, we used it as a standardized novel environment in which to evaluate the behavioral response of infant titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), to determine the effect of presence of individual family members, and to assess how adverse early experience alters infant behavior. Infants were tested in the open field for 5 days at ages 4 and 6 months in four successive 5 min trials on each day. A transport cage, which was situated on one side of the open field, was either empty (non-social control) or contained the father, mother, or sibling...
September 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605033/the-befuddling-nature-of-mouse-lemur-hands-and-feet-at-bez%C3%A3-mahafaly-sw-madagascar
#20
Gina Agostini, Emilienne Rasoazanabary, Laurie R Godfrey
The reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) possesses striking phenotypic and behavioral variation. This project investigates differences in autopod proportions in neighboring populations of M. griseorufus from the Special Reserve at Bezà Mahafaly in southwest Madagascar. One population resides in an environment generally preferred by M. griseorufus-a spiny forest with large-trunked trees, vertically-oriented supports, and more open ground, while the other resides in a gallery forest with abundant small, often horizontal peripheral branches in high canopy...
September 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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