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American Journal of Primatology

Srichan Bunlungsup, Hiroo Imai, Yuzuru Hamada, Kazunari Matsudaira, Suchinda Malaivijitnond
Macaca fascicularis fascicularis is distributed over a wide area of Southeast Asia. Thailand is located at the center of their distribution range and is the bridge connecting the two biogeographic regions of Indochina and Sunda. However, only a few genetic studies have explored the macaques in this region. To shed some light on the evolutionary history of M. f. fascicularis, including hybridization with M. mulatta, M. f. fascicularis and M. mulatta samples of known origins throughout Thailand and the vicinity were analyzed by molecular phylogenetics using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including the hypervariable region 1, and Y-chromosomal DNA, including SRY and TSPY genes...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Darcy L Hannibal
In this article, I describe a previously unreported maxillary lateral incisor defect (MLID) of the enamel in great apes and evaluate potential general causes (genetic, systemic stress, or localized disturbance), as well as examine differences in prevalence among the represented taxa. This defect occurred only on the labial surface of the maxillary lateral incisor and extended from the cervical-mesial quarter of the crown to the mesial edge of the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). The study sample consisted of 136 great ape specimens, including 41 gorillas, 25 chimpanzees, and 70 orangutans from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History great ape collection...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Samuel T Turvey, Jessica V Bryant, Clare Duncan, Michelle H G Wong, Zhenhua Guan, Hanlan Fei, Changyong Ma, Xiaojiang Hong, Helen C Nash, Bosco P L Chan, Yang Xu, Pengfei Fan
For Critically Endangered "species of extreme rarity," there is an urgent need to clarify the potential survival of remnant populations. Such populations can be difficult to detect using standard field methods. Local ecological knowledge (LEK) represents an important alternative source of information, but anecdotal reports of rare or possibly extinct species can contain uncertainty and error. The Hainan gibbon (Nomascus hainanus), the world's rarest primate species, is confirmed to only survive as a tiny remnant population in Bawangling National Nature Reserve, China, but unverified gibbon sightings have been reported from other forest areas on Hainan...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Bidyut Sarania, Ashalata Devi, Awadhesh Kumar, Kuladip Sarma, Atul Kumar Gupta
The present study reports the population of Macaca munzala in Tawang and West Kameng districts and its predictive distribution range in Arunachal Pradesh, estimated using ecological niche modeling. Environmental variables and occurrence data from a preliminary survey were used in the MaxEnt modeling, a statistical model to know the potential distribution area of the enigmatic species in Arunachal Pradesh. Later, a population survey was carried out in Tawang and West Kameng districts of the state following existing trails and paths...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Kimberly S Grant, Julie M Worlein, Jerrold S Meyer, Melinda A Novak, Rose Kroeker, Kendra Rosenberg, Caroline Kenney, Thomas M Burbacher
Cortisol is a well-known glucocorticoid that can be used as a biomarker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity. To explore basal cortisol physiology during pregnancy and infancy in Macaca nemestrina monkeys, hair was collected from a convenience sample of 22 healthy mother-infant dyads. Adult females were housed in pairs as part of a small breeding colony at the Washington National Primate Research Center and infants were reared in a specialized nursery. Maternal samples were collected from females during a pregnancy-detection ultrasound and immediately following labor and delivery...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Michelle C Huffman, Jonathan B Santo, Jeffrey A French
The timing of reproductive maturation is susceptible to hormonal and environmental influences, and variation in this timing can be partially attributed to the prenatal and post-natal environment. We examined associations between prenatal steroid exposure and the post-natal family environment on the variability in reproductive maturation timing in young marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi). Urine samples from pregnant females were analyzed for cortisol (CORT) and androgens (uA). Post-natal uA was measured in males to determine age (in days) of adult-like levels of androgens associated with spermatogenesis; post-natal pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG) was measured in females to determine age (in days) of first ovulation...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Johanna Neufuss, Tatyana Humle, Andrea Cremaschi, Tracy L Kivell
There has been an enduring interest in primate tool-use and manipulative abilities, most often with the goal of providing insight into the evolution of human manual dexterity, right-hand preference, and what behaviours make humans unique. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are arguably the most well-studied tool-users amongst non-human primates, and are particularly well-known for their complex nut-cracking behaviour, which has been documented in several West African populations. However, their sister-taxon, the bonobos (Pan paniscus), rarely engage in even simple tool-use and are not known to nut-crack in the wild...
August 26, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Joanna Malukiewicz, Katerina Guschanski, Adriana D Grativol, Maria Adélia B Oliveira, Carlos R Ruiz-Miranda, Anne C Stone
Callithrix jacchus and C. penicillata are among the smallest anthropoid primates, are highly specialized tree gougers, and largely occupy Brazil's most extreme, semi-arid biomes. However, the underlying genomic factors that underpin the evolution of these species and their unique traits are under-investigated. Additionally, exotic populations of these two species are widely established throughout Brazil and hybridize with threatened native congers. Thus, both genomic and conservation factors call for a better understanding of C...
August 12, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Carla C Gestich, Christini B Caselli, Mariana B Nagy-Reis, Eleonore Z F Setz, Rogério G T da Cunha
Accurate measures of animal population densities are essential to assess their status, demography, and answer ecological questions. Among several methods proposed to collect abundance data, line transect sampling is used the most. The assumptions required to obtain accurate density estimates through this method, however, are rarely met when studying primates. As most primate species are vocally active, density estimates can be improved by associating transect sampling with playback point counts to scan the entire study area...
July 27, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Adeline Serckx, Marie-Claude Huynen, Roseline C Beudels-Jamar, Marie Vimond, Jan Bogaert, Hjalmar S Kühl
The role of spatial scale in ecological pattern formation such as the geographical distribution of species has been a major theme in research for decades. Much progress has been made on identifying spatial scales of habitat influence on species distribution. Generally, the effect of a predictor variable on a response is evaluated over multiple, discrete spatial scales to identify an optimal scale of influence. However, the idea to identify one optimal scale of predictor influence is misleading. Species-environment relationships across scales are usually sigmoid increasing or decreasing rather than humped-shaped, because environmental conditions are generally highly autocorrelated...
July 27, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
James E Loudon, Paul A Sandberg, Richard W Wrangham, Babette Fahey, Matt Sponheimer
Stable isotope analysis has long been used to study the dietary ecology of living and fossil primates, and there has been increasing interest in using stable isotopes to study primate habitat use and anthropogenic impacts on non-human primates. Here, we examine the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from seven communities in Uganda across a continuum of habitat structure (closed to more open) and access to anthropogenic resources (no reliance to heavy reliance)...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Bryce A Carlson, Brooke E Crowley
Stable isotope values in primate tissues can be used to reconstruct diet in the absence of direct observation. However, in order to make dietary inferences, one must first establish isotopic variability for potential food sources. In this study we examine stable carbon isotope (δ(13) C) values for chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) food resources from two Ugandan forests: Ngogo (Kibale National Park), and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. Mean δ(13) C values for plant samples are equivalent at both sites. Plant δ(13) C values are best explained by a multivariate linear model including plant part (leaves, pith, flowers, and fruit), vertical position within the canopy (canopy vs...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Brooke E Crowley, Laurie J Reitsema, Vicky M Oelze, Matt Sponheimer
Stable isotope biogeochemistry has been used to investigate foraging ecology in non-human primates for nearly 30 years. Whereas early studies focused on diet, more recently, isotopic analysis has been used to address a diversity of ecological questions ranging from niche partitioning to nutritional status to variability in life history traits. With this increasing array of applications, stable isotope analysis stands to make major contributions to our understanding of primate behavior and biology. Most notably, isotopic data provide novel insights into primate feeding behaviors that may not otherwise be detectable...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Laurie R Godfrey, Brooke E Crowley, Kathleen M Muldoon, Elizabeth A Kelley, Stephen J King, Andrew W Best, Michael A Berthaume
Over 40 years ago, Clifford Jolly noted different ways in which Hadropithecus stenognathus converged in its craniodental anatomy with basal hominins and with geladas. The Malagasy subfossil lemur Hadropithecus departs from its sister taxon, Archaeolemur, in that it displays comparatively large molars, reduced incisors and canines, a shortened rostrum, and thickened mandibular corpus. Its molars, however, look nothing like those of basal hominins; rather, they much more closely resemble molars of grazers such as Theropithecus...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Roger Mundry, Vicky M Oelze
Stable isotope analysis in free-ranging primates is a promising new avenue in reconstructing feeding niches and temporal dietary variation. Particularly, the large sample sizes obtained from non-invasively collected hair and fecal samples from nests of great apes offer great potential. However, analyzing repeated observations of the same individuals without controlling for potential differences among them means to "pseudoreplicate" and can lead to a greatly inflated probability of erroneous significance. We here test the effects of pseudoreplication in stable isotope data of great ape hair by means of simulations...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Vicky M Oelze
Stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in hair provides a versatile tool for reconstructing feeding behavior in elusive primate species. Particularly in great apes, researchers can sample long hair completely non-invasively from nests, allowing the investigation of inter- and intra-individual dietary variation. Given its incremental growth pattern, hair records temporal shifts in diet over long periods and allows one to reconstruct seasonal dietary patterns in species that cannot be directly observed...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Margaret J Schoeninger, Corinna A Most, Jim J Moore, Andrew D Somerville
Diet influences the stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ(13) C and δ(15) N values) in animal tissue; but here we explore the influences of particular aspects of the local environment on those values in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this article we present new δ(13) C and δ(15) N values in Gombe chimpanzees using hairs collected from night nests in 1989. Then, we explore the influence of environmental factors by comparing our Gombe data to those from eight additional Pan study sites with previously published stable isotope data...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Scott A Blumenthal, Jessica M Rothman, Kendra L Chritz, Thure E Cerling
Stable isotope analysis is a promising tool for investigating primate ecology although nuanced ecological applications remain challenging, in part due to the complex nature of isotopic variability in plant-animal systems. The aim of this study is to investigate sources of carbon and nitrogen isotopic variation at the base of primate food webs that reflect aspects of primate ecology. The majority of primates inhabit tropical forest ecosystems, which are dominated by C3 vegetation. We used stable isotope ratios in plants from Kibale National Park, Uganda, a well-studied closed-canopy tropical forest, to investigate sources of isotopic variation among C3 plants related to canopy stratification, leaf age, and plant part...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Laurie J Reitsema, Katherine A Partrick, Andrew B Muir
Weaning is a transition in early development with major implications for infant survival and well-being, and for maternal lifetime reproductive success. The particular strategy a primate mother adopts in rearing her offspring represents a negotiation between her ability to invest and her need to invest, and can be considered adaptive and influenced by biological and social factors. Any investigation into how and why maternal weaning strategies differ among non-human primates is limited by the precision of the measurement tool used to assess infants' weaning ages...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Melinda L Carter, Michael W Bradbury
The stable isotopic biogeochemistry of free-ranging primates is a unique tool to assess dietary and ecological adaptions among sympatric populations. The present study tested the hypothesis that oxygen isotopes in the bone carbonate of five primate and four ungulate species that live in Kibale National Park, Uganda, would show minimal variability since the species obtain water from a single water source. Bones were analyzed for stable carbon (δ(13) C) and oxygen (δ(18) O) isotope ratios. Results for apatite δ(13) C are consistent with all species feeding in a closed forest habitat and do not exhibit niche partitioning...
October 2016: American Journal of Primatology
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