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American Journal of Primatology

Penglai Fan, Xuecong Liu, Ruoshuang Liu, Fang Li, Tianpeng Huang, Feng Wu, Hui Yao, Dingzhen Liu
Vocal signaling represents a primary mode of communication for most nonhuman primates. A quantitative description of the vocal repertoire is a critical step in in-depth studies of the vocal communication of particular species, and provides the foundation for comparative studies to investigate the selective pressures in the evolution of vocal communication systems. The present study was the first attempt to establish the vocal repertoire of free-ranging adult golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) based on quantitative methods...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Mamy Rina Evasoa, Ute Radespiel, Alida F Hasiniaina, Solofonirina Rasoloharijaona, Blanchard Randrianambinina, Romule Rakotondravony, Elke Zimmermann
Reproduction is a fundamental trait in the life history of any species and contributes to species diversity and evolution. Here, we aim to review the barely known variation in reproductive patterns of the smallest-bodied primate radiation, the Malagasy mouse lemurs, focusing on twelve species of four phylogenetic clades. We present a new reproductive field dataset collected between May and November 1996-2016 for nine species (Microcebus murinus, M. myoxinus, M. ravelobensis, M. bongolavensis, M. danfossi, M...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Susann Jänig, Brigitte M Weiß, Anja Widdig
The importance of smell in humans is well established but we know little about it in regard to our closest relatives, the great apes, as systematic studies on their olfactory behavior are still lacking. Olfaction has long been considered to be of lesser importance in hominids given their relatively smaller olfactory bulbs, fewer functional olfactory receptor genes than other species and absence of a functional vomeronasal organ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of olfaction in hominids...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Sara M Freeman, Nancy Rebout, Karen L Bales
Highly valued food items are often used as rewards to reinforce an animal's behavior. For social species, social interaction is rewarding and can drive an individual's behavior as well. In the currently study, we wanted to compare the efficacy of a food reward and a social reward on object discrimination learning in socially monogamous titi monkeys. We hypothesized that titi monkeys would perform more accurately for a social reward (their pair mate) than for a food reward (a highly desired food item). Eleven adult titi monkeys were tested with a two-object visual discrimination task for both types of reward...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Sana T Saiyed, Rebecca C Liubicich, Mason Fidino, Stephen R Ross
Stillbirths, or births of infants that died in the womb, represent a failure of the materno-feto-placental unit to maintain a suitable fetal environment. Typical studies of nonhuman primate (NHP) stillbirth patterns are primarily descriptive and focus on macaques (genus Macaca). Thus, less is known about other NHP species and rarer still are studies that examine possible biological factors that influence stillbirth rates across taxa. To examine possible contributors to stillbirths in great apes, we analyzed 36 years (1980-2016) of historical data documenting births of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 391), western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, N = 491), and orangutans (Pongo spp, N = 307) in accredited zoological parks in the United States...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Toni E Ziegler
Studying the neural and hormonal changes that modulate behavior is critical to understanding social relationships. Of particular interest is measuring oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) peripherally, and preferably, non-invasively, in nonhuman primates. Due to these peptides' neural origin and their stimulation of brain areas that influence social behavior, there has been debate whether peripheral measures in blood, urine, and saliva reflect central levels in the brain. This review elucidates the challenges of OT measurement and the solutions that provide valuable data on OT's role in social behavior...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Darcy L Hannibal, Lauren C Cassidy, Jessica Vandeleest, Stuart Semple, Allison Barnard, Katie Chun, Sasha Winkler, Brenda McCowan
Laboratory rhesus macaques are often housed in pairs and may be temporarily or permanently separated for research, health, or management reasons. While both long-term social separations and introductions can stimulate a stress response that impacts inflammation and immune function, the effects of short-term overnight separations and whether qualities of the pair relationship mediate these effects are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of overnight separations on the urinary cortisol concentration of 20 differentially paired adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California National Primate Research Center...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Fabiana M Corrêa, Óscar M Chaves, Rodrigo C Printes, Helena P Romanowski
Wild primates that live in urban areas face extreme threats that are less frequent in nonurban fragments, such as the presence of dangerous matrix elements (e.g., roads, power lines, buildings, and a high density of domestic dogs near food patches), that could influence their movements, feeding behavior, and survival. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hinders our understanding of the behavioral adjustments that favor the survival of primates in urban areas. For 12 months, we studied a six-individual group of brown howlers (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in an urban fragment to determine (i) their diet richness and its relationships with food availability, (ii) their daily path length (DPL) and the matrix elements used during movement, and (iii) the main ecological drivers of the DPL...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Alida F Hasiniaina, Marina Scheumann, Mamy Rina Evasoa, Diane Braud, Solofonirina Rasoloharijaona, Blanchard Randrianambinina, Elke Zimmermann
The critically endangered Claire's mouse lemur, only found in the evergreen rain forest of the National Park Lokobe (LNP) and a few lowland evergreen rain forest fragments of northern Madagascar, was described recently. The present study provides the first quantified information on vocal acoustics of calls, sound associated behavioral context, acoustic niche, and vocal activity of this species. We recorded vocal and social behavior of six male-female and six male-male dyads in a standardized social-encounter paradigm in June and July 2016 at the LNP, Nosy Bé island...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Derick N Forbanka
Needle-clawed galagos (Euoticus spp.) and fork-marked dwarf lemurs (Phaner spp.) are specialist gummivores inhabiting the forests of Cameroon and Madagascar, respectively. They share a suite of adaptations related to their foraging behavior, but are distantly related. I compared structural characteristics of the natural vegetation in which these strepsirrhines occurred using 10 m × 10 m (100 m2 ) quadrats established in forest areas selected on the grounds of observations of animals during nocturnal surveys...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Hélène Chotard, Stephanos Ioannou, Marina Davila-Ross
Facial thermography has enabled researchers to noninvasively and continuously measure the changes of a range of emotional states in humans. The present work used this novel technology to study the effect of positive and negative emotions in nonhuman primates by focusing on four facial areas (the peri-orbital area, the nose bridge, the nose tip, and the upper lip). Monkeys and apes were examined for positive emotions (during interactions with toys and during tickling) and for negative emotions (during food delay and teasing)...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Marina Cords, Taylor Minich, Su-Jen Roberts, Clio Sleator
If animals increase inclusive fitness by cooperating with relatives, nepotism should involve maternal and paternal kin equally, all else being equal. Evidence of a behavioral bias toward paternal half-siblings in primates is both limited and mixed, with most positive reports from papionins. To expand knowledge of paternal kin recognition, particularly in cercopithecine monkeys, we examined evidence for paternal kin bias in wild blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), a species living mostly in one-male groups. Seasonal breeding and the amount of male reproductive skew in blue monkeys suggests that opportunities to distinguish paternal kin are plentiful, and their social system would make such discrimination beneficial...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Thomas A Püschel, Jordi Marcé-Nogué, Thomas M Kaiser, Robert J Brocklehurst, William I Sellers
Primates are interpreted to be ancestrally adapted to frugivory, although some modern groups show clear adaptations to other diets. Among them, pitheciids stand out for specifically predating seeds. This dietary specialization is known as sclerocarpy and refers to the extraction of seeds from surrounding hard tissues using the anterior dentition followed by the mastication of seeds by the molars. It has been proposed that Callicebus-Pithecia-Chiropotes-Cacajao represent a morphocline of increasingly specialized anatomical traits for sclerocarpic foraging...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Eric J Sargis, Vivek V Venkataraman, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nils Chr Stenseth
Studies of the effects of habitat fragmentation and degradation on primate positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization offer valuable insights into the behavioral and ecological flexibility of primates whose habitats have undergone extensive anthropogenic disturbance. In this study, we evaluated how positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization differed between Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis)-bamboo-eating cercopithecids endemic to the southern Ethiopian Highlands-occupying continuous versus fragmented forests...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Paul Agnani, Cécile Kauffmann, Loren D Hayes, Carsten Schradin
Strepsirrhines, that is, lemurs, galagos, and lorises, are considered basal primates, making them important to understand the evolution of primate sociality. Apart from some lemurs, they are nocturnal and solitary living, though the view of their sociality nature has changed with field studies being completed. We conducted a review of the primary literature about the social organization (group composition) of strepsirrhines, with the aim to determine whether intra-specific variation in social organization (IVSO) occurs and to determine how many species are pair-living, group-living, or solitary living...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Shelly Masi, Thomas Breuer
Unraveling the relationship between the unusual feeding behaviors and the nutritional intake of endangered species may provide crucial information for understanding species response to habitat unpredictable changes. Primates occasionally re-ingest fruit seeds alongside ingestion of feces, a behavior called coprophagy. The nutritional benefit is one of the several non-mutual exclusive hypotheses proposed to explain this behavior. We investigated the ecological correlates of coprophagy in wild western gorillas...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Nicole Seiler, Christophe Boesch, Colleen Stephens, Sylvia Ortmann, Roger Mundry, Martha M Robbins
Space use patterns determine access to resources necessary for survival and reproduction. Although it is recognized that the interplay between social and ecological variables shapes spacing patterns, few studies in group-living animals have simultaneously assessed their importance in a comprehensive approach using different spatiotemporal space use measures. In territorial species, such patterns are strongly determined by between-group competition, but its impact in non-territorial species is poorly understood...
April 10, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Rong Hou, Shujun He, Fan Wu, Colin A Chapman, Ruliang Pan, Paul A Garber, Songtao Guo, Baoguo Li
There is a great deal of spatial and temporal variation in the availability and nutritional quality of foods eaten by animals, particularly in temperate regions where winter brings lengthy periods of leaf and fruit scarcity. We analyzed the availability, dietary composition, and macronutrients of the foods eaten by the northern-most golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) population in the Qinling Mountains, China to understand food choice in a highly seasonal environment dominated by deciduous trees...
April 10, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Adrian V Jaeggi, Benjamin C Trumble, Michelle Brown
Various theories emphasize that intergroup competition should affect intragroup cooperation and social relationships, especially if the cost of intergroup competition outweighs that of intragroup competition. This cost of intergroup competition may be quantified by changes in physiological status, such as in the steroid hormones cortisol (C) and testosterone (T), which rise or are depressed during periods of energetic stress, respectively. Here we tested for changes in urinary C and T after intergroup encounters (IGEs) among wild red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius), a species that experiences frequent intergroup feeding competition, at the Ngogo station in Kibale National Park, Uganda...
April 10, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Xuecong Liu, Penglai Fan, Rongxiao Che, Huan Li, Lina Yi, Na Zhao, Paul A Garber, Fang Li, Zhigang Jiang
The gastrointestinal tract of primates harbors a complex microbial community, playing an essential role in the degradation of otherwise indigestible structural carbohydrates. The phylogenetic and functional diversity of the bacterial community in the feces as a surrogate for the gastrointestinal tract of wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana, N = 6) was characterized based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. A sex comparison was conducted, with a prior hypothesis that the abundances of the bacterial taxa and/or functional categories associated with energy and nutrient metabolism would be higher in adult females (N = 3) due to the higher reproductive costs compared to adult males (N = 3)...
April 10, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
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