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American Journal of Primatology

Laxman Khanal, Mukesh K Chalise, Kai He, Bipin K Acharya, Yoshi Kawamoto, Xuelong Jiang
Genetic diversity of a species is influenced by multiple factors, including the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and geophysical barriers. Such factors are not yet well documented for fauna from the southern border of the Himalayan region. This study used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to explore how the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex geography of the Himalayan region have shaped genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the Nepalese population of Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) in the Himalayan foothills...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Jon Cavanaugh, Aaryn Mustoe, Jeffrey A French
While separation from significant social partners produces a host of neurobiological and behavioral perturbations, including behavioral distress and increased glucocorticoid production, positive social interactions upon reunion are critical for the reestablishment of normative relationship dynamics and the attenuation of the biobehavioral stress response. The hormone oxytocin has critical and pervasive roles in reproductive and behavioral processes across the lifespan, and plays a particularly prominent role in social bonding...
March 11, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Gabriele Schino, Marta Pinzaglia
The effects of aging on the social behavior of nonhuman primates is little understood, especially in New World monkeys. We studied the members of a colony of tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.) in order to evaluate age related changes in their social behavior. We conducted observations on 25 subjects aged 4-36 years, living in captive social groups. We found that affiliative interactions (grooming and proximity) decreased with age, and that grooming was increasingly directed to a single preferred partner...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Monique Bastos, Karolina Medeiros, Gareth Jones, Bruna Bezerra
Vocalizations are often used by animals to communicate and mediate social interactions. Animals may benefit from eavesdropping on calls from other species to avoid predation and thus increase their chances of survival. Here we use both observational and experimental evidence to investigate eavesdropping and how acoustic signals may mediate interactions between two sympatric and endemic primate species (common marmosets and blonde capuchin monkeys) in a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in Northeastern Brazil...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Lauren M Robinson, Kristine Coleman, John P Capitanio, Daniel H Gottlieb, Ian G Handel, Mark J Adams, Matthew C Leach, Natalie K Waran, Alexander Weiss
Previous studies of nonhuman primates have found relationships between health and individual differences in personality, behavior, and social status. However, despite knowing these factors are intercorrelated, many studies focus only on a single measure, for example, rank. Consequently, it is difficult to determine the degree to which these individual differences are independently associated with health. The present study sought to untangle the associations between health and these individual differences in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Barbara Regaiolli, Caterina Spiezio, William D Hopkins
The presence of group-level handedness in non-human primates remains controversial, as different studies have produced inconsistent results. Bimanual coordinated tasks have been found to elicit more pronounced hand preferences than simple unimanual tasks. The aim of this study was to examine manual lateralization in a group of 15 Barbary macaques during unimanual and bimanual tasks. In the unimanual task, data on simple food reaching in a foraging context were collected. During the bimanual task, macaques had to use one hand to hold a tube-shaped apparatus while reaching with the other hand to retrieve the food inside it...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Mimi Arandjelovic, Linda Vigilant
Knowing the density or abundance of primate populations is essential for their conservation management and contextualizing socio-demographic and behavioral observations. When direct counts of animals are not possible, genetic analysis of non-invasive samples collected from wildlife populations allows estimates of population size with higher accuracy and precision than is possible using indirect signs. Furthermore, in contrast to traditional indirect survey methods, prolonged or periodic genetic sampling across months or years enables inference of group membership, movement, dynamics, and some kin relationships...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
James K Rilling, Xiangchuan Chen, Xu Chen, Ebrahim Haroon
Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model...
February 10, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Ronda C Stavisky, Jacklyn K Ramsey, Tracy Meeker, Melissa Stovall, Maria M Crane
There are some predictable patterns of trauma in captive rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social groups. Several factors have been documented to contribute to these patterns, including group formation of unrelated animals, and the establishment of dominance ranks. Here, we report on how socially induced trauma in groups of rhesus monkeys is influenced by the breeding season, numbers of matrilines per group and matriline size. We analyzed 3 years of data collected from veterinary admittance logs for four groups in our specific pathogen free (SPF) breeding colony...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Rachel L Jacobs, David C Frankel, Riley J Rice, Vera J Kiefer, Brenda J Bradley
Genetic analyses of parentage sometimes reveal that "socially monogamous" (pair-living) species do not reside in strict family groups. Circumstances such as adult turnovers and extra-pair copulations, among others, may result in non-nuclear families. These genetic relationships within groups have implications for interpreting social behaviors. Red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer) live in groups generally comprising an adult male-female pair plus immatures, and early genetic analyses of parentage in a relatively small sample suggested they mate monogamously...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Fabiola Carolina Espinosa-Gómez, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva, Juan Diego Santiago-García, Carlos Alfredo Sandoval-Castro, Laura Teresa Hernández-Salazar, Fernando Mejía-Varas, Javier Ojeda-Chávez, Colin Austin Chapman
Dietary tannins can affect protein digestion and absorption, be toxic, and influence food selection by being astringent and bitter tasting. Animals that usually ingest tannins may regularly secrete tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSPs) to counteract the negative effects of tannins or TBSPs production can be induced by a tannin-rich diet. In the wild, many primates regularly eat a diet that contains tannin-rich leaves and unripe fruit and it has been speculated that they have the physiological ability to cope with dietary tannins; however, details of their strategy remains unclear...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Matthew Piva, Steve W C Chang
Interest in the effects of oxytocin on social behavior has persisted even as an overarching theory describing these effects has remained largely elusive. Some of the earliest studies on the effects of oxytocin on social decision-making indicated that oxytocin might enhance prosocial actions directed toward others. This led to development of the prosocial hypothesis, which stipulates that oxytocin specifically enhances prosocial choices. However, further work indicated that oxytocin administration could elicit antisocial behaviors as well in certain social situations, highlighting the importance of context-dependent effects...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Barbora Pafčo, Zuzana Tehlárová, Kateřina Jirků Pomajbíková, Angelique Todd, Hideo Hasegawa, Klára J Petrželková, David Modrý
Infectious diseases including those caused by parasites can be a major threat to the conservation of endangered species. There is thus a great need for studies describing parasite infections of these species in the wild. Here we present data on parasite diversity in an agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) group in Bai Hokou, Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic. We coproscopically analyzed 140 mangabey fecal samples by concentration techniques (flotation and sedimentation). Agile mangabeys hosted a broad diversity of protistan parasites/commensals, namely amoebas (Entamoeba spp...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Rebecca Koomen, Esther Herrmann
Feeding competition is thought to play a role in primate social organization as well as cognitive evolution. For chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), social and ecological factors can affect competition, yet how these factors interact to affect feeding behavior is not fully understood; they can be difficult to disentangle in wild settings. This experiment investigated the differential effects of food quantity, the presence of a co-feeding partner, and the contestability of a food patch on feeding rate. We presented tolerant pairs of chimpanzees from a semi-captive social group with an apparatus comprising a matrix of transparent tubes between two adjacent rooms, of which, either all (abundant condition) or only a small proportion (scarce condition) were baited with peanuts...
January 13, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Karen L Bales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
Richard G Rawlins, Matthew J Kessler, Joseph M Erwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Andrea Spence-Aizenberg, Bruce A Kimball, Lawrence E Williams, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
Broadening our knowledge of olfactory communication in strictly monogamous systems can inform our understanding of how chemosignals may facilitate social and reproductive behavior between the sexes. Compared to other social and mating systems, relatively little is known about olfactory communication in strictly monogamous non-human primates. Furthermore, platyrrhines are not well represented in chemical analyses of glandular secretions. We conducted semi-quantitative headspace gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to investigate the chemical components of glandular secretions from the subcaudal and pectoral glands of a strictly pair-living platyrrhine, the owl monkey (Aotus spp...
February 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Luca Fiorenza, Emiliano Bruner
Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) display a distinctive cranial architecture characterized by airorhynchy (or retroflexion of the facial skeleton on the cranial base), a small braincase, and a posteriorly oriented foramen magnum. This configuration has been associated with distinct factors including a high folivory diet, locomotion, and the presence of a specialized vocal tract characterized by large hyoid bone. However, the morphological relationships between the facial and neurocranial blocks in Alouatta have been scarcely investigated...
January 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Masaki Shimada, Cédric Sueur
Social play and grooming are typical affiliative interactions for many primate species, and are thought to have similar biological functions. However, grooming increases with age, whereas social play decreases. We proposed the hypothesis that both social grooming and social play in juveniles strengthen their social bonds in daily activities. We carried out field research on the social relationships among juvenile wild Japanese macaques in a troop in Kinkazan, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, from fall 2007 to spring 2008 to investigate this hypothesis...
January 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Sara Fardi, Michelle L Sauther, Frank P Cuozzo, Ibrahim A Y Jacky, Robin M Bernstein
Madagascar is known for its hypervariable climate with periodic droughts and cyclones, but little is known of the impact of such events on lemur physiology. We examined the effects of sequential weather periods, drought, normal, cyclone and post-cyclone, on hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) and body weight in wild ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta (n = 185), at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Data were modeled and analyzed by sex, age, and troop. Given the ecological consequences of extreme climatic perturbations, we hypothesized that drought and cyclone would significantly impact lemur HCC...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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