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American Journal of Primatology

Karen B Strier, Toni E Ziegler
The northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) is a critically endangered species endemic to the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. Long-term observational studies of wild muriquis have provided many insights into the behavioral ecology and life history of this species. However, nearly everything that is currently known about the northern muriqui's behavioral endocrinology has come from combining our respective expertise in noninvasive field and laboratory research. Here, we reflect on the history of our collaboration, focusing on major challenges, key scientific findings, and factors that contributed to its success...
October 30, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Kenneth C Gold, Lyna M Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Aubrey M Sills, Joselyn M Artavia, Brian D DeRosa, Corinna N Ross, Adam B Salmon
Interventions to extend lifespan and improve health with increasing age would have significant impact on a growing aged population. There are now several pharmaceutical interventions that extend lifespan in laboratory rodent models with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) being the most well studied. In this study, we report on the hematological effects in a cohort of middle-aged common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) that were enrolled in a study to test the effects of daily rapamycin treatment on aging in this species...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Kathryn P Workman, Brianna Healey, Alyssa Carlotto, Agnès Lacreuse
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is uniquely suited for longitudinal studies of cognitive aging, due to a relatively short lifespan, sophisticated cognitive abilities, and patterns of brain aging that resemble those of humans. We examined cognitive function and fine motor skills in male and female marmosets (mean age ∼5 at study entry) followed longitudinally for 2 years. Each year, monkeys were tested on a reversal learning task with three pairs of stimuli (n = 18, 9 females) and a fine motor task requiring them to grasp small rewards from two staircases (Hill and Valley test, n = 12, 6 females)...
October 3, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Daniel H Gottlieb, Laura Del Rosso, Farnoosh Sheikhi, Andrea Gottlieb, Brenda McCowan, John P Capitanio
Previous research has repeatedly shown both personality and psychological stress to predict gastrointestinal disorders and chronic diarrhea in humans. The goal of the present research was to evaluate the role of personality, as well as psychological stressors (i.e., housing relocations and rearing environment), in predicting chronic diarrhea in captive Rhesus macaques, with particular attention to how personality regulated the impact of such stressors. Subjects were 1,930 R. macaques at the California National Primate Research Center reared in a variety of environments...
August 28, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Jia Li, Diqiang Li, Yadong Xue, Bo Wu, Xiaojia He, Fang Liu
Climate change threatens endangered species and challenges current conservation strategies. Effective conservation requires vulnerability assessments for species susceptible to climate change and adaptive strategies to mitigate threats associated with climate. In this paper, we used the Maxent to model the impacts of climate change on habitat suitability of Sichuan golden monkey Rhinopithecus roxellana. Our results showed that (i) suitable habitat for Sichuan golden monkey was predicted to decrease by 37% in 2050s under climate change; (ii) the mean elevations of suitable habitat in the 2050s was estimated to shift 160 m higher; (iii) nature reserves protect 62% of current suitable habitat and 56% of future suitable habitat; and (iv) 49% of current suitable habitat was predicted to be vulnerable to future climate change...
November 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Ariadna Rangel-Negrín, Alejandro Coyohua-Fuentes, David R Chavira-Ramírez, Domingo Canales-Espinosa, Pedro Américo D Dias
The reproductive process of female primates is energetically constrained. However, while there is extensive evidence about factors that influence the maintenance of gestation and lactation, less is known about energetic correlates of cycling and the occurrence of conception in wild primates. We examined how female physical condition affected the occurrence of conception and interbirth intervals (IBI) in female mantled howler monkeys, a species in which females experience long non-conceptive periods. For 6 years we followed 7 females at La Flor de Catemaco (Los Tuxtlas, Mexico)...
November 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Sosthene Habumuremyi, Tobias Deschner, Katie A Fawcett, Martha M Robbins
Male-female social interactions may vary according to female receptivity, female parity, and male dominance rank. Such variation may be less apparent in species with one-male mating systems than those with multimale mating systems, as within-group male-male competition and female mate choice are absent. Examining variation in male-female interactions in multimale groups in species with a predominantly one-male mating system may help to shed light on plasticity in behavioral patterns and the evolution of mating systems...
November 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Olivier Kaisin, Eva Gazagne, Tommaso Savini, Marie-Claude Huynen, Fany Brotcorne
Bird egg predation is widespread in non-human primates. Although nest predation is often described as opportunistic, little is known about foraging strategies and nest detection in primates. Since it is the prevalent cause of nest failure in the tropics, birds select nest sites within specific microhabitats and use different nest types to increase nesting success. Identifying the nests targeted by the northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina), an omnivorous cercopithecine species, and known nest predator, will shine light on nest foraging strategies in primates...
November 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Pingfen Zhu, Cyril C Grueter, Paul A Garber, Dayong Li, Zuofu Xiang, Baoping Ren, Ming Li
Male-male interactions in mixed-sex groups of social mammals are typically characterized by a mix of hostility and affiliation, as a result of inherent conflicts over mating opportunities, and the costs and benefits of social alliances, co-operative behaviors, and coalitionary defense. In species of nonhuman primates that form all-male groups, it is still unclear how the tradeoffs between the benefits of forming an all-male group and the cost of male-male competition in seeking mating opportunities with females in bisexual groups influence social cohesion in different seasons...
November 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Jaco Bakker, Annet L Louwerse, Edmond J Remarque, Jan A M Langermans
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) demonstrate variations in reproductive output, not only in terms of total reproductive output during a lifetime but also in litter size per parturition. The present study explores factors, such as parents' litter size, parturition number, maternal body weight at conception and maternal age, which may account for this variation. A retrospective analysis of clinical records of a captive breeding colony was conducted over a 9-year period yielding reproductive summaries of 26 dams and 22 sires producing a total of 115 litters...
November 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Michelle Brown, Peter M Waser
Long-distance vocalizations mediate spacing patterns by allowing groups to choose whether to draw close enough to a neighbor to initiate a short-range interaction. It is unclear, however, whether the patterning of calls and the resulting movements are invariant or change in response to social and ecological variables. In this study, we compare the impact of long-distance calls on neighboring groups' movements in two populations of grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena) in Uganda, which differed widely in group density and food availability...
November 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Nanik Hidayatik, Muhammad Agil, Michael Heistermann, Entang Iskandar, Tuty L Yusuf, Dondin Sajuthi
The wild population of spectral tarsier is declining and attempts to breed the species in captivity have been of limited success. One possible reason for this is that information on the reproductive biology of Tarsius tarsier is extremely limited and data on the species reproductive physiology are completely lacking. We validated fecal estrogen (E-total) and progesterone metabolite (5-P-3OH) measurements for monitoring female ovarian activity and pregnancy. We used this approach to provide the first data on cycle and pregnancy length based on endocrine information in this species...
November 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Lisa A Parr, Thomas Mitchell, Erin Hecht
In primates, resting state functional neuroimaging (rsfcMRI) has identified several large-scale, intrinsic brain networks, including the salience network (SN), which is involved in detecting stimulus salience. Intranasal oxytocin (IN-OT) has been shown to modulate the salience and rewarding quality of social stimuli in mammals and numerous studies have shown that it can affect the functional connectivity between brain regions. Less is known, however, about how these effects unfold over time following IN-OT administration...
October 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Melissa D Bauman, Takeshi Murai, Casey E Hogrefe, Michael L Platt
Nonhuman primates provide a human-relevant experimental model system to explore the mechanisms by which oxytocin (OT) regulates social processing and inform its clinical applications. Here, we highlight contributions of the nonhuman primate model to our understanding of OT treatment and address unique challenges in administering OT to awake behaving primates. Prior preclinical research utilizing macaque monkeys has demonstrated that OT can modulate perception of other individuals and their expressions, attention to others, imitation, vigilance to social threats, and prosocial decisions...
October 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Sara M Freeman, Karen L Bales
It has become increasingly clear that the nonapeptide hormones oxytocin and vasopressin have more diverse behavioral and physiological effects across species and across individuals than was initially recognized. To reflect this variation, we would like to introduce our Special Issue, entitled Oxytocin and Vasopressin in Primate Behavior, by celebrating the diversity that is found across the articles within it. While every article directly addresses the topic of this Special Issue, they also vary in many characteristics: the species studied, the methods used, and the perspectives taken...
October 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Lynea R Witczak, Emilio Ferrer, Karen L Bales
Coordination of oxytocin (OT) activity and partner interactions is important for the facilitation and maintenance of monogamous pair bonds. We used coppery titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) to identify the effects of male aggressive temperament on OT activity, affiliative partner-directed behaviors, aggressive partner-directed behaviors, anxiety-related behaviors, and hormone-behavior interactions. We used a mirror technique, simulating an intruder in the home territory of pairs to elicit behavioral responses, and quantified behaviors using an established ethogram...
October 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Seth Madlon-Kay, Michael J Montague, Lauren J N Brent, Samuel Ellis, Brian Zhong, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Julie E Horvath, Jesse Haynes Pate Skene, Michael L Platt
The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) influence pair bonding, attachment, and sociality, as well as anxiety and stress responses in humans and other mammals. The effects of these peptides are mediated by genetic variability in their associated receptors, OXTR and the AVPR gene family. However, the role of these genes in regulating social behaviors in non-human primates is not well understood. To address this question, we examined whether genetic variation in the OT receptor gene OXTR and the AVP receptor genes AVPR1A and AVPR1B influence naturally-occurring social behavior in free-ranging rhesus macaques-gregarious primates that share many features of their biology and social behavior with humans...
October 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Philip T Putnam, Larry J Young, Katalin M Gothard
Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide that acts in the brain as a neuromodulator, has been long known to shape maternal physiology and behavior in mammals, however its role in regulating social cognition and behavior in primates has come to the forefront only in the recent decade. Many of the current perspectives on the role of OT in modulating social behavior emerged first from studies in rodents, where invasive techniques with a high degree of precision have permitted the mechanistic dissection of OT-related behaviors, as well as their underlying neural circuits in exquisite detail...
October 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Christina N Rogers, Amy P Ross, Shweta P Sahu, Ethan R Siegel, Jeromy M Dooyema, Mary Ann Cree, Edward G Stopa, Larry J Young, James K Rilling, H Elliott Albers, Todd M Preuss
Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are involved in the regulation of complex social behaviors across a wide range of taxa. Despite this, little is known about the neuroanatomy of the OT and AVP systems in most non-human primates, and less in humans. The effects of OT and AVP on social behavior, including aggression, mating, and parental behavior, may be mediated primarily by the extensive connections of OT- and AVP-producing neurons located in the hypothalamus with the basal forebrain and amygdala, as well as with the hypothalamus itself...
October 2018: American Journal of Primatology
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