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American Journal of Primatology

Nanik Hidayatik, Muhammad Agil, Michael Heistermann, Entang Iskandar, Tuty L Yusuf, Dondin Sajuthi
The wild population of spectral tarsier is declining and attempts to breed the species in captivity have been of limited success. One possible reason for this is that information on the reproductive biology of Tarsius tarsier is extremely limited and data on the species reproductive physiology are completely lacking. We validated fecal estrogen (E-total) and progesterone metabolite (5-P-3OH) measurements for monitoring female ovarian activity and pregnancy. We used this approach to provide the first data on cycle and pregnancy length based on endocrine information in this species...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Natalie Vasey, Monica Mogilewsky, George E Schatz
Very few primate species give birth to litters and build nests in which to care for them. Those that do are small-bodied, nocturnal, and solitary. Variegated lemurs are exceptional in that they bear litters in arboreal nests, yet are relatively large-bodied, day-active, and gregarious. Furthermore, they raise their young cooperatively and practice absentee parenting; non-clinging young are transported orally and periodically stashed in arboreal spots that are supportive, sheltered, and usually concealed. Following birth, infant nest and stash trees were mapped, measured, and taxonomically identified in a population of red variegated lemurs in Masoala National Park...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Maria S Gennuso, Melina Brividoro, Romina Pavé, Mariana Raño, Martin Kowalewski
We studied intergroup social play (IGSP) among immatures in wild black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina. IGSP events are one form of affiliative interaction that can occur during intergroup encounters. The main goal of this study was to analyze IGSP in A. caraya immatures and assess how intrinsic (e.g., age and sex) and extrinsic (e.g., seasonality) factors can influence the development of this type of social behavior. We followed 12 groups between 2008 and 2015 and recorded 182 encounters and 61 events of IGSP...
August 28, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Daniel H Gottlieb, Laura Del Rosso, Farnoosh Sheikhi, Andrea Gottlieb, Brenda McCowan, John P Capitanio
Previous research has repeatedly shown both personality and psychological stress to predict gastrointestinal disorders and chronic diarrhea in humans. The goal of the present research was to evaluate the role of personality, as well as psychological stressors (i.e., housing relocations and rearing environment), in predicting chronic diarrhea in captive Rhesus macaques, with particular attention to how personality regulated the impact of such stressors. Subjects were 1,930 R. macaques at the California National Primate Research Center reared in a variety of environments...
August 28, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Thinh T Vu, Long M Tran, Manh D Nguyen, Dung Van Tran, Paul F Doherty, Toan T Giang, Hai T Dong
All 18 species of gibbons are considered threatened with extinction and listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Because gibbons (Hylobatidae) are one of the most threatened primate families, a great need exists to determine and monitor their status effectively. To meet this need, we employed distance sampling methods to estimate the density and number of gibbon groups. We focused on southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon in the Nam Cat Tien sector of Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, from July to October, 2016...
August 28, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Lynea R Witczak, Emilio Ferrer, Karen L Bales
Coordination of oxytocin (OT) activity and partner interactions is important for the facilitation and maintenance of monogamous pair bonds. We used coppery titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) to identify the effects of male aggressive temperament on OT activity, affiliative partner-directed behaviors, aggressive partner-directed behaviors, anxiety-related behaviors, and hormone-behavior interactions. We used a mirror technique, simulating an intruder in the home territory of pairs to elicit behavioral responses, and quantified behaviors using an established ethogram...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Wendy Saltzman, David H Abbott, Neil Binkley, Ricki J Colman
Estrogen depletion leads to bone loss in almost all mammals with frequent regular ovarian cycles. However, subordinate adult female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) undergo socially induced anovulation and hypoestrogenism without clinically apparent adverse skeletal consequences. Thus, we speculated that this non human primate might have evolved a mechanism to avoid estrogen-depletion bone loss. To test this possibility, we performed three experiments in which lumbar-spine (L5-L6) bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: (i) cross-sectionally in 13 long-term ovariectomized animals and 12 age- and weight-matched controls undergoing ovulatory cycles; (ii) longitudinally in 12 animals prior to, 3-4 and 6-7 months following ovariectomy (ovx), and six controls; and (iii) cross-sectionally in nine anovulatory subordinate and nine dominant females...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Flavio M M Mota, Manoel R Leite, Waldney P Martins
Habitat loss is one of the main threats to biodiversity. Fragmentation resulting from this process may restrict available habitat for primates, limiting their persistence in a given region. In this study, we aimed to quantify deforestation and fragmentation by identifying forest remnants capable of maintaining populations of the endangered crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) within its distributional limits in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Minas Gerais, Brazil. We used Landsat images from 1985 to 2010 to generate three time-interval mosaics classified by natural and non-natural vegetation...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Maureen S McCarthy, Marie-Lyne Després-Einspenner, Liran Samuni, Roger Mundry, Sylvain Lemoine, Anna Preis, Roman M Wittig, Christophe Boesch, Hjalmar S Kühl
Demographic factors can strongly influence patterns of behavioral variation in animal societies. Traditionally, these factors are measured using longitudinal observation of habituated social groups, particularly in social animals like primates. Alternatively, noninvasive biomonitoring methods such as camera trapping can allow researchers to assess species occupancy, estimate population abundance, and study rare behaviors. However, measures of fine-scale demographic variation, such as those related to age and sex structure or subgrouping patterns, pose a greater challenge...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Antonio C de Andrade, Allana B de Sousa
Tool use and extractive foraging could be drivers for right hand use preference. The robust capuchins, Sapajus, are more specialized for destructive and extractive foraging than the gracile capuchins, Cebus. Thus, we predicted them to show right-hand preference and higher rates of extractive foraging when compared to the gracile capuchins. We hypothesized that capuchins that evolved in dry habitats are predisposed to show higher rates of extractive foraging and right-hand preference. We employed the tube task (152 individuals) and an extractive foraging task (212 individuals) in seven species of capuchins in captive settings...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Maureen S McCarthy, Jack D Lester, Kevin E Langergraber, Craig B Stanford, Linda Vigilant
Habitat fragmentation is a leading threat to global biodiversity. Dispersal plays a key role in gene flow and population viability, but the impact of fragmentation on dispersal patterns remains poorly understood. Among chimpanzees, males typically remain in their natal communities while females often disperse. However, habitat loss and fragmentation may cause severe ecological disruptions, potentially resulting in decreased fitness benefits of male philopatry and limited female dispersal ability. To investigate this issue, we genotyped nearly 900 non-invasively collected chimpanzee fecal samples across a fragmented forest habitat that may function as a corridor between two large continuous forests in Uganda, and used the spatial associations among co-sampled genotypes to attribute a total of 229 individuals to 10 distinct communities, including 9 communities in the corridor habitat and 1 in continuous forest...
July 27, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Andrés Link, Krista Milich, Anthony Di Fiore
Species-specific demographic parameters and life history variables are important for understanding how individual primate taxa have adapted to evolutionary and ecological pressures and for conducting interspecific comparisons as well as for conducting population viability analyses and for managing captive populations. Here, we describe results from a 12+ year study of the demographic dynamics of a wild group of white-bellied spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth belzebuth) living near the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in a largely pristine rainforest in western Amazonia...
July 26, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Laura Hagemann, Christophe Boesch, Martha M Robbins, Mimi Arandjelovic, Tobias Deschner, Matthew Lewis, Graden Froese, Linda Vigilant
The social organization of a group-living animal is defined by a balance between group dynamic events such as group formation, group dissolution, and dispersal events and group stability in membership and over time. Understanding these processes, which are relevant for questions ranging from disease transmission patterns to the evolution of polygyny, requires long-term monitoring of multiple social units over time. Because all great ape species are long-lived and elusive, the number of studies on these key aspects of social organization are limited, especially for western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Allison Howard, Kumar Mainali, William F Fagan, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Patrícia Izar, Caroline Jones, Dorothy Fragaszy
Extractive foraging is a skill young capuchin monkeys learn over time. A key unknown is whether unskilled individuals occupy spatial positions that increase their opportunities to learn. We observed the spatial positions of individuals in a group of capuchin monkeys in Northeastern Brazil. To improve our understanding of the relationship between learning by young capuchin monkeys and inter-individual distance, we investigated the associations between the proximity of individuals and their age, activity, and proficiency at extractive foraging...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Bryndan O C M van Pinxteren, Giulia Sirianni, Paolo Gratton, Marie-Lyne Després-Einspenner, Martijn Egas, Hjalmar Kühl, Juan Lapuente, Amelia C Meier, Karline R L Janmaat
Carrion scavenging is a well-studied phenomenon, but virtually nothing is known about scavenging on plant material, especially on remnants of cracked nuts. Just like meat, the insides of hard-shelled nuts are high in energetic value, and both foods are difficult to acquire. In the Taï forest, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus) crack nuts by using tools or strong jaws, respectively. In this study, previously collected non-invasive camera trap data were used to investigate scavenging by sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), two species of Guinea fowl (Agelestres meleagrides; Guttera verreauxi), and squirrels (Scrunidae spp...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Jennifer F Moore, Felix Mulindahabi, Gratien Gatorano, Protais Niyigaba, Innocent Ndikubwimana, Chloé Cipolletta, Michel K Masozera
Populations of the endangered eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) are declining throughout their range. Although Nyungwe National Park (NNP) harbors the largest remaining eastern chimpanzee population in Rwanda, we know little about their space use and dietary patterns. We studied home range, movement, and diet of two communities of chimpanzees in NNP using daily tracking data (6:00 am to 6:00 pm) collected from 2000 to 2015. One community, Mayebe, resided in the forest center, and the other community, Cyamudongo, inhabited a forest fragment located about 10 km from the main forest...
July 10, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Elizabeth K Mallott, Katherine R Amato
Changes in reproductive status influence energy and nutrient requirements in female primates. The gut microbiota may buffer changes in energy demands, with shifts in community composition increasing the energy production potential of the gut during pregnancy and lactation. In this study, we examine changes in the gut microbiome of wild, female white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) across different reproductive states. Fecal samples (n = 39) were collected from five adult females over the course of a year...
July 9, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Bo-Jun Liu, Cheng-Feng Wu, Paul A Garber, Peng Zhang, Ming Li
In the present study, we compared mother-infant relationships in 57 mother-infant dyads residing in two wild, semi-provisioned (22 mother-infant dyads in 2014, 35 dyads in 2015) groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Nanwan Nature Reserve for Rhesus Macaques, Hainan, China. We also compared reproductive success between these two groups. The ecology and provisioning regime for each group was similar. These groups differed however, in size. Group 1 contained ∼35 individuals and Group 2 contained ∼120 individuals...
July 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Seth Madlon-Kay, Michael J Montague, Lauren J N Brent, Samuel Ellis, Brian Zhong, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Julie E Horvath, Jesse Haynes Pate Skene, Michael L Platt
The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) influence pair bonding, attachment, and sociality, as well as anxiety and stress responses in humans and other mammals. The effects of these peptides are mediated by genetic variability in their associated receptors, OXTR and the AVPR gene family. However, the role of these genes in regulating social behaviors in non-human primates is not well understood. To address this question, we examined whether genetic variation in the OT receptor gene OXTR and the AVP receptor genes AVPR1A and AVPR1B influence naturally-occurring social behavior in free-ranging rhesus macaques-gregarious primates that share many features of their biology and social behavior with humans...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Philip T Putnam, Larry J Young, Katalin M Gothard
Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide that acts in the brain as a neuromodulator, has been long known to shape maternal physiology and behavior in mammals, however its role in regulating social cognition and behavior in primates has come to the forefront only in the recent decade. Many of the current perspectives on the role of OT in modulating social behavior emerged first from studies in rodents, where invasive techniques with a high degree of precision have permitted the mechanistic dissection of OT-related behaviors, as well as their underlying neural circuits in exquisite detail...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
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