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American Journal of Primatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631840/the-effect-of-infant-vocalization-in-alloparental-responsiveness-of-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#1
Maricele Nascimento Barbosa, Maria Teresa da Silva Mota, Marcela Nascimento Barbosa
Among mammals, alloparental care can be influenced by hormones as well as by previous experience and sensory stimuli from the infants, such as sight and sound, smell, and physical contact with the infant. To determine the responsiveness of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) nonreproductive females and males with and without previous experience in caretaking to infant sensory cues, we exposed 12 females and 12 males to vocalization recordings for 10 min under two conditions: (1) exposure to adult conspecific vocalization recordings, and (2) exposure to infant vocalization recordings...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608982/high-reproductive-effort-is-associated-with-decreasing-mortality-late-in-life-in-captive-ruffed-lemurs
#2
Morgane Tidière, Jean-François Lemaître, Guillaume Douay, Mylisa Whipple, Jean-Michel Gaillard
Evolutionary theories of senescence predict that a high allocation to reproduction during early life should have long-term deleterious consequences on future reproduction or survival because individuals have to face an energy allocation trade-off between reproductive effort and the maintenance of body condition. Using a high-quality dataset from 1,721 red ruffed lemurs (RRL, Varecia rubra) and 3,637 black and white ruffed lemurs (BWRM, V. variegata) living in captivity, we tested the existence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and late-life survival after accounting for possible confounding effects of natal environmental conditions...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605039/infant-titi-monkey-behavior-in-the-open-field-test-and-the-effect-of-early-adversity
#3
Rebecca H Larke, Alice Toubiana, Katrina A Lindsay, Sally P Mendoza, Karen L Bales
The open field test is commonly used to measure anxiety-related behavior and exploration in rodents. Here, we used it as a standardized novel environment in which to evaluate the behavioral response of infant titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), to determine the effect of presence of individual family members, and to assess how adverse early experience alters infant behavior. Infants were tested in the open field for 5 days at ages 4 and 6 months in four successive 5 min trials on each day. A transport cage, which was situated on one side of the open field, was either empty (non-social control) or contained the father, mother, or sibling...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605033/the-befuddling-nature-of-mouse-lemur-hands-and-feet-at-bez%C3%A3-mahafaly-sw-madagascar
#4
Gina Agostini, Emilienne Rasoazanabary, Laurie R Godfrey
The reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) possesses striking phenotypic and behavioral variation. This project investigates differences in autopod proportions in neighboring populations of M. griseorufus from the Special Reserve at Bezà Mahafaly in southwest Madagascar. One population resides in an environment generally preferred by M. griseorufus-a spiny forest with large-trunked trees, vertically-oriented supports, and more open ground, while the other resides in a gallery forest with abundant small, often horizontal peripheral branches in high canopy...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598515/evidence-of-direct-reciprocity-but-not-of-indirect-and-generalized-reciprocity-in-the-grooming-exchanges-of-wild-barbary-macaques-macaca-sylvanus
#5
Sandra Molesti, Bonaventura Majolo
Reciprocity is one of the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the exchange of social behaviors, such as grooming, in animals. Reciprocity assumes that individuals act as the donor and recipient of grooming and switch roles over time to balance the benefits and costs of this behavior. Three main patterns of reciprocity may follow a grooming given: (i) direct reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to the former donor; (ii) indirect reciprocity, where another individual returns the grooming to the former donor; and (iii) generalized reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to another individual...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28563902/of-lemurs-and-louse-flies-the-biogeochemical-and-biotic-effects-of-forest-disturbance-on-propithecus-edwardsi-and-its-obligate-ectoparasite-allobosca-crassipes-in-ranomafana-national-park-southeastern-madagascar
#6
Elizabeth McGee, Stanley Vaughn
From alleles to ecosystems and landscapes, anthropogenic activity continues to affect the environment, with particularly adverse effects on biodiversity hotspots such as Madagascar. Selective logging has been proposed as a "win-win" conservation strategy, yet its effects on different components of biodiversity are still not fully understood. Here we examine biotic factors (i.e., dietary differences) that may be driving differences in biogeochemical stocks between disturbed and undisturbed forests. We present the stable nitrogen (δ(15) N) and carbon (δ(13) C) isotope composition of hair from the lemur Propithecus edwardsi and of whole bodies of its obligate ectoparasite, the louse-fly Allobosca crassipes, from sites in Ranomafana National Park (RNP) that are comparable except for the history of logging and subsequent forest regeneration...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519898/evaluating-the-effect-of-a-year-long-film-focused-environmental-education-program-on-ugandan-student-knowledge-of-and-attitudes-toward-great-apes
#7
Austin Leeds, Kristen E Lukas, Corinne J Kendall, Michelle A Slavin, Elizabeth A Ross, Martha M Robbins, Dagmar van Weeghel, Richard A Bergl
Films, as part of a larger environmental education program, have the potential to influence the knowledge and attitudes of viewers. However, to date, no evaluations have been published reporting the effectiveness of films, when used within primate range countries as part of a conservation themed program. The Great Ape Education Project was a year-long environmental education program implemented in Uganda for primary school students living adjacent to Kibale National Park (KNP) and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP)...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464365/extraction-of-honey-from-underground-bee-nests-by-central-african-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-troglodytes-in-loango-national-park-gabon-techniques-and-individual-differences
#8
Vittoria Estienne, Colleen Stephens, Christophe Boesch
A detailed analysis of tool use behaviors can disclose the underlying cognitive traits of the users. We investigated the technique used by wild chimpanzees to extract the underground nests of stingless bees (Meliplebeia lendliana), which represent a hard-to-reach resource given their highly undetectable location. Using remote-sensor camera trap footage, we analyzed 151 visits to 50 different bee nests by 18 adult chimpanzees of both sexes. We quantified the degree of complexity and flexibility of this technique by looking at the behavioral repertoire and at its structural organization...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431195/feeding-behavior-and-activity-budget-of-the-southern-yellow-cheeked-crested-gibbons-nomascus-gabriellae-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#9
Thanh H Bach, Jin Chen, Minh D Hoang, Kingsly C Beng, Van T Nguyen
The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431190/higher-levels-of-submissive-behaviors-at-the-onset-of-the-pairing-process-of-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-are-associated-with-lower-risk-of-wounding-following-introduction
#10
Ori Pomerantz, Kate C Baker
Social housing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) is considered to be the cornerstone of behavioral management programs in biomedical facilities. However, it also involves the risk of socially inflicted trauma. The ability to avoid such trauma would contribute to the animals' well-being and alleviate staff's concerns, thus paving the path for more introductions. Here, we sought to address the conflict between the need to socially house rhesus macaques and the need to bring social wounding to a minimum by identifying behaviors expressed early in social introductions, that may serve as predictors of later wounding events...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427115/personality-assessment-and-model-comparison-with-behavioral-data-a-statistical-framework-and-empirical-demonstration-with-bonobos-pan-paniscus
#11
Jordan S Martin, Scott A Suarez
Interest in quantifying consistent among-individual variation in primate behavior, also known as personality, has grown rapidly in recent decades. Although behavioral coding is the most frequently utilized method for assessing primate personality, limitations in current statistical practice prevent researchers' from utilizing the full potential of their coding datasets. These limitations include the use of extensive data aggregation, not modeling biologically relevant sources of individual variance during repeatability estimation, not partitioning between-individual (co)variance prior to modeling personality structure, the misuse of principal component analysis, and an over-reliance upon exploratory statistical techniques to compare personality models across populations, species, and data collection methods...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407328/distinctiveness-enhances-long-term-event-memory-in-non-human-primates-irrespective-of-reinforcement
#12
Amy Lewis, Josep Call, Dorthe Berntsen
Non-human primates are capable of recalling events that occurred as long as 3 years ago, and are able to distinguish between similar events; akin to human memory. In humans, distinctiveness enhances memory for events, however, it is unknown whether the same occurs in non-human primates. As such, we tested three great ape species on their ability to remember an event that varied in distinctiveness. Across three experiments, apes witnessed a baiting event in which one of three identical containers was baited with food...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407279/orangutan-trade-confiscations-and-lack-of-prosecutions-in-indonesia
#13
Vincent Nijman
Prosecuting and sentencing law breakers punishes the offender and acts as a deterrent for future law breakers. With thousands of Sumatran and Bornean orangutans (Pongo abelii and P. pygmaeus) having entered private and government rescue centers and facilities, I evaluate the role of successful prosecution in orangutan conservation in Indonesia. Orangutans have been protected in Indonesian since 1931 and they are not allowed to be traded or to be kept as pets. In the period 1993-2016 at least 440 orangutans were formally confiscated, and many more were "donated" to law enforcement agencies...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407272/the-relative-effects-of-reproductive-condition-stress-and-seasonality-on-patterns-of-parasitism-in-wild-female-black-howler-monkeys-alouatta-pigra
#14
Rodolfo Martínez-Mota, Paul A Garber, Rupert Palme, Thomas R Gillespie
Parasitic infections in wildlife are shaped by host-related traits including individual reproductive condition. It has been argued that female primates are more susceptible to infectious diseases during pregnancy due to short-term changes in immune function that result in reduced ability to combat infections. Likewise, lactation, which is the most energetically expensive state, may affect immunity and infection risk due to tradeoffs between milk production and maintenance of immune function. Here, we examine the degree to which parasite prevalence and parasite richness are affected by female reproductive condition and stress levels in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra)...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407267/orangutans-enamel-defects-and-developmental-health-a-comparison-of-borneo-and-sumatra
#15
Mark F Skinner, Matthew M Skinner
Orangutans (Pongo sp.) show among the highest occurrence of three types of developmental enamel defect. Two are attributed to nutritional factors that reduce bone growth in the infant's face early in development. Their timing and prevalence indicate that Sumatra provides a better habitat than does Borneo. The third type, repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) is very common but its etiology is not understood. Our objective is to draw attention to this enigmatic, episodic stressor in the lives of orangutans...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388824/conservation-strategies-for-understanding-and-combating-the-primate-bushmeat-trade-on-bioko-island-equatorial-guinea
#16
REVIEW
Drew T Cronin, Paul R Sesink Clee, Matthew W Mitchell, Demetrio Bocuma Meñe, David Fernández, Cirilo Riaco, Maximiliano Fero Meñe, Jose Manuel Esara Echube, Gail W Hearn, Mary Katherine Gonder
Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is among the important places in Africa for the conservation of primates, but a cultural preference for bushmeat and a lack of effective law enforcement has encouraged commercial bushmeat hunting, threatening the survival of the remaining primate population. For over 13 years, we collected bushmeat market data in the Malabo market, recording over 35,000 primate carcasses, documenting "mardi gras" consumption patterns, seasonal carcass availability, and negative effects resulting from government intervention...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388823/optimizing-field-and-analytical-procedures-for-estimating-densities-of-arboreal-and-threatened-primates-in-tropical-rainforest
#17
Nathalie Cavada, Marco Ciolli, Claudia Barelli, Francesco Rovero
The application of distance sampling to primate density estimation is challenging and susceptible to estimation biases, mainly due to the difficulties of properly accounting for variation in species' detectability and of accurately sampling the spread of the social groups. We apply a hierarchical distance sampling approach to primate data, to account for a comprehensive set of environmental covariates of both detectability and abundance, and we propose a novel field routine to measure the spread of groups during transect sampling...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388822/toughness-of-the-virunga-mountain-gorilla-gorilla-beringei-beringei-diet-across-an-altitudinal-gradient
#18
Halszka Glowacka, Shannon C McFarlin, Erin R Vogel, Tara S Stoinski, Felix Ndagijimana, Deo Tuyisingize, Antoine Mudakikwa, Gary T Schwartz
The robust masticatory system of mountain gorillas is thought to have evolved for the comminution of tough vegetation, yet, compared to other primates, the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet is unremarkable. This may be a result of low plant toughness in the mountain gorilla environment or of mountain gorillas feeding selectively on low-toughness foods. The goal of this paper is to determine how the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet varies across their habitat, which spans a large altitudinal range, and whether there is a relationship between toughness and food selection by mountain gorillas...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543783/alpha-male-replacements-in-nonhuman-primates-variability-in-processes-outcomes-and-terminology
#19
Julie A Teichroeb, Katharine M Jack
Alpha male replacements occur in all primates displaying a dominance hierarchy but the process can be extremely variable. Here, we review the primate literature to document differences in patterns of alpha male replacements, showing that group composition and dispersal patterns account for a large proportion of this variability. We also examine the consequences of alpha male replacements in terms of sexual selection theory, infanticide, and group compositions. Though alpha male replacements are often called takeovers in the literature, this term masks much of the variation that is present in these processes...
July 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395395/contexts-and-consequences-of-takeovers-in-hamadryas-baboons-female-parity-reproductive-state-and-observational-evidence-of-pregnancy-loss
#20
Alexis L Amann, Mathew Pines, Larissa Swedell
The evolutionary consequences of sexual selection and sexual conflict are epitomized in the hamadryas baboon, a species characterized by strong sexual dimorphism and intense male-male competition. Hamadryas males coerce individual females into reproductively exclusive one-male units via aggressive takeovers, and infants involved in such takeovers are at least four times more likely to be killed (or otherwise die) after takeovers compared to other times. Here we examine female reproductive state before and after takeovers to further investigate the determinants of takeovers and their impact on female reproduction...
July 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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