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American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771706/accidental-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-while-driving-a-case-report-with-review-of-the-literature
#1
Amanda O Fisher-Hubbard, Colin Appleford, Kilak Kesha, Carl J Schmidt, Avneesh Gupta
Carbon monoxide (CO) is the cause of a significant percentage of fatal poisonings in many countries. It is known that fatalities resulting from CO poisoning are underreported and/or misclassified. Carbon monoxide exposure while driving can occur due to faulty exhaust systems, defective ventilation systems, emission from other vehicles, and even cigarette smoking. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman who was involved in a low-speed motor vehicle collision and was found unresponsive in her vehicle due to CO poisoning...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771704/combining-postmortem-vitreous-sodium-and-chloride-and-lung-body-ratio-in-aiding-the-diagnosing-saltwater-drowning
#2
Rexson Tse, Jack Garland, Kilak Kesha, Paul Morrow, Leo Lam, Hannah Elstub, Allan Cala, Amy Spark, Cristian Palmiere, Simon Stables
Diagnosing death due to drowning can be difficult, and several postmortem findings have been postulated to aid the diagnosis. Increased lung weights are often seen in drowning deaths. Lung-body (LB) ratio was described to be the best anatomical lung measurement in diagnosing drowning. Postmortem vitreous humor sodium and chloride (PMVSC) was reported to be a useful biochemical test in diagnosing saltwater drowning when the immersion time is less than 1 hour (SWD1). The presented study compared the diagnostic accuracies between LB ratio, PMVSC, and their combination in diagnosing SWD1 in 20 SWD1 and 50 nonimmersion deaths...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771703/a-fatal-outcome-of-pica-syndrome-an-unusual-case-of-delayed-mortality
#3
Milenko Bogdanovic, Djordje Alempijevic, Djordje Curcic, Tijana Durmic
We present the case of a 42-year-old man, with a medical history of schizophrenic psychosis, who was found dead on the floor of his bedroom. At the autopsy, a bottle lid with a notched edge was found in the lower pharynx, partially obstructing the larynx and thus keeping the epiglottis in an open position. Airway obstruction was caused by edema and inflammation of the surrounding tissue. After removal of the foreign body, the tissue of the larynx was left with an impression of the bottle lid. The adjacent mucosa was swollen, hyperemic, partly necrotic, and covered with fibrin deposits...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771707/electrolytes-and-biochemical-changes-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-drowning-experimental-rabbit-model
#4
Melad G Paulis, Eman I Hasan
The diagnosis of drowning is still a difficult task in forensic science. Biochemical changes in different body fluids have been examined for the identification of drowning. However, none of them alone gives accurate results in the diagnosis of drowning and differentiation of saltwater and freshwater drowning. This study aimed to examine cerebrospinal fluid changes in drowned rabbits. Six groups of rabbits were used including immersed dead rabbits in freshwater or saltwater (as control groups), alive fully conscious rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater, and anesthetized rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771705/the-causality-nexus-between-the-tako-tsubo-syndrome-and-an-assault-a-forensic-case-report
#5
Malek Zribi, Syrine Azza Manoubi, Narjes Karray, Salma Charfeddine, Wiem Benamar, Zouhir Hammami, Samir Kammoun, Samir Maatoug
"Tako-tsubo" cardiomyopathy, also known as "broken heart syndrome," is one of the rarest types of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. It frequently mimics acute coronary syndrome, characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction, electrocardiographic changes, and release of myocardial enzymes. After treatment, the patients are cured in most cases without sequelae. Tako-tsubo syndrome is rarely considered as a reason for consultation in the forensic department.Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old woman who was assaulted by her police officer neighbor...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727315/autopsy-features-of-fatal-donkey-attack
#6
Lajos Fogel, Gyula Varga, Marta Hubay, Endre Felszeghy, Peter Varga, Roger W Byard
Lethal donkey attacks have very rarely been described. The case of a 65-year-old man who was found deceased on a country road with 2 domestic donkeys nearby is, therefore, reported. Examination of the body revealed contusions and lacerations of the face and scalp, a comminuted fracture of the left maxilla, comminuted fracturing of the right radius and ulna and of the left anterior superior iliac spine, a flail chest, and pulmonary contusions. In addition, there were bite marks on the left thigh, right buttock, right axilla/upper arm, and left cheek which corresponded to the dental arcades of the donkeys...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698247/higher-heart-weight-in-new-zealand-m%C3%A4-ori-and-pacific-islanders
#7
Winston Philcox, Jack Garland, Faseeh Zaidi, Paul Morrow, Kilak Kesha, Simon Stables, Christopher X Wong, Amy Spark, Rexson Tse
Heart weight is dependent on sex, age, height, and weight. Although previous autopsy studies showed no differences in heart weight between different ethnic groups, none have examined the New Zealand population of Māori and Pacific Islanders (Polynesians). The presented study compared heart weights between 101 European and 85 Polynesian suicide hanging deaths from New Zealand. Univariate linear regression coefficients for age, male sex, height, body weight, body mass index, and Polynesian ethnicity were positive and significant (P < 0...
April 26, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698246/the-potential-diagnostic-accuracy-of-autopsy-lung-weights-lung-heart-ratio-and-lung-body-ratio-in-drowning-deaths
#8
Rexson Tse, Jack Garland, Kilak Kesha, Paul Morrow, Leo Lam, Hannah Elstub, Allan Cala, Amy Spark, Cristian Palmiere, Simon Stables
Lung weights are often increased in drowning deaths as well as in other types of deaths. Lung weights may also vary with age, sex, and body weight. A variety of methods have been proposed to utilize lung weight data to assist with the diagnosis of drowning. The present study compared lung weight, lung-heart ratio (LH), and lung-body ratio (LB) between 50 consecutive drowning and 50 nonimmersion deaths in order to assess the accuracy in diagnosing drowning. Analysis revealed both LH and LB to be statistically higher in drowning deaths (P < 0...
April 26, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659376/when-a-child-dies-unexpectedly-no-truth-be-told
#9
Deborah L Callanan, William D McClain
Sudden death of a child beyond infancy is a rare event. We report a child who presented to the emergency care system with asystole and the caregiver's report of an asthma attack as the preceding event. After unsuccessful attempts at resuscitation, an autopsy was performed by the medical examiner. Despite only scattered bruises with no clear-cut signs of abuse, aortic rupture and spinal fractures were found. This case highlights the crucial role of the medical examiner in evaluating sudden childhood death, even in the setting of underlying illness...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652674/analysis-of-intercanine-distance-and-dimensional-changes-in-bite-marks-on-foodstuffs-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#10
Ibrahim K Ali, Kaustubh Sansare, Freny R Karjodkar
Bite marks on foodstuff at the crime scene provide a 3-dimensional imprint of the suspect's dentition. The bite mark analysis can provide useful evidences, leading to the inclusion or exclusion of the individual under investigation. This study was designed to assess bite marks on various common foodstuffs (chocolate, apple, chewing gum, cheese) for different time intervals using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to evaluate the dimensional changes in the foodstuffs. Analysis of variance test was used to compare the bite marks measured using CBCT in maxillary and mandibular arches with significance set at P < 0...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649020/autologous-bone-flap-resorption-years-after-subtemporal-craniotomy
#11
John Oladapo Obafunwa, Emily Hammerl, David Jaskierny, Livia Taylor, Lynette Russell, Karl Reinhard
In Spring of 2012, the partially undressed and skeletonized remains of a homeless adult Hispanic male was found in a fairly open wooded area in Nebraska. The remains showed evidence of extensive pathologies, which included healed traumas and surgeries. Examination of the decedent's medical records revealed that he had a history of kidney and liver problems, alcohol abuse, several traumas including a major head injury that necessitated a craniotomy, and radiological features of neurocysticercosis. The autologous bone flap, which was replaced after the craniotomy, had resorbed significantly away from the edges of the injury...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29634654/postmortem-vitreous-sodium-and-chloride-elevate-after-1-hour-and-magnesium-after-2-hours-in-bovine-eyeballs-immersed-in-salt-water
#12
Rexson Tse, Ta-Chen Kuo, Jack Garland, Leo Lam, Michael Sunderland, Kilak Kesha, Hannah Elstub, Allan Cala, Simon Stables
BACKGROUND: Postmortem vitreous sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) are good ancillary tests in diagnosing salt-water drowning. Vitreous Na and Cl appear to elevate from salt-water drowning and immersion, whereas vitreous magnesium (Mg) appears to be unaffected by drowning, but elevates from immersion. The relative changes of these electrolytes during salt-water immersion are unknown, particularly with shorter immersion times. Understanding the relative changes may aid in the interpretation of vitreous electrolytes in bodies recovered from salt water...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621019/show-me-the-shape-of-your-face-and-i-will-tell-you-what-crime-you-have-committed
#13
Silvia Iorio, Omar Larentis, Marta Licata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578860/positive-bacteriological-analyses-in-individuals-with-diabetes-mellitus-preliminary-results-from-a-forensic-study
#14
Cristian Palmiere, Camilla Tettamanti
Increased infection susceptibility in the diabetic population is a controversial issue in the clinical field. The greater frequency of infections in diabetic patients has been speculated as caused by the hyperglycemic environment that favors immune dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of positive bacterial cultures in a series of diabetic individuals who underwent forensic investigations and assess the frequency of hyperglycemia at the time of death in these cases as well as the percentage of diabetics with cause of death due to bacterial infection...
March 24, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570484/a-forensic-approach-to-sotos-syndrome
#15
Roger W Byard
Sotos syndrome is a childhood overgrowth condition that is caused by deletions or mutations in the NSD1 gene located on chromosome 5q35. The syndrome is associated with a wide variety of features that may result in sudden death. The aim of this report was to investigate the spectrum of potential findings in cases presenting to autopsy. A 4-month-old girl with Sotos syndrome was found dead after being put down to sleep. Her death was due to complex cardiac disease that included surgically repaired atrial and ventricular septal defects and valve abnormalities, with cardiomegaly...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570482/postmortem-cholesterol-levels-in-peripheral-nerve-tissue-preliminar-considerations-on-interindividual-and-intraindividual-variation
#16
Giuseppe Vacchiano, Aurelio Luna Maldonado, Maria Matas Ros, Elisa Fiorenza, Angela Silvestre, Biagio Simonetti, Maria Pieri
The study reports the evolution of the demyelinization process based on cholesterol ([CHOL]) levels quantified in median nerve samples and collected at different times-from death from both right and left wrists. The statistical data show that the phenomenon evolves differently in the right and left nerves. Such a difference can reasonably be attributed to a different multicenter evolution of the demyelinization. For data analysis, the enrolled subjects were grouped by similar postmortem intervals (PMIs), considering 3 intervals: PMI < 48 hours, 48 hours < PMI < 78 hours, and PMI > 78 hours...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557817/epidermis-and-enamel-insights-into-gnawing-criticisms-of-human-bitemark-evidence
#17
Robert E Barsley, Mark L Bernstein, Paula C Brumit, Robert B J Dorion, Gregory S Golden, James M Lewis, John D McDowell, Roger D Metcalf, David R Senn, David Sweet, Richard A Weems
Critics describe forensic dentists' management of bitemark evidence as junk science with poor sensitivity and specificity and state that linkages to a biter are unfounded. Those vocal critics, supported by certain media, characterize odontologists' previous errors as egregious and petition government agencies to render bitemark evidence inadmissible. Odontologists acknowledge that some practitioners have made past mistakes. However, it does not logically follow that the errors of a few identify a systemic failure of bitemark analysis...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521647/murder-by-pushing-an-exploratory-analysis-of-homicidal-falls-from-a-height
#18
Claire Ferguson, Tiffany Sutherland
The difficulty in classifying manner of death in falls from a height provides offenders an opportunity to avoid detection by having a homicide appear otherwise. Twelve fall homicides were qualitatively examined. Results showed that most homicidal falls occurred at remote outdoor locations, were planned by offenders who were in controlling intimate relationships with the victim, and were motivated by gain. Homicide was established using inconsistencies in offender's statements and the physical evidence, inappropriate postoffense behavior, evidence of planning, and improbable alleged victim behavior...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596066/sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-incidence-risk-factors-and-proposed-mechanisms
#19
Steven P Ellis, Charles Ákos Szabó
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including premature death from different causes. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, or SUDEP, is one of the most common causes of death in people with epilepsy and originally brought to light by medical examiners. It accounts for 5% to 30% of all deaths in individuals with epilepsy and up to 50% in individuals with medically refractory epilepsy. It is commonly associated with a history of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and may be mitigated by other electroclinical risk factors, such as postictal electroencephalographic suppression, prone position, altered heart rate variability, conduction abnormalities, gender, or antiepileptic medications, to name a few...
June 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570483/sudden-and-unexpected-death-during-sexual-activity-due-to-a-glial-cyst-of-the-pineal-gland
#20
Rosario Barranco, Sara Lo Pinto, Maria Cuccì, Fiorella Caputo, Francesca Fossati, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Francesco Ventura
Cysts of the pineal gland are benign lesions. Often asymptomatic, in the majority of cases they are discovered incidentally during brain magnetic resonance imaging or autopsy. Sporadically, however, they may cause such symptoms as chronic headache, loss of consciousness, corticospinal and sensory impairment, and, in some cases, even sudden death. A 45-year-old woman, in apparently good health, collapsed and died suddenly, after reaching orgasm while engaged in sexual intercourse. According to the circumstantial account of her relatives, the woman suffered from severe headaches, which were exacerbated by certain types of physical strain, such as sexual activity...
June 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
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