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American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906701/child-sexual-abuse-confirmed-by-forensic-examination-in-salvador-bahia-brazil
#1
Welington Dos Santos Silva, Ubirajara de Oliveira Barroso-Junior
Child sexual abuse is a worldwide public health issue. The objective of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children in cases of sexual abuse confirmed by material evidence at forensic examination. Cases of children younger than 12 years examined for suspected sexual abuse at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were reviewed retrospectively. The period evaluated was between 2005 and 2010. The inclusion criterion was the coroner's confirmation of sexual abuse based on material evidence...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879497/the-differential-diagnosis-between-natural-death-and-homicide-an-everlasting-challenge-for-the-forensic-pathologist-an-exemplar-case-report
#2
Alessandro di Luca, Valentino de Matteis, Antonio Marcelli, Matteo Polacco, Vincenzo L Pascali, Antonio Oliva
Most of the work performed by the forensic expert is to find proof for different plausible hypotheses that may be used in a trial to serve justice purposes when the "identity" of a case is already unveiled. Yet the previous phase of the investigation is also of great importance, and sometimes (like in the presented case), it represents the core element of the entire investigation. The appropriate determination of the differential diagnosis between a natural death and a death of forensic interest (ie, homicide) is the first and crucial step in the classification of a case...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879496/death-due-to-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis
#3
Emran Altaf, Erik K Mitchel, Chris Berry, Altaf Hossain
Presented are 2 cases of death from pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Within the past 2 years, there have been 2 cases of rare nonneoplastic lung disease that consists of the filling of the alveoli of the lung by a periodic acid-Schiff stain-positive lipoproteinaceous material. This condition bears a certain resemblance to interstitial lung disease and/or Pneumocystitis jirovecci infection of the lungs. The presented cases were clinically diagnosed as interstitial lung disease. In the first case presented, the decedent was admitted to hospital with diagnosis of pneumonia but died in hospital despite observation and treatment...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861172/liver-subcapsular-hematoma-a-rare-cause-of-sudden-unexpected-death
#4
Dorra Oualha, Abir Aissaoui, Meriam Belhaj, Mohamed Amin Mesrati, Adnene Moussa, Nidhal Haj Salem, Abdelfateh Zakhama, Ali Chadly
The spontaneous subcapsular hematoma of the liver is very rare. There are only a few reported cases in the literature.Most reported cases of liver hematoma often occur during pregnancy as part of the hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome. The other causes may be due to amylosis, rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma, adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hemorrhagic cyst, or hemopathy. Idiopathic spontaneous subscapular hematoma is a rare and often fatal condition.We report a case of a 43-year-old woman having Steinert disease who died because of a fatal spontaneous liver hemorrhage occurring without any traumatism...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831943/a-unusual-lightning-death-in-an-indoor-setting-a-case-report
#5
Francesco Ventura, Rosario Barranco, Alessandro Bonsignore, Francesco De Stefano
Death due to lightning strikes is infrequent, above all indoors. Some cases may take on a medical legal interest due to the unusual and uncommon circumstances in which they occur. The authors report an extremely rare case of electrocution occurred inside a house in a rural area. A 53-year-old man was reached by an electrical discharge originating from lightning while he was doing renovation work on a cottage. In this case, the correct interpretation of the autopsy and histological aspects and the attentive analysis of the circumstantial and environmental data led to the correct diagnosis of death and to the reconstruction of the dynamics with which it occurred...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820711/when-protocols-become-fairy-tales-and-gods-remain-buried-under-excerpts-from-the-diary-of-forensic-experts-at-ground-zero-during-the-mega-quake-that-hit-nepal
#6
Jenash Acharya, Rijen Shrestha, Pramod Kumar Shrestha, Tanuj Kanchan, Kewal Krishan
More than a year has passed since the mega quake hit Nepal. Although a lot is written about the lacunae in disaster preparedness, lessons learnt, and public health concerns after the aftermath, nothing much has been written about the fate of the deceased. Although saving takes priority after a disaster, the management of dead bodies also requires immediate attention because the process of identification becomes more difficult and expensive as time passes. This article shares the firsthand experiences of forensic experts at ground zero during the quake that may be useful to forensic experts responsible for handling such situations worldwide...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763884/cerebral-air-embolism-a-clinical-radiologic-and-histopathologic-correlation
#7
Leonardo Pacheco Roquero, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Carl Schmidt
Cerebral air embolism is a recognized life-threatening complication, sometimes iatrogenic. Its timely diagnosis is essential because it can result in neurologic deficits or death. We report a case of a 58-year-old man who died from cerebral air embolism diagnosed by nonenhanced computed tomography scan of the head after a cardiac bypass surgery with Biventricular Assist Device and multiple vascular line placements. Autopsy revealed extensive subcutaneous emphysema, intravascular and perivascular air bubbles in the central nervous system and associated cerebral and cerebellar hemorrhagic infarction...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655145/histopatholological-findings-in-a-fatal-case-of-rinkhals-envenomation-a-new-forensic-pathology-finding
#8
Jacob Joseph Moar, Lawrence Hill, Michael Stewart
Although cobra envenomation continues to pose a threat to life and therefore constitutes a major cause of death in Africa, India, and Sri Lanka, the forensic pathology reports are not always histologically well documented or illustrated. The reports in the literature, although providing graphic evidence of the macroscopic appearances of the bite and its ensuing tissue necrosis, should the victim survive, often do not illustrate the histopathological findings to a sufficient degree. We present an unusual case of fatal envenomation by a rinkhals (Hemachatus haemachatus) in which the victim had been bitten a second time after a previous rinkhals' bite...
September 21, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831956/identifying-diffuse-axonal-injury-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-a-new-method-for-pathological-observation
#9
Guanheng Ren, Donghua Zou, Ping Huang, Zhengdong Li, Yu Shao, Kaifei Deng, Yijiu Chen, Ningguo Liu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the diffuse axonal injury (DAI) of rat through screening out differentially expressed proteins which may represent potential biomarkers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), which could make a contribution for the research of forensic pathology. METHODS: A total of 15 brainstem sections of rats (10 with and 5 without DAI) were conducted by MALDI-TOF IMS...
December 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782939/strangulation-by-feeding-tube-in-a-23-month-old-with-down-syndrome-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#10
Paige C Woodham, James W Fulcher, Michael E Ward
Ligature strangulation, although typically homicidal in nature, has been reported as accidental in both the pediatric and adult populations. The unique mode of accidental strangulation with a gastric feeding tube in a 23-month-old with Down syndrome is currently unreported in the literature and has prompted us to report this case and look into safety modifications that can be made to these common medical devices. Given the number of children with gastric feeding tubes and concern over this exact scenario brought up by parents, it is unusual that a similar case has not been reported...
December 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782938/examination-of-ricochet-gunshot-wounds-from-commonly-encountered-surfaces
#11
Leigh Hlavaty, Sarah Avedschmidt, Kelly Root, Jeffrey Amley, LokMan Sung
Proper interpretation of gunshot wounds is vital for the forensic pathologist and requires experience and expertise, as well as consultation with a firearms and ballistics expert and careful scene investigation in cases of atypical gunshot wounds. This study is the first large-series examining ricochet gunshot wounds involving different firearm calibers. Typical gunshot wounds created from 4 handgun calibers (22 Long Rifle, 9 × 19 mm Parabellum, .40 Smith &Wesson, and .45 Automatic Colt Pistol) and 2 rifle calibers (5...
December 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753645/viral-pneumonias-in-forensic-autopsies-evaluation-and-classification-of-histopathologic-changes-with-microbiologic-correlation
#12
Taner Daş, Aytül Sargan, Gülhan Yağmur, Muzaffer Yildirim, Cumhur Selçuk Topal, Ahmet Selçuk Gürler, Hizir Asliyüksek, Murat Nihat Arslan, Rifat Özdemirel
Lower respiratory infections are commonly due to viruses and are the third largest cause of death. Respiratory tract viruses have a tendency to target the specific regions in the lung and can harm the host via direct effect of the virus and the host's inflammatory response. In this study, relationships between morphologic changes in the lung and the viral agent type isolated in the lung by the polymerase chain reaction technique were investigated. This study was performed retrospectively at 113 autopsy cases in the Council of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul...
December 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584014/neisseria-meningitidis-isolated-in-postmortem-vitreous-humor-in-a-death-due-to-meningococcal-sepsis
#13
Jack Garland, Rexson Tse, Allan D Cala
Sepsis remains a difficult diagnosis at autopsy. With respect to meningococcal sepsis, a timely and definite diagnosis is critical because it requires public health department notification and the administration of prophylactic antibiotics to potential close contacts. A previous case series, in which both blood and cerebrospinal fluid were unavailable, suggested vitreous humor polymerase chain reaction might be a useful test in diagnosing meningococcal sepsis. We describe a fatal case of meningococcal sepsis where Neisseria meningitidis was detected in both vitreous humor and blood polymerase chain reaction, in addition to positive blood cultures...
December 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571171/a-case-report-of-postmortem-radiography-of-acute-fatal-abdominal-distension-after-binge-eating
#14
Akihito Usui, Yusuke Kawasumi, Yuya Ishizuka, Yoshiyuki Hosokai, Tomoya Ikeda, Haruo Saito, Masato Funayama
This case report describes a woman who developed fatal gastric dilatation after binge eating. She called an ambulance because of stomach pain. When she arrived at the hospital, she did not look seriously ill. However, she rapidly became unconscious and collapsed immediately after she was laid on the examination table in a supine position. Postmortem chest x-ray and computed tomography showed right shift of the mediastinum and raised left diaphragm caused by massive gastric distension. Computed tomography showed no visible inferior vena cava...
December 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617419/cardiac-tumors-echocardiographic-diagnosis-and-forensic-correlations
#15
Lidia Capotosto, Giulia Elena, Francesco Massoni, Simone De Sio, Aldo Carnevale, Serafino Ricci, Antonio Vitarelli
In the past, cardiac tumors were a just clinical curiosity and the prognosis was poor. Surgical management became possible after the advent of cardiopulmonary bypass, and more recently, preoperative diagnosis was greatly improved by the development of echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The value of echocardiography for diagnosing cardiac mass lesions has become well established. Numerous advances have occurred in the last 5 decades, and the evolution of echocardiography involves the development of its many modalities...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617418/sudden-death-due-to-acute-epiglottitis-in-adults-a-retrospective-review-of-11-postmortem-cases
#16
Magdaleni Bellis, Jayantha Herath, Michael S Pollanen
We report a retrospective review of fatal acute epiglottitis cases in adults in the province of Ontario, Canada, between 2001 and 2014. Information on demographics, clinical history, gross, microscopic, and laboratory findings were collected and analyzed. Eleven cases, predominantly male (73%), with a mean age of 50 years were identified. Common presenting symptoms included sore throat, dysphagia, and low-grade fever. The predominant postmortem findings included hyperemia and edema of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454744/just-scan-it-weapon-reconstruction-in-computed-tomography-on-historical-and-current-swiss-military-guns
#17
Sabine Franckenberg, Thomas Binder, Stephan Bolliger, Michael J Thali, Steffen G Ross
Cross-sectional imaging, such as computed tomography, has been increasingly implemented in both historic and recent postmortem forensic investigations. It aids in determining cause and manner of death as well as in correlating injuries to possible weapons. This study illuminates the feasibility of reconstructing guns in computed tomography and gives a distinct overview of historic and recent Swiss Army guns.
September 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438787/postmortem-body-and-organ-measurements-in-neonates-and-infants-a-review-of-reference-resources-used-by-ontario-pathologists-part-1
#18
Audrey-Ann Marie Evetts, Michael J Shkrum, Elena Tugaleva
It is common practice in pediatric autopsies to compare the body and organ measurements of the deceased child against the existing reference data. Although a number of resources are available, many are outdated and have significant limitations. The goal of this study was to assess the reference sources currently used by the Ontario pathologists in pediatric autopsies. A survey of 14 Ontario pathologists, who do coroners' pediatric autopsies, identified 20 publications commonly referenced for body and organ measurements...
September 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428027/a-standardized-classification-for-subdural-hematomas-i
#19
José Luís Alves, João Gonçalo Santiago, Guerreiro Costa, Anabela Mota Pinto
Subdural hematomas are a frequent and highly heterogeneous traumatic disorder, with significant clinical and socioeconomic consequences. In clinical and medicolegal practice, subdural hematomas are classified according to its apparent age, which significantly influences its intrinsic pathogenic behavior, forensic implications, clinical management, and outcome. Although practical, this empirical classification is somewhat arbitrary and scarcely informative, considering the remarkable heterogeneity of this entity...
September 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400253/basilar-fracture-due-to-frozen-corpse-a-case-report
#20
Junchao Zhang, Yibo Yan, Yiqun Chen, Sizhe Huang, Liang Liu
Basilar fractures are one of the consequences of craniocerebral injury, which is serious enough to cause death. Legal examiners often pay attention to basilar fractures at autopsy and analyze the relationship between them and death. It is noteworthy whether the fracture is premortem or postmortem. Here, we describe a rarely reported case of basilar fracture due to freezing. In this case, a 30-year-old man was frozen (-18°C) for 6 months after death. At autopsy, external examination showed no trauma. However, on internal examination, there was a basilar fracture which caused controversy but turned out to be a postmortem injury...
September 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
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