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Biology of the Cell

Patrick von Morgen, Tomas Lidak, Zuzana Horejsi, Libor Macurek
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Repair of damaged DNA is essential for maintaining genomic stability. TP53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) plays an important role in repair of the DNA double-strand breaks. Nuclear localisation of 53BP1 depends on importin β and nucleoporin 153, but the type and location of 53BP1 nuclear localisation signal (NLS) have yet to be determined. RESULTS: Here we show that nuclear import of 53BP1 depends on two basic regions, namely 1667-KRK-1669 and 1681-KRGRK-1685, which are both needed for importin binding...
March 30, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Silvia Ravera, Maria Grazia Signorello, Martina Bartolucci, Sara Ferrando, Lucia Manni, Federico Caicci, Daniela Calzia, Isabella Panfoli, Alessandro Morelli, Giuliana Leoncini
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Energy demand in human platelets is very high, to carry out their functions. As for most human cells, the aerobic metabolism represents the primary energy source in platelets, even though mitochondria are negligibly represented. Following the hypothesis that other structures could be involved in chemical energy production, in this work, we have investigated the functional expression of an extramitochondrial aerobic metabolism in platelets. RESULTS: Oximetric and luminometric analyses showed that platelets consume large amounts of oxygen and produce ATP in the presence of common respiring substrates, such as pyruvate + malate or succinate, although morphological electron microscopy analysis showed that these contain few mitochondria...
March 14, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Makoto Nakashima, Mariko Watanabe, Kaoru Uchimaru, Ryouichi Horie
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: CD30, which is characteristically expressed in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), is thought to transduce signals by ligation of trimerized CD30 ligand (CD30L) on the surface of surrounding cells and recruitment of downstream molecules. In this report, we propose a new mechanism for CD30 signaling by its ligand. We prepared two stable transformants, CHO cells expressing CD30L fused to mCherry and HeLa cells expressing CD30 fused to GFP. RESULTS: Co-culture of these cells triggered clustering of CD30 and CD30L at the cellular interface, formation of multiple CD30L-CD30 complexes, internalization of these complexes with a portion of the plasma membrane into the HeLa cells, and intracellular transport to the lysosomal compartment...
February 12, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Benoit Vianay, Fabrice Senger, Simon Alamos, Maya Anjur-Dietrich, Elizabeth Bearce, Bevan Cheeseman, Lisa Lee, Manuel Théry
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Tissue morphogenesis results from the interplay between cell growth and mechanical forces. While the impact of geometrical confinement and mechanical forces on cell proliferation has been fairly well characterised, the inverse relationship is much less understood. Here, we investigated how traction forces vary during cell cycle progression. RESULTS: Cell shape was constrained on micropatterned substrates in order to distinguish variations in cell contractility from cell size increase...
April 2018: Biology of the Cell
Elisabeth E Charrier, Lorraine Montel, Atef Asnacios, Florence Delort, Patrick Vicart, François Gallet, Sabrina Batonnet-Pichon, Sylvie Hénon
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The mechanical properties of cells are essential to maintain their proper functions, and mainly rely on their cytoskeleton. A lot of attention has been paid to actin filaments, demonstrating their central role in the cells mechanical properties, but much less is known about the participation of intermediate filament (IF) networks. Indeed the contribution of IFs, such as vimentin, keratins and lamins, to cell mechanics has only been assessed recently. We study here the involvement of desmin, an IF specifically expressed in muscle cells, in the rheology of immature muscle cells...
April 2018: Biology of the Cell
Shailaja Seetharaman, Sandrine Etienne-Manneville
Cells sense and respond to the biochemical and physical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) through adhesive structures that bridge the cell cytoskeleton and the surrounding environment. Integrin-mediated adhesions interact with specific ECM proteins and sense the rigidity of the substrate to trigger signalling pathways that, in turn, regulate cellular processes such as adhesion, motility, proliferation and differentiation. This process, called mechanotransduction, influenced by the involvement of different integrin subtypes and their high ECM-ligand binding specificity, contributes to the cell-type-specific mechanical responses...
March 2018: Biology of the Cell
Si Ming Pang, Shimin Le, Jie Yan
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Titin is one of the three main filaments in cardiac sarcomere. Besides a chain of Ig domains, cardiac titin also contains a proline (P), glutamate (E), valine (V), lysine (K) (PEVK) domain and a cardiac-specific N2B domain, both are largely unstructured. While they are believed to be involved in the elastic (PEVK and N2B) and the trophic (N2B) functions of the heart, their mechanical responses in physiological level of forces remains poorly understood. RESULTS: In order to gain understanding on their mechanical responses, we used magnetic tweezers to investigate their force responses from 1 to 30 pN...
March 2018: Biology of the Cell
George Kefalas, Louise Larose
In humans, the pathogenesis of diabetes is characterised by two major pancreatic β cell defects: a reduction in β cell mass and the failure of β cells to produce enough insulin. Over the past two decades, multiple studies involving cell cultures, animal models and human subjects have established the importance of the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) in the adaptive functional capacity of pancreatic β cells during embryonic development and into adulthood. In this review, we will highlight major findings identifying PERK as a crucial player in β cell physiology and in diabetes...
February 2018: Biology of the Cell
Laetitia Vincensini, Thierry Blisnick, Eloïse Bertiaux, Sebastian Hutchinson, Christina Georgikou, Cher-Pheng Ooi, Philippe Bastin
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are sophisticated organelles composed of several hundreds of proteins that need to be incorporated at the right time and the right place during assembly. RESULTS: Two methods were used to investigate this process in the model protist Trypanosoma brucei: inducible expression of epitope-tagged labelled proteins and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of fluorescent fusion proteins. This revealed that skeletal components of the radial spokes (RSP3), the central pair (PF16) and the outer dynein arms (DNAI1) are incorporated at the distal end of the growing flagellum...
February 2018: Biology of the Cell
Justin Joachim, Sharon A Tooze
Within minutes of induction of autophagy by amino-acid starvation in mammalian cells, multiple autophagosomes form throughout the cell cytoplasm. During their formation, the autophagosomes sequester cytoplasmic material and deliver it to lysosomes for degradation. How these organelles can be so rapidly formed and how their formation is acutely regulated are major questions in the autophagy field. Protein and lipid trafficking from diverse cell compartments contribute membrane to, or regulate the formation of the autophagosome...
January 2018: Biology of the Cell
Laura K Hamilton, Karl J L Fernandes
Neural stem cell (NSC) activity and adult neurogenesis are physiologically relevant regulators of adult brain structure, function and repair. Given these roles, the NSC impairments observed in a wide range of neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions likely factor into the overall cognitive dysfunction in these conditions. We investigated NSC regulation in the context of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the well-characterised triple transgenic (3xTg) model of AD. In this review, we describe our recent findings that link 3xTg-AD neurogenesis impairments to AD-associated abnormalities in brain fatty acid metabolism...
January 2018: Biology of the Cell
Beata Kaczmarek, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Catherine L Jackson
The ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) small G proteins act as molecular switches to coordinate multiple downstream pathways that regulate membrane dynamics. Their activation is spatially and temporally controlled by the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Members of the evolutionarily conserved GBF/Gea family of Arf GEFs are well known for their roles in formation of coat protein complex I (COPI) vesicles, essential for maintaining the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. However, studies over the past 10 years have found new functions for these GEFs, along with their substrate Arf1, in lipid droplet metabolism, clathrin-independent endocytosis, signalling at the plasma membrane, mitochondrial dynamics and transport along microtubules...
December 2017: Biology of the Cell
Patrick C Hoffmann, Wanda Kukulski
Membrane contact sites (MCS) are platforms of physical contact between different organelles. They are formed through interactions involving lipids and proteins, and function in processes such as calcium and lipid exchange, metabolism and organelle biogenesis. In this article, we discuss emerging questions regarding the architecture, organisation and assembly of MCS, such as: What is the contribution of different components to the interaction between organelles? How is the specific composition of different types of membrane contacts sites established and maintained? How are proteins and lipids spatially organised at MCS and how does that influence their function? How dynamic are MCS on the molecular and ultrastructural level? We highlight current state of research and point out experimental approaches that promise to contribute to a spatiomechanistic understanding of MCS functions...
December 2017: Biology of the Cell
Stéphane Gasman, Nicolas Vitale
Neuroendocrine cells secrete hormones and polypeptides through a complex membrane trafficking process that involves the transport of specific organelles, called large dense core secretory granules, from the Golgi apparatus to specialised sites at the plasma membrane where these vesicles are successively exocytosed and recaptured by endocytosis through tightly coupled reactions. The minimal machinery required for exocytosis has been defined as SNARE proteins associated with few accessory proteins. On the other side, clathrin and dynamin constitute major components of some of the most important endocytotic pathways...
November 2017: Biology of the Cell
Florence Niedergang, Stéphane Gasman, Nicolas Vitale, Claire Desnos, Christophe Lamaze
Twenty years ago, a group of French cell biologists merged two scientific clubs with the aim of bringing together researchers in the fields of Endocytosis and Exocytosis. Founded in 1997, the first annual meeting of the Exocytosis Club was held in 1998. The Endocytosis Club held quarterly meetings from its founding in 1999. The first joint annual meeting of the Exocytosis-Endocytosis Club took place in Paris in April, 2001. What started as a modest gathering of enthusiastic scientists working in the field of cell trafficking has gone from strength to strength, rapidly becoming an unmissable yearly meeting, vividly demonstrating the high quality of science performed in our community and beyond...
September 2017: Biology of the Cell
Jean-Léon Maître
During pre-implantation development, the mammalian zygote transforms into the blastocyst, the structure that will implant the embryo in the maternal uterus. Consisting of a squamous epithelium enveloping a fluid-filled cavity and the inner cell mass, the blastocyst is sculpted by a succession of morphogenetic events. These deformations result from the changes in the forces and mechanical properties of the tissue composing the embryo. Here, I review the recent studies, which, for the first time, informed us on the mechanics of blastocyst morphogenesis...
September 2017: Biology of the Cell
Inmaculada Ayala, Antonino Colanzi
The Golgi apparatus plays essential roles in the processing and sorting of proteins and lipids, but it can also act as a signalling hub and a microtubule-nucleation centre. The Golgi complex (GC) of mammalian cells is composed of stacks connected by tubular bridges to form a continuous membranous system. In spite of this structural complexity, the GC is highly dynamic, and this feature becomes particularly evident during mitosis, when the GC undergoes a multi-step disassembly process that allows its correct partitioning and inheritance by daughter cells...
August 10, 2017: Biology of the Cell
Julia P Steringer, Walter Nickel
Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) is a potent cell survival factor involved in tumour-induced angiogenesis. FGF2 is secreted from cells through an unconventional secretory mechanism based upon direct translocation across the plasma membrane. The molecular mechanism underlying this process depends on a surprisingly small set of trans-acting factors that are physically associated with the plasma membrane. FGF2 membrane translocation is mediated by the ability of FGF2 to oligomerise and to insert into the plasma membrane in a PI(4,5)P2 -dependent manner...
August 10, 2017: Biology of the Cell
Gholamreza Fazeli, Ann Marie Wehman
Phagocytosis and autophagy are two distinct pathways that degrade external and internal unwanted particles. Both pathways lead to lysosomal degradation inside the cell, and over the last decade, the line between them has blurred; autophagy proteins were discovered on phagosomes engulfing foreign bacteria, leading to the proposal of LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Many proteins involved in macroautophagy are used for phagosome degradation, although Atg8/LC3 family proteins only decorate the outer membrane of LC3-associated phagosomes, in contrast to both autophagosome membranes...
July 28, 2017: Biology of the Cell
Jessica L Snyder, Elena McBeath, Tamlyn N Thomas, Yi Jen Chiu, Robert L Clark, Keigi Fujiwara
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are a well-known cell system used in the study of mechanobiology. Using cultured ECs, we found that platelet EC adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31), a cell adhesion protein localised to regions of EC-EC contact, was rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in ECs exposed to shear or cyclic stretch. Src-homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) binds phosphorylated PECAM-1 and activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signalling cascade, a known flow-activated signalling pathway...
June 23, 2017: Biology of the Cell
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