Read by QxMD icon Read

Biology of the Cell

Eduardo A Rios Morris, Stéphane Bodin, Bénédicte Delaval, Franck Comunale, Virginie Georget, Manoel L Costa, Georges Lutfalla, Cécile Gauthier-Rouvière
Zebrafish gastrulation and particularly epiboly that involves coordinated movements of several cell layers is a dynamic process for which regulators remain to be identified. We show here that Flotillin 1 and 2, ubiquitous and highly conserved proteins, are required for epiboly. Flotillins knockdown compromised embryo survival, strongly delayed epiboly and impaired deep cell radial intercalation and directed collective migration without affecting enveloping layer cell movement. At the molecular level, we identified that Flotillins are required for the formation of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions...
February 22, 2017: Biology of the Cell
Sophie Sluysmans, Ekaterina Vasileva, Domenica Spadaro, Jimit Shah, Florian Rouaud, Sandra Citi
Tissues of multicellular organisms are characterized by several types of specialized cell-cell junctions. In vertebrate epithelia and endothelia, tight and adherens junctions play critical roles in barrier and adhesion functions, and are connected to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The interaction between junctions and the cytoskeleton is crucial for tissue development and physiology, and is involved in the molecular mechanisms governing cell shape, motility, growth and signaling. The machineries which functionally connect tight and adherens junctions to the cytoskeleton comprise proteins which either bind directly to cytoskeletal filaments, or function as adaptors for regulators of the assembly and function of the cytoskeleton...
February 21, 2017: Biology of the Cell
Irène Dang, Joern Linkner, Jun Yan, Daniel Irimia, Jan Faix, Alexis Gautreau
Arpin is an Arp2/3 inhibitory protein, which decreases the protrusion lifetime and hence directional persistence in the migration of diverse cells. Arpin is activated by the small GTPase Rac, which controls cell protrusion, thus closing a negative feedback loop that renders the protrusion intrinsically unstable. Because of these properties, it was proposed that Arpin might play a role in directed migration, where directional persistence has to be fine-tuned. We report here, however, that Arpin depleted tumor cells and Arpin knock-out Dictyostelium amoeba display no obvious defect in chemotaxis...
February 10, 2017: Biology of the Cell
Igor Orlov, Alexander G Myasnikov, Leonid Andronov, S Kundhavai Natchiar, Heena Khatter, Brice Beinsteiner, Jean-François Ménétret, Isabelle Hazemann, Kareem Mohideen, Karima Tazibt, Rachel Tabaroni, Hanna Kratzat, Nadia Djabeur, Tatiana Bruxelles, Finaritra Raivoniaina, Lorenza di Pompeo, Morgan Torchy, Isabelle Billas, Alexandre Urzhumtsev, Bruno P Klaholz
After gradually moving away from preparation methods prone to artefacts such as plastic embedding and negative staining for cell sections and single particles, the field of cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is now heading off at unprecedented speed towards high-resolution analysis of biological objects of various sizes. This 'revolution in resolution' is happening largely thanks to new developments of new-generation cameras used for recording the images in the cryo electron microscope which have much increased sensitivity being based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices...
February 2017: Biology of the Cell
Heidi Gytz, Mariann F Hansen, Signe Skovbjerg, Anders C M Kristensen, Sofie Hørlyck, Mette B Jensen, Marlene Fredborg, Lotte D Markert, Nigel A McMillan, Erik I Christensen, Pia M Martensen
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Interferons are a family of cytokines with growth inhibitory and antiviral functions, which exert their biological actions through the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). The human ISG12 family of proteins comprises ISG12A, ISG12B, ISG12C and ISG6-16. Due to differential splicing and a gene variation, the human ISG12A protein exists as a full-length ISG12A form and three ISG12A variants. ISG12 genes have been found transcriptionally dysregulated in many disorders...
February 2017: Biology of the Cell
Axel A Ekman, Jian-Hua Chen, Jessica Guo, Gerry McDermott, Mark A Le Gros, Carolyn A Larabell
In the context of cell biology, the term mesoscale describes length scales ranging from that of an individual cell, down to the size of the molecular machines. In this spatial regime, small building blocks self-organise to form large, functional structures. A comprehensive set of rules governing mesoscale self-organisation has not been established, making the prediction of many cell behaviours difficult, if not impossible. Our knowledge of mesoscale biology comes from experimental data, in particular, imaging...
January 2017: Biology of the Cell
Viola Vaňková Hausnerová, Christian Lanctôt
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The levels of chromatin condensation usually correlate inversely with the levels of transcription. The mechanistic links between chromatin condensation and RNA polymerase II activity remain to be elucidated. In the present work, we sought to experimentally determine whether manipulation of chromatin condensation levels can have a direct effect on transcriptional activity. RESULTS: We generated a U-2-OS cell line in which the nascent transcription of a reporter gene could be imaged alongside chromatin compaction levels in living cells...
January 2017: Biology of the Cell
Andrey Bolbat, Carsten Schultz
Optical sensors are powerful tools for live cell research as they permit to follow the location, concentration changes or activities of key cellular players such as lipids, ions and enzymes. Most of the current sensor probes are based on fluorescence which provides great spatial and temporal precision provided that high-end microscopy is used and that the timescale of the event of interest fits the response time of the sensor. Many of the sensors developed in the past 20 years are genetically encoded. There is a diversity of designs leading to simple or sometimes complicated applications for the use in live cells...
January 2017: Biology of the Cell
Eva Klumpen, Nadine Hoffschröer, Bettina Zeis, Ulrike Gigengack, Elias Dohmen, Rüdiger J Paul
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Heat stress in ectotherms involves direct (e.g. protein damage) and/or indirect effects (temperature-induced hypoxia and ROS formation), which cause activation of the transcription factors (TF) heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and/or hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). The present study focused on the links between stress (ROS) signals, nuclear (n) and cytoplasmic (c) HSF-1/HIF-1 levels, and stress gene expression on mRNA and protein levels (e.g. heat-shock protein 90, HSP90) upon acute heat and ROS (H2 O2 ) stress...
January 2017: Biology of the Cell
Chih-Wei Zeng, Yasuhiro Kamei, Chih-Tien Wang, Huai-Jen Tsai
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Neuron stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) of zebrafish central nervous system (CNS) are known to thrive during oxygen recovery after hypoxia, but not all cell types have been fully characterised due to their heterogeneities. In addition, an in vivo model system is not available that can help us to identify what type-specific cell populations that are involved in neural regeneration and to track their cell fate after regeneration. To solve these issues, we employed a zebrafish transgenic line, huORFZ, which harbours an inhibitory upstream open reading frame of human chop mRNA fused downstream with GFP reporter and driven by cytomegalovirus promoter...
December 2016: Biology of the Cell
Andrzej Kowalski, Jan Pałyga
In this review, the structural aspects of linker H1 histones are presented as a background for characterization of the factors influencing their function in animal and human chromatin. The action of H1 histone variants is largely determined by dynamic alterations of their intrinsically disordered tail domains, posttranslational modifications and allelic diversification. The interdependent effects of these factors can establish dynamic histone H1 states that may affect the organization and function of chromatin regions...
December 2016: Biology of the Cell
Rachel Milloud, Olivier Destaing, Richard de Mets, Ingrid Bourrin-Reynard, Christiane Oddou, Antoine Delon, Irène Wang, Corinne Albigès-Rizo, Martial Balland
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Integrins are key receptors that allow cells to sense and respond to their mechanical environment. Although they bind the same ligand, β1 and β3 integrins have distinct and cooperative roles in mechanotransduction. RESULTS: Using traction force microscopy on unconstrained cells, we show that deleting β3 causes traction forces to increase, whereas the deletion of β1 integrin results in a strong decrease of contractile forces. Consistently, loss of β3 integrin also induces an increase in β1 integrin activation...
November 7, 2016: Biology of the Cell
Benjamin Titze, Christel Genoud
Electron microscopy (EM) has been a key imaging method to investigate biological ultrastructure for over six decades. In recent years, novel volume EM techniques have significantly advanced nanometre-scale imaging of cells and tissues in three dimensions. Previously, this had depended on the slow and error-prone manual tasks of cutting and handling large numbers of sections, and imaging them one-by-one with transmission EM. Now, automated volume imaging methods mostly based on scanning EM (SEM) allow faster and more reliable acquisition of serial images through tissue volumes and achieve higher z-resolution...
November 2016: Biology of the Cell
Will P Walker, Abby Oehler, Aimee L Edinger, Kay-Uwe Wagner, Teresa M Gunn
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Vacuolation of the central nervous system (CNS) is observed in patients with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, HIV-related encephalopathy and some inherited diseases, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Mice lacking the mahogunin ring finger-1 (MGRN1) E3 ubiquitin ligase develop progressive, widespread spongiform degeneration of the CNS. MGRN1 ubiquitinates and regulates tumour susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101), a central component of the endosomal trafficking machinery...
November 2016: Biology of the Cell
Anne Blangy
Tensins are focal adhesion molecules that were identified and characterized in the late 1980's - early 1990's. They play an essential role in the control of cell adhesion. Tensins can bind the tail of ß integrin via their Phospho Tyrosine Binding (PTB) domain, they exhibit various protein interaction domains including a Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain and they are serine-, threonine- and tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to various stimuli. Tensins serve as scaffolds to gather signaling molecules at the extracellular matrix adhesion complexes...
October 17, 2016: Biology of the Cell
Kun Liu, Hitoshi Tsujimoto, Yuzheng Huang, Jason L Rasgon, Peter Agre
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Anopheles gambiae is the major mosquito vector for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, where it survives in stressful climates. Aquaporin water channels are expressed in all life forms, where they provide environmental adaptation by conferring rapid trans-cellular movement of water (classical aquaporins) or water plus glycerol (aquaglyceroporins). Here, we report an aquaglyceroporin homolog in A. gambiae, AgAQP3 (A. gambiae aquaglyceroporin 3)...
October 2016: Biology of the Cell
Giampaolo Morciano, Gaia Pedriali, Luigi Sbano, Tommaso Iannitti, Carlotta Giorgi, Paolo Pinton
Mitochondria actively contribute to apoptotic cell death through mechanisms including the loss of integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane, the release of intermembrane space proteins, such as cytochrome c, in the cytosol and the caspase cascade activation. This process is the result of careful cooperation not only among members of the Bcl-2 family but also dynamin-related proteins. These events are often accompanied by fission of the organelle, thus linking mitochondrial dynamics to apoptosis. Emerging evidences are suggesting a fine regulation of mitochondrial morphology by Bcl-2 family members and active participation of fission-fusion proteins in apoptosis...
October 2016: Biology of the Cell
Georg Wolff, Christoph Hagen, Kay Grünewald, Rainer Kaufmann
Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) has become a powerful tool in life sciences. Particularly cryo-CLEM, the combination of fluorescence cryo-microscopy (cryo-FM) permitting for non-invasive specific multi-colour labelling, with electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) providing the undisturbed structural context at a resolution down to the Ångstrom range, has enabled a broad range of new biological applications. Imaging rare structures or events in crowded environments, such as inside a cell, requires specific fluorescence-based information for guiding cryo-EM data acquisition and/or to verify the identity of the structure of interest...
September 2016: Biology of the Cell
Anna Horváth, Anna Rácz-Mónus, Peter Buchwald, Ákos Sveiczer
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Because cylindrically shaped fission yeast cells grow exclusively at their tips, cell volume is proportional to length and can be easily monitored by time-lapse microscopy. Here, we analysed the growth pattern of individual cells from several fission yeast strains to determine the growth function that describes them most adequately and to perform size control studies. RESULTS: The growth pattern of most cells during their growth period is best described by a bilinear function (i...
September 2016: Biology of the Cell
Kyoungtae Kim
The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is a major sorting, packing and delivering station of newly synthesised proteins and lipids to their final destination. These cargo molecules follow the secretory pathway, which is a vital part of cellular trafficking machinery in all eukaryotic cells. This secretory pathway is well conserved in all eukaryotes from low-level eukaryotes, such as yeast, to higher level eukaryotes like mammals. The molecular mechanisms of protein sorting by adaptor proteins, membrane elongation and transport to the final destinations by motor proteins and the cytoskeleton, and membrane pinching-off by scission proteins must be choreographically managed for efficient cargo delivery, and the understanding of these detailed processes is not yet completed...
August 2016: Biology of the Cell
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"