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Biology of the Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799169/mitotic-inheritance-of-the-golgi-complex-and-its-role-in-cell-division
#1
REVIEW
Inmaculada Ayala, Antonino Colanzi
The Golgi apparatus plays essential roles in the processing and sorting of proteins and lipids, but it can also act as a signalling hub and a microtubule-nucleation centre. The Golgi complex of mammalian cells is composed of stacks connected by tubular bridges to form a continuous membranous system. In spite of this structural complexity, the Golgi structure is highly dynamic, and this feature becomes particularly evident during mitosis, when the Golgi complex undergoes a multi-step disassembly process that allows its correct partitioning and inheritance by daughter cells...
August 10, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799166/the-molecular-mechanism-underlying-unconventional-secretion-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-from-tumor-cells
#2
REVIEW
Julia P Steringer, Walter Nickel
Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) is a potent cell survival factor involved in tumor induced angiogenesis. FGF2 is secreted from cells through an unconventional secretory mechanism based upon direct translocation across the plasma membrane. The molecular mechanism underlying this process depends on a surprisingly small set of trans-acting factors that are physically associated with the plasma membrane. FGF2 membrane translocation is mediated by the ability of FGF2 to oligomerize and to insert into the plasma membrane in a PI(4,5)P2 dependent manner...
August 10, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758675/meeting-after-meeting-20-years-of-discoveries-by-the-members-of-the-exocytosis-endocytosis-club
#3
REVIEW
Florence Niedergang, Stéphane Gasman, Nicolas Vitale, Claire Desnos, Christophe Lamaze
Twenty years ago, a group of French cell biologists merged two scientific clubs with the aim of bringing together researchers in the fields of Endocytosis and Exocytosis. Founded in 1997, the first annual meeting of the Exocytosis Club was held in 1998. The Endocytosis Club held quarterly meetings from its founding in 1999. The first joined annual meeting of the Exocytosis-Endocytosis Club took place in Paris in April, 2001. What started as a modest gathering of enthusiastic scientists working in the field of cell trafficking has gone from strength to strength, rapidly becoming an unmissable yearly meeting, vividly demonstrating the high quality of the science performed in our community and beyond...
July 31, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755428/safely-removing-cell-debris-with-lc3-associated-phagocytosis
#4
REVIEW
Gholamreza Fazeli, Ann Marie Wehman
Phagocytosis and autophagy are two distinct pathways that degrade external and internal unwanted particles. Both pathways lead to lysosomal degradation inside the cell, and over the last decade, the line between them has blurred; autophagy proteins were discovered on phagosomes engulfing foreign bacteria, leading to the proposal of LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Many proteins involved in macroautophagy are used for phagosome degradation, although Atg8/LC3 family proteins only decorate the outer membrane of LC3-associated phagosomes, in contrast to both autophagosome membranes...
July 28, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681376/mechanics-of-blastocyst-morphogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Jean-Léon Maître
During pre-implantation development, the mammalian zygote transforms into the blastocyst, the structure that will implant the embryo in the maternal uterus. Consisting of a squamous epithelium enveloping a fluid-filled cavity and the inner cell mass, the blastocyst is sculpted by a succession of morphogenetic events. These deformations result from the changes in the forces and mechanical properties of the tissue composing the embryo. Here, I review the recent studies, which, for the first time, informed us on the mechanics of blastocyst morphogenesis...
July 6, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643869/mechanotransduction-properties-of-the-cytoplasmic-tail-of-pecam-1
#6
Jessica L Snyder, Elena McBeath, Tamlyn N Thomas, Yi Jen Chiu, Robert L Clark, Keigi Fujiwara
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are a well-known cell system used in the study of mechanobiology. Using cultured ECs, we found that platelet EC adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31), a cell adhesion protein localised to regions of EC-EC contact, was rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in ECs exposed to shear or cyclic stretch. Src-homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) binds phosphorylated PECAM-1 and activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signalling cascade, a known flow-activated signalling pathway...
June 23, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597987/trafficking-and-localization-to-the-plasma-membrane-of-nav-1-5-promoted-by-the-%C3%AE-2-subunit-is-defective-due-to-a-%C3%AE-2-mutation-associated-with-brugada-syndrome
#7
Gemma Dulsat, Sonia Palomeras, Eric Cortada, Helena Riuró, Ramon Brugada, Marcel Vergés
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Cardiac channelopathies arise by mutations in genes encoding ion channel subunits. One example is Brugada Syndrome (BrS), which causes arrhythmias and sudden death. BrS is often associated with mutations in SCN5A, encoding Nav 1.5, the α subunit of the major cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel. This channel forms a protein complex including one or two associated β subunits as well as other proteins. RESULTS: We analyzed regulation of Nav 1...
June 9, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597954/exposure-to-bordetella-pertussis-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-affects-integrin-mediated-adhesion-and-mechanics-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#8
Christelle Angely, Ngoc-Minh Nguyen, Sofia Andre Dias, Emmanuelle Planus, Gabriel Pelle, Bruno Louis, Marcel Filoche, Alexandre Chenal, Daniel Ladant, Daniel Isabey
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The adenylate cyclase (CyaA) toxin is a major virulent factor of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA toxin is able to invade eukaryotic cells where it produces high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) affecting cellular physiology. Whether CyaA toxin can modulate cell matrix adhesion and mechanics of infected cells remains largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we use a recently proposed multiple bond force spectroscopy (MFS) with an atomic force microscope to assess the early phase of cell adhesion (maximal detachment and local rupture forces) and cell rigidity (Young's modulus) in alveolar epithelial cells (A549) for toxin exposure <1 h...
June 9, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369980/the-costa-of-trichomonads-a-complex-macromolecular-cytoskeleton-structure-made-of-uncommon-proteins
#9
Ivone de Andrade Rosa, Marjolly Brigido Caruso, Eidy de Oliveira Santos, Luiz Gonzaga, Russolina Benedeta Zingali, Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The costa is a prominent striated fibre that is found in protozoa of the Trichomonadidae family that present an undulating membrane. It is composed primarily of proteins that have not yet been explored. In this study, we used cell fractionation to obtain a highly enriched costa fraction whose structure and composition was further analysed by electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Electron microscopy of negatively stained samples revealed that the costa, which is a periodic structure with alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent bands, displays three distinct regions, named the head, neck and body...
June 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266044/role-and-impact-of-the-extracellular-matrix-on-integrin-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-functions
#10
REVIEW
Caroline Arous, Bernhard Wehrle-Haller
Understanding the organisation and role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in islets of Langerhans is critical for maintaining pancreatic β-cells, and to recognise and revert the physiopathology of diabetes. Indeed, integrin-mediated adhesion signalling in response to the pancreatic ECM plays crucial roles in β-cell survival and insulin secretion, two major functions, which are affected in diabetes. Here, we would like to present an update on the major components of the pancreatic ECM, their role during integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and how they are affected during diabetes...
June 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543271/characterisation-of-cellular-adhesion-reinforcement-by-multiple-bond-force-spectroscopy-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#11
Ngoc-Minh Nguyen, Christelle Angely, Sofia Andre Dias, Emmanuelle Planus, Marcel Filoche, Gabriel Pelle, Bruno Louis, Daniel Isabey
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Integrin-mediated adhesion is a key process by which cells physically connect with their environment, and express sensitivity and adaptation through mechanotransduction. A critical step of cell adhesion is the formation of the first bonds which individually generate weak contacts (∼tens pN) but can sustain thousand times higher forces (∼tens nN) when associated. RESULTS: We propose an experimental validation by multiple bond force spectroscopy (MFS) of a stochastic model predicting adhesion reinforcement permitted by non-cooperative, multiple bonds on which force is homogeneously distributed (called parallel bond configuration)...
May 24, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248428/vps15p-regulates-the-distribution-of-cup-shaped-organelles-containing-the-major-eisosome-protein-pil1p-to-the-extracellular-fraction-required-for-endocytosis-of-extracellular-vesicles-carrying-metabolic-enzymes
#12
Kathryn Stein, Chelsea Winters, Hui-Ling Chiang
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Exosomes are small vesicles secreted from virtually every cell from bacteria to humans. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model system to study trafficking of small vesicles in response to changes in the environment. When yeast cells are grown in low glucose, vesicles carrying gluconeogenic enzymes are present as free vesicles and aggregated clusters in the cytoplasm. These vesicles are also secreted into the periplasm and account for more than 90% of total extracellular organelles, while less than 10% are larger 100-300 nm structures with unknown functions...
May 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244605/are-cancer-cells-really-softer-than-normal-cells
#13
REVIEW
Charlotte Alibert, Bruno Goud, Jean-Baptiste Manneville
Solid tumours are often first diagnosed by palpation, suggesting that the tumour is more rigid than its surrounding environment. Paradoxically, individual cancer cells appear to be softer than their healthy counterparts. In this review, we first list the physiological reasons indicating that cancer cells may be more deformable than normal cells. Next, we describe the biophysical tools that have been developed in recent years to characterise and model cancer cell mechanics. By reviewing the experimental studies that compared the mechanics of individual normal and cancer cells, we argue that cancer cells can indeed be considered as softer than normal cells...
May 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225561/flotillins-control-zebrafish-epiboly-through-their-role-in-cadherin-mediated-cell-cell-adhesion
#14
Eduardo A Rios Morris, Stéphane Bodin, Bénédicte Delaval, Franck Comunale, Virginie Georget, Manoel L Costa, Georges Lutfalla, Cécile Gauthier-Rouvière
Zebrafish gastrulation and particularly epiboly that involves coordinated movements of several cell layers is a dynamic process for which regulators remain to be identified. We show here that Flotillin 1 and 2, ubiquitous and highly conserved proteins, are required for epiboly. Flotillins knockdown compromised embryo survival, strongly delayed epiboly and impaired deep cell radial intercalation and directed collective migration without affecting enveloping layer cell movement. At the molecular level, we identified that Flotillins are required for the formation of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions...
May 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220498/the-role-of-apical-cell-cell-junctions-and-associated-cytoskeleton-in-mechanotransduction
#15
REVIEW
Sophie Sluysmans, Ekaterina Vasileva, Domenica Spadaro, Jimit Shah, Florian Rouaud, Sandra Citi
Tissues of multicellular organisms are characterised by several types of specialised cell-cell junctions. In vertebrate epithelia and endothelia, tight and adherens junctions (AJ) play critical roles in barrier and adhesion functions, and are connected to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The interaction between junctions and the cytoskeleton is crucial for tissue development and physiology, and is involved in the molecular mechanisms governing cell shape, motility, growth and signalling. The machineries which functionally connect tight and AJ to the cytoskeleton comprise proteins which either bind directly to cytoskeletal filaments, or function as adaptors for regulators of the assembly and function of the cytoskeleton...
April 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186323/the-arp2-3-inhibitory-protein-arpin-is-dispensable-for-chemotaxis
#16
REVIEW
Irène Dang, Joern Linkner, Jun Yan, Daniel Irimia, Jan Faix, Alexis Gautreau
Arpin is an Arp2/3 inhibitory protein, which decreases the protrusion lifetime and hence directional persistence in the migration of diverse cells. Arpin is activated by the small GTPase Rac, which controls cell protrusion, thus closing a negative feedback loop that renders the protrusion intrinsically unstable. Because of these properties, it was proposed that Arpin might play a role in directed migration, where directional persistence has to be fine-tuned. We report here, however, that Arpin-depleted tumour cells and Arpin knock-out Dictyostelium amoeba display no obvious defect in chemotaxis...
April 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248426/why-would-you-like-to-publish-in-biology-of-the-cell
#17
EDITORIAL
René-Marc Mège
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990663/%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrins-negatively-regulate-cellular-forces-by-phosphorylation-of-its-distal-npxy-site
#18
Rachel Milloud, Olivier Destaing, Richard de Mets, Ingrid Bourrin-Reynard, Christiane Oddou, Antoine Delon, Irène Wang, Corinne Albigès-Rizo, Martial Balland
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Integrins are key receptors that allow cells to sense and respond to their mechanical environment. Although they bind the same ligand, β1 and β3 integrins have distinct and cooperative roles in mechanotransduction. RESULTS: Using traction force microscopy on unconstrained cells, we show that deleting β3 causes traction forces to increase, whereas the deletion of β1 integrin results in a strong decrease of contractile forces. Consistently, loss of β3 integrin also induces an increase in β1 integrin activation...
March 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748980/tensins-are-versatile-regulators-of-rho-gtpase-signalling-and-cell-adhesion
#19
REVIEW
Anne Blangy
Tensins are focal adhesion molecules that were identified and characterised in the late 1980s to early 1990s. They play an essential role in the control of cell adhesion. Tensins can bind the tail of ß integrin via their phospho tyrosine binding domain, they exhibit various protein interaction domains including a Src Homology 2 domain and they are serine-, threonine- and tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to various stimuli. Tensins serve as scaffolds to gather signalling molecules at the extracellular matrix adhesion complexes...
March 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730650/the-integrative-role-of-cryo-electron-microscopy-in-molecular-and-cellular-structural-biology
#20
REVIEW
Igor Orlov, Alexander G Myasnikov, Leonid Andronov, S Kundhavai Natchiar, Heena Khatter, Brice Beinsteiner, Jean-François Ménétret, Isabelle Hazemann, Kareem Mohideen, Karima Tazibt, Rachel Tabaroni, Hanna Kratzat, Nadia Djabeur, Tatiana Bruxelles, Finaritra Raivoniaina, Lorenza di Pompeo, Morgan Torchy, Isabelle Billas, Alexandre Urzhumtsev, Bruno P Klaholz
After gradually moving away from preparation methods prone to artefacts such as plastic embedding and negative staining for cell sections and single particles, the field of cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is now heading off at unprecedented speed towards high-resolution analysis of biological objects of various sizes. This 'revolution in resolution' is happening largely thanks to new developments of new-generation cameras used for recording the images in the cryo electron microscope which have much increased sensitivity being based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices...
February 2017: Biology of the Cell
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