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Biology of the Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681376/mechanics-of-blastocyst-morphogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Jean-Léon Maître
During pre-implantation development, the mammalian zygote transforms into the blastocyst, the structure that will implant the embryo in the maternal uterus. Consisting of a squamous epithelium enveloping a fluid-filled cavity and the inner cell mass, the blastocyst is sculpted by a succession of morphogenetic events. These deformations result from the changes in the forces and mechanical properties of the tissue composing the embryo. Here, I review the recent studies, which, for the first time, informed us on the mechanics of blastocyst morphogenesis...
July 6, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643869/mechanotransduction-properties-of-the-cytoplasmic-tail-of-pecam-1
#2
Jessica L Snyder, Elena McBeath, Tamlyn N Thomas, Yi Jen Chiu, Robert L Clark, Keigi Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are a well-known cell system used in the study of mechanobiology. Using cultured ECs, we found that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31), a cell adhesion protein localized to regions of EC-EC contact, was rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in ECs exposed to shear or cyclic stretch. Src-homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) binds phosphorylated PECAM-1 and activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling cascade, a known flow-activated signaling pathway...
June 23, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597987/trafficking-and-localization-to-the-plasma-membrane-of-nav-1-5-promoted-by-the-%C3%AE-2-subunit-is-defective-due-to-a-%C3%AE-2-mutation-associated-with-brugada-syndrome
#3
Gemma Dulsat, Sonia Palomeras, Eric Cortada, Helena Riuró, Ramon Brugada, Marcel Vergés
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Cardiac channelopathies arise by mutations in genes encoding ion channel subunits. One example is Brugada Syndrome (BrS), which causes arrhythmias and sudden death. BrS is often associated with mutations in SCN5A, encoding Nav 1.5, the α subunit of the major cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel. This channel forms a protein complex including one or two associated β subunits as well as other proteins. RESULTS: We analyzed regulation of Nav 1...
June 9, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597954/exposure-to-bordetella-pertussis-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-affects-integrin-mediated-adhesion-and-mechanics-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#4
Christelle Angely, Ngoc-Minh Nguyen, Sofia Andre Dias, Emmanuelle Planus, Gabriel Pelle, Bruno Louis, Marcel Filoche, Alexandre Chenal, Daniel Ladant, Daniel Isabey
BACKGROUND: The adenylate cyclase (CyaA) toxin is a major virulent factor of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA toxin is able to invade eukaryotic cells where it produces high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) affecting cellular physiology. Whether CyaA toxin can modulate cell matrix adhesion and mechanics of infected cells remains largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we use a recently proposed Multiple bond Force Spectroscopy (MFS) with an Atomic Force Microscope to assess the early phase of cell adhesion (maximal detachment and local rupture forces) and cell rigidity (Young's modulus) in alveolar epithelial cells (A549) for toxin exposure <1hour...
June 9, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543271/characterisation-of-cellular-adhesion-reinforcement-by-multiple-bond-force-spectroscopy-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#5
Ngoc-Minh Nguyen, Christelle Angely, Sofia Andre Dias, Emmanuelle Planus, Marcel Filoche, Gabriel Pelle, Bruno Louis, Daniel Isabey
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Integrin-mediated adhesion is a key process by which cells physically connect with their environment, and express sensitivity and adaptation through mechanotransduction. A critical step of cell adhesion is the formation of the first bonds which individually generate weak contacts (∼tens pN) but can sustain thousand times higher forces (∼tens nN) when associated. RESULTS: We propose an experimental validation by multiple bond force spectroscopy (MFS) of a stochastic model predicting adhesion reinforcement permitted by non-cooperative, multiple bonds on which force is homogeneously distributed (called parallel bond configuration)...
May 24, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369980/the-costa-of-trichomonads-a-complex-macromolecular-cytoskeleton-structure-made-of-uncommon-proteins
#6
Ivone de Andrade Rosa, Marjolly Brigido Caruso, Eidy de Oliveira Santos, Luiz Gonzaga, Russolina Benedeta Zingali, Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The costa is a prominent striated fibre that is found in protozoa of the Trichomonadidae family that present an undulating membrane. It is composed primarily of proteins that have not yet been explored. In this study, we used cell fractionation to obtain a highly enriched costa fraction whose structure and composition was further analysed by electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Electron microscopy of negatively stained samples revealed that the costa, which is a periodic structure with alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent bands, displays three distinct regions, named the head, neck and body...
June 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266044/role-and-impact-of-the-extracellular-matrix-on-integrin-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-functions
#7
REVIEW
Caroline Arous, Bernhard Wehrle-Haller
Understanding the organisation and role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in islets of Langerhans is critical for maintaining pancreatic β-cells, and to recognise and revert the physiopathology of diabetes. Indeed, integrin-mediated adhesion signalling in response to the pancreatic ECM plays crucial roles in β-cell survival and insulin secretion, two major functions, which are affected in diabetes. Here, we would like to present an update on the major components of the pancreatic ECM, their role during integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and how they are affected during diabetes...
June 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248428/vps15p-regulates-the-distribution-of-cup-shaped-organelles-containing-the-major-eisosome-protein-pil1p-to-the-extracellular-fraction-required-for-endocytosis-of-extracellular-vesicles-carrying-metabolic-enzymes
#8
Kathryn Stein, Chelsea Winters, Hui-Ling Chiang
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Exosomes are small vesicles secreted from virtually every cell from bacteria to humans. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model system to study trafficking of small vesicles in response to changes in the environment. When yeast cells are grown in low glucose, vesicles carrying gluconeogenic enzymes are present as free vesicles and aggregated clusters in the cytoplasm. These vesicles are also secreted into the periplasm and account for more than 90% of total extracellular organelles, while less than 10% are larger 100-300 nm structures with unknown functions...
May 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244605/are-cancer-cells-really-softer-than-normal-cells
#9
REVIEW
Charlotte Alibert, Bruno Goud, Jean-Baptiste Manneville
Solid tumours are often first diagnosed by palpation, suggesting that the tumour is more rigid than its surrounding environment. Paradoxically, individual cancer cells appear to be softer than their healthy counterparts. In this review, we first list the physiological reasons indicating that cancer cells may be more deformable than normal cells. Next, we describe the biophysical tools that have been developed in recent years to characterise and model cancer cell mechanics. By reviewing the experimental studies that compared the mechanics of individual normal and cancer cells, we argue that cancer cells can indeed be considered as softer than normal cells...
May 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225561/flotillins-control-zebrafish-epiboly-through-their-role-in-cadherin-mediated-cell-cell-adhesion
#10
Eduardo A Rios Morris, Stéphane Bodin, Bénédicte Delaval, Franck Comunale, Virginie Georget, Manoel L Costa, Georges Lutfalla, Cécile Gauthier-Rouvière
Zebrafish gastrulation and particularly epiboly that involves coordinated movements of several cell layers is a dynamic process for which regulators remain to be identified. We show here that Flotillin 1 and 2, ubiquitous and highly conserved proteins, are required for epiboly. Flotillins knockdown compromised embryo survival, strongly delayed epiboly and impaired deep cell radial intercalation and directed collective migration without affecting enveloping layer cell movement. At the molecular level, we identified that Flotillins are required for the formation of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions...
May 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220498/the-role-of-apical-cell-cell-junctions-and-associated-cytoskeleton-in-mechanotransduction
#11
REVIEW
Sophie Sluysmans, Ekaterina Vasileva, Domenica Spadaro, Jimit Shah, Florian Rouaud, Sandra Citi
Tissues of multicellular organisms are characterised by several types of specialised cell-cell junctions. In vertebrate epithelia and endothelia, tight and adherens junctions (AJ) play critical roles in barrier and adhesion functions, and are connected to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The interaction between junctions and the cytoskeleton is crucial for tissue development and physiology, and is involved in the molecular mechanisms governing cell shape, motility, growth and signalling. The machineries which functionally connect tight and AJ to the cytoskeleton comprise proteins which either bind directly to cytoskeletal filaments, or function as adaptors for regulators of the assembly and function of the cytoskeleton...
April 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186323/the-arp2-3-inhibitory-protein-arpin-is-dispensable-for-chemotaxis
#12
REVIEW
Irène Dang, Joern Linkner, Jun Yan, Daniel Irimia, Jan Faix, Alexis Gautreau
Arpin is an Arp2/3 inhibitory protein, which decreases the protrusion lifetime and hence directional persistence in the migration of diverse cells. Arpin is activated by the small GTPase Rac, which controls cell protrusion, thus closing a negative feedback loop that renders the protrusion intrinsically unstable. Because of these properties, it was proposed that Arpin might play a role in directed migration, where directional persistence has to be fine-tuned. We report here, however, that Arpin-depleted tumour cells and Arpin knock-out Dictyostelium amoeba display no obvious defect in chemotaxis...
April 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248426/why-would-you-like-to-publish-in-biology-of-the-cell
#13
EDITORIAL
René-Marc Mège
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990663/%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrins-negatively-regulate-cellular-forces-by-phosphorylation-of-its-distal-npxy-site
#14
Rachel Milloud, Olivier Destaing, Richard de Mets, Ingrid Bourrin-Reynard, Christiane Oddou, Antoine Delon, Irène Wang, Corinne Albigès-Rizo, Martial Balland
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Integrins are key receptors that allow cells to sense and respond to their mechanical environment. Although they bind the same ligand, β1 and β3 integrins have distinct and cooperative roles in mechanotransduction. RESULTS: Using traction force microscopy on unconstrained cells, we show that deleting β3 causes traction forces to increase, whereas the deletion of β1 integrin results in a strong decrease of contractile forces. Consistently, loss of β3 integrin also induces an increase in β1 integrin activation...
March 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748980/tensins-are-versatile-regulators-of-rho-gtpase-signalling-and-cell-adhesion
#15
REVIEW
Anne Blangy
Tensins are focal adhesion molecules that were identified and characterised in the late 1980s to early 1990s. They play an essential role in the control of cell adhesion. Tensins can bind the tail of ß integrin via their phospho tyrosine binding domain, they exhibit various protein interaction domains including a Src Homology 2 domain and they are serine-, threonine- and tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to various stimuli. Tensins serve as scaffolds to gather signalling molecules at the extracellular matrix adhesion complexes...
March 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730650/the-integrative-role-of-cryo-electron-microscopy-in-molecular-and-cellular-structural-biology
#16
REVIEW
Igor Orlov, Alexander G Myasnikov, Leonid Andronov, S Kundhavai Natchiar, Heena Khatter, Brice Beinsteiner, Jean-François Ménétret, Isabelle Hazemann, Kareem Mohideen, Karima Tazibt, Rachel Tabaroni, Hanna Kratzat, Nadia Djabeur, Tatiana Bruxelles, Finaritra Raivoniaina, Lorenza di Pompeo, Morgan Torchy, Isabelle Billas, Alexandre Urzhumtsev, Bruno P Klaholz
After gradually moving away from preparation methods prone to artefacts such as plastic embedding and negative staining for cell sections and single particles, the field of cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is now heading off at unprecedented speed towards high-resolution analysis of biological objects of various sizes. This 'revolution in resolution' is happening largely thanks to new developments of new-generation cameras used for recording the images in the cryo electron microscope which have much increased sensitivity being based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices...
February 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673746/apoptotic-properties-of-the-type-1-interferon-induced-family-of-human-mitochondrial-membrane-isg12-proteins
#17
Heidi Gytz, Mariann F Hansen, Signe Skovbjerg, Anders C M Kristensen, Sofie Hørlyck, Mette B Jensen, Marlene Fredborg, Lotte D Markert, Nigel A McMillan, Erik I Christensen, Pia M Martensen
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Interferons are a family of cytokines with growth inhibitory and antiviral functions, which exert their biological actions through the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). The human ISG12 family of proteins comprises ISG12A, ISG12B, ISG12C and ISG6-16. Due to differential splicing and a gene variation, the human ISG12A protein exists as a full-length ISG12A form and three ISG12A variants. ISG12 genes have been found transcriptionally dysregulated in many disorders...
February 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690365/mesoscale-imaging-with-cryo-light-and-x-rays-larger-than-molecular-machines-smaller-than-a-cell
#18
REVIEW
Axel A Ekman, Jian-Hua Chen, Jessica Guo, Gerry McDermott, Mark A Le Gros, Carolyn A Larabell
In the context of cell biology, the term mesoscale describes length scales ranging from that of an individual cell, down to the size of the molecular machines. In this spatial regime, small building blocks self-organise to form large, functional structures. A comprehensive set of rules governing mesoscale self-organisation has not been established, making the prediction of many cell behaviours difficult, if not impossible. Our knowledge of mesoscale biology comes from experimental data, in particular, imaging...
January 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633335/chromatin-decondensation-is-accompanied-by-a-transient-increase-in-transcriptional-output
#19
Viola Vaňková Hausnerová, Christian Lanctôt
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The levels of chromatin condensation usually correlate inversely with the levels of transcription. The mechanistic links between chromatin condensation and RNA polymerase II activity remain to be elucidated. In the present work, we sought to experimentally determine whether manipulation of chromatin condensation levels can have a direct effect on transcriptional activity. RESULTS: We generated a U-2-OS cell line in which the nascent transcription of a reporter gene could be imaged alongside chromatin compaction levels in living cells...
January 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628952/recent-developments-of-genetically-encoded-optical-sensors-for-cell-biology
#20
REVIEW
Andrey Bolbat, Carsten Schultz
Optical sensors are powerful tools for live cell research as they permit to follow the location, concentration changes or activities of key cellular players such as lipids, ions and enzymes. Most of the current sensor probes are based on fluorescence which provides great spatial and temporal precision provided that high-end microscopy is used and that the timescale of the event of interest fits the response time of the sensor. Many of the sensors developed in the past 20 years are genetically encoded. There is a diversity of designs leading to simple or sometimes complicated applications for the use in live cells...
January 2017: Biology of the Cell
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