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British Journal of Social Psychology

Martha Augoustinos
Batel and Castro's call for reopening the dialogue between the theory of social representations and discursive psychology is to be welcomed and indeed, somewhat long overdue. Despite the case that many scholars are engaging in the kind of rapprochement being advocated for by Batel and Castro, I argue here that the intellectual trajectory discursive psychology has taken during the last thirty years makes it less amenable to the kind of reconciliation called for by Batel and Castro. Two enduring tensions between the two theories that require resolution remain: (1) how we define discursive psychology as it is practised today and (2) the epistemological and ontological status of cognition...
November 8, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Johanna Peetz, Michael J A Wohl
People differ in the extent to which they focus on their personal future, past, or present. Across four studies (using both correlation and experimental designs), we explore whether people also have a temporal orientation when thinking about the social groups to which they belong (i.e., their in-group). In Studies 1-3, participants' personal temporal orientation was moderately linked with, but distinguishable from, their collective temporal orientation for their national self (i.e., 'American'). In Study 2, evidence is provided for the predictive validity of this novel concept...
November 8, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Marta Marchlewska, Kevin A Castellanos, Karol Lewczuk, Mirosław Kofta, Aleksandra Cichocka
In two studies, we analysed the relationships between different types of self-evaluation (i.e., narcissism and self-esteem) and support for democracy. Support for democracy requires the ability to respect the views and opinions of others, even if one disagrees with them. Classic studies have linked support for democracy with high self-evaluation, which should assume psychological security and, thus, the ability to trust others. However, not all forms of high self-evaluation are secure. Narcissists have high feelings of self-worth, but tend to be defensive: They are easily threatened by criticisms or conflicting views...
November 3, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Tobias Greitemeyer, Christina Sagioglou
The present research examined the causal effects of absolute and relative status on experienced deprivation and hostility. On the basis of the theory of relative deprivation, we reasoned that the subjective experience of being worse off than others is a better predictor for hostility than is the absolute level of how well-off people are. Indeed, three experiments showed that relative more than absolute status has an impact on aggressive affect. That is, even when objective resources were high, people were more hostile when their resources compared negatively to others' resources...
October 30, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Angela R Dorrough, Andreas Glöckner
In a comprehensive cross-national study involving samples from 12 different countries that were representative for the adult populations in terms of age and sex (N = 2,429), we found that women cooperate significantly less overall than men in fully incentivized one-shot prisoner's dilemma games. This gender gap in cooperation can be explained by the fact that women hold lower expectations regarding the cooperativeness of their anonymous interaction partners. These results contradict both the common stereotype that women are more communal, caring, emotionally expressive, and warm than men and substantial empirical evidence showing that women act more prosocially in many contexts...
October 17, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Chuma Kevin Owuamalam, Mark Rubin, Russell Spears
Do the disadvantaged have an autonomous system justification motivation that operates against their personal and group interests? System justification theory (SJT; Jost & Banaji, 1994, Br. J. Soc. Psychol, 33, 1) proposes that they do and that this motivation helps to (1) reduce cognitive dissonance and associated uncertainties and (2) soothe the pain that is associated with knowing that one's group is subject to social inequality. However, 25 years of research on this system justification motivation has given rise to several theoretical and empirical inconsistencies...
October 17, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Maria Chayinska, Anca Minescu, Craig McGarty
The current research seeks to develop an analysis of Ukraine's Euromaidan social movement in psychological terms. Building on the classic understanding of social competition strategies, we argue that Euromaidan protests can be conceived as an attempt of pro-European Union (EU) Ukrainians to realign the boundaries of the Ukrainian national identity by defeating the alternative pro-Russia integration project championed by the government. In particular, building on the encapsulated model of social identity in collective action, we suggest that Euromaidan is an emergent opinion-based group identity, formed in response to injustice through two self-categorical processes - group-level self-investment into the shared entity (i...
October 15, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Daniel Geschke, Jan Lorenz, Peter Holtz
Filter bubbles and echo chambers have both been linked recently by commentators to rapid societal changes such as Brexit and the polarization of the US American society in the course of Donald Trump's election campaign. We hypothesize that information filtering processes take place on the individual, the social, and the technological levels (triple-filter-bubble framework). We constructed an agent-based modelling (ABM) and analysed twelve different information filtering scenarios to answer the question under which circumstances social media and recommender algorithms contribute to fragmentation of modern society into distinct echo chambers...
October 12, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Alexander Maki, Patrick C Dwyer, Susanne Blazek, Mark Snyder, Roberto González, Siugmin Lay
How does a major natural disaster relate to individuals' orientation towards society? We collected repeated cross-sectional surveys before (n = 644) and after the 2010 Chile earthquake (n = 1,389) to examine levels of national identity, prosocial values, helping motivations, and prosocial behaviours in the context of such a calamitous societal event. Our research questions, derived from the literature on helping in times of crisis, considered how natural disasters may implicate identity and prosociality, as well as how identity, prosocial values, and motivations are linked to prosocial action after a disaster...
October 8, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Magdalena Hirsch, Maykel Verkuyten, Kumar Yogeeswaran
Living with diversity requires that we sometimes accept outgroup practices that we personally disapprove of (i.e., tolerance). Using an experimental design, we examined Dutch majority group members' tolerance of controversial practices with varying degrees of moral concern, performed by a culturally dissimilar (Muslims) or similar (orthodox Protestant) minority group. Furthermore, we examined whether arguments in favour or against (or a combination of both) the specific practice impacted tolerance. Results indicated that participants expressed less tolerance for provocative practices when it was associated with Muslims than orthodox Protestants, but not when such practices elicit high degrees of moral concern...
October 3, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Namkje Koudenburg, Hedy Greijdanus, Daan Scheepers
In this research, we investigate how a negative (or hostile) norm regarding minorities at the societal level can fuel polarization between majority subgroups at the local level. We hypothesize that rapid social change in the form of polarization results from the interplay between small group processes and perceptions of society at large. By employing a novel analytic approach that uses variances to capture non-linear societal change, we were able to study polarization processes. In three studies among high school and university students (N = 347), we manipulated the majority norm about a minority category (positive vs...
September 24, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
William E Thomas, Rupert Brown, Matthew J Easterbrook, Vivian L Vignoles, Claudia Manzi, Chiara D'Angelo, Jeremy J Holt
Social identification and team performance literatures typically focus on the relationship between individual differences in identification and individual-level performance. By using a longitudinal multilevel approach, involving 369 members of 45 sports teams across England and Italy, we compared how team-level and individual-level variance in social identification together predicted team and individual performance outcomes. As hypothesized, team-level variance in identification significantly predicted subsequent levels of both perceived and actual team performance in cross-lagged analyses...
September 21, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Justin P Friesen, Kristin Laurin, Steven Shepherd, Danielle Gaucher, Aaron C Kay
We review conceptual and empirical contributions to system justification theory over the last fifteen years, emphasizing the importance of an experimental approach and consideration of context. First, we review the indirect evidence of the system justification motive via complimentary stereotyping. Second, we describe injunctification as direct evidence of a tendency to view the extant status quo (the way things are) as the way things should be. Third, we elaborate on system justification's contextual nature and the circumstances, such as threat, dependence, inescapability, and system confidence, which are likely to elicit defensive bolstering of the status quo and motivated ignorance of critical social issues...
September 19, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Anna Kende, Márton Hadarics, Zsolt Péter Szabó
Anti-immigrant attitudes are not only widespread among Eurosceptic nationalists, but also among people who feel that immigration threatens European values and identity. We therefore assumed that the connection between nationalism and xenophobia can only partially explain the rise of hostile attitudes in the post-2015 period. In two online surveys (N = 1,160), we compared how (a) glorification versus attachment and (b) national versus European identity can predict anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim attitudes in Hungary...
September 17, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Amber M Gaffney, Bryan Sherburne, Justin D Hackett, David E Rast, Zachary P Hohman
In democratic elections, constituents may view unconventional or non-prototypical candidates as attempting to reshape their national identity in the wrong direction. When a non-prototypical candidate actually steps into a leadership role, the group's consensual view of their prototype may shift to position this new leader as prototypical. This process should be bound in member consensus, evidenced by the leader's successful election. The current work examines American Republicans (N = 297) and Democrats (N = 322) before and after the 2016 US election...
September 17, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Roxane de la Sablonnière, Jean-Marc Lina, Diana Cárdenas
Dramatic social change (DSC) is the new normal, affecting millions of people around the world. However, not all events plunge societies into DSC. According to de la Sablonnière (2017, Front. Psychol., 8, 1), events that have a rapid pace of change, that rupture an entire group's social and normative structures, and that threaten the group's cultural identity will result in DSC. This perspective provokes important unanswered questions: What is the chance that a DSC will occur if an event takes place? And, when will other societal states arise from such events? Addressing these questions is pivotal for a genuine psychology of social change to emerge...
September 4, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Rotem Kahalon, Nurit Shnabel, Samer Halabi, Ilanit SimanTov-Nachlieli
Competitive victimhood denotes group members' efforts to establish that their ingroup has suffered greater injustice than an adversarial outgroup. Previous research in contexts of structural inequality has stressed the role of the need to defend the ingroup's moral identity, rather than the need for power, in leading advantaged and disadvantaged group members to engage in competitive victimhood. Focusing on the structural inequality between Jewish and Arab citizens of Israel (Study 1) and Israeli women and men (Study 2), we found that across all groups and contexts, power needs predicted competitive victimhood...
August 29, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Stephen Gibson
Psychologists have typically defined obedience as a form of social influence elicited in response to direct orders from an authority figure. In the most influential set of studies of obedience, conducted by Stanley Milgram in the early 1960s, the orders at the disposal of the authority figure were a series of verbal prods. However, recent research has suggested that Milgram's experiments do not show people following orders. It has therefore been suggested that the experiments are not demonstrations of obedience...
August 29, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Andrzej Nowak, Robin R Vallacher
Although rapid social change reflects each society's unique combination of myriad social, historical, political, and economic factors, we argue that the defining features of such change can be understood with recourse to the dynamic processes inherent in complex systems. Accordingly, we present a formal model that describes, in minimalist terms, the dynamics associated with rapid societal transitions in a society's norms and attitudes-and to the potential for rapid reversals of these transitions. The model predicts that societies in the midst of rapid change are characterized by dual realities corresponding to the new and the old, so that models focusing only on changes in the central tendency of a societal attitude provide a misleading account of rapid social change...
August 22, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Jonathan Potter
Batel and Castro propose a reconciliation of social representation theory and discursive psychology. This comment highlights the continuing relevance of long-standing critiques of social representation theory from discursive psychologists as well as their central focus on both how representations are built to appear factual and the role of representations in practices. It suggests that the analytic approaches proposed by Batel and Castro (e.g., focus groups and thematic analysis) are not sufficient to the analytic task...
August 22, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
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