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British Journal of Social Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905119/automatic-female-dehumanization-across-the-menstrual-cycle
#1
Valentina Piccoli, Carlo Fantoni, Francesco Foroni, Mauro Bianchi, Andrea Carnaghi
In this study, we investigate whether hormonal shifts during the menstrual cycle contribute to the dehumanization of other women and men. Female participants with different levels of likelihood of conception (LoC) completed a semantic priming paradigm in a lexical decision task. When the word 'woman' was the prime, animal words were more accessible in high versus low LoC whereas human words were more inhibited in the high versus low LoC. When the word 'man' was used as the prime, no difference was found in terms of accessibility between high and low LoC for either animal or human words...
November 30, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900793/a-matter-of-focus-power-holders-feel-more-responsible-after-adopting-a-cognitive-other-focus-rather-than-a-self-focus
#2
Annika Scholl, Kai Sassenberg, Daan Scheepers, Naomi Ellemers, Frank de Wit
Social power implies responsibility. Yet, power-holders often follow only their own interests and overlook this responsibility. The present research illuminates how a previously adopted cognitive focus guides perceived responsibility when a person receives high (vs. low) power. In three experiments, adopting a cognitive focus on another person (vs. on the self or taking over another person's perspective) promoted perceived responsibility among individuals receiving high (but not low) power in a subsequent context...
November 30, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888516/beyond-the-two-group-paradigm-in-studies-of-intergroup-conflict-and-inequality-third-parties-and-intergroup-alliances-in-xenophobic-violence-in-south-africa
#3
Philippa Kerr, Kevin Durrheim, John Dixon
Social psychologists typically conceptualize intergroup processes in terms of unequal pairs of social categories, such as an advantaged majority (e.g., 'Whites') and a disadvantaged minority (e.g., 'Blacks'). We argue that this two-group paradigm may obscure the workings of intergroup power by overlooking: (1) the unique dynamics of intergroup relations involving three or more groups, and (2) the way some two-group relationships function as strategic alliances that derive meaning from their location within a wider relational context...
November 26, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878836/social-comparison-personal-relative-deprivation-and-materialism
#4
Hyunji Kim, Mitchell J Callan, Ana I Gheorghiu, William J Matthews
Across five studies, we found consistent evidence for the idea that personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of deserved outcomes compared to others, uniquely contributes to materialism. In Study 1, self-reports of PRD positively predicted materialistic values over and above socioeconomic status, personal power, self-esteem, and emotional uncertainty. The experience of PRD starts with social comparison, and Studies 2 and 3 found that PRD mediated the positive relation between a tendency to make social comparisons of abilities and materialism...
November 23, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859404/listen-to-the-band-how-sound-can-realize-group-identity-and-enact-intergroup-domination
#5
John Shayegh, John Drury, Clifford Stevenson
Recent research suggests that sound appraisal can be moderated by social identity. We validate this finding, and also extend it, by examining the extent to which sound can also be understood as instrumental in intergroup relations. We interviewed nine members of a Catholic enclave in predominantly Protestant East Belfast about their experiences of an outgroup (Orange Order) parade, where intrusive sound was a feature. Participants reported experiencing the sounds as a manifestation of the Orange Order identity and said that it made them feel threatened and anxious because they felt it was targeted at them by the outgroup (e...
November 18, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862012/what-determines-forgiveness-in-close-relationships-the-role-of-post-transgression-trust
#6
Peter Strelan, Johan C Karremans, Josiah Krieg
Relationship closeness is one of the best predictors of forgiveness. But what is the process by which closeness encourages forgiveness? Across three studies, we employed a mix of experimental and correlational designs with prospective (N = 108), scenario (N = 71), and recall (N = 184) paradigms to test a multiple mediation model. We found consistent evidence that the positive association between relationship closeness and forgiveness may be explained by levels of post-transgression trust in the offender...
November 16, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861996/perceived-legitimacy-follows-in-group-interests-evidence-from-intermediate-status-groups
#7
Luca Caricati, Alfonso Sollami
In two experiments, the effect of (in)stability of status differences on the perception of perspective legitimacy and in-group threat among intermediate-status group members (i.e., nurses students or nurses) was analysed. Both studies indicated that in downwardly unstable condition, legitimacy was lower and in-group threat was higher than in stable condition. In upwardly unstable condition, perceived legitimacy was higher and in-group threat was lower than in stable condition. The indirect effects of (in)stability via in-group threat on perceived legitimacy were significant...
November 16, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862021/work-and-freedom-working-self-objectification-and-belief-in-personal-free-will
#8
Cristina Baldissarri, Luca Andrighetto, Alessandro Gabbiadini, Chiara Volpato
The current work aimed to extend the burgeoning literature on working objectification by investigating the effects of particular job activities on self-perception. By integrating relevant theoretical reflections with recent empirical evidence, we expected that performing objectifying (i.e., repetitive, fragmented, and other-directed) tasks would affect participants' self-objectification and, in turn, their belief in personal free will. In three studies, we consistently found that performing a manual (Study 1 and Study 2) or a computer (Study 3) objectifying task (vs...
November 12, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859330/the-moral-dimension-of-politicized-identity-exploring-identity-content-during-the-2012-presidential-elections-in-the-usa
#9
Felicity M Turner-Zwinkels, Martijn van Zomeren, Tom Postmes
It is well known that politicized identities are especially good predictors of collective action, but very little is known about what these identities are. We propose that moral identity content plays a central role in politicized identities. We examined this among (un)politicized Americans in the 2012 US Presidential Elections. In a longitudinal community sample of US citizens (N = 760), we tracked personal (i.e., unique) and politicized (i.e., party activist) identity content: before, during, and after the election...
November 11, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805266/sexualization-reduces-helping-intentions-towards-female-victims-of-intimate-partner-violence-through-mediation-of-moral-patiency
#10
Maria Giuseppina Pacilli, Stefano Pagliaro, Steve Loughnan, Sarah Gramazio, Federica Spaccatini, Anna Costanza Baldry
This paper examines the influence of female sexualization on people's willingness to provide help in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV). We examined how sexualization may make women seem lacking moral patiency and moral virtue both of which may lead to a reduced willingness to help. In the first study, participants read a fictitious newspaper article describing an IPV incident. They were then presented with a picture of the ostensible victim depicting the woman with either a sexualized or non-sexualized appearance...
November 2, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800628/effects-of-objectifying-gaze-on-female-cognitive-performance-the-role-of-flow-experience-and-internalization-of-beauty-ideals
#11
Francesca Guizzo, Mara Cadinu
Although previous research has demonstrated that objectification impairs female cognitive performance, no research to date has investigated the mechanisms underlying such decrement. Therefore, we tested the role of flow experience as one mechanism leading to performance decrement under sexual objectification. Gaze gender was manipulated by having male versus female experimenters take body pictures of female participants (N = 107) who then performed a Sustained Attention to Response Task. As predicted, a moderated mediation model showed that under male versus female gaze, higher internalization of beauty ideals was associated with lower flow, which in turn decreased performance...
November 1, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762440/group-differences-in-the-legitimization-of-inequality-questioning-the-role-of-social-dominance-orientation
#12
Samuel Pehrson, Héctor Carvacho, Chris G Sibley
Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709633/what-emotional-tears-convey-tearful-individuals-are-seen-as-warmer-but-also-as-less-competent
#13
Niels van de Ven, Maartje H J Meijs, Ad Vingerhoets
Earlier research found that the mere sight of tears promotes the willingness to provide support to the person shedding the tears. Other research, however, found that deliberate responses towards tearful persons could be more negative as well. We think this is because tears have ambivalent effects on person perception: We predicted that tearful people are seen as warmer, but also as less competent. In three studies, we asked participants (total N = 1,042) to form their impression of someone based on a picture...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709628/not-your-average-bigot-the-better-than-average-effect-and-defensive-responding-to-implicit-association-test-feedback
#14
Jennifer L Howell, Kate A Ratliff
A robust body of literature on the better-than-average effect suggests that people believe that they are better than the average others across a variety of domains. In two studies, we examined whether these better-than-average beliefs occur for bias related to stereotyping and prejudice. Moreover, we investigated the hypothesis that better-than-average beliefs will predict defensive responding to feedback indicating personal bias (e.g., preferences for majority groups, societally endorsed stereotypes). Specifically, we examined defensive responses to implicit attitude feedback...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616360/essentialist-beliefs-understanding-contact-with-and-attitudes-towards-lesbian-and-gay-individuals
#15
Ashley Lytle, Christina Dyar, Sheri R Levy, Bonita London
Sexual prejudice remains a widespread problem worldwide. Past research demonstrates that cross-orientation contact (contact between heterosexuals and lesbian/gay individuals) reduces sexual prejudice among heterosexuals, especially when contact is high quality. This study extends the literature on the relationship between cross-orientation contact and sexual prejudice and the mediation of this relationship by intergroup anxiety by examining the role of a key ideology - essentialist beliefs about homosexuality (immutability, universality, and discreteness beliefs)...
September 11, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696437/-the-deserving-moral-reasoning-and-ideological-dilemmas-in-public-responses-to-humanitarian-communications
#16
Irene Bruna Seu
This study investigates everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in a humanitarian context. The discursive analysis focuses on the principles of deservingness which members of the public use to decide who to help and under what conditions. The study discusses three repertoires of deservingness - 'seeing a difference', 'waiting in queues', and 'something for nothing' - to illustrate participants' dilemmatic reasoning and to examine how the position of 'being deserving' is negotiated in humanitarian crises...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696433/how-risk-perception-shapes-collective-action-intentions-in-repressive-contexts-a-study-of-egyptian-activists-during-the-2013-post-coup-uprising
#17
Arin H Ayanian, Nicole Tausch
Social psychological research has overlooked collective action in repressive contexts, where activists face substantial personal risks. This paper examines the social psychological processes motivating activists to engage in collective action in risky contexts. We investigate the idea that perceived risks due to government sanctions can galvanize action through fuelling anger, shaping efficacy beliefs, and increasing identification with the movement. We also argue that anger, efficacy, and identification motivate action intentions directly and indirectly through reducing the personal importance activists attach to these risks...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683102/collective-synchrony-increases-prosociality-towards-non-performers-and-outgroup-members
#18
Paul Reddish, Eddie M W Tong, Jonathan Jong, Jonathan A Lanman, Harvey Whitehouse
Previous research has found that behavioural synchrony between people leads to greater prosocial tendencies towards co-performers. In this study, we investigated the scope of this prosocial effect: does it extend beyond the performance group to an extended ingroup (extended parochial prosociality) or even to other people in general (generalized prosociality)? Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement either in time (synchrony condition) or out of time (asynchrony condition) with each other. Before and during the rhythmic movement, participants were exposed to a prime that made salient an extended ingroup identity...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667140/-everyone-here-wants-everyone-else-to-get-better-the-role-of-social-identity-in-eating-disorder-recovery
#19
Niamh McNamara, Harriet Parsons
Retention of a positively valued illness identity contributes to poor outcomes for individuals with eating disorders (EDs). Consequently, dis-identification from the illness identity and the adoption of a recovery identity are vital for successful recovery. While social identity processes have been shown to influence ED maintenance, their role in recovery is rarely considered. This study explores how a sense of shared identity helps individuals with EDs manage their condition and promotes recovery. Transcripts from 18 online support sessions involving 75 participants were thematically analysed...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616485/global-identification-predicts-gay-male-identity-integration-and-well-being-among-turkish-gay-men
#20
Yasin Koc, Vivian L Vignoles
In most parts of the world, hegemonic masculinity requires men to endorse traditional masculine ideals, one of which is rejection of homosexuality. Wherever hegemonic masculinity favours heterosexuality over homosexuality, gay males may feel under pressure to negotiate their conflicting male gender and gay sexual identities to maintain positive self-perceptions. However, globalization, as a source of intercultural interaction, might provide a beneficial context for people wishing to create alternative masculinities in the face of hegemonic masculinity...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
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