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British Journal of Social Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198077/translation-strategies-contradiction-and-the-theory-of-social-representations-why-discussing-needles-may-improve-blood-donor-retention
#1
Gail Moloney, Jane Hayman, Marguerite Gamble, Geoff Smith, Rob Hall
Retaining blood donors is a cost-effective way of ensuring a safe blood supply, yet despite the plethora of research, only 5.1% of the eligible population in Australia donate blood and 40% of these do not make a second donation. We offer an alternative to traditional approaches by conceptualizing blood donation within social representations theory as socially derived symbolic knowledge with a specific focus on cognitive polyphasia and Guimelli's (1998) normative and functional dimensions. An online survey, completed by 703 residents from NSW Australia, comprised a blood donation word association task, Likert-style questions constructed from previous word association data and contextualized blood donation statements...
February 15, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198021/internalizing-objectification-objectified-individuals-see-themselves-as-less-warm-competent-moral-and-human
#2
Steve Loughnan, Cristina Baldissarri, Federica Spaccatini, Laura Elder
People objectify others by viewing them as less warm, competent, moral, and human (Heflick & Goldenberg, 2009, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 45, 598; Vaes, Paladino, & Puvia, 2011, Eur. J. Soc. Psychol., 41, 774). In two studies, we examined whether the objectified share this view of themselves, internalizing their objectification. In Study 1 (N = 114), we examined sexual objectification, and in Study 2 (N = 62), we examined workplace objectification. Consistent across both studies, we found that objectification resulted in participants seeing themselves as less warm, competent, moral (Study 2 only), and lacking in human nature and human uniqueness...
February 15, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188637/objectification-of-people-and-thoughts-an-attitude-change-perspective
#3
Pablo Briñol, Richard E Petty, Jennifer Belding
Many objectification phenomena can be understood from a mind-body dualism perspective in which the more people focus on their bodies, the less they focus on their minds. Instead of viewing mind and body in opposition to each other, we advocate for a more reciprocal view in which mind and body work in conjunction. Consistent with an integrated mind-body approach, we begin our review by describing research on embodied persuasion revealing that focusing on our own body can reduce but also increase thinking (elaboration), as well as affecting the use of thoughts in forming evaluations (validation)...
February 11, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160297/-thinking-ill-of-others-without-sufficient-warrant-transcending-the-accuracy-inaccuracy-dualism-in-prejudice-and-stereotyping-research
#4
John Dixon
Research on prejudice seeks to understand and transform inaccurate beliefs about others. Indeed, historically such research has offered a cautionary tale of the biased nature of human cognition. Recently, however, this view has been challenged by work defending the essential rationality of intergroup perception, a theme captured controversially in Jussim and colleagues' (2009) research on the 'unbearable accuracy of stereotyping'. The present paper argues that in its own terms the 'rationalist turn' in socio-cognitive research on stereotyping presents an important challenge to the prejudice tradition, raising troubling questions about its conceptual and empirical foundations...
February 3, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144960/using-the-sirde-model-of-social-change-to-examine-the-vote-of-scottish-teenagers-in-the-2014-independence-referendum
#5
Peter R Grant, Mark Bennett, Dominic Abrams
Five hundred and seventy-three Scottish high school students were surveyed in the 2 months following the 2014 referendum on Scotland's independence. We used the Social Identity, Relative Deprivation, collective Efficacy (SIRDE) model of social change to examine the social psychological factors that should have influenced the voting choices of these teenagers. Structural equation modelling indicated that the SIRDE model fit the data and largely supported four sets of hypotheses derived from the model. Specifically, (1) those with a stronger Scottish identity, (2) those who felt frustrated and angry that Scottish people are discriminated against in British society, and (3) those who believed that Scottish people are not able to improve their relatively poor social conditions within the United Kingdom (a lack of collective efficacy) were more likely to hold separatist beliefs...
February 1, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127783/up-and-left-as-a-spatial-cue-of-leadership
#6
Maria Paola Paladino, Mara Mazzurega, Claudia Bonfiglioli
Cues of leadership are features that signal who is (or who is expected to be) the leader in a specific context. Although their use is widespread, empirical research is scarce, especially for spatial positioning as a sign of leadership. Based on work on spatial biases, we suggest here that the upper-left corner of a page is a spatial position associated with leadership. In the present studies (N = 455), we investigated this hypothesis and showed that a layout with a photograph positioned in the upper-left corner (compared to the upper-right, lower-left, or lower-right corner) led people to infer that the person portrayed in the photograph had a leading (vs...
January 27, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097672/collective-resistance-despite-complicity-high-identifiers-rise-above-the-legitimization-of-disadvantage-by-the-in-group
#7
Gloria Jiménez-Moya, Rosa Rodríguez-Bailón, Russell Spears, Soledad de Lemus
How do individuals deal with group disadvantage when their fellow in-group members conceive it as legitimate? Integrating research on the normative conflict model (Packer, 2008, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev., 12, 50) and collective action, we expect high identifiers to reject the in-group norm of legitimacy that justifies the inequality, and to assert that the group is actually able and willing to contest the disadvantage by collective means. In Study 1 and Study 2, we tested this hypothesis in different intergroup contexts...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905119/automatic-female-dehumanization-across-the-menstrual-cycle
#8
Valentina Piccoli, Carlo Fantoni, Francesco Foroni, Mauro Bianchi, Andrea Carnaghi
In this study, we investigate whether hormonal shifts during the menstrual cycle contribute to the dehumanization of other women and men. Female participants with different levels of likelihood of conception (LoC) completed a semantic priming paradigm in a lexical decision task. When the word 'woman' was the prime, animal words were more accessible in high versus low LoC whereas human words were more inhibited in the high versus low LoC. When the word 'man' was used as the prime, no difference was found in terms of accessibility between high and low LoC for either animal or human words...
November 30, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900793/a-matter-of-focus-power-holders-feel-more-responsible-after-adopting-a-cognitive-other-focus-rather-than-a-self-focus
#9
Annika Scholl, Kai Sassenberg, Daan Scheepers, Naomi Ellemers, Frank de Wit
Social power implies responsibility. Yet, power-holders often follow only their own interests and overlook this responsibility. The present research illuminates how a previously adopted cognitive focus guides perceived responsibility when a person receives high (vs. low) power. In three experiments, adopting a cognitive focus on another person (vs. on the self or taking over another person's perspective) promoted perceived responsibility among individuals receiving high (but not low) power in a subsequent context...
November 30, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696437/-the-deserving-moral-reasoning-and-ideological-dilemmas-in-public-responses-to-humanitarian-communications
#10
Irene Bruna Seu
This study investigates everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in a humanitarian context. The discursive analysis focuses on the principles of deservingness which members of the public use to decide who to help and under what conditions. The study discusses three repertoires of deservingness - 'seeing a difference', 'waiting in queues', and 'something for nothing' - to illustrate participants' dilemmatic reasoning and to examine how the position of 'being deserving' is negotiated in humanitarian crises...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696433/how-risk-perception-shapes-collective-action-intentions-in-repressive-contexts-a-study-of-egyptian-activists-during-the-2013-post-coup-uprising
#11
Arin H Ayanian, Nicole Tausch
Social psychological research has overlooked collective action in repressive contexts, where activists face substantial personal risks. This paper examines the social psychological processes motivating activists to engage in collective action in risky contexts. We investigate the idea that perceived risks due to government sanctions can galvanize action through fuelling anger, shaping efficacy beliefs, and increasing identification with the movement. We also argue that anger, efficacy, and identification motivate action intentions directly and indirectly through reducing the personal importance activists attach to these risks...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683102/collective-synchrony-increases-prosociality-towards-non-performers-and-outgroup-members
#12
Paul Reddish, Eddie M W Tong, Jonathan Jong, Jonathan A Lanman, Harvey Whitehouse
Previous research has found that behavioural synchrony between people leads to greater prosocial tendencies towards co-performers. In this study, we investigated the scope of this prosocial effect: does it extend beyond the performance group to an extended ingroup (extended parochial prosociality) or even to other people in general (generalized prosociality)? Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement either in time (synchrony condition) or out of time (asynchrony condition) with each other. Before and during the rhythmic movement, participants were exposed to a prime that made salient an extended ingroup identity...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667140/-everyone-here-wants-everyone-else-to-get-better-the-role-of-social-identity-in-eating-disorder-recovery
#13
Niamh McNamara, Harriet Parsons
Retention of a positively valued illness identity contributes to poor outcomes for individuals with eating disorders (EDs). Consequently, dis-identification from the illness identity and the adoption of a recovery identity are vital for successful recovery. While social identity processes have been shown to influence ED maintenance, their role in recovery is rarely considered. This study explores how a sense of shared identity helps individuals with EDs manage their condition and promotes recovery. Transcripts from 18 online support sessions involving 75 participants were thematically analysed...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616485/global-identification-predicts-gay-male-identity-integration-and-well-being-among-turkish-gay-men
#14
Yasin Koc, Vivian L Vignoles
In most parts of the world, hegemonic masculinity requires men to endorse traditional masculine ideals, one of which is rejection of homosexuality. Wherever hegemonic masculinity favours heterosexuality over homosexuality, gay males may feel under pressure to negotiate their conflicting male gender and gay sexual identities to maintain positive self-perceptions. However, globalization, as a source of intercultural interaction, might provide a beneficial context for people wishing to create alternative masculinities in the face of hegemonic masculinity...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611443/on-shifting-the-blame-to-humanity-historicist-narratives-regarding-transgressors-evoke-compassion-for-the-transgressor-but-disdain-for-humanity
#15
Michael J Gill, Phillip D Getty
People respond compassionately to transgressors whose immorality is rooted in an unfortunate life history. But, are reactions to such historicist narratives uniformly compassionate? We suggest not. We propose that historicist narratives also have a dark side. Specifically, they encourage blame shifting, in which negative evaluations of humanity arise hand in hand with compassion for the focal transgressor of the narrative. Indeed, historicist narratives portray the focal transgressor as victimized by multiple others, who destroy her goodness and remove her chance to flourish in life...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578549/social-identity-mapping-a-procedure-for-visual-representation-and-assessment-of-subjective-multiple-group-memberships
#16
Tegan Cruwys, Niklas K Steffens, S Alexander Haslam, Catherine Haslam, Jolanda Jetten, Genevieve A Dingle
In this research, we introduce Social Identity Mapping (SIM) as a method for visually representing and assessing a person's subjective network of group memberships. To provide evidence of its utility, we report validating data from three studies (two longitudinal), involving student, community, and clinical samples, together comprising over 400 participants. Results indicate that SIM is easy to use, internally consistent, with good convergent and discriminant validity. Each study also illustrates the ways that SIM can be used to address a range of novel research questions...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480621/the-essence-of-crime-contagious-transmission-from-those-who-have-committed-moral-transgressions
#17
Caley Tapp, Stefano Occhipinti
Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between moral contagion and disgust. Study 1 established that the contamination effect is unique to transgressions that fall within the moral domain. Study 2 replicated this effect and further showed that the underlying mechanism is intimately related to disgust, as disgust was found to uniquely mediate the relationship between moral transgressions and contamination responses. In Study 3, disgust was again found to mediate this relationship. In addition, the results of Study 3 show that the moral contagion effect was not dependent upon the presence of a core disgust cue within the transgression...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374702/collectively-coping-with-contact-the-role-of-intragroup-support-in-dealing-with-the-challenges-of-intergroup-mixing-in-residential-contexts
#18
Clifford Stevenson, Thia Sagherian-Dickey
The social identity approach to stress has shown how intragroup support processes shape individuals' responses to stress across health care, workplace, and community settings. However, the issue of how these 'social cure' processes can help cope with the stress of intergroup contact has yet to be explored. This is particularly important given the pivotal role of intergroup threat and anxiety in the experience of contact as well as the effect of contact on extending the boundaries of group inclusion. This study applies this perspective to a real-life instance of residential contact in a divided society...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357492/anger-and-sadness-as-adaptive-emotion-expression-strategies-in-response-to-negative-competence-and-warmth-evaluations
#19
Pinar Celik, Martin Storme, Nils Myszkowski
Previous literature suggested that anger and sadness may be necessary to restore social bonds in the face of immediate relationship threat. The present research compared the social effectiveness of expressing anger and sadness in response to a negative personal evaluation. Results indicated that target anger in response to a negative competence evaluation, and target sadness in response to a negative warmth evaluation, had the most positive effects on the evaluators' subjectively perceived persuasiveness of the targets' communication (Study 1) and on the subjectively perceived fluency of the interaction by both interaction partners (Study 2)...
December 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888516/beyond-the-two-group-paradigm-in-studies-of-intergroup-conflict-and-inequality-third-parties-and-intergroup-alliances-in-xenophobic-violence-in-south-africa
#20
Philippa Kerr, Kevin Durrheim, John Dixon
Social psychologists typically conceptualize intergroup processes in terms of unequal pairs of social categories, such as an advantaged majority (e.g., 'Whites') and a disadvantaged minority (e.g., 'Blacks'). We argue that this two-group paradigm may obscure the workings of intergroup power by overlooking: (1) the unique dynamics of intergroup relations involving three or more groups, and (2) the way some two-group relationships function as strategic alliances that derive meaning from their location within a wider relational context...
November 26, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
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