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British Journal of Clinical Psychology

Lauren Luther, Ruth L Firmin, Jenifer L Vohs, Kelly D Buck, Kevin L Rand, Paul H Lysaker
OBJECTIVE: Poor functioning has long been observed in individuals with psychosis. Recent studies have identified metacognition - one's ability to form complex ideas about oneself and others and to use that information to respond to psychological and social challenges-as being an important determinant of functioning. However, the exact process by which deficits in metacognition lead to impaired functioning remains unclear. This study first examined whether low intrinsic motivation, or the tendency to pursue novel experiences and to engage in self-improvement, mediates the relationship between deficits in metacognition and impaired functioning...
September 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Filippo Varese, Anthony P Morrison, Rosie Beck, Suzanne Heffernan, Heather Law, Richard P Bentall
OBJECTIVES: Research has suggested that the extent to which voices (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations) are experienced as distressing might be influenced by negative beliefs about voices as well as maladaptive metacognitive styles involving the negative appraisal and maladaptive control of mental experiences. This cross-sectional study examined the contribution of both specific appraisals of voices and a metacognitive factor (i.e., experiential avoidance) to voice-related distress...
September 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Bernd G Heubeck, Thomas A Otte, Gerhard W Lauth
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the social validity of cognitive-behavioural parent training (CBPT) delivered in two formats to parents who have children with hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) with and without medication. DESIGN: Compared individual with group treatment as part of a multicentre randomized controlled trial. METHOD: Obtained a broad range of evaluations and satisfaction ratings post-treatment and related them to pre-treatment and treatment factors...
September 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Martin Brüne
OBJECTIVES: Interpersonal dysfunction is central to borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent research has focused on the role of oxytocin (OT) in BPD, particularly regarding associations of OT activity with symptoms, genetic polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor coding gene (OXTR) in BPD, and experimental modification of interpersonal core problems of patients with BPD such as hypervigilance towards threat detection, mistrust, and non-verbal behaviour during social interaction by intranasal application of OT...
September 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Nicolai Ladegaard, Poul Videbech, Paul H Lysaker, Erik R Larsen
OBJECTIVES: Research has suggested that patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) experience deficits in the related domains of social cognition and metacognition. Most research has focused on detecting deficits among persons who are acutely symptomatic. Thus, little is known about whether these deficits persist after symptoms have remitted. As a first, this study investigated social cognitive and metacognitive deficits in patients with MDD in the acute and remitted state...
September 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Danny C K Lam, Paul M Salkovskis, Lorna I Hogg
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis is ubiquitous in Psychiatry, and whilst it does bring benefits; adverse effects of 'labelling' may also be possible. This study aimed to evaluate experimentally whether clinicians' judgements about a patient with panic disorder were influenced by an inappropriately suggested diagnosis of comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD). DESIGN: An experimental design was used to evaluate clinician's judgements when the nature of the information they were given was varied to imply BPD comorbidity...
September 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Katherine Berry, Gillian Haddock, Stephen Kellett, Chris Roberts, Richard Drake, Christine Barrowclough
OBJECTIVES: Recent inquiries highlight the anti-therapeutic nature of inpatient psychiatric care. We aim to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of a ward-based psychological intervention to improve staff-patient relationships in psychiatric rehabilitation settings. METHODS: A single-blind cluster randomized design compared the intervention with treatment as usual (TAU) on measures of relationships, staff well-being, and patient functioning. Assessments were carried out at baseline and at 6 months...
September 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Jasper E Palmier-Claus, Alyson Dodd, Sara Tai, Richard Emsley, Warren Mansell
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive models have suggested that extreme appraisals of affective states and maladaptive affect regulation strategies are important in the development of bipolar symptomatology. Little is known about the pathway by which these appraisals and behaviours interact in the formation of activated and depressed affective states. This study tested the predictions that (1) ascent behaviours mediate the relationship between positive appraisals of activated mood and activation; and (2) descent behaviours mediate the relationship between negative appraisals of activated mood and depression...
September 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Meryn Lechowicz, Laurie Miller, Muireann Irish, Donna Rose Addis, Armin Mohamed, Suncica Lah
OBJECTIVES: Imagining future events, which contain episodic and non-episodic details, has been found to (1) engage the temporal lobes bilaterally and (2) be impaired in patients with bilateral temporal lobe pathology. Here, we examined whether unilateral temporal lobe dysfunction also impairs the ability to generate future events. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional. METHODS: Twenty patients with a history of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE; 10 left (LTLE) and 10 right (RTLE)] and 20 normal control (NC) subjects comparable on age, sex and education completed the Adapted Autobiographical Interview, which required recall of past and generation of future events and distinguished episodic (internal) from non-episodic (external) details...
June 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Donna Rose Addis, Sylvia Hach, Lynette J Tippett
OBJECTIVES: The tendency to generate overgeneral past or future events is characteristic of individuals with a history of depression. Although much research has investigated the contribution of rumination and avoidance to the reduced specificity of past events, comparatively little research has examined (1) whether the specificity of future events is differentially reduced in depression and (2) the role of executive functions in this phenomenon. Our study aimed to redress this imbalance...
June 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Mareike Altgassen, Laura Ariese, Arie J Wester, Roy P C Kessels
OBJECTIVE: Korsakoff's syndrome is characterized by deficits in episodic memory and executive functions. Both cognitive functions are needed to remember to execute delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM), an ability that is crucial for independent living in everyday life. So far, PM has only been targeted by one study in Korsakoff's syndrome. This study explored the effects of executive control demands on PM to shed further light on a possible interdependence of memory and executive functions in Korsakoff's syndrome, METHOD: Twenty-five individuals with Korsakoff's syndrome and 23 chronic alcoholics (without amnesia) performed a categorization task into which a PM task was embedded that put either high or low demands on executive control processes (using low vs...
June 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Emmeline Goodby, Andrew K MacLeod
OBJECTIVES: This study employed the Future Thinking Task (MacLeod et al., 2005, Br. J. Clin. Psychol., 44, 495) to investigate whether future-directed thinking in first-episode psychosis is significantly different from that of matched controls, and to identify its correlates in this patient group. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, mixed-model, case-control design. METHOD: Participants were 30 patients with first-episode psychosis and 27 matched controls...
June 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Donna Kwan, Jake Kurczek, R Shayna Rosenbaum
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether severity of episodic prospection impairment in medial temporal lobe (MTL) amnesia is reduced by the types of cues that are used to elicit personal future episodes and, if so, whether episodic memory impairment is similarly affected. DESIGN: Multiple case study of five individuals with MTL amnesia and healthy control participants. METHODS: Participants were administered two tests of episodic prospection: A commonly used Galton-Crovitz task that uses generic cues (e...
June 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Scott N Cole, Catriona M Morrison, Ohr Barak, Katalin Pauly-Takacs, Martin A Conway
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of memory accessibility on episodic future thinking. DESIGN: Single-case study of neurological patient HCM and an age-matched comparison group of neurologically Healthy Controls. METHODS: We administered a full battery of tests assessing general intelligence, memory, and executive functioning. To assess autobiographical memory, the Autobiographical Memory Interview (Kopelman, Wilson, & Baddeley, 1990. The Autobiographical Memory Interview...
June 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Amanda D Lyons, Julie D Henry, Peter G Rendell, Gail Robinson, Thomas Suddendorf
OBJECTIVE: People with schizophrenia have difficulty engaging in specific future-directed thoughts and behaviours, such as generating phenomenological characteristics of future events (a component of episodic foresight), and executing directed preparatory behaviours (a component of prospective memory). However, it remains unclear whether they also exhibit difficulties using episodic foresight to appropriately guide future-directed behaviours. METHOD: People with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls were administered a behavioural measure that met strict criteria for assessing episodic foresight...
June 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Ji Hae Lee, Jill T Shelton, Michael K Scullin, Mark A McDaniel
OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether (1) very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with impaired prospective memory (PM) for tasks that are supported by either spontaneous retrieval (focal PM) or strategic monitoring (non-focal PM) and (2) implementation intention (II) encoding could improve PM performance in very mild AD. DESIGN: Thirty-eight healthy older adults and 34 with very mild AD were randomly assigned to perform two PM tasks in either the standard or the II encoding condition...
June 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Benjamin E Buck, Amy E Pinkham, Philip D Harvey, David L Penn
OBJECTIVE: The ongoing Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study is in the process of forming a gold-standard battery of social cognition tests for use in clinical trials. Previous SCOPE phases have not acknowledged key differences between social cognition skills and biases, and psychometric validity analyses might provide important information if tailored to bias-related outcomes. This study aims to validate these measures with such bias-related outcomes. METHODS: Two measures of social cognitive bias - the Ambiguous Intention Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ; hostile attribution bias) and Trustworthiness Task (distrust bias) - were reviewed according to their relationships to (1) current and prospective symptom levels, (2) questionnaires of trait paranoia and hostility and informant-rated hostility, (3) interpersonal conflict, as well as (4) relationships to measures of trait paranoia, hostility, and interpersonal conflict above and beyond the influence of clinically rated symptoms...
May 11, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Annabel Broyd, Suzanne Jolley, Louise Johns
OBJECTIVES: Improving subjective well-being (SWB) for people with mental health problems is a United Kingdom national health priority and is increasingly important in justifying funding of mental health services. Aside from the economic advantages, maximizing SWB confers obvious individual and clinical benefits for people with severe mental illness, such as psychosis. Gaining a better understanding of well-being and its determinants will enable current evidence-based interventions to be targeted and refined appropriately...
April 29, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Catharina Strid, Claes Andersson, Yvonne Forsell, Agneta Öjehagen, Lars-Gunnar Lundh
OBJECTIVES: Mental ill-health has become a large health problem and it is important for caregivers to provide effective treatment alternatives. REGASSA is a randomized controlled study performed in primary care to study the effects of 12 weeks of Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) and physical exercise (PE) compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with mild-to-moderate mental ill-health. The present study aimed to examine the results of these treatment alternatives on psychological functioning, stress, and sleep disturbances...
April 5, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Helen Startup, Katherine Pugh, Graham Dunn, Jacinta Cordwell, Helen Mander, Emma Černis, Gail Wingham, Katherine Shirvell, David Kingdon, Daniel Freeman
OBJECTIVES: Worry may be common in patients with paranoia and a contributory causal factor in the occurrence of the delusions. A number of psychological mechanisms have been linked to the occurrence of worry in emotional disorders but these are yet to be investigated in psychosis. The primary aim of the study was to test the links between five main worry mechanisms - perseverative thinking, catastrophizing, stop rules, metacognitive beliefs, and intolerance of uncertainty - and the cognitive style of worry in patients with persecutory delusions...
March 20, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
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