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Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931034/historical-perspective-on-clinical-trials-of-carnitine-in-children-and-adults
#1
Neil R M Buist
The metabolic roles of carnitine have been greatly clarified over the past 50 years, and it is now well established that carnitine is a key player in mitochondrial generation of energy and metabolism of acetyl coenzyme A. A therapeutic role for carnitine in treatment of nutritional deficiencies in infants and children was first demonstrated in 1958, and since that time it has been used to treat a number of inborn errors of metabolism. Carnitine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1985 for treatment of 'primary carnitine deficiency', and later in 1992 for treatment of 'secondary carnitine deficiency', a definition that included the majority of relevant metabolic disorders associated with low or abnormal plasma carnitine levels...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931032/fatty-acid-oxidation-and-its-relation-with-insulin-resistance-and-associated-disorders
#2
Gary D Lopaschuk
Alterations in muscle fatty acid metabolism have been implicated in mediating the severity of insulin resistance. In the insulin resistant heart fatty acids are favored as an energy source over glucose, which is thus associated with increased fatty acid oxidation, and an overall decrease in glycolysis and glucose oxidation. In addition, excessive uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids in obesity and diabetes can compromise cardiac function. In animal studies, mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) show cardiac insulin resistance in which the accumulation of intra-myocardial diacylglycerol has been implicated, likely involving parallel signaling pathways...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931031/round-table-discussion
#3
Susan Winter, Neil R M Buist, Nicola Longo, Saro H Armenian, Gary Lopaschuk, Anna Wasilewska
The 1st International Carnitine Working Group concluded with a round table discussion addressing several areas of relevance. These included the design of future studies that could increase the amount of evidence-based data about the role of carnitine in the treatment of fatty acid oxidation defects, for which substantial controversy still exists. There was general consensus that future trials on the effect of carnitine in disorders of fatty acid oxidation should be randomized, double-blinded, multicentered and minimally include the following diagnoses: medium-chain acyl coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931027/anthracycline-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-young-cancer-patients-the-role-of-carnitine
#4
Saro H Armenian
While the increased rates of survival in childhood cancers have increased progressively in recent decades, many childhood cancer survivors will have at least one chronic health condition within 40 years of age. In this regard, cardiovascular complications have emerged as a leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, likely due to exposure to anthracycline chemotherapy, and outcomes in patients with anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy remain poor. Some progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms at the basis of anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy, which appear to involve generation of reactive oxygen species, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, followed by myocyte apoptosis and maladaptive left ventricular remodeling...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931018/primary-carnitine-deficiency-and-newborn-screening-for-disorders-of-the-carnitine-cycle
#5
Nicola Longo
Carnitine is needed for transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent β-oxidation. Carnitine can be synthesized by the body and is also obtained in the diet through consumption of meat and dairy products. Defects in carnitine transport such as those caused by defective activity of the OCTN2 transporter encoded by the SLC22A5 gene result in primary carnitine deficiency, and newborn screening programmes can identify patients at risk for this condition before irreversible damage...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931016/foreword
#6
Susan Winter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915341/rs1501299-polymorphism-in-the-adiponectin-gene-and-their-association-with-total-adiponectin-levels-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-subjects
#7
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, Beatriz de la Fuente, David Primo, Hilda Fernandez Ovalle, Enrique Romero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphism rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene with body weight, insulin resistance, serum adipokine levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: The study involved a population of 1,007 adult obese subjects. Parameters like body weight, fat mass, waist circumferences, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, C-reactive protein, insulin concentration, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipocytokines levels (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) were all measured...
December 3, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894108/nutrition-status-nutrition-support-therapy-and-food-intake-are-related-to-prolonged-hospital-stays-in-china-results-from-the-nutritionday-2015-survey
#8
Huijun Zheng, Yingchun Huang, Yongmei Shi, Wei Chen, Jianchun Yu, Xinying Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Malnutrition is a common and critical problem that greatly influences the clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients. Nutrition support therapy and food intake, in addition to disease-related factors, are also important to maintain the nutrition status of patients. In light of this, we aimed to examine the risk factors associated with malnutrition in 3 hospitals in China. METHODS: This project was part of the NutritionDay audit, an international daylong cross-sectional audit investigating the nutritional intervention profiles of hospitalized patients...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871070/khat-catha-edulis-and-obesity-a-scoping-review-of-animal-and-human-studies
#9
Mustafa Ahmed Alshagga, Mohammed Abdullah Alshawsh, Atefehalsadat Seyedan, Abdulsamad Alsalahi, Yan Pan, Suresh Kumar Mohankumar, Abdolgodose Alkebsi, Saba Kassim, Zahurin Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis) is a plant that is deeply rooted in the cultural life of East African and Southwestern Arabian populations. Prevalent traditional beliefs about khat are that the plant has an effect on appetite and body weight. SUMMARY: This review assesses the accumulated evidences on the mutual influence of monoamines, hormones and neuropeptides that are linked to obesity. A few anti-obesity drugs that exert their mechanisms of action through monoamines are briefly discussed to support the notion of monoamines being a critical target of drug discovery for new anti-obesity drugs...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866204/more-attention-should-be-paid-to-monitoring-of-abdominal-obesity-among-children-and-adolescents
#10
Ying-Xiu Zhang, Jin-Shan Zhao, Zun-Hua Chu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866187/a-pilot-study-examining-the-effects-of-8-week-whey-protein-versus-whey-protein-plus-creatine-supplementation-on-body-composition-and-performance-variables-in-resistance-trained-women
#11
Colin D Wilborn, Jordan J Outlaw, Petey W Mumford, Stacie L Urbina, Sara Hayward, Michael D Roberts, Lem W Taylor, Cliffa A Foster
AIMS: We performed a pilot study examining the effects of whey protein and creatine supplementation (PRO + CRE group) versus whey protein supplementation (PRO group) alone on body composition and performance variables in a limited number of resistance-trained women. METHODS: Seventeen resistance-trained women (21 ± 3 years, 64.7 ± 8.2 kg, 23.5 kg/m2, 26.6 ± 4.8% body fat, >6 months of training) performed a 4-day per week split-body resistance training program for 8 weeks...
November 19, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855393/central-obesity-and-liver-iron-content-a-noninvasive-assessment-in-general-population-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Amir Reza Radmard, Hossein Poustchi, Amir Pejman Hashemi Taheri, Marjan Gerami Seresht, Payam Mohammadinejad, Ali Yoonessi, Mehrdad Dadgostar, Mohammad Sadegh Rahmanian, Elham Jafari, Atefeh Zeinoddini, Reza Malekzadeh, Shahin Merat
BACKGROUND/AIM: Existing evidence points to an altered status of iron metabolism in obesity. We aimed to investigate whether central obesity is independently associated with estimated liver iron content (liver T2* value) in general population that used the noninvasive assessment method by MRI. METHODS: The study was carried out on 200 subjects randomly selected from the Golestan Cohort Study who underwent abdominal MRI. Quantitative T2* maps of entire cross-sectional area of liver were calculated using a semi-automated software for estimating the levels of iron content...
November 18, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855382/childhood-health-consequences-of-maternal-obesity-during-pregnancy-a-narrative-review
#13
Romy Gaillard, Susana Santos, Liesbeth Duijts, Janine F Felix
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health problem among women of reproductive age. In a narrative review, we examined the influence of maternal obesity during pregnancy on fetal outcomes and childhood adiposity, cardio-metabolic, respiratory and cognitive-related health outcomes. We discuss results from recent studies, the causality and potential underlying mechanisms of observed associations and challenges for future epidemiological studies. SUMMARY: Evidence from observational studies strongly suggests that maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are associated with increased risks of fetal pregnancy complications and adverse childhood cardio-metabolic, respiratory and cognitive-related health outcomes...
November 18, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832637/acute-overfeeding-does-not-alter-liver-or-adipose-tissue-derived-cytokines-in-healthy-humans
#14
Miaoxin Chen, Bo Liu, Campbell H Thompson, Gary A Wittert, Leonie K Heilbronn
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The secretions of liver-derived cytokines angiopoietin-like 6, insulin-like growth factor 1, selenoprotein-P and C-reactive protein and adipokines, adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 are altered in obese individuals, and they directly induce insulin resistance in both cellular and animal models. This study is aimed at examining the effects of acute overnutrition on these cytokines in healthy individuals, and identifying association with markers of insulin resistance...
November 11, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855410/fens-news
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855409/iuns-news
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855408/erratum
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855407/the-power-of-programming-2016-developmental-origins-of-adiposity-and-long-term-health-october-13-15-2016-munich-abstracts
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842317/editorial
#19
Maria Makrides, Jatinder Bhatia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842316/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-clinical-outcomes-of-preterm-infants
#20
Alexandre Lapillonne, Sissel J Moltu
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) play specific roles during the perinatal period and are very important nutrients to consider. The possible effects of LCPUFAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on various clinical outcomes of preterm infants are discussed in this paper. Since DHA accumulates in the central nervous system during development, a lot of attention has focused on the effects of DHA on neurodevelopment. Experimental studies as well as recent clinical trials show that providing larger amounts of DHA than currently and routinely provided is associated with better neurological outcomes at 18 months to 2 years...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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