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Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407627/determining-factors-and-critical-periods-in-the-formation-of-eating-habits-results-from-the-habeat-project
#1
Sylvie Issanchou
BACKGROUND: Eating habits form early during childhood and are likely to track until the beginning of adulthood. Thus, understanding the formation of eating habits is important. Consequently, the population targeted in the European project Habeat comprised infants and young children up to 6 years of age. SUMMARY: Habeat mainly focused on the qualitative dimension of eating habits with a particular attention on vegetables and to a lesser extent on fruit. Food intake of young children was also studied in 2 challenging situations where overeating may occur and the relation between children's behaviour and feeding parental practices was examined...
April 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#2
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301856/the-role-of-dietary-experience-in-the-development-of-eating-behavior-during-the-first-years-of-life
#3
Sophie Nicklaus
Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but because of the transitions in the mode of feeding in the first years (from "tube" feeding in utero to eating table foods with the family), they have to learn how, what and how much to eat. Eating behavior established during early years may follow throughout childhood; therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important drivers of the early development of eating behavior. Beyond the first flavor discoveries during the gestational and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavors from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phases for learning food preferences and appetite control may be the beginning of complementary feeding (CF)...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301855/placental-lipid-and-fatty-acid-transfer-in-maternal-overnutrition
#4
Rohan M Lewis, Gernot Desoye
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of childhood obesity is a significant public health challenge, the consequences of which extend across the life course. SUMMARY: Diet and exercise are clearly the major contributors to childhood obesity, but the factors predisposing to obesity may become established in the womb. Worryingly maternal overnutrition, in particular when it leads to obesity and diabetes, perpetuate an intergenerational cycle of obesity through its effects on placental function and fetal metabolism...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301849/long-term-adverse-effects-of-early-growth-acceleration-or-catch-up-growth
#5
Atul Singhal
BACKGROUND: Whilst prevention of growth faltering has both short- and long-term health benefits, whether too fast or accelerated infant growth adversely affects later health outcomes is controversial and a major focus of research. SUMMARY: Many observational studies suggest that rapid weight gain in infancy (upward centile crossing) increases the long-term risk of obesity and non-communicable disease. This association has been seen in infants from low- and high-income countries, in infants born preterm or at term, and those born with normal or low birth weight for gestation...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301846/programming-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-by-very-preterm-birth
#6
Martijn J J Finken, Bibian van der Voorn, Jonneke J Hollanders, Charlotte A Ruys, Marita de Waard, Johannes B van Goudoever, Joost Rotteveel
BACKGROUND: Many very preterm (i.e., <32 weeks of gestation) newborns fail to mount an adequate adrenocortical response to stress or illness, termed relative adrenal insufficiency. Conversely, later in life these infants show features of increased glucocorticoid bioactivity, such as abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, raised blood pressure, shorter stature and internalizing problem behavior. SUMMARY: Studies suggested that very preterm newborns have impairments along multiple levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301845/dietary-intakes-of-arachidonic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-early-life-with-a-special-focus-on-complementary-feeding-in-developing-countries
#7
Stewart Forsyth, Sheila Gautier, Norman Salem
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, dietary intakes of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in early life are lower than current recommended levels. This review specifically focusses on the contribution that complementary feeding makes to ARA and DHA intakes in medium- to low-income countries. The aims of the review are (1) to determine the availability of ARA and DHA food sources in developing countries, (2) to estimate the contribution of complementary feeding to dietary intakes of ARA and DHA in infants aged 6-36 months, and (3) to relate the dietary ARA and DHA intake data to key socioeconomic and health indicators...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301844/the-placenta-maternal-diet-and-adipose-tissue-development-in-the-newborn
#8
Michael E Symonds, Ian Bloor, Shalini Ojha, Helen Budge
BACKGROUND: A majority of adipose tissue present in the newborn possess the unique mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein (UCP1). It is thus highly metabolically active and capable of producing 300 times more heat per unit mass than any other organ in the body. The extent to which maternal obesity and/or an obesogenic diet impacts on placental function thereby resetting the relative distribution of different types of fat in the fetus is unknown. SUMMARY: Developmentally the majority (if not all) fat in the fetus can be considered as classical brown fat, in which UCP1 is highly abundant...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301842/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-health-and-disease-in-the-gambia
#9
Sophie E Moore
BACKGROUND: Exposures during early life are increasingly being recognised as factors that play an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis asserts that adverse early-life exposures - most notably unbalanced nutrition - leads to an increased risk for a range of NCDs and that disease risk is highest when there is a "mismatch" between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in settings undergoing a rapid nutrition transition...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301840/why-early-prevention-of-childhood-obesity-is-more-than-a-medical-concern-a-health-economic-approach
#10
Diana Sonntag
BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight and obesity are a non-deniable health concern with increasing economic attention. SUMMARY: International studies provide robust evidence about substantial lifetime excess costs due to childhood obesity, thereby underscoring the urgent need to implement potent obesity prevention programs in early childhood. Fortunately, this is happening more and more, as evidenced by the increase in well-conducted interventions. Nevertheless, an important piece of the puzzle is often missing, that is, health economic evaluations...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301839/early-programming-of-obesity-throughout-the-life-course-a-metabolomics-perspective
#11
Sebastian Rauschert, Franca F Kirchberg, Linda Marchioro, Berthold Koletzko, Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, research on early life risk factors for obesity and its comorbidities in early life has gained attention within the field of developmental origins of health and diseases. Metabolomics studies that are trying to find early life biomarker and intervention targets for the early development of obesity and associated cardiovascular diseases could help break the inter-generational cycle of obesity. SUMMARY: Metabolomics studies in the field of early programming are scarce and causality is lacking at this stage, as most of the studies are cross-sectional...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301838/the-interplay-between-maternal-nutrition-and-stress-during-pregnancy-issues-and-considerations
#12
Karen L Lindsay, Claudia Buss, Pathik D Wadhwa, Sonja Entringer
BACKGROUND: Several studies about humans and animals have separately examined the effects of prenatal nutrition and stress on fetal development, pregnancy, and birth outcomes, and subsequent child health and disease risk. Although substantial evidence from non-pregnant literature supports the presence of bidirectional interactions between nutrition and stress at various psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels, such interaction effects have not yet been systematically examined in the context of pregnancy...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301837/breast-milk-polyamines-and-microbiota-interactions-impact-of-mode-of-delivery-and-geographical-location
#13
Carlos Gómez-Gallego, Himanshu Kumar, Izaskun García-Mantrana, Elloise du Toit, Jukka-Pekka Suomela, Kaisa M Linderborg, Yumei Zhang, Erika Isolauri, Baoru Yang, Seppo Salminen, M Carmen Collado
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify the polyamine levels in human milk obtained from different countries and through different modes of delivery, and to investigate their association with breast milk microbes. METHODS: Mature breast milk samples were obtained from 78 healthy mothers after 1 month of lactation from 4 different geographical locations: Finland, Spain (Europe); South Africa (Africa); and China (Asia). Polyamines were determined using HPLC after dansyl derivatization and milk microbiota was obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301833/persistent-environmental-toxicants-in-breast-milk-and-rapid-infant-growth
#14
Rachel Criswell, Virissa Lenters, Siddhartha Mandal, Hein Stigum, Nina Iszatt, Merete Eggesbø
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through breast milk. Exposure to toxicants during the perinatal period can alter growth patterns, impairing growth or increasing obesity risk. Previous studies have focused on only a few toxicants at a time, which may confound results. We investigated levels of 26 toxicants in breast milk and their associations with rapid infant growth, a risk factor for later obesity. METHODS: We used data from the Norwegian HUMIS study, a multi-center cohort of 2,606 mothers and newborns enrolled between 2002 and 2008...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445883/fens-news
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445882/iuns-news
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391283/mothers-consumption-of-soy-drink-but-not-black-tea-increases-the-flavonoid-content-of-term-breast-milk-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-intervention-study
#17
Frank Jochum, Birgit Alteheld, Pamela Meinardus, Norbert Dahlinger, Antonia Nomayo, Peter Stehle
OBJECTIVE: We performed a pilot RCT to prove the hypothesis that a controlled ingestion of polyphenol-rich beverages (soy drink, decaffeinated black tea) in nutritive dosages by nursing women has an effect on the composition (flavonoid concentration, total antioxidant capacity) of breast milk. METHODS: Healthy nursing women were supplemented with either 250 mL of a soy drink (12 mg isoflavones; n = 18), 300 mL decaffeinated black tea (67 mg catechins; n = 18), or 300 mL water (n = 8, control) for 6 days...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391275/carbohydrate-counting-during-pregnancy-in-women-with-type-1-diabetes-are-there-predictable-changes-that-we-should-know
#18
Roberto Luís Zagury, Melanie Rodacki, Larissa Mello de Oliveira, Claudia Saunders, Patricia de Carvalho Padilha, Lenita Zajdenverg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate counting (CC) is a helpful strategy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and the main parameters used in this method are the insulin to carbohydrate ratio (ICR) and the sensitivity factor (SF). Throughout pregnancy, a state of insulin resistance develops. Therefore, we hypothesized that ICR and SF change and our aim was to describe the pattern of modification of these parameters in pregnant women with T1DM on CC. METHODS: This study followed 21 women with T1DM throughout pregnancy...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376493/fens-news
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376492/iuns-news
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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