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Dawei Xu, Wei Zhao, Chengniu Wang, Hao Zhu, Mingqing He, Xinhui Zhu, Wei Liu, Fei Wang, Jianbo Fan, Chu Chen, Daoran Cui, Zhiming Cui
TNF receptor-associated factor 7 (TRAF7), is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for several proteins involved in the activation of TLR-dependent NF-kappaB signaling. TRAF7 links TNF receptor family proteins to signaling pathways, thus participates in regulating cell death and survival mediated by TNF family ligands. To date, the biological function of TRAF7 after spinal cord injury (SCI) is still with limited acquaintance. In this study, we have performed an acute SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of TRAF7 expression in the spinal cord...
August 8, 2018: Neuropeptides
Liping Zhang, Lingyu Zhang, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and there is no recognised therapy to cure it. Recently, it has been shown that treatments to improve insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) may be useful for PD patients. In previous studies, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide showed good neuroprotective effects in animal models of PD. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown good protective effects in PD patients in a phase II clinical trial...
July 11, 2018: Neuropeptides
Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Mohammad Hossein Geranmayeh, Alireza Majdi, Farzad Salehpour, Javad Mahmoudi, Mehdi Farhoudi
Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) ischemia affects post-stroke cognitive outcomes. We aimed to investigate the effects of different doses and routes of cerebrolysin (CBL) on the structural synaptic plasticity and cognitive function after mPFC ischemia in mice. Thence, CBL (1, 2.5 ml/kg/i.p./daily) or (1 ml/kg/i.n./daily), were administrated in photothrombotic mouse model of mPFC ischemia for two weeks. Episodic and spatial memories were assessed by the What-Where-Which (WWWhich) and Barnes tasks. Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), and synaptophysin (SYN) levels were measured in the lesioned area using western blot analysis...
July 10, 2018: Neuropeptides
Liara Rizzi, Matheus Roriz-Cruz
Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent enzymes that regulate a large number of cellular pathways and are related to aging and age-associated diseases. In recent years, the role of sirtuins in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become increasingly apparent. Growing evidence demonstrates that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulates many processes that go amiss in AD, such as: APP processing, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we review how SIRT1 affects AD and cognition, the main mechanisms in which SIRT1 is related to AD pathology, and its importance for the prevention and possible diagnosis of AD...
July 9, 2018: Neuropeptides
Jiao Wang, Qian Wang, Fangfang Zhou, Jie Li, Qian Li, Hong Zhou, Shiman Li, Sujuan Ma, Tieqiao Wen
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant brain cancer, thus, establishing an effective therapy is paramount. Our previous results indicate that dendritic cell-derived factor (DCF1) is an attractive candidate for therapy against Glioblastoma, since its overexpression in Glioblastoma U251 cells leads to apoptosis. However, the delivery approach limits its clinical application, in this paper, we expressed TAT-DCF1 fusion protein in E.coli in order to surmount its current delivery problems...
June 25, 2018: Neuropeptides
ZengKui Guo, Bhavani S Sahu, Rongjun He, Brian Finan, Cheryl Cero, Raffaello Verardi, Maria Razzoli, Gianluigi Veglia, Richard D Di Marchi, John M Miles, Alessandro Bartolomucci
TLQP-21 is a multifunctional neuropeptide and a promising new medicinal target for cardiometabolic and neurological diseases. However, to date its clearance kinetics and plasma stability have not been studied. The presence of four arginine residues led us to hypothesize that its half-life is relatively short. Conversely, its biological activities led us to hypothesize that the peptide is still taken up by adipose tissues effectively. [125 I]TLQP-21 was i.v. administered in rats followed by chasing the plasma radioactivity and assessing tissue uptake...
June 19, 2018: Neuropeptides
Ivana Cacciatore, Lisa Marinelli, Antonio Di Stefano, Valerio Di Marco, Giustino Orlando, Mirko Gabriele, Daniela Maria Pia Gatta, Alessio Ferrone, Sara Franceschelli, Lorenza Speranza, Antonia Patruno
Neurodegenerative diseases share a common pathogenetic mechanism involving aggregation and deposition of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, metal dyshomeostasis, and glutamate exicitotoxicity, which lead to progressive dysfunction of central nervous system (CNS). A potential strategy to counteract these deleterious events at neuronal level is represented by the employment of a novel class of multi-target therapeutic agents that selectively and simultaneously hit these targets In this paper, we report the metal binding and antioxidant properties of a novel metal-protein attenuating peptide, GSH-LD, a tetrapeptide obtained by linking glutathione, a well-known antioxidant tripeptide, to L-Dopa...
June 19, 2018: Neuropeptides
Swapnil Shewale, Ishfaq Ali, Kavita Hadawale, Shobha Bhargava
The central control of feeding in animals depends upon the alternating actions of orexigenic and anorectic peptides. Studies at understanding the food intake mechanisms have emphasised the role of Neuropeptide Y as a potent orexigenic peptide in the brain. The aim of this study is to investigate the response of NPY system to positive and negative energy states and elucidate a holistic response of NPY expression throughout the brain of a tadpole model. The pre-metamorphic tadpoles of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis were subjected to fasting, or intra-cranially injected with glucose or 2-deoxy-d-Glucose (2DG)-a metabolic antagonist of glucose and the response of the NPY system in the entire brain was studied using immunohistochemistry...
June 14, 2018: Neuropeptides
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
Victims of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are believed to have an underlying dysfunction in medullary homeostatic control that impairs critical responses to life threatening challenges such as hypoxia, hypercarbia and asphyxia, often during a sleep period. This failure is thought to result from abnormalities in a network of neural pathways in the medulla oblongata that control respiration, chemosensitivity, autonomic function and arousal. Studies have mainly focused on the role of serotonin, 5-hydroxytyptamine (5HT), although the neuropeptide substance P (SP) has also been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of medullary homeostatic function, often in conjunction with 5-HT...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Sajad Hassanzadeh, Seyed Behnamedin Jameie, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mansooreh Soleimani, Zeinab Namjoo, Maryam Soleimani
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious and complex medical condition that can happen to anyone. At present, therapy mainly focuses on rehabilitation and pharmacological treatment, such as methylprednisolone (MP). Supra-spinal changes in certain structures, such as the cerebellum, that receive many afferents from the spinal cord might be one reason for unsuccessful therapeutic outcomes. Recently, the expression of FNDC5 was reported in cerebellar Purkinje cells as a possible neuroprotective agent. In the present study, we considered the expression of FNDC5 in Purkinje cells following SCI with and without MP administration in adult rats with SCI...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Lizhang Han, Ling Tang, Zheng Jiang, Yuquan Jiang
Glioma-Associated Oncogene Family Zinc Finger 2 (Gli2) seems to be the major nuclear effector of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling to regulate self-renewal and tumorigenic potential of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. Three phosphorylated peptides derived from Gli2 were synthesized and combined with cell-penetrating peptide Tat-(47-57) (AYGRKKRRQRRR). Western Blot was applied to detect the phosphorylation level of Gli2 and cell division protein kinase 6 (CDK6) luciferase reporter was utilized to detect the transcriptional activator function of Gli2...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Motahare Mokhtarzade, Robert Motl, Raoof Negaresh, Philipp Zimmer, Mostafa Khodadoost, Julien S Baker, Darpan Patel, Nastaran Majdinasab, Rouholah Ranjbar
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neurotrophic factors seemingly have an important role in multiple sclerosis pathology. Physical activity may influence blood-brain barrier function and levels of neurotrophic factors, and such effects might be moderated by body weight status. This study investigated the effect of exercise training on markers of blood-brain barrier permeability and neurotrophic factors as a function of weight status in multiple sclerosis patients. Sixty three persons with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who were normal weight (n: 33) or overweight (n: 33) were randomly assigned into groups of exercise (normal weight training, n: 18; overweight training group, n: 18) or no exercise (normal weight control, n: 15; overweight control group, n: 15)...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Ali Ghanbari, Nasroallah Moradi Kor, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Previous studies have shown that the neuropeptide bombesin (BBS) enhances consolidation of specifically for inhibitory avoidance memory in adult rats. However, its effect on memory consolidation during premature period is not clear as well. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of BBS and its interaction with glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems on memory consolidation in rat pups. Male and female rat pups (30 days old) were trained in an inhibitory avoidance (IA) task (0.5 mA, 3 s footshock). Memory retention was tested 24 h later during which the latency to re-enter to the shock compartment was recorded...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Javad Masoumi, Morteza Abbasloui, Reza Parvan, Daryoush Mohammadnejad, Graciela Pavon-Djavid, Abolfazl Barzegari, Jalal Abdolalizadeh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with high outbreak rates. It is estimated that about 35 million individuals around the world suffered from dementia in 2010. AD is expected to increase twofold every 20 years and, by 2030, approximately 65 million people could suffer from this illness. AD is determined clinically by a cognitive impairment and pathologically by the production of amyloid beta (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles, toxic free radicals and inflammatory mediators in the brain...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Monica Wolfe, Halina Wisniewska, Hiroe Tariga, Gerardo Ibanez, James C Collins, Kazimierz Wisniewski, Steve Qi, Karthik Srinivasan, Diane Hargrove, Beatriz Fioravanti Lindstrom
Oxytocin (OT) continues to inspire much research due to its diverse physiological effects. While the best-understood actions of OT are uterine contraction and milk ejection, OT is also implicated in maternal and bonding behaviors, and potentially in CNS disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and pain. The dissection of the mechanism of action of OT is complicated by the fact that this peptide activates not only its cognate receptor but also vasopressin type 1a (V1a) receptors. In this study, we evaluated OT and a selective OT receptor (OTR) agonist, FE 204409, in an automated assay that measures rat locomotor activity...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Yanzhen Zhang, Chunfeng Wang, Lianfeng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) on colonic contractile disorders induced by chronic water avoidance stress (WAS). METHODS: Male SD rats were exposed to daily 1-h WAS or sham WAS for 10 consecutive days. The presence of TRH in the serum and colonic mucosa were determined using enzyme immunoassay kits. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were performed to detect the expression of TRH receptor 1 (TRH-R1)...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Yumiko Fukasaka, Hirohide Nambu, Hideki Tanioka, Atsushi Obata, Misato Tonomura, Takayuki Okuno, Hideo Yukioka
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y5 receptor plays a key role in the effects of NPY, an important neurotransmitter in the control of energy homeostasis including stimulation of food intake and inhibition of energy expenditure. The NPY-Y5 receptor system has been an attractive drug target for potential use in treating obesity. Here we report the discovery and characterization of two novel Y5 receptor antagonists, S-2367 and S-234462. Both compounds displayed high affinity for the Y5 receptor in the radio-ligand binding assay, while in the cell-based functional assay, S-2367 and S-234462 showed, respectively, surmountable and insurmountable antagonism...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Santosh K Mandal, Prem K Shrestha, Fahaad S H Alenazi, Manita Shakya, Hussain N Alhamami, Karen P Briski
BACKGROUND: Caudal dorsomedial hindbrain detection of hypoglycemia-associated lactoprivation regulates glucose counter-regulation in male rats. In females, estradiol (E) determines hypothalamic neuroanatomical and molecular foci of hindbrain energy sensor activation. This study investigated the hypothesis that E signal strength governs metabolic neuropeptide and counter-regulatory hormone responses to hindbrain lactoprivic stimuli in hypoglycemic female rats. METHODS: Ovariectomized animals were implanted with E-filled silastic capsules [30 (E-30) or 300 μg (E-300)/mL] to replicate plasma concentrations at estrous cycle nadir versus peak levels...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Mariola Kuczer, Grzegorz Rosiński
Neuropeptides control the functioning of the nervous system of insects, and they are the most diverse signalling molecules in terms of structure and function. Allatostatins are pleiotropic neuropeptides that are considered potent myoinhibitors of muscle contractions in insects. We investigated the effects caused by three distinct allatostatins, Dippu-AST1 (LYDFGL-NH2 from Diploptera punctata), Grybi-MIP1 (GWQDLNGGW-NH2 from Gryllus bimaculatus) and Trica-ASTC (pESRYRQCYFNPISCF-OH from Tribolium castaneum) on contractile activity of the myocardium, oviduct and hindgut of two tenebrionid beetles, Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas atratus...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Begum Aydin, Gokcen Guvenc, Burcin Altinbas, Nasir Niaz, Murat Yalcin
Nesfatin-1, a peptide whose receptor is yet to be identified, has been shown to be involved in the modulation of feeding, stress, and metabolic responses. Recently, increasing evidence has supported a modulatory role of nesfatin-1 in cardiovascular activity. We have previously reported that nesfatin-1 causes an increase in blood pressure in normotensive and hypotensive rats by increasing plasma catecholamine, vasopressin, and renin levels. Recent reports suggest that nesfatin-1 may activate the central cholinergic system...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
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