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Olga L Lopatina, Yulia K Komleva, Yana V Gorina, Raisa Ya Olovyannikova, Lyudmila V Trufanova, Takanori Hashimoto, Tetsuya Takahashi, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Yoshio Minabe, Haruhiro Higashida, Alla B Salmina
Social recognition is the sensitive domains of complex behavior critical for identification, interpretation and storage of socially meaningful information. Social recognition develops throughout childhood and adolescent, and is affected in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. Recently, new data appeared on the molecular mechanisms of these processes, particularly, the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) ratio which is modified during development, and then E/I balance is established in the adult brain. While E/I imbalance has been proposed as a mechanism for schizophrenia, it also seems to be the common mechanism in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
September 21, 2018: Neuropeptides
Hsien-Hao Huang, Yu-Chi Lee, Chih-Yen Chen
This review analyzed the published studies on the effects of thermal injury on gastrointestinal motility and mucosal damage. Our strategy was to integrate all available evidence to provide a complete review on the prokinetic properties of variable reagents and the potential clinical treatment of mucosal damage and gastrointestinal dysmotility after thermal injury. We classified the studies into two major groups: studies on gastrointestinal dysmotility and studies on mucosal damage. We also subclassified the studies into 3 parts: stomach, small intestine, and colon...
September 21, 2018: Neuropeptides
Lorenzo Iughetti, Laura Lucaccioni, Francesco Fugetto, Barbara Predieri, Alberto Berardi, Fabrizio Ferrari
Several in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies imply brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Aim of our work is to report the most important findings regarding BDNF and its potential role in epilepsy. We targeted those publications addressing both in vitro and in vivo evidences of relationship between BDNF and epilepsy. Basic researches, randomized trials, cohort studies, and reviews were contemplated to give a breadth of clinical data. Medline, CENTRAL, and Science Direct were searched till August 2017 using keywords agreed by the authors...
September 20, 2018: Neuropeptides
Napatsorn Saiyasit, Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Neurotensin is an endogenous tridecapeptide that can be found in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Under normal physiological conditions, neurotensin is involved in the regulation of pain, body temperature, physical activity, appetite as well as learning and memory. In addition, it plays an important role in fat metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that alterations of neurotensin levels were associated with several neuropathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, mood disorders, and obesity associated eating disorders...
September 8, 2018: Neuropeptides
Roberta Lattanzi, Daniela Maftei, Lucia Negri, Ilaria Fusco, Rossella Miele
Prokineticin-2 (PK2) is a secreted bioactive peptide that signals through two GPCRs, the prokineticin receptors (PKRs), and regulates a variety of biological processes including angiogenesis, immunity and nociception. The PK2 primary transcript has two alternative splice variants, PK2 and PK2L (a Long form) which is cleaved in an active peptide, named PK2β that preferentially binds to PKR1 receptor. The aim of this study was to characterize the PK2β. Using different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we examined the specificity of PKR1 and PKR2 G-protein coupling following PK2β binding...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
Mohammad A Bahry, Hui Yang, Phuong V Tran, Phong H Do, Guofeng Han, Hatem M Eltahan, Vishwajit S Chowdhury, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Heat stress is an issue of rising concern across the globe. Recently, we found that mRNA expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), an orexigenic neuropeptide, was increased in the heat-exposed chick brain when food intake was reduced. The aim of the current study was to examine mRNA expression of GnIH and of the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hypothalamus as well as the plasma corticosterone (CORT) and metabolites in 14-d-old chicks exposed to a high ambient temperature (HT; 40 ± 1 °C for 1 or 5 h) or a control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30 ± 1 °C), either with free access to food or fasted...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
R Rahimi, M M Akhavan, K Kamyab, S A Ebrahimi
In utero exposure to therapeutic doses of valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy can produce physical malformation and CNS abnormalities in the offspring. There is evidence indicating that even lower doses of VPA during pregnancy could cause cognitive impairment in offspring. It has been demonstrated that maternal exercise has positive effects on offspring's cognitive function. In this study we evaluated the preventive potential of maternal voluntary exercise on cognitive deficits induced by in utero exposure to VPA, in rat pups...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
Dawei Xu, Wei Zhao, Chengniu Wang, Hao Zhu, Mingqing He, Xinhui Zhu, Wei Liu, Fei Wang, Jianbo Fan, Chu Chen, Daoran Cui, Zhiming Cui
TNF receptor-associated factor 7 (TRAF7), is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for several proteins involved in the activation of TLR-dependent NF-kappaB signaling. TRAF7 links TNF receptor family proteins to signaling pathways, thus participates in regulating cell death and survival mediated by TNF family ligands. To date, the biological function of TRAF7 after spinal cord injury (SCI) is still with limited acquaintance. In this study, we have performed an acute SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of TRAF7 expression in the spinal cord...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Mohammad Hossein Geranmayeh, Alireza Majdi, Farzad Salehpour, Javad Mahmoudi, Mehdi Farhoudi
Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) ischemia affects post-stroke cognitive outcomes. We aimed to investigate the effects of different doses and routes of cerebrolysin (CBL) on the structural synaptic plasticity and cognitive function after mPFC ischemia in mice. Thence, CBL (1, 2.5 ml/kg/i.p./daily) or (1 ml/kg/i.n./daily), were administrated in photothrombotic mouse model of mPFC ischemia for two weeks. Episodic and spatial memories were assessed by the What-Where-Which (WWWhich) and Barnes tasks. Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), and synaptophysin (SYN) levels were measured in the lesioned area using western blot analysis...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
Swapnil Shewale, Ishfaq Ali, Kavita Hadawale, Shobha Bhargava
The central control of feeding in animals depends upon the alternating actions of orexigenic and anorectic peptides. Studies at understanding the food intake mechanisms have emphasised the role of Neuropeptide Y as a potent orexigenic peptide in the brain. The aim of this study is to investigate the response of NPY system to positive and negative energy states and elucidate a holistic response of NPY expression throughout the brain of a tadpole model. The pre-metamorphic tadpoles of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis were subjected to fasting, or intra-cranially injected with glucose or 2-deoxy-d-Glucose (2DG)-a metabolic antagonist of glucose and the response of the NPY system in the entire brain was studied using immunohistochemistry...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
Liping Zhang, Lingyu Zhang, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and there is no recognised therapy to cure it. Recently, it has been shown that treatments to improve insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) may be useful for PD patients. In previous studies, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide showed good neuroprotective effects in animal models of PD. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown good protective effects in PD patients in a phase II clinical trial...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
Liara Rizzi, Matheus Roriz-Cruz
Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent enzymes that regulate a large number of cellular pathways and are related to aging and age-associated diseases. In recent years, the role of sirtuins in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become increasingly apparent. Growing evidence demonstrates that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulates many processes that go amiss in AD, such as: APP processing, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we review how SIRT1 affects AD and cognition, the main mechanisms in which SIRT1 is related to AD pathology, and its importance for the prevention and possible diagnosis of AD...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
Jiao Wang, Qian Wang, Fangfang Zhou, Jie Li, Qian Li, Hong Zhou, Shiman Li, Sujuan Ma, Tieqiao Wen
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant brain cancer, thus, establishing an effective therapy is paramount. Our previous results indicate that dendritic cell-derived factor (DCF1) is an attractive candidate for therapy against Glioblastoma, since its overexpression in Glioblastoma U251 cells leads to apoptosis. However, the delivery approach limits its clinical application, in this paper, we expressed TAT-DCF1 fusion protein in E.coli in order to surmount its current delivery problems...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
ZengKui Guo, Bhavani S Sahu, Rongjun He, Brian Finan, Cheryl Cero, Raffaello Verardi, Maria Razzoli, Gianluigi Veglia, Richard D Di Marchi, John M Miles, Alessandro Bartolomucci
TLQP-21 is a multifunctional neuropeptide and a promising new medicinal target for cardiometabolic and neurological diseases. However, to date its clearance kinetics and plasma stability have not been studied. The presence of four arginine residues led us to hypothesize that its half-life is relatively short. Conversely, its biological activities led us to hypothesize that the peptide is still taken up by adipose tissues effectively. [125 I]TLQP-21 was i.v. administered in rats followed by chasing the plasma radioactivity and assessing tissue uptake...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
Ivana Cacciatore, Lisa Marinelli, Antonio Di Stefano, Valerio Di Marco, Giustino Orlando, Mirko Gabriele, Daniela Maria Pia Gatta, Alessio Ferrone, Sara Franceschelli, Lorenza Speranza, Antonia Patruno
Neurodegenerative diseases share a common pathogenetic mechanism involving aggregation and deposition of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, metal dyshomeostasis, and glutamate exicitotoxicity, which lead to progressive dysfunction of central nervous system (CNS). A potential strategy to counteract these deleterious events at neuronal level is represented by the employment of a novel class of multi-target therapeutic agents that selectively and simultaneously hit these targets In this paper, we report the metal binding and antioxidant properties of a novel metal-protein attenuating peptide, GSH-LD, a tetrapeptide obtained by linking glutathione, a well-known antioxidant tripeptide, to L-Dopa...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
Victims of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are believed to have an underlying dysfunction in medullary homeostatic control that impairs critical responses to life threatening challenges such as hypoxia, hypercarbia and asphyxia, often during a sleep period. This failure is thought to result from abnormalities in a network of neural pathways in the medulla oblongata that control respiration, chemosensitivity, autonomic function and arousal. Studies have mainly focused on the role of serotonin, 5-hydroxytyptamine (5HT), although the neuropeptide substance P (SP) has also been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of medullary homeostatic function, often in conjunction with 5-HT...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Sajad Hassanzadeh, Seyed Behnamedin Jameie, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mansooreh Soleimani, Zeinab Namjoo, Maryam Soleimani
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious and complex medical condition that can happen to anyone. At present, therapy mainly focuses on rehabilitation and pharmacological treatment, such as methylprednisolone (MP). Supra-spinal changes in certain structures, such as the cerebellum, that receive many afferents from the spinal cord might be one reason for unsuccessful therapeutic outcomes. Recently, the expression of FNDC5 was reported in cerebellar Purkinje cells as a possible neuroprotective agent. In the present study, we considered the expression of FNDC5 in Purkinje cells following SCI with and without MP administration in adult rats with SCI...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Lizhang Han, Ling Tang, Zheng Jiang, Yuquan Jiang
Glioma-Associated Oncogene Family Zinc Finger 2 (Gli2) seems to be the major nuclear effector of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling to regulate self-renewal and tumorigenic potential of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. Three phosphorylated peptides derived from Gli2 were synthesized and combined with cell-penetrating peptide Tat-(47-57) (AYGRKKRRQRRR). Western Blot was applied to detect the phosphorylation level of Gli2 and cell division protein kinase 6 (CDK6) luciferase reporter was utilized to detect the transcriptional activator function of Gli2...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Motahare Mokhtarzade, Robert Motl, Raoof Negaresh, Philipp Zimmer, Mostafa Khodadoost, Julien S Baker, Darpan Patel, Nastaran Majdinasab, Rouholah Ranjbar
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neurotrophic factors seemingly have an important role in multiple sclerosis pathology. Physical activity may influence blood-brain barrier function and levels of neurotrophic factors, and such effects might be moderated by body weight status. This study investigated the effect of exercise training on markers of blood-brain barrier permeability and neurotrophic factors as a function of weight status in multiple sclerosis patients. Sixty three persons with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who were normal weight (n: 33) or overweight (n: 33) were randomly assigned into groups of exercise (normal weight training, n: 18; overweight training group, n: 18) or no exercise (normal weight control, n: 15; overweight control group, n: 15)...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
Ali Ghanbari, Nasroallah Moradi Kor, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Previous studies have shown that the neuropeptide bombesin (BBS) enhances consolidation of specifically for inhibitory avoidance memory in adult rats. However, its effect on memory consolidation during premature period is not clear as well. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of BBS and its interaction with glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems on memory consolidation in rat pups. Male and female rat pups (30 days old) were trained in an inhibitory avoidance (IA) task (0.5 mA, 3 s footshock). Memory retention was tested 24 h later during which the latency to re-enter to the shock compartment was recorded...
August 2018: Neuropeptides
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