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Neuropeptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042065/analgesic-and-anxiolytic-effects-of-leu-31-pro-34-neuropeptide-y-microinjected-into-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-rats
#1
Priscila Vázquez-León, Luis G Mendoza-Ruiz, Eduardo Ramírez-San Juan, German Alberto Chamorro-Cevallos, Abraham Miranda-Páez
Several reports have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in food intake, epilepsy, circadian rhythms, drug seeking, pain and anxiety, and other physiological or pathological conditions. On the other hand, periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a key brain center for modulating pain, anxiety and fear. It is the main structure implicated in integrated defensive behaviors. One such behavior, tonic immobility (TI), resembles fear and is able to induce analgesia. After microinjection of [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-Neuropeptide Y ([Leu(31),Pro(34)]-NPY) into the PAG dorsal (D) or ventrolateral (VL) of adult male Wistar rats, the following parameters were assessed: i) the analgesic effect by means of the tail-flick test (TF), ii) the duration of TI as a passive defensive behavioral response and as an anxiety/fear model (considering both TF and TI as single behaviors), iii) TI-induced analgesia by the combination of TF/TI, and iv) the anxious-like state through the elevated plus maze (EPM), and defensive burying behavior (DBB)...
October 12, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993014/-r-%C3%AE-lipoyl-gly-l-pro-l-glu-dimethyl-ester-as-dual-acting-agent-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Lisa Marinelli, Erika Fornasari, Antonio Di Stefano, Hasan Turkez, Mehmet Enes Arslan, Piera Eusepi, Michele Ciulla, Ivana Cacciatore
In this study, effects of LA-GPE (R-α-Lipoyl-Gly-l-Pro-l-Glu dimethyl ester) and GPE (Gly-L-Pro-L-Glu) on the cytotoxic action of Aβ1-42 were tested with differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells as cellular Alzheimer model via measurements of mitochondrial viability (MTT assay) and lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH assay). Effects of LA-GPE and GPE on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and neural cell apoptosis and necrosis were also determined...
October 2, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985965/ghrelin-projection-from-the-lateral-hypothalamus-area-to-the-dorsal-vagal-complex-and-its-regulation-of-gastric-motility-in-cisplatin-treated-rats
#3
Yanling Gong, Yang Liu, Yaoyao Guo, Manqing Su, Yifan Zhong, Luo Xu, Feifei Guo, Shengli Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate ghrelin projection from the lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and its regulation of gastric motility in cisplatin-treated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, the protein and mRNA expression of ghrelin and its receptor GHSR-1a were measured by Western blot and PCR, respectively. The ghrelin fiber projections arising from the LHA and projecting to the DVC were investigated by retrograde tracing combined with fluoro-immunohistochemical staining...
September 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985964/the-hemoglobin-derived-peptide-lvv-hemorphin-7-evokes-behavioral-effects-mediated-by-oxytocin-receptors
#4
Kellen Rosa da Cruz, Larissa Córdova Turones, Gabriel Camargo-Silva, Karina Pereira Gomes, Michelle Mendanha Mendonça, Pablinny Galdino, Christielly Rodrigues-Silva, Robson Augusto Souza Santos, Elson Alves Costa, Paulo Cesar Ghedini, Danielle Ianzer, Carlos Henrique Xavier
LVV-hemorphin-7 (LVV-h7) is bioactive peptide resulting from degradation of hemoglobin β-globin chain. LVV-h7 is a specific agonist of angiotensin IV receptor. This receptor belongs to the class of insulin-regulated aminopeptidases (IRAP), which displays oxytocinase activity. Herein, our aims were to assess whether: i) LVV-h7 modifies centrally organized behavior and cardiovascular responses to stress and ii) mechanisms underlying LVV-h7 effects involve activation of oxytocin (OT) receptors, probably as result of reduction of IRAP proteolytic activity upon OT...
September 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890208/role-of-orexin-receptors-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-on-acquisition-and-expression-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-the-rats
#5
Sharareh Farahimanesh, Shahram Zarrabian, Abbas Haghparast
The orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides and their role in reward processing and drug addiction has been demonstrated. The extent of involvement of each orexin receptor in the acquisition and expression of conditioned place preference (CPP) for morphine is still a matter of controversy. We investigated the functional differences between orexin-1 and -2 receptor blockade in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on the acquisition and expression of morphine CPP. A total of 86 adult male Wistar rats weighing 250±30g (age 7-8weeks) received intra-VTA microinjection of either SB334867 (0...
September 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844448/spatiotemporal-expression-of-foxa1-correlates-with-reactive-gliosis-after-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Dongliang Wang, Siqing Wang, Biao Ji, Minqian Zheng
Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) is a member of the FOX family of transcription factors and involved in various mammalian processes. However, the expression and function of FOXA1 in central nervous system (CNS) are still with limited acquaintance. In present study, we performed an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of FOXA1 expression in spinal cord. We found that FOXA1 protein levels were significantly increased after SCI and we observed that the expression of FOXA1 is enhanced in the white matter...
August 18, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823463/role-of-hindbrain-adenosine-5-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-in-hypothalamic-ampk-and-metabolic-neuropeptide-adaptation-to-recurring-insulin-induced-hypoglycemia-in-the-male-rat
#7
Santosh K Mandal, Prem K Shrestha, Fahaad S H Alenazi, Manita Shakya, Hussain Alhamami, Karen P Briski
Glucose counter-regulatory dysfunction correlates with impaired activation of the hypothalamic metabolic sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Hypothalamic AMPK is controlled by hindbrain energy status; we examined here whether hindbrain AMPK regulates hypothalamic AMPK and metabolic neurotransmitter maladaptation to recurring insulin-induced hypoglycemia (RIIH). Brain tissue was harvested after single versus serial insulin (I) dosing for Western blot analysis of AMPK, phospho-AMPK (pAMPK), and relevant biosynthetic enzyme/neuropeptide expression in micro-punch dissected arcuate (ARH), ventromedial (VMH), dorsomedial (DMH) nuclei and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) tissue...
August 9, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801068/lepr-polymorphism-may-affect-energy-balance-during-weight-loss-among-brazilians-obese-adolescents
#8
Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Sandro Soares Almeida, Lian Tock, João Bosco Pesquero, Ronaldo Carvalho Araújo, Ana Paula Grotti Clemente, Bárbara Dal'Molin Netto, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Joana Pereira de Carvalho Ferreira, Priscila de Lima Sanches, Aline de Piano Ganen, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Lila Missae Oyama, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso
OBJECTIVE: Leptin is an adipokine released mainly by adipose tissue, with many functions including regulation of energy balance. However, little is known about the effect of LEPR polymorphism on orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides. Thus, the aim of the present study is to verify the influence of LEPR polymorphism (rs2767485) on serum orexigenic (NPY, MCH and AgRP) and anorexigenic (Leptin and α-MSH) neuropeptides levels among obese adolescents submitted to 1year of multicomponent weight loss therapy...
August 2, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088317/neuropeptides-2015-aberdeen-university-scotland
#9
REVIEW
Alasdair MacKenzie, Erika Pinter, John Quinn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038787/using-the-crispr-cas9-system-to-understand-neuropeptide-biology-and-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Hay, Christopher Knowles, Andreas Kolb, Alasdair MacKenzie
Neuropeptides and their receptors play a role in physiological responses such as appetite, stress and inflammatory pain. With neuropeptides having such diverse and important physiological roles, knocking-out the genes encoding them, their receptors, parts of their regulatory sequences, or reproducing disease associated polymorphic variants are important steps in studying neuropeptides and how they may contribute to disease. Previously, knock-outs were generated using methods such as targeted homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells but this method is costly and time-consuming...
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024880/embryonic-ablation-of-neuronal-vgf-increases-energy-expenditure-and-reduces-body-weight
#11
Cheng Jiang, Wei-Jye Lin, Masato Sadahiro, Andrew C Shin, Christoph Buettner, Stephen R Salton
Germline ablation of VGF, a secreted neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine peptide precursor, results in lean, hypermetabolic, and infertile adult mice that are resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes (Hahm et al., 1999, 2002). To assess whether this phenotype is predominantly driven by reduced VGF expression in developing and/or adult neurons, or in peripheral endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, we generated and analyzed conditional VGF knockout mice, obtained by mating loxP-flanked (floxed) Vgf mice with either pan-neuronal Synapsin-Cre- or forebrain alpha-CaMKII-Cre-recombinase-expressing transgenic mice...
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866656/an-analysis-of-possible-off-target-effects-following-cas9-crispr-targeted-deletions-of-neuropeptide-gene-enhancers-from-the-mouse-genome
#12
Elizabeth Anne Hay, Abdulla Razak Khalaf, Pietro Marini, Andrew Brown, Karyn Heath, Darrin Sheppard, Alasdair MacKenzie
We have successfully used comparative genomics to identify putative regulatory elements within the human genome that contribute to the tissue specific expression of neuropeptides such as galanin and receptors such as CB1. However, a previous inability to rapidly delete these elements from the mouse genome has prevented optimal assessment of their function in-vivo. This has been solved using CAS9/CRISPR genome editing technology which uses a bacterial endonuclease called CAS9 that, in combination with specifically designed guide RNA (gRNA) molecules, cuts specific regions of the mouse genome...
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865545/anti-cgrp-antibodies-block-cgrp-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#13
Eric A Kaiser, Brandon J Rea, Adisa Kuburas, Brian R Kovacevich, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Ana Recober, Andrew F Russo
The multifunctional neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that CGRP has roles in intestinal motility, water secretion, and inflammation. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated CGRP involvement in diarrhea secondary to C. difficile and food allergies. Diarrhea thus provides a convenient bioassay of CGRP activity in the GI system. In this proof of principle study, we report that prophylactic administration of an anti-CGRP antibody is able to block CGRP-induced diarrhea in mice...
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743609/sva-retrotransposons-as-potential-modulators-of-neuropeptide-gene-expression
#14
REVIEW
Olympia Gianfrancesco, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
Many facets of human behaviour are likely to have developed in part due to evolutionary changes in the regulation of neuropeptide and other brain-related genes. This has allowed species-specific expression patterns and unique epigenetic modulation in response to our environment, regulating response not only at the molecular level, but also contributing to differences in behaviour between individuals. As such, genetic variants or epigenetic changes that may alter neuropeptide gene expression are predicted to play a role in behavioural conditions and psychiatric illness...
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764883/involvement-of-gabaa-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-social-preference-and-emotional-behaviors-by-oxytocin-in-the-central-amygdala-of-female-mandarin-voles
#15
Na Dong, Peirong Du, Xin Hao, Zhixiong He, Wenjuan Hou, Limin Wang, Wei Yuan, Jinfeng Yang, Rui Jia, Fadao Tai
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is the main output of the amygdala and plays an important role in behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Receptors for the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) and GABAA are found in high concentration in the CeA. The mechanisms underlying regulation of CeA OT in emotional and social behavior remain unclear. In this study we evaluated the effects of intra-CeA OT administration of different doses (0.1, 1 and 10ng/side), OT receptor antagonist (OTR-A) (1, 10 and 100ng/side) and OT plus OTR-A on social and emotional behavior using a social preference paradigm, open field test and elevated plus maze test in female monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus)...
July 25, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757099/gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-and-rf9-stimulate-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-adult-male-rhesus-monkeys
#16
Rahim Ullah, Aalia Batool, Madiha Wazir, Rabia Naz, Tanzil Ur Rahman, Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Junfen Fu
Stress activates gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and represses hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG-axis) but RF9 administration relieves stress-induced repression of the HPG-axis. Importantly, it was not known whether GnIH signaling and RF9 synthetic peptide modulate the HPA axis. To assess this, mammalian orthologs of GnIH (RFRP-1 and RFRP-3) and RF9 were administered to intact adult male rhesus monkeys. RFRP-1 (125μg/animal), RFRP-3 (250μg/animal) and RF9 (0...
July 25, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755808/potential-role-of-cxcl10-cxcr3-signaling-in-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance-in-periaqueductal-gray
#17
Wei Wang, Yawen Peng, Hui Yang, Huilian Bu, Genhua Guo, Daiqiang Liu, Bin Shu, Xuebi Tian, Ailin Luo, Xuming Zhang, Feng Gao
Tolerance to morphine antinociception hinders its long-term use in clinical practice. Interaction between neuron and microglia has been proved to play critical role in the mechanism of morphine tolerance, while CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling has been implicated in neuron-glia signaling and morphine analgesia. This study aims to investigate whether CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling in periaqueductal gray (PAG) contributes to the development of morphine tolerance by modulating neuron-microglia interaction. The results showed that the expressions of CXCR3 and CXCL10 were gradually increased in parallel with repeated morphine administration and activation of microglia...
July 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716393/combine-effect-of-chondroitinase-abc-and-low-level-laser-660nm-on-spinal-cord-injury-model-in-adult-male-rats
#18
Atousa Janzadeh, Arash Sarveazad, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Sima Dameni, Fazel Sahraneshin Samani, Kobra Mokhtarian, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
After spinal cord injury (SCI) there are many recoveries inhibiting factors such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and inflammation. The present study investigated the combinational effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) as anti-inflammatory agent and Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enzyme as CSPG digesting factor on spinal cord after injury. This study performed on 44 male Wistar rats, spinal cord injury induced by a clip compression injury. Animals received two-weeks treatment of 660nm low level laser (LLL) and intraspinal injection of 1μg ChABC...
July 14, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751044/differently-polarized-macrophages-affect-the-viability-and-growth-of-nspcs-by-regulating-the-expression-of-pacap
#19
Min Liu, Ming Deng, Yonggang Ma
Objective To explore the influence of differently polarized macrophages, M1 or M2, to viability and growth of NSPCs and its possible mechanism, especially the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in it. METHOD: Spinal cord-derived NSPCs were co-cultured with M1 or M2 through a transwell system. Growth of NSPCs in both groups was observed through an inverted microscope within 3days. NSPCs viability of each group, represented as intracellular ATP levels, was measured using the Cellular ATP Kit HTS following co-culture for 24h...
July 12, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698051/effects-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-on-small-intestinal-int-407-cells
#20
A Illes, B Opper, D Reglodi, M Kerenyi, P Czetany, A Boronkai, E Schafer, G Toth, E Fabian, G Horvath
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide having a widespread distribution both in the nervous system and peripheral organs including the gastrointestinal tract. It has been shown to exert actions on intestinal functions, mainly affecting glandular secretion and motility. PACAP has several different effects on cell survival depending on the cell type and the applied stimulus. Its influences on small intestinal epithelial cells are not yet elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PACAP on intestinal epithelial cells having high turnover (INT 407) against different harmful stimuli, such as oxidative stress, in vitro hypoxia and gamma radiation...
July 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
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