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Neuropeptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619276/arginine-vasopressin-relates-with-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#1
Hong-Bo Jiang, Ai-Lin Du, Hai-Yang Luo, Jun Yang, Xiao-Qiu Luo, Rui-Qing Ma, Chang-He Shi, Yu-Ming Xu
Spinocerebellar ataxia is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that the most prevalent type is type 3 (SCA3). Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released within the lateral septum for controlling the learning and memory. This communication studied the effect of AVP on the spatial learning and memory of SCA3 mice. The spatial learning and memory were analyzed by Morris water maze test (MWM), and AVP concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that (Alves et al., 2010) the swimming velocity, distance traveled and latency to the platform of MWM in SCA3 mice were reduced slower than those in WT mice over 4 training days (p<0...
June 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624122/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-insulin-synergistically-activate-vagal-afferent-neurons
#2
Yusaku Iwasaki, Chayon Goswami, Toshihiko Yada
Intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic insulin, released postprandially, commonly regulate glucose metabolism. Recent clinical experience indicates that the GLP-1R agonist and insulin in combination, compared to insulin alone, results in better glycemic and weight controls in type 2 diabetic patients. These observations suggest possible interactive effect of these hormones. These hormones, in addition to peripherally controlling glycemia, exert central regulation of food intake and glucose metabolism, the effect at least partly mediated by signaling to the brain via the vagal afferents...
May 25, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559061/neuropeptides-a-promising-target-for-treating-seizures
#3
REVIEW
Neethi Menon, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh K Bhatt
Seizures are serious neurological disorders affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide. Seizures are characterized by abnormal, repetitive and synchronised firing of the neurons which is produced as a result of imbalance in the levels of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Neuropeptides are found to regulate seizures by rectifying this imbalance. These neuropeptides are stored in the dense core synaptic vesicles, and are released on excitation. This review focuses on certain neuropeptides which can alleviate both, the effects of seizures as well as epileptogenesis...
May 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559062/inhibitory-effect-of-angiotensin-1-7-on-angiotensin-iii-induced-nociceptive-behaviour-in-mice
#4
Wataru Nemoto, Ryota Yamagata, Yoshiki Ogata, Osamu Nakagawasai, Takeshi Tadano, Koichi Tan-No
We have previously demonstrated that the intrathecal (i.t.) administration of angiotensin (Ang) II into mice produces a nociceptive behaviour consisting of scratching, biting and licking accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the spinal cord, which was mediated through AT1 receptors. Both the p38 MAPK phosphorylation and subsequent nociceptive behaviour were attenuated by the i.t. co-administration of Ang (1-7), an N-terminal fragment of Ang II, that acted via Mas receptors. On the other hand, a C-terminal fragment of Ang II, namely Ang III, was also shown to induce a nociceptive behaviour by acting upon AT1 receptors on spinal astrocytes and neurons, and was found to be more potent than Ang II...
May 23, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460791/first-study-on-the-peptidergic-innervation-of-the-brain-superior-sagittal-sinus-in-humans
#5
Simone Sampaolo, Giovanna Liguori, Alfredo Vittoria, Filomena Napolitano, Luca Lombardi, Javier Figols, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Teresa Esposito, Giuseppe Di Iorio
The superior sagittal sinus (SSS) of the mammalian brain is a pain-sensitive intracranial vessel thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of migraine headaches. Here, we aimed to investigate the presence and the potential co-localization of some neurotransmitters in the human SSS. Immunohistochemical and double-labeling immunofluorescence analyses were applied to paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded, coronal sections of the SSS. Protein extraction and Western blotting technique were performed on the same material to confirm the morphological data...
April 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456437/spinal-neuropeptide-modulation-functional-assessment-and-cartilage-lesions-in-a-monosodium-iodoacetate-rat-model-of-osteoarthritis
#6
Colombe Otis, Martin Guillot, Maxim Moreau, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Francis Beaudry, Eric Troncy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Characterising the temporal evolution of changes observed in pain functional assessment, spinal neuropeptides and cartilage lesions of the joint after chemical osteoarthritis (OA) induction in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: On day (D) 0, OA was induced by an IA injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). Rats receiving 2mg MIA were temporally assessed at D3, D7, D14 and D21 for the total spinal cord concentration of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related-peptide (CGRP), bradykinin (BK) and somatostatin (STT), and for severity of cartilage lesions...
April 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476408/targeted-high-resolution-quadrupole-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry-analyses-reveal-a-significant-reduction-of-tachykinin-and-opioid-neuropeptides-level-in-pc1-and-pc2-mutant-mouse-spinal-cords
#7
Mouna Saidi, Francis Beaudry
Tachykinin and opioid neuropeptides play a fundamental role in pain transmission, modulation and inhibition. The proteolysis control of endogenous tachykinin and opioid neuropeptides has a significant impact on pain perception. The role of proprotein convertases (PCs) in the proteolysis of proneuropeptides was previously established but very few studies have shown the direct impact of PCs on the regulation of specific tachykinin and opioid peptides in the central nervous system. There is an increasing interest in the therapeutic targeting of PCs for the treatment of pain but it is imperative to assess the impact of PCs on the pronociceptive and the endogenous opioid systems...
April 22, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456436/centrally-located-glp-1-receptors-modulate-gastric-slow-waves-and-cardiovascular-function-in-ferrets-consistent-with-the-induction-of-nausea
#8
Zengbing Lu, Chi-Kong Yeung, Ge Lin, David T W Yew, P L R Andrews, John A Rudd
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are indicated for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and obesity, but can cause nausea and emesis in some patients. GLP-1 receptors are distributed widely in the brain, where they contribute to mechanisms of emesis, reduced appetite and aversion, but it is not known if these centrally located receptors also contribute to a modulation of gastric slow wave activity, which is linked causally to nausea. Our aim was to investigate the potential of the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, administered into the 3rd ventricle to modulate emesis, feeding and gastric slow wave activity...
April 21, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433253/neuropeptide-s-increases-motor-activity-and-thermogenesis-in-the-rat-through-sympathetic-activation
#9
Takuya Ensho, Keiko Nakahara, Yoshihiro Suzuki, Noboru Murakami
The central role of neuropeptide S (NPS), identified as the endogenous ligand for GPR154, now named neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR), has not yet been fully clarified. We examined the central role of NPS for body temperature, energy expenditure, locomotor activity and adrenal hormone secretion in rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of NPS increased body temperature in a dose-dependent manner. Energy consumption and locomotor activity were also significantly increased by icv injection of NPS. In addition, icv injection of NPS increased the peripheral blood concentration of adrenalin and corticosterone...
April 13, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434791/neuronal-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-functional-tool-of-melanocortin-system
#10
Nobuko Yamada-Goto, Yukari Ochi, Goro Katsuura, Yui Yamashita, Ken Ebihara, Michio Noguchi, Junji Fujikura, Daisuke Taura, Masakatsu Sone, Kiminori Hosoda, Paul E Gottschall, Kazuwa Nakao
BACKGROUND: The preparation of human neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can serve as a potential tool for evaluating the physiological and pathophysiological properties of human neurons and for drug development. METHODS: In the present study, the functional activity in neuronal cells differentiated from human iPS cells was observed. RESULTS: The differentiated cells expressed mRNAs for classical neuronal markers (microtubule-associated protein 2, β-tubulin III, calbindin 1, synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95) and for subunits of various excitatory and inhibitory transmitters (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, GABAA α1)...
April 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434790/short-n-terminal-galanin-fragments-are-occurring-naturally-in-vivo
#11
Robert Ihnatko, Elvar Theodorsson
The galanin family currently consists of four peptides, namely galanin, galanin-message associated peptide, galanin-like peptide and alarin. Unlike galanin that signals through three different G protein-coupled receptors; GAL1, GAL2, and GAL3, binding at its N-terminal end, the cognate receptors for other members of the galanin family are currently unknown. Research using short N-terminal galanin fragments generated either by enzymatic cleavage or solid-phase synthesis has revealed differences in their receptor binding properties exerting numerous biological effects distinct from galanin(1-29) itself...
April 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434792/cloning-and-expression-patterns-of-neuromedin-u-and-its-receptors-in-pigs
#12
Xiang Li, Mingfu Niu, Juan Su, Zhiyu Ma, Mengmeng Jin, Wenna Qiao, Ying Zhang, Yanyan Feng, Na An, Yuanlong Hou, Sheng Yang, Suo Chuan, Zhihai Lei
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide that performs a variety of physiological functions in animals via neuromedin U receptor-1 (NMUR1) and neuromedin U receptor-2 (NMUR2). In this study, we cloned the pig NMU, NMUR1 and NMUR2 genes. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the pig NMU cDNA encoded the amino acids Phe-Leu-Phe-Arg-Pro-Arg-Asn-NH2 at the C-terminus and that the NMU receptors, which are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), contained the seven transmembrane domains typical of GPCRs...
April 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427866/effect-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-in-hyperglycemic-and-hyperinsulinemic-rats-effects-on-phosphorylation-and-o-glcnacylation-of-tau-protein
#13
Liliana Lozano, Jorge Guevara, Tony Lefebvre, Ivan Ramos-Martinez, Daniel Limón, Alfonso Díaz, Eduarda Cerón, Edgar Zenteno
Aggregation of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, which are markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been reported also in diabetes mellitus (DM). One regulator of tau phosphorylation is O-GlcNAcylation, whereas for hyperphosphorylation it could be GSK3beta, which is activated in hyperglycemic conditions. With this in mind, both O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of tau protein were evaluated in the brain of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and treated with the Aß25-35 peptide in the hippocampal region CA1...
April 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431685/galr3-mediates-galanin-proliferative-effects-on-postnatal-hippocampal-precursors
#14
D Khan, M Khan, Johan Runesson, M Zaben, W P Gray
Galanin, a neuropeptide co-released from noradrenergic and serotonergic projection neurons to the dentate gyrus, has recently emerged as an important mediator for signaling neuronal activity to the subgranular neurogenic stem cell niche supporting adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Galanin and its receptors appear to play key roles in depression-like behavior, and effects on hippocampal neurogenesis are relevant to pharmacological strategies for treating depression, which in part appear to rely on restoring altered neurogenesis...
April 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173961/a-screen-for-modulators-reveals-that-orexin-a-rapidly-stimulates-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-expression-and-release-in-hypothalamic-cell-culture
#15
Antonieta Cote-Vélez, Anabel Martínez Báez, Leticia Lezama, Rosa María Uribe, Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Jean-Louis Charli
In the paraventricular nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus, hypophysiotropic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neurons integrate metabolic information and control the activity of the thyroid axis. Additional populations of TRH neurons reside in various hypothalamic areas, with poorly defined connections and functions, albeit there is evidence that some may be related to energy balance. To establish extracellular modulators of TRH hypothalamic neurons activity, we performed a screen of neurotransmitters effects in hypothalamic cultures...
April 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162846/ketamine-xylazine-anaesthesia-and-orofacial-administration-of-substance-p-a-lethal-combination-in-rats
#16
Janetti N Francischi, Taíssa Iolanda C Frade, Marcella P A de Almeida, Bárbara F G de Queiroz, Y S Bakhle
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ketamine+xylazine mixture is a widely used anaesthetic in animal experiments. In rats anaesthetized with this mixture, we have shown that injection of carrageenan, a standard proinflammatory stimulus, into the cheek (intra-oral injection) induced oedema. A likely mediator of this oedema is substance P (SP), a major transmitter of sensory nerves in orofacial tissue. We have assessed the effects of intra-oral injection of SP in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: SP (50-1μg per rat) was injected intra-orally in male adult Holtzman or Wistar rats, anaesthetized with ketamine+xylazine...
April 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073591/neuropeptide-y-neuronal-network-dysfunction-in-the-frontal-lobe-of-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#17
Shunsuke Morosawa, Shuji Iritani, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Youta Torii, Chikako Habuchi, Keisuke Kuroda, Kozo Kaibuchi, Norio Ozaki
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been found to play a critical role in various mental functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in the development of schizophrenia, a particularly intractable psychiatric disease whose precise etiology remains unknown. Recent molecular biological investigations have identified several candidate genes which may be associated with this disease, including disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). The role of DISC1 would involve neurogenesis and neuronal migration. However, the functional consequences of this gene defect have not yet been fully clarified in neuronal systems...
April 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065675/altered-expression-of-irs2-and-grb2-in-demyelination-of-peripheral-neurons-implications-in-diabetic-neuropathy
#18
Mallahalli S Manu, Kuruvanthe S Rachana, Gopal M Advirao
Demyelination of the peripheral nerves and dysfunction of Schwann cells (SCs) are the chronic complications involved in the development of peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients. Insulin signaling plays an important role in restoring the myelin proteins in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Since insulin levels are altered in diabetes, it becomes of great interest to appreciate the role and regulation of docking and adaptor protein, how these proteins respond to variations in the levels of insulin as experienced in juvenile diabetes...
April 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043649/injections-of-galanin-like-peptide-directly-into-the-nucleus-of-the-tractus-solitarius-nts-reduces-food-intake-and-body-weight-but-increases-metabolic-rate-and-plasma-leptin
#19
Lindy Sergeant, Carla Rodriguez-Dimitrescu, Christopher C Barney, Gregory S Fraley
Galanin-Like Peptide (GALP) is a hypothalamic neuromediator of metabolism and reproduction. GALP is known to stimulate reproduction and alter food intake and body weight in multiple species. The regulation of body weight involves control of both energy intake and energy expenditure. Since GALP is known to alter food intake - possibly via the autonomic nervous system - we first hypothesized that GALP would increase metabolic rate. First, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulae and abdominal radiotelemetry temperature transmitters...
April 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993374/effects-of-rfamide-related-peptide-1-rfrp-1-microinjections-into-the-central-nucleus-of-amygdala-on-passive-avoidance-learning-in-rats
#20
Anita Kovács, Kristóf László, Olga Zagoracz, Tamás Ollmann, László Péczely, Rita Gálosi, László Lénárd
The amygdaloid body (AMY) plays an important role in memory, learning and reward-related processes. RFRP-1 immunoreactive fibers and NPFF receptors were identified in the AMY, and previously we verified that RFRP-1 infused into the central nucleus of AMY (CeA) induced place preference. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible effects of RFRP-1 in the CeA on passive avoidance learning. Male Wistar rats were examined in two-compartment passive avoidance paradigm. Animals were shocked with 0.5mA current and subsequently were microinjected bilaterally with 50ng or 100ng RFRP-1 in volume of 0...
April 2017: Neuropeptides
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