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Neuropeptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801068/lepr-polymorphism-may-affect-energy-balance-during-weight-loss-among-brazilians-obese-adolescents
#1
Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Sandro Soares Almeida, Lian Tock, João Bosco Pesquero, Ronaldo Carvalho Araújo, Ana Paula Grotti Clemente, Bárbara Dal'Molin Netto, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Joana Pereira de Carvalho Ferreira, Priscila de Lima Sanches, Aline de Piano Ganen, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Lila Missae Oyama, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso
OBJECTIVE: Leptin is an adipokine released mainly by adipose tissue, with many functions including regulation of energy balance. However, little is known about the effect of LEPR polymorphism on orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides. Thus, the aim of the present study is to verify the influence of LEPR polymorphism (rs2767485) on serum orexigenic (NPY, MCH and AgRP) and anorexigenic (Leptin and α-MSH) neuropeptides levels among obese adolescents submitted to 1year of multicomponent weight loss therapy...
August 2, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764883/involvement-of-gabaa-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-social-preference-and-emotional-behaviors-by-oxytocin-in-the-central-amygdala-of-female-mandarin-voles
#2
Na Dong, Peirong Du, Xin Hao, Zhixiong He, Wenjuan Hou, Limin Wang, Wei Yuan, Jinfeng Yang, Rui Jia, Fadao Tai
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is the main output of the amygdala and plays an important role in behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Receptors for the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) and GABAA are found in high concentration in the CeA. The mechanisms underlying regulation of CeA OT in emotional and social behavior remain unclear. In this study we evaluated the effects of intra-CeA OT administration of different doses (0.1, 1 and 10ng/side), OT receptor antagonist (OTR-A) (1, 10 and 100ng/side) and OT plus OTR-A on social and emotional behavior using a social preference paradigm, open field test and elevated plus maze test in female monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus)...
July 25, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757099/gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-and-rf9-stimulate-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-adult-male-rhesus-monkeys
#3
Rahim Ullah, Aalia Batool, Madiha Wazir, Rabia Naz, Tanzil Ur Rahman, Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Shahab, Junfen Fu
Stress activates gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and represses hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG-axis) but RF9 administration relieves stress-induced repression of the HPG-axis. Importantly, it was not known whether GnIH signaling and RF9 synthetic peptide modulate the HPA axis. To assess this, mammalian orthologs of GnIH (RFRP-1 and RFRP-3) and RF9 were administered to intact adult male rhesus monkeys. RFRP-1 (125μg/animal), RFRP-3 (250μg/animal) and RF9 (0...
July 25, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755808/potential-role-of-cxcl10-cxcr3-signaling-in-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance-in-periaqueductal-gray
#4
Wei Wang, Yawen Peng, Hui Yang, Huilian Bu, Genhua Guo, Daiqiang Liu, Bin Shu, Xuebi Tian, Ailin Luo, Xuming Zhang, Feng Gao
Tolerance to morphine antinociception hinders its long-term use in clinical practice. Interaction between neuron and microglia has been proved to play critical role in the mechanism of morphine tolerance, while CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling has been implicated in neuron-glia signaling and morphine analgesia. This study aims to investigate whether CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling in periaqueductal gray (PAG) contributes to the development of morphine tolerance by modulating neuron-microglia interaction. The results showed that the expressions of CXCR3 and CXCL10 were gradually increased in parallel with repeated morphine administration and activation of microglia...
July 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716393/combine-effect-of-chondroitinase-abc-and-low-level-laser-660nm-on-spinal-cord-injury-model-in-adult-male-rats
#5
Atousa Janzadeh, Arash Sarveazad, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Sima Dameni, Fazel Sahraneshin Samani, Kobra Mokhtarian, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
After spinal cord injury (SCI) there are many recoveries inhibiting factors such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and inflammation. The present study investigated the combinational effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) as anti-inflammatory agent and Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enzyme as CSPG digesting factor on spinal cord after injury. This study performed on 44 male Wistar rats, spinal cord injury induced by a clip compression injury. Animals received two-weeks treatment of 660nm low level laser (LLL) and intraspinal injection of 1μg ChABC...
July 14, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751044/differently-polarized-macrophages-affect-the-viability-and-growth-of-nspcs-by-regulating-the-expression-of-pacap
#6
Min Liu, Ming Deng, Yonggang Ma
Objective To explore the influence of differently polarized macrophages, M1 or M2, to viability and growth of NSPCs and its possible mechanism, especially the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in it. METHOD: Spinal cord-derived NSPCs were co-cultured with M1 or M2 through a transwell system. Growth of NSPCs in both groups was observed through an inverted microscope within 3days. NSPCs viability of each group, represented as intracellular ATP levels, was measured using the Cellular ATP Kit HTS following co-culture for 24h...
July 12, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698051/effects-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-on-small-intestinal-int-407-cells
#7
A Illes, B Opper, D Reglodi, M Kerenyi, P Czetany, A Boronkai, E Schafer, G Toth, E Fabian, G Horvath
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide having a widespread distribution both in the nervous system and peripheral organs including the gastrointestinal tract. It has been shown to exert actions on intestinal functions, mainly affecting glandular secretion and motility. PACAP has several different effects on cell survival depending on the cell type and the applied stimulus. Its influences on small intestinal epithelial cells are not yet elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PACAP on intestinal epithelial cells having high turnover (INT 407) against different harmful stimuli, such as oxidative stress, in vitro hypoxia and gamma radiation...
July 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688524/prenatal-exposure-to-brain-specific-anion-transporter-1-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-impairs-cognitive-function-in-post-natal-life
#8
Eugene A Zubkov, Yana A Zorkina, Olga I Gurina, Pavel A Melnikov, Anna Y Morozova, Vladimir P Chekhonin
Subclinical hypothyroidism is caused by thyroid hormone deficit and can lead to impairments in mood and cognition. In brain, supply with thyroxine (T4) is mediated by thyroid hormone transporters including the brain-specific anion transporter-1 (BSAT-1). In humans and rodents, BSAT-1 is expressed in brain microvessels and astrocytes. In this study, we tested whether exposure in utero with BSAT-1-specific monoclonal antibodies (MabBSAT) will affect the cognitive function of the progeny. On gestation day 16th, females were intravenously treated with MabBSAT, non-specific antibodies (control 1), and saline (control 2)...
July 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619276/arginine-vasopressin-relates-with-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#9
Hong-Bo Jiang, Ai-Lin Du, Hai-Yang Luo, Jun Yang, Xiao-Qiu Luo, Rui-Qing Ma, Chang-He Shi, Yu-Ming Xu
Spinocerebellar ataxia is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that the most prevalent type is type 3 (SCA3). Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released within the lateral septum for controlling the learning and memory. This communication studied the effect of AVP on the spatial learning and memory of SCA3 mice. The spatial learning and memory were analyzed by Morris water maze test (MWM), and AVP concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that (Alves et al., 2010) the swimming velocity, distance traveled and latency to the platform of MWM in SCA3 mice were reduced slower than those in WT mice over 4 training days (p<0...
June 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624122/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-insulin-synergistically-activate-vagal-afferent-neurons
#10
Yusaku Iwasaki, Chayon Goswami, Toshihiko Yada
Intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic insulin, released postprandially, commonly regulate glucose metabolism. Recent clinical experience indicates that the GLP-1R agonist and insulin in combination, compared to insulin alone, results in better glycemic and weight controls in type 2 diabetic patients. These observations suggest possible interactive effect of these hormones. These hormones, in addition to peripherally controlling glycemia, exert central regulation of food intake and glucose metabolism, the effect at least partly mediated by signaling to the brain via the vagal afferents...
May 25, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559061/neuropeptides-a-promising-target-for-treating-seizures
#11
REVIEW
Neethi Menon, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh K Bhatt
Seizures are serious neurological disorders affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide. Seizures are characterized by abnormal, repetitive and synchronised firing of the neurons which is produced as a result of imbalance in the levels of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Neuropeptides are found to regulate seizures by rectifying this imbalance. These neuropeptides are stored in the dense core synaptic vesicles, and are released on excitation. This review focuses on certain neuropeptides which can alleviate both, the effects of seizures as well as epileptogenesis...
May 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024880/embryonic-ablation-of-neuronal-vgf-increases-energy-expenditure-and-reduces-body-weight
#12
Cheng Jiang, Wei-Jye Lin, Masato Sadahiro, Andrew C Shin, Christoph Buettner, Stephen R Salton
Germline ablation of VGF, a secreted neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine peptide precursor, results in lean, hypermetabolic, and infertile adult mice that are resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes (Hahm et al., 1999, 2002). To assess whether this phenotype is predominantly driven by reduced VGF expression in developing and/or adult neurons, or in peripheral endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, we generated and analyzed conditional VGF knockout mice, obtained by mating loxP-flanked (floxed) Vgf mice with either pan-neuronal Synapsin-Cre- or forebrain alpha-CaMKII-Cre-recombinase-expressing transgenic mice...
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866656/an-analysis-of-possible-off-target-effects-following-cas9-crispr-targeted-deletions-of-neuropeptide-gene-enhancers-from-the-mouse-genome
#13
Elizabeth Anne Hay, Abdulla Razak Khalaf, Pietro Marini, Andrew Brown, Karyn Heath, Darrin Sheppard, Alasdair MacKenzie
We have successfully used comparative genomics to identify putative regulatory elements within the human genome that contribute to the tissue specific expression of neuropeptides such as galanin and receptors such as CB1. However, a previous inability to rapidly delete these elements from the mouse genome has prevented optimal assessment of their function in-vivo. This has been solved using CAS9/CRISPR genome editing technology which uses a bacterial endonuclease called CAS9 that, in combination with specifically designed guide RNA (gRNA) molecules, cuts specific regions of the mouse genome...
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865545/anti-cgrp-antibodies-block-cgrp-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#14
Eric A Kaiser, Brandon J Rea, Adisa Kuburas, Brian R Kovacevich, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Ana Recober, Andrew F Russo
The multifunctional neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that CGRP has roles in intestinal motility, water secretion, and inflammation. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated CGRP involvement in diarrhea secondary to C. difficile and food allergies. Diarrhea thus provides a convenient bioassay of CGRP activity in the GI system. In this proof of principle study, we report that prophylactic administration of an anti-CGRP antibody is able to block CGRP-induced diarrhea in mice...
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743609/sva-retrotransposons-as-potential-modulators-of-neuropeptide-gene-expression
#15
REVIEW
Olympia Gianfrancesco, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
Many facets of human behaviour are likely to have developed in part due to evolutionary changes in the regulation of neuropeptide and other brain-related genes. This has allowed species-specific expression patterns and unique epigenetic modulation in response to our environment, regulating response not only at the molecular level, but also contributing to differences in behaviour between individuals. As such, genetic variants or epigenetic changes that may alter neuropeptide gene expression are predicted to play a role in behavioural conditions and psychiatric illness...
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559062/inhibitory-effect-of-angiotensin-1-7-on-angiotensin-iii-induced-nociceptive-behaviour-in-mice
#16
Wataru Nemoto, Ryota Yamagata, Yoshiki Ogata, Osamu Nakagawasai, Takeshi Tadano, Koichi Tan-No
We have previously demonstrated that the intrathecal (i.t.) administration of angiotensin (Ang) II into mice produces a nociceptive behaviour consisting of scratching, biting and licking accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the spinal cord, which was mediated through AT1 receptors. Both the p38 MAPK phosphorylation and subsequent nociceptive behaviour were attenuated by the i.t. co-administration of Ang (1-7), an N-terminal fragment of Ang II, that acted via Mas receptors. On the other hand, a C-terminal fragment of Ang II, namely Ang III, was also shown to induce a nociceptive behaviour by acting upon AT1 receptors on spinal astrocytes and neurons, and was found to be more potent than Ang II...
May 23, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460791/first-study-on-the-peptidergic-innervation-of-the-brain-superior-sagittal-sinus-in-humans
#17
Simone Sampaolo, Giovanna Liguori, Alfredo Vittoria, Filomena Napolitano, Luca Lombardi, Javier Figols, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Teresa Esposito, Giuseppe Di Iorio
The superior sagittal sinus (SSS) of the mammalian brain is a pain-sensitive intracranial vessel thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of migraine headaches. Here, we aimed to investigate the presence and the potential co-localization of some neurotransmitters in the human SSS. Immunohistochemical and double-labeling immunofluorescence analyses were applied to paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded, coronal sections of the SSS. Protein extraction and Western blotting technique were performed on the same material to confirm the morphological data...
April 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456437/spinal-neuropeptide-modulation-functional-assessment-and-cartilage-lesions-in-a-monosodium-iodoacetate-rat-model-of-osteoarthritis
#18
Colombe Otis, Martin Guillot, Maxim Moreau, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Francis Beaudry, Eric Troncy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Characterising the temporal evolution of changes observed in pain functional assessment, spinal neuropeptides and cartilage lesions of the joint after chemical osteoarthritis (OA) induction in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: On day (D) 0, OA was induced by an IA injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). Rats receiving 2mg MIA were temporally assessed at D3, D7, D14 and D21 for the total spinal cord concentration of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related-peptide (CGRP), bradykinin (BK) and somatostatin (STT), and for severity of cartilage lesions...
April 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476408/targeted-high-resolution-quadrupole-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry-analyses-reveal-a-significant-reduction-of-tachykinin-and-opioid-neuropeptides-level-in-pc1-and-pc2-mutant-mouse-spinal-cords
#19
Mouna Saidi, Francis Beaudry
Tachykinin and opioid neuropeptides play a fundamental role in pain transmission, modulation and inhibition. The proteolysis control of endogenous tachykinin and opioid neuropeptides has a significant impact on pain perception. The role of proprotein convertases (PCs) in the proteolysis of proneuropeptides was previously established but very few studies have shown the direct impact of PCs on the regulation of specific tachykinin and opioid peptides in the central nervous system. There is an increasing interest in the therapeutic targeting of PCs for the treatment of pain but it is imperative to assess the impact of PCs on the pronociceptive and the endogenous opioid systems...
April 22, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456436/centrally-located-glp-1-receptors-modulate-gastric-slow-waves-and-cardiovascular-function-in-ferrets-consistent-with-the-induction-of-nausea
#20
Zengbing Lu, Chi-Kong Yeung, Ge Lin, David T W Yew, P L R Andrews, John A Rudd
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are indicated for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and obesity, but can cause nausea and emesis in some patients. GLP-1 receptors are distributed widely in the brain, where they contribute to mechanisms of emesis, reduced appetite and aversion, but it is not known if these centrally located receptors also contribute to a modulation of gastric slow wave activity, which is linked causally to nausea. Our aim was to investigate the potential of the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, administered into the 3rd ventricle to modulate emesis, feeding and gastric slow wave activity...
April 21, 2017: Neuropeptides
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