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Ali Ghanbari, Nasroallah Moradi Kor, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Previous studies have shown that the neuropeptide bombesin (BBS) enhances consolidation of specifically for inhibitory avoidance memory in adult rats. However, its effect on memory consolidation during premature period is not clear as well. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of BBS and its interaction with glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems on memory consolidation in rat pups. Male and female rat pups (30 days old) were trained in an inhibitory avoidance (IA) task (0.5 mA, 3 s footshock). Memory retention was tested 24 h later during which the latency to re-enter to the shock compartment was recorded...
June 1, 2018: Neuropeptides
Motahare Mokhtarzade, Robert Motl, Raoof Negaresh, Philipp Zimmer, Mostafa Khodadoost, Julien S Baker, Darpan Patel, Nastaran Majdinasab, Rouholah Ranjbar
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neurotrophic factors seemingly have an important role in multiple sclerosis pathology. Physical activity may influence blood-brain barrier function and levels of neurotrophic factors, and such effects might be moderated by body weight status. This study investigated the effect of exercise training on markers of blood-brain barrier permeability and neurotrophic factors as a function of weight status in multiple sclerosis patients. Sixty three persons with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who were normal weight (n: 33) or overweight (n: 33) were randomly assigned into groups of exercise (normal weight training, n: 18; overweight training group, n: 18) or no exercise (normal weight control, n: 15; overweight control group, n: 15)...
May 31, 2018: Neuropeptides
Lizhang Han, Ling Tang, Zheng Jiang, Yuquan Jiang
Glioma-Associated Oncogene Family Zinc Finger 2 (Gli2) seems to be the major nuclear effector of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling to regulate self-renewal and tumorigenic potential of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. Three phosphorylated peptides derived from Gli2 were synthesized and combined with cell-penetrating peptide Tat-(47-57) (AYGRKKRRQRRR). Western Blot was applied to detect the phosphorylation level of Gli2 and cell division protein kinase 6 (CDK6) luciferase reporter was utilized to detect the transcriptional activator function of Gli2...
May 30, 2018: Neuropeptides
Javad Masoumi, Morteza Abbasloui, Reza Parvan, Daryoush Mohammadnejad, Graciela Pavon-Djavid, Abolfazl Barzegari, Jalal Abdolalizadeh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with high outbreak rates. It is estimated that about 35 million individuals around the world suffered from dementia in 2010. AD is expected to increase twofold every 20 years and, by 2030, approximately 65 million people could suffer from this illness. AD is determined clinically by a cognitive impairment and pathologically by the production of amyloid beta (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles, toxic free radicals and inflammatory mediators in the brain...
May 23, 2018: Neuropeptides
Yanzhen Zhang, Chunfeng Wang, Lianfeng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) on colonic contractile disorders induced by chronic water avoidance stress (WAS). METHODS: Male SD rats were exposed to daily 1-h WAS or sham WAS for 10 consecutive days. The presence of TRH in the serum and colonic mucosa were determined using enzyme immunoassay kits. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were performed to detect the expression of TRH receptor 1 (TRH-R1)...
May 23, 2018: Neuropeptides
Monica Wolfe, Halina Wisniewska, Hiroe Tariga, Gerardo Ibanez, James C Collins, Kazimierz Wisniewski, Steve Qi, Karthik Srinivasan, Diane Hargrove, Beatriz Fioravanti Lindstrom
Oxytocin (OT) continues to inspire much research due to its diverse physiological effects. While the best-understood actions of OT are uterine contraction and milk ejection, OT is also implicated in maternal and bonding behaviors, and potentially in CNS disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and pain. The dissection of the mechanism of action of OT is complicated by the fact that this peptide activates not only its cognate receptor but also vasopressin type 1a (V1a) receptors. In this study, we evaluated OT and a selective OT receptor (OTR) agonist, FE 204409, in an automated assay that measures rat locomotor activity...
May 21, 2018: Neuropeptides
Yumiko Fukasaka, Hirohide Nambu, Hideki Tanioka, Atsushi Obata, Misato Tonomura, Takayuki Okuno, Hideo Yukioka
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y5 receptor plays a key role in the effects of NPY, an important neurotransmitter in the control of energy homeostasis including stimulation of food intake and inhibition of energy expenditure. The NPY-Y5 receptor system has been an attractive drug target for potential use in treating obesity. Here we report the discovery and characterization of two novel Y5 receptor antagonists, S-2367 and S-234462. Both compounds displayed high affinity for the Y5 receptor in the radio-ligand binding assay, while in the cell-based functional assay, S-2367 and S-234462 showed, respectively, surmountable and insurmountable antagonism...
May 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
Santosh K Mandal, Prem K Shrestha, Fahaad S H Alenazi, Manita Shakya, Hussain N Alhamami, Karen P Briski
BACKGROUND: Caudal dorsomedial hindbrain detection of hypoglycemia-associated lactoprivation regulates glucose counter-regulation in male rats. In females, estradiol (E) determines hypothalamic neuroanatomical and molecular foci of hindbrain energy sensor activation. This study investigated the hypothesis that E signal strength governs metabolic neuropeptide and counter-regulatory hormone responses to hindbrain lactoprivic stimuli in hypoglycemic female rats. METHODS: Ovariectomized animals were implanted with E-filled silastic capsules [30 (E-30) or 300 μg (E-300)/mL] to replicate plasma concentrations at estrous cycle nadir versus peak levels...
May 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Mariola Kuczer, Grzegorz Rosiński
Neuropeptides control the functioning of the nervous system of insects, and they are the most diverse signalling molecules in terms of structure and function. Allatostatins are pleiotropic neuropeptides that are considered potent myoinhibitors of muscle contractions in insects. We investigated the effects caused by three distinct allatostatins, Dippu-AST1 (LYDFGL-NH2 from Diploptera punctata), Grybi-MIP1 (GWQDLNGGW-NH2 from Gryllus bimaculatus) and Trica-ASTC (pESRYRQCYFNPISCF-OH from Tribolium castaneum) on contractile activity of the myocardium, oviduct and hindgut of two tenebrionid beetles, Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas atratus...
May 9, 2018: Neuropeptides
Sajad Hassanzadeh, Seyed Behnamedin Jameie, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mansooreh Soleimani, Zeinab Namjoo, Maryam Soleimani
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious and complex medical condition that can happen to anyone. At present, therapy mainly focuses on rehabilitation and pharmacological treatment, such as methylprednisolone (MP). Supra-spinal changes in certain structures, such as the cerebellum, that receive many afferents from the spinal cord might be one reason for unsuccessful therapeutic outcomes. Recently, the expression of FNDC5 was reported in cerebellar Purkinje cells as a possible neuroprotective agent. In the present study, we considered the expression of FNDC5 in Purkinje cells following SCI with and without MP administration in adult rats with SCI...
May 7, 2018: Neuropeptides
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
Victims of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are believed to have an underlying dysfunction in medullary homeostatic control that impairs critical responses to life threatening challenges such as hypoxia, hypercarbia and asphyxia, often during a sleep period. This failure is thought to result from abnormalities in a network of neural pathways in the medulla oblongata that control respiration, chemosensitivity, autonomic function and arousal. Studies have mainly focused on the role of serotonin, 5-hydroxytyptamine (5HT), although the neuropeptide substance P (SP) has also been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of medullary homeostatic function, often in conjunction with 5-HT...
May 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
Begum Aydin, Gokcen Guvenc, Burcin Altinbas, Nasir Niaz, Murat Yalcin
Nesfatin-1, a peptide whose receptor is yet to be identified, has been shown to be involved in the modulation of feeding, stress, and metabolic responses. Recently, increasing evidence has supported a modulatory role of nesfatin-1 in cardiovascular activity. We have previously reported that nesfatin-1 causes an increase in blood pressure in normotensive and hypotensive rats by increasing plasma catecholamine, vasopressin, and renin levels. Recent reports suggest that nesfatin-1 may activate the central cholinergic system...
May 4, 2018: Neuropeptides
Mingqing He, Jun Gu, Jinzhou Zhu, Xiaoyan Wang, Chengniu Wang, Chengwei Duan, Yingjie Ni, Xiang Lu, Jianzhong Li
Astrocytes become activated in response to different stimulation. Dyrk1b is an arginine-directed serine/threonineprotein kinase that is expressed at elevated levels in many cancers but remains unknown in the pathologies of neuroinflammation. In this study, in vivo, we demonstrated that Dyrk1b expression was significantly increased and reached a peak at 12 h after LPS injection via Western blot. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that Dyrk1b co-located with GFAP and Ki67. In vitro, the expression of Dyrk1b, Ki67 and cyclinD1 was gradually increased and reached a peak at 12 h in a time-dependent manner after 1 μg/mL LPS stimulation...
April 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
Geoffrey A Lambert, Alessandro S Zagami
Migraine is a condition without apparent pathology. Its cardinal symptom is the prolonged excruciating headache. Theories about this pain have posited pathologies which run the gamut from neural to vascular to neurovascular, but no observations have detected a plausible pathology. We believe that no pathology can be found for migraine headache because none exists. Migraine is not driven by pathology - it is driven by neural events produced by triggers - or simply by neural noise- noise that has crossed a critical threshold...
April 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
Laleh Rezaee, Saeideh Karimi-Haghighi, Soheila Fazli-Tabaei, Abbas Haghparast
Orexins are produced in the restricted regions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH). However, orexinergic receptors and projections are localized in wide regions like nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal gray area and spinal cord which are involved in the pain modulation. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intrathecal administration of orexin-1 receptor antagonist (SB-334867) in the spinal antinociception induced by intra-LH administration of carbachol (cholinergic receptor agonist) in both early and late phases of pain related behaviors in formalin test...
April 3, 2018: Neuropeptides
Elsie Tachie Mensah, Ayelen Melisa Blanco, Andrew Donini, Suraj Unniappan
Galanin (GAL) is a 29 amino acid peptide, first identified from the porcine intestine and widely distributed within the brain and peripheral tissues. Among GAL biological functions, its role as a potent appetite-stimulating peptide is probably the most studied. With galanin's established role in the modulation of food intake in fish, this study aims to evaluate the effects of GAL on the intestinal motility of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using an organ bath system. Our results found that application of GAL to the organ bath causes a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of goldfish gut...
June 2018: Neuropeptides
Katalin Sandor, Shibu Krishnan, Nilesh Mohan Agalave, Emerson Krock, Jaira Villarreal Salcido, Teresa Fernandez-Zafra, Payam Emami Khoonsari, Camilla I Svensson, Kim Kultima
By screening for neuropeptides in the mouse spinal cord using mass spectrometry (MS), we have previously demonstrated that one of the 78 peptides that is expressed predominantly (> 6-fold) in the dorsal horn compared to the ventral spinal cord is the atypical peptide desCER [des-Ser1]-cerebellin, which originates from the precursor protein cerebellin 1 (CBLN1). Furthermore, we found that intrathecal injection of desCER induces mechanical hypersensitivity in a dose dependent manner. The current study was designed to further investigate the relative expression of other CBLN derived peptides in the spinal cord and to examine whether they share similar nociceptive properties...
June 2018: Neuropeptides
Sachie Sasaki-Hamada, Koji Narusawa, Ryuji Nakamura, Hitoshi Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro Oka
The central administration of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) decreases blood pressure in rats. In the present study, we investigated the hypotensive effects of GLP-2 using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of hypertension. The central administration of GLP-2 (0.6 μg) decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in SHRs (-24.1 ± 4.5%; P < 0.05), but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (-10.6 ± 7.4%; P > 0.05), whereas GLP-2 (6 μg) decreased MAP in WKY rats (-23...
June 2018: Neuropeptides
Grazia Maugeri, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Daniela Maria Rasà, Salvatore Saccone, Concetta Federico, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Velia D'Agata
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are two related peptides acting as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators in central and peripheral nervous system. They are also involved in cancer showing a controversial role. Particulary, they are implicated in neuroblastoma differentiation (NB). This pediatric tumor can evolve to a malignant metastatic disease or spontaneously regress towards a benign form, known as ganglioneuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma. A negative hallmark of neoplasia progression is represented by hypoxic microenvironment...
June 2018: Neuropeptides
Gisele Farias, Bárbara Dal Molin Netto, Katia Cristina Boritza, Solange Cravo Bettini, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neuropeptides
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