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Neuropeptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685637/mechanisms-of-sustained-long-term-weight-loss-after-rygb-%C3%AE-msh-is-a-key-factor
#1
Gisele Farias, Bárbara Dal Molin Netto, Katia Cristina Boritza, Solange Cravo Bettini, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661478/chronic-adriamycin-treatment-impairs-cgrp-mediated-functions-of-meningeal-sensory-nerves
#2
Éva Deák, Judit Rosta, Krisztina Boros, Gyöngyi Kis, Péter Sántha, Karl Messlinger, Gábor Jancsó, Mária Dux
Adriamycin is a potent anthracycline-type antitumor agent, but it also exerts potentially serious side effects due to its cardiotoxic and neurotoxic propensity. Multiple impairments in sensory nerve functions have been recently reported in various rat models. The present experiments were initiated in an attempt to reveal adriamycin-induced changes in sensory effector functions of chemosensitive meningeal afferents. Meningeal blood flow was measured with laser Doppler flowmetry in the parietal dura mater of adult male Wistar rats...
April 10, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655655/hypothalamic-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-regulates-ghrelin-production-and-food-intake
#3
Qingjie Li, Quan Yu, Li Lin, Heng Zhang, Miao Peng, Chunxia Jing, Geyang Xu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) regulates fatty acid storage, glucose metabolism, and food intake. Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, provides a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate appetite. However, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production are still unclear. In the present study, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production were examined in lean- or high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice and mHypoE-42 cells, a hypothalamic cell line. 3rd intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral-directed overexpression of PPARγ (Ad-PPARγ) reduced hypothalamic and plasma ghrelin, food intake in both lean C57BL/6J mice and diet-induced obese mice...
April 9, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678290/orexin-a-and-endocannabinoid-signaling-regulate-glucose-responsive-arcuate-nucleus-neurons-and-feeding-behavior-in-obese-rats
#4
Dandan Yang, Luo Xu, Feifei Guo, Xiangrong Sun, Di Zhang, Mi Wang
Obesity is a global public health problem. Orexin and endocannabinoid signaling in the hypothalamus have been shown to regulate feeding and are promising molecular targets for obesity treatment. In this study, we attempted to analyze effects of orexin-A and endocannabinoid signaling modulation in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) on feeding and glucose-responsive (GR) neurons physiology in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) and diet-induced obesity resistant (DR) rat model. Administration of orexin-A or cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1 R) antagonist AM251 altered the firing of GR neurons in the Arc...
April 6, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573813/appetite-associated-responses-to-central-neuropeptide-y-injection-in-quail
#5
Betty R McConn, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Mark A Cline
The appetite-associated effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) have been extensively studied in mammalian models. Less knowledge exists for other vertebrate species including birds. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of central injection of NPY on feeding behavior and hypothalamic physiology in 7 day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). During the light cycle, intracerebroventricular injection of 1.9 pmol, 0.5, and 1.0 nmol doses of NPY did not affect food intake, 0.031 to 0.13 nmol increased food intake, and 2...
March 9, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523357/cellular-effects-of-ap102-a-somatostatin-analog-with-balanced-affinities-for-the-hsstr2-and-hsstr5-receptors
#6
Jeremy Streuli, Alan G Harris, Cecilia Cottiny, Florent Allagnat, Adrian F Daly, Eric Grouzmann, Karim Abid
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are first-line medical therapy for the treatment of acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors that express somatostatin receptors (SSTR). Somatostatin suppresses secretion of a large number of hormones through the stimulation of the five SSTR. However, unbalanced inhibition of secretion as observed with the highly potent SSAs pasireotide causes hyperglycaemia mainly by inhibiting insulin secretion. In contrast, AP102 a new SSAs has neutral effect on blood glucose while suppressing GH secretion...
March 2, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530408/role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-the-differentiation-of-trpm-5-positive-olfactory-microvillar-cells
#7
Kharen L Doyle, Carla Cunha, Yvonne Hort, Ramon Tasan, Günther Sperk, John Shine, Herbert Herzog
The mouse olfactory neuroepithelium (ON) is comprised of anatomically distinct populations of cells in separate regions; apical (sustentacular and microvillar), neuronal (olfactory sensory neurons) and basal (horizontal and globose basal cells). The existence of microvillar cells (MVCs) is well documented but their nature and function remains unclear. An important transcription factor for the differentiation of MVCs is Skn-1a, with loss of function of Skn-1a in mice resulting in a complete loss of Trpm-5 expressing MVCs, while olfactory sensory neuron differentiation is normal...
March 1, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478718/determination-of-neurotensin-projections-to-the-ventral-tegmental-area-in-mice
#8
Hillary L Woodworth, Juliette A Brown, Hannah M Batchelor, Raluca Bugescu, Gina M Leinninger
Pharmacologic treatment with the neuropeptide neurotensin (Nts) modifies motivated behaviors such as feeding, locomotor activity, and reproduction. Dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) control these behaviors, and Nts directly modulates the activity of DA neurons via Nts receptor-1. While Nts sources to the VTA have been described in starlings and rats, the endogenous sources of Nts to the VTA of mice remain incompletely understood, impeding determination of which Nts circuits orchestrate specific behaviors in this model...
February 15, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477253/central-rank-signalling-in-npy-neurons-alters-bone-mass-in-male-mice
#9
N J Lee, I M Clarke, R F Enriquez, V Nagy, J Penninger, P A Baldock, H Herzog
RANKL signalling known to be important for the control of bone mass, has recently also been implicated in the brain to control thermoregulation, however, it is not known which neuronal pathways are involved and whether other aspects of energy homeostasis are also affected. Here we show that selective deletion of RANK from NPY neurons down-regulated NPY mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. While comprehensive phenotyping of germline-induced NPY neuron specific RANK deficient mice revealed no significant changes in physical or metabolic parameters, adult onset deletion of RANK from NPY neurons led to a significant increase in fat mass and a decrease in whole body bone mineral content and bone mineral density...
February 15, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525472/weaning-stage-hyperglycemia-induces-glucose-insensitivity-in-arcuate-pomc-neurons-and-hyperphagia-in-type-2-diabetic-gk-rats
#10
A Ando, D Gantulga, M Nakata, F Maekawa, K Dezaki, S Ishibashi, T Yada
Hyperphagia triggers and accelerates diabetes, and prevents proper dietary control of glycemia. Inversely, the impact of hyperglycemia on hyperphagia and possible mechanistic cause common for these two metabolic disorders in type 2 diabetes are less defined. The present study examined the precise developmental process of hyperglycemia and hyperphagia and explored the alterations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), the primary feeding and metabolic center, in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with type 2 diabetes and nearly normal body weight...
February 6, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472002/role-of-orexins-in-the-central-and-peripheral-regulation-of-glucose-homeostasis-evidences-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Monika Rani, Raghuvansh Kumar, Pawan Krishan
Orexins (A & B), neuropeptides of hypothalamic origin, act through G-protein coupled receptors, orexin 1 receptor (OX1 R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2 R). The wide projection of orexin neurons in the hypothalamic region allows them to interact with the other neurons and regulate food intake, emotional status, sleep wake cycle and energy metabolism. The autonomic nervous system plays an important regulatory role in the energy metabolism as well as glucose homeostasis. Orexin neurons are also under the control of GABAergic neurons...
February 6, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396376/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-is-a-potent-inducer-of-oedema-in-rat-orofacial-tissue
#12
Bárbara F G de Queiroz, Marcella P A de Almeida, Y S Bakhle, Janetti N Francischi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to assess the potential of calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide released from sensory nerves, to induce oedema in orofacial tissue. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Wistar rats (150-200 g) anesthetized with isoflurane were injected intraorally with CGRP (100 μl; 8-33 pmol) in the right side of the mouth. The contralateral side was injected with the same volume of physiological saline. Increased cheek thickness (in mm), as a measure of oedema formation, was assayed bilaterally with a digital caliper before (T = 0) and up to 24 h following injection of CGRP...
January 30, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366515/antinociceptive-profiles-and-mechanisms-of-centrally-administered-oxyntomodulin-in-various-mouse-pain-models
#13
Soo-Hyun Park, Jae-Ryeong Lee, Sang-Pil Jang, Seyung-Hwan Park, Hee-Jung Lee, Jung-Woo Hong, Hong-Won Suh
In the present study, the antinociceptive profiles of oxyntomodulin were examined in ICR mice. Oxyntomodulin administered intrathecally (i.t.) and intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) (from 1 to 5μg/5μl) showed an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner as measured in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Moreover, cumulative response time of nociceptive behaviors induced by intraplantar formalin injection was reduced by i.t. or i.c.v. treatment with oxyntomodulin during the second, but not the first phase...
April 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329678/apelin-13-ameliorates-cognitive-impairments-in-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-substantia-nigra-lesion-in-rats
#14
Elham Haghparast, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Vahid Sheibani
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra...
April 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29254662/blocking-constitutive-activity-of-ghsr1a-in-the-lateral-amygdala-facilitates-acquisition-of-conditioned-taste-aversion
#15
Nan Li, Ge Song, Yaohui Wang, Qianqian Zhu, Fubing Han, Chonghui Zhang, Yu Zhou
Ghrelin is a circulating peptide hormone promoting feeding and regulating energy metabolism in human and rodents. Ghrelin functions by binding to its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), which are widely distributed throughout the brain including the amygdala, a brain region important for regulating valenced behavior, such as aversion. Interestingly, GHSR1a was once characterized by highly constitutive, ligand-independent activity. However, the physiological importance of such ligand-independent signaling on aversive memory processing has not been tested yet...
April 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274843/oxaliplatin-induced-changes-in-expression-of-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-as-a-neuropathic-mechanism-for-cold-hypersensitivity
#16
Akiko Chukyo, Terumasa Chiba, Toshie Kambe, Ken Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi Kawakami, Kyoji Taguchi, Kenji Abe
Transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors are involved in the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain, which is a common side effect of selected chemotherapeutic agents such as oxaliplatin. However, the precise contribution of TRPs to this condition remains unknown. Cold hypersensitivity is the hallmark of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy, so we used a preclinical model of oxaliplatin-induced cold hypersensitivity in rats to determine the effects of oxaliplatin on TRP channels. To this end, immunohistochemistry was used to examine TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) expression in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after 4days of oxaliplatin treatment...
February 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273382/a%C3%AE-oligomer-eliminating-compounds-interfere-successfully-with-pea%C3%AE-3-42-induced-motor-neurodegenerative-phenotype-in-transgenic-mice
#17
Tina Dunkelmann, Kerstin Teichmann, Tamar Ziehm, Sarah Schemmert, Daniel Frenzel, Markus Tusche, Christina Dammers, Dagmar Jürgens, Karl-Josef Langen, Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Nadim Jon Shah, Janine Kutzsche, Antje Willuweit, Dieter Willbold
Currently, there are no causative or disease modifying treatments available for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, it has been shown that D3, a small, fully d-enantiomeric peptide is able to eliminate low molecular weight Aβ oligomers in vitro, enhance cognition and reduce plaque load in AD transgenic mice. To further characterise the therapeutic potential of D3 towards N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamated Aβ (pEAβ(3-42)) we tested D3 and its head-to-tail tandem derivative D3D3 both in vitro and in vivo in the new mouse model TBA2...
February 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198480/peptides-isolated-from-animal-venom-as-a-platform-for-new-therapeutics-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
L C Camargo, G A A Campos, P Galante, A M Biolchi, J C Gonçalves, K S Lopes, M R Mortari
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that deeply affects patients, their family and society. Although scientists have made intense efforts in seeking the cure for AD, no drug available today is able to stop AD progression. In this context, compounds isolated from animal venom are potentially successful drugs for neuroprotection, since they selectively bind to nervous system targets. In this review, we presented different studies using peptides isolated from animal venom for the treatment of AD...
February 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195839/the-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-plays-an-important-role-in-anxiolytic-like-effect-of-neuropeptide-s
#19
Jin Hong Jiang, Ya Li Peng, Pei Jiang Zhang, Hong Xiang Xue, Zhen He, Xue Ya Liang, M Chang
Neuropeptide S (NPS), the endogenous neuropeptide ligand of NPSR, has been reported to regulate anxiety-related behavior involved in multiple brain regions, including amygdale, locus coeruleus and Barrington's nucleus. However, little research has been conducted on the anxiolytic-like behaviors of NPS on the hypothalamus, which was an important area in defensive behavior. Here, we investigated a role of hypothalamus in anxiolytic-like behaviors of NPS. We found that NPSR protein of mouse distributed mainly in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)...
February 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180139/combined-gastrin-releasing-peptide-29-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-reduce-body-weight-more-than-each-individual-peptide-in-diet-induced-obese-male-rats
#20
Thaer R Mhalhal, Martha C Washington, Kayla D Newman, John C Heath, Ayman I Sayegh
To test the hypothesis that gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29) combined with glucagon like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1 (7-36)) reduce body weight (BW) more than each of the peptides given individually, we infused the two peptides (0.5nmol/kg each) in the aorta of free feeding, diet-induced obese (DIO) male Sprague Dawley rats once daily for 25days and measured BW. We found that GRP-29 and GLP-1 reduce BW, GRP-29 reduced it more than GLP-1 and GRP-29+GLP-1 reduce BW more than each peptide given alone. This reduction was accompanied by decrease 24-hour food intake (normal rat chow), meal size (MS), duration of first meal and number of meals, and increase latency to the first meal, intermeal interval (IMI) and satiety ratio (IMI/MS, amount of food consumed per a unit of time)...
February 2018: Neuropeptides
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