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Neuropeptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30522780/skeletal-phenotype-of-the-neuropeptide-y-knockout-mouse
#1
Natalie K Y Wee, Benjamin P Sinder, Sanja Novak, Xi Wang, Chris Stoddard, Brya G Matthews, Ivo Kalajzic
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in multiple processes such as behavior, energy and bone metabolism. Previous studies have relied on global NPY depletion to examine its effects on bone. However, this approach is unable to distinguish the central or local source of NPY influencing bone. Our aim was to identify which cells within the skeleton express Npy and establish a model that will enable us to differentiate effects of NPY derived from different cell types. We have generated the NPY floxed (NPYflox ) mice using CRISPR technology...
November 30, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553543/identification-and-characterization-of-prokineticin-receptor-2-splicing-variant-and-its-modulation-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Roberta Lattanzi, Daniela Maftei, Maria Rosaria Fullone, Rossella Miele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553544/the-effect-of-ghrelin-and-adenosine-mono-phosphate-kinase-ampk-on-the-passive-avoidance-memory-in-male-wistar-rats
#3
Hamideh Zahiri, Mohammad Rostampour, Behrouz Khakpour, Kambiz Rohampour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503694/neuropeptide-y-receptor-interactions-regulate-its-mitogenic-activity
#4
Magdalena Czarnecka, Congyi Lu, Jennifer Pons, Induja Maheswaran, Pawel Ciborowski, Lihua Zhang, Amrita Cheema, Joanna Kitlinska
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a multifunctional neurotransmitter acting via G protein-coupled receptors - Y1R, Y2R and Y5R. NPY activities, such as its proliferative effects, are mediated by multiple receptors, which have the ability to dimerize. However, the role of this receptor interplay in NPY functions remains unclear. The goal of the current study was to identify NPY receptor interactions, focusing on the ligand-binding fraction, and determine their impact on the mitogenic activity of the peptide. Y1R, Y2R and Y5R expressed in CHO-K1 cells formed homodimers detectable on the cell surface by cross-linking...
November 27, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503693/acute-restraint-stress-induces-cholecystokinin-release-via-enteric-apelin
#5
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Onur Bayramoğlu, Gökhan Akkoyunlu
Stress increases the apelin content in gut, while exogenous peripheral apelin has been shown to induce cholecystokinin (CCK) release. The present study was designed to elucidate (i) the effect of acute stress on enteric production of apelin and CCK, (ii) the role of APJ receptors in apelin-induced CCK release depending on the nutritional status. CCK levels were assayed in portal vein blood samples obtained from stressed (ARS) and non-stressed (NS) rats previously injected with APJ receptor antagonist F13A or vehicle...
November 26, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30471778/pyy-3-36-and-exendin-4-reduce-food-intake-and-activate-neuronal-circuits-in-a-synergistic-manner-in-mice
#6
Marina Kjaergaard, Casper Bo Gravesen Salinas, Jens F Rehfeld, Anna Secher, Kirsten Raun, Birgitte S Wulff
Peptide YY(3-36) ((PYY(3-36)) and glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in combination reduce food intake and body weight in an additive or synergistic manner in animal models and in humans. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind are not completely understood. The present study aims to investigate the effect of combining PYY(3-36) and the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex4) by examining acute food intake and global neuronal activation as measured by c-fos in C57BL/6 J mice. An additive reduction in food intake was found 1...
November 19, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470455/non-sulfated-cholecystokinin-8-reduces-meal-size-and-prolongs-the-intermeal-interval-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#7
Amged I Dafalla, Thaer R Mhalhal, Martha C Washington, Sharonika Spann, Adalis Montero Reguero, Alexandra L Morgan, Geishly A Cruz Matos, Gabrielle Carson, Kenya J Barton, Nicole A Burke, John Heath, Ayman I Sayegh
The current study measured seven feeding responses by non-sulfated cholecystokinin-8 (NS CCK-8) in freely fed adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The peptide (0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 10 nmol/kg) was given intraperitoneally (ip) prior to the onset of the dark cycle, and first meal size (MS), second meal size, intermeal interval (IMI) length, satiety ratio (SR = IMI/MS), latency to first meal, duration of first meal, number of meals and 24-hour food intake were measured. We found that NS CCK-8 (0.5 and 1.0 nmol/kg) reduced MS, prolonged IMI length and increased SR during the dark cycle...
November 13, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30454862/egl-3-and-egl-21-are-required-to-trigger-nocifensive-response-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-to-noxious-heat
#8
Bruno Nkambeu, Jennifer Ben Salem, Sophie Leonelli, Fatemeh Amin Marashi, Francis Beaudry
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a widely used model organism to examine nocifensive response to noxious stimuli, including heat avoidance. Recently, comprehensive analysis of the genome sequence revealed several pro-neuropeptide genes, encoding a series of bioactive neuropeptides. C. elegans neuropeptides are involved in the modulation of essentially all behaviors including locomotion, mechanosensation, thermosensation and chemosensation. The maturation of pro-neuropeptide to neuropeptide is performed by ortholog pro-protein convertases and carboxypeptidase E (e...
November 13, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30447858/neuroprotective-and-antihyperalgesic-effects-of-orexin-a-in-rats-with-painful-diabetic-neuropathy
#9
Seddigheh Niknia, Ayat Kaeidi, Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza Mirzaei, Alireza Khoshdel, Zahra Hajializadeh, Mohammad Ali Fahmidehkar, Mehdi Mahmoodi
AIM OF STUDY: Diabetes mellitus is related to the development of neuronal tissue injury in different peripheral and central nervous system regions. A common complication of diabetes is painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDN). We have studied the neuroprotective and anti-nociceptive properties of neuropeptide orexin-A in an animal experimental model of diabetic neuropathy. METHODS: All experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats (220-250 g). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg (i...
November 8, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396595/dexmedetomidine-reduces-oxidative-stress-and-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-via-the-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#10
Fayin Li, Xiaodong Wang, Zhikui Deng, Xianlong Zhang, Pengfei Gao, Hailin Liu
The protective effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) mediated by reductions of oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and disintegration have been demonstrated in many injury models. However, whether DEX has a beneficial effect on traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unknown. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of DEX and its potential mechanism were assessed in a model of TBI. DEX treatment relieved encephala edema and neuron cell apoptosis and increased behavioral function. These protective effects were accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) expression...
November 2, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503692/increasing-hypothalamic-nucleobindin-2-levels-and-decreasing-hypothalamic-inflammation-in-obese-male-mice-via-diet-and-exercise-alleviate-obesity-associated-hypogonadism
#11
Dequan Chen, Shicheng Cao, Bo Chang, Tie Ma, Haining Gao, Yao Tong, Tao Li, Junchao Han, Xuejie Yi
To explore the role of nesfatin-1 in regulating male reproductive function during energy balance variation, we employed an obese mouse model which was first induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and followed by interventions of a normal diet (ND) and/or moderate exercise, and then serum reproductive hormones of male mice, hypothalamic nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1, inflammatory factors, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were tested. Our findings showed that both serum nesfatin-1, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) levels and hypothalamic NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and Gnrh mRNA levels were reduced, whereas, the mRNA and protein levels of hypothalamic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, inhibitor kappa B kinase β (IKKβ), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB were increased in obese male mice...
November 1, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446297/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-modulates-biometric-and-inflammatory-parameters-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-obese-rats
#12
Carla de Oliveira, Joice Soares de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Macedo, Vanessa Leal Scarabelot, Roberta Ströher, Daniela Silva Santos, Andressa Souza, Felipe Fregni, Wolnei Caumo, Iraci L S Torres
Obesity is a multifactorial disease associated with metabolic dysfunction and the prevention and treatment of obesity are often unsatisfactory. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has proven promising in the treatment of eating disorders such as obesity. We investigate the effects of tDCS on locomotor and exploratory activities, anxiety-like and feeding behavior, and levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), IL (interleukin)-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the cerebral cortex of obese rats...
October 31, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287150/oxytocin-and-excitation-inhibition-balance-in-social-recognition
#13
REVIEW
Olga L Lopatina, Yulia K Komleva, Yana V Gorina, Raisa Ya Olovyannikova, Lyudmila V Trufanova, Takanori Hashimoto, Tetsuya Takahashi, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Yoshio Minabe, Haruhiro Higashida, Alla B Salmina
Social recognition is the sensitive domains of complex behavior critical for identification, interpretation and storage of socially meaningful information. Social recognition develops throughout childhood and adolescent, and is affected in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. Recently, new data appeared on the molecular mechanisms of these processes, particularly, the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) ratio which is modified during development, and then E/I balance is established in the adult brain. While E/I imbalance has been proposed as a mechanism for schizophrenia, it also seems to be the common mechanism in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
September 21, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269923/effects-of-burns-on-gut-motor-and-mucosa-functions
#14
REVIEW
Hsien-Hao Huang, Yu-Chi Lee, Chih-Yen Chen
This review analyzed the published studies on the effects of thermal injury on gastrointestinal motility and mucosal damage. Our strategy was to integrate all available evidence to provide a complete review on the prokinetic properties of variable reagents and the potential clinical treatment of mucosal damage and gastrointestinal dysmotility after thermal injury. We classified the studies into two major groups: studies on gastrointestinal dysmotility and studies on mucosal damage. We also subclassified the studies into 3 parts: stomach, small intestine, and colon...
September 21, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30262417/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Lorenzo Iughetti, Laura Lucaccioni, Francesco Fugetto, Barbara Predieri, Alberto Berardi, Fabrizio Ferrari
Several in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies imply brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Aim of our work is to report the most important findings regarding BDNF and its potential role in epilepsy. We targeted those publications addressing both in vitro and in vivo evidences of relationship between BDNF and epilepsy. Basic researches, randomized trials, cohort studies, and reviews were contemplated to give a breadth of clinical data. Medline, CENTRAL, and Science Direct were searched till August 2017 using keywords agreed by the authors...
September 20, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30466510/puerarin-alleviate-radicular-pain-from-lumbar-disc-herniation-by-inhibiting-erk-dependent-spinal-microglia-activation
#16
Yi Zhong, Yang-Liang Huang, Yu-Ming Hu, Li-Rong Zhu, Yuan-Shu Zhao
Lumbar disc herniation is a common cause of radicular pain, but the mechanism remains ambiguous and the treatment stays unsatisfied. Many studies revealed a traditional Chinese medicine puerarin may moderate chronic pain from diabetes and nerve injury. Thus far, the role and mechanism of puerarin in radicular pain is still unknown. In this study, by using a rat model of lumbar disc herniation, which was induced by autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) implantation, the analgesic effect of puerarin on radicular pain was tested...
December 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396596/effects-of-rvd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-on-feeding-and-body-weight-after-standard-or-cafeteria-diet-in-rats
#17
Sheila Leone, Claudio Ferrante, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Adriano Mollica, Csaba Tömböly, Azzurra Stefanucci, Marilisa Pia Dimmito, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Vittore Verratti, Luciano De Petrocellis, Giustino Orlando, Luigi Brunetti
Palatability and variety of foods are major reasons for hedonic eating, and hence for obesity. Hemopressin, a hemoglobin α chain-derived peptide, plays antagonist/inverse agonist role on cannabinoid (CB)1 receptors, while RVD-hemopressin(α)[RVD-hp(α)], a N-terminally extended form of hemopressin, has been reported as an allosteric modulator of CB1 and CB2 receptors. We investigated the effects of 14 daily intraperitoneal injections of RVD-hp(α), in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a highly palatable cafeteria-style (CAF) diet (30% fat, 56% carbohydrate, 14% protein; 4...
December 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396594/sex-differences-in-forebrain-estrogen-receptor-regulation-of-hypoglycemic-patterns-of-counter-regulatory-hormone-secretion-and-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-glucoregulatory-neurotransmitter-and-astrocyte-glycogen-metabolic-enzyme-expression
#18
A S M Hasan Mahmood, M M Uddin, M M H Ibrahim, S K Mandal, H N Alhamami, K P Briski
The female ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is a focal substrate for estradiol (E) regulation of energy balance, feeding, and body weight, but how E shapes VMN gluco-regulatory signaling in each sex is unclear. This study investigated the hypothesis that estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and/or -beta (ERβ) control VMN signals that inhibit [γ-aminobutyric acid] or stimulate [nitric oxide, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1)] counter-regulation in a sex-dependent manner. VMN nitrergic neurons monitor astrocyte fuel provision; here, we examined how these ER regulate astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme, monocarboxylate transporter, and adrenoreceptor protein responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) in each sex...
December 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30253862/pk2%C3%AE-ligand-a-splice-variant-of-prokineticin-2-is-able-to-modulate-and-drive-signaling-through-pkr1-receptor
#19
Roberta Lattanzi, Daniela Maftei, Lucia Negri, Ilaria Fusco, Rossella Miele
Prokineticin-2 (PK2) is a secreted bioactive peptide that signals through two GPCRs, the prokineticin receptors (PKRs), and regulates a variety of biological processes including angiogenesis, immunity and nociception. The PK2 primary transcript has two alternative splice variants, PK2 and PK2L (a Long form) which is cleaved in an active peptide, named PK2β that preferentially binds to PKR1 receptor. The aim of this study was to characterize the PK2β. Using different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we examined the specificity of PKR1 and PKR2 G-protein coupling following PK2β binding...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220422/reduction-in-voluntary-food-intake-but-not-fasting-stimulates-hypothalamic-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-precursor-mrna-expression-in-chicks-under-heat-stress
#20
Mohammad A Bahry, Hui Yang, Phuong V Tran, Phong H Do, Guofeng Han, Hatem M Eltahan, Vishwajit S Chowdhury, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Heat stress is an issue of rising concern across the globe. Recently, we found that mRNA expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), an orexigenic neuropeptide, was increased in the heat-exposed chick brain when food intake was reduced. The aim of the current study was to examine mRNA expression of GnIH and of the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hypothalamus as well as the plasma corticosterone (CORT) and metabolites in 14-d-old chicks exposed to a high ambient temperature (HT; 40 ± 1 °C for 1 or 5 h) or a control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30 ± 1 °C), either with free access to food or fasted...
October 2018: Neuropeptides
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