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Neuropeptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889070/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-modifies-locomotor-activity-and-induces-selective-changes-in-met-enk-expression-in-adolescent-rats
#1
P Abate, A C Reyes-Guzmán, K Hernández-Fonseca, M Méndez
Several studies suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) facilitates ethanol intake. Opioid peptides play a main role in ethanol reinforcement during infancy and adulthood. However, PEE effects upon motor responsiveness elicited by an ethanol challenge and the participation of opioids in these actions remain to be understood. This work assessed the susceptibility of adolescent rats to prenatal and/or postnatal ethanol exposure in terms of behavioral responses, as well as alcohol effects on Met-enk expression in brain areas related to drug reinforcement...
November 22, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865545/anti-cgrp-antibodies-block-cgrp-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#2
Eric A Kaiser, Brandon J Rea, Adisa Kuburas, Brian R Kovacevich, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Ana Recober, Andrew F Russo
The multifunctional neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that CGRP has roles in intestinal motility, water secretion, and inflammation. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated CGRP involvement in diarrhea secondary to C. difficile and food allergies. Diarrhea thus provides a convenient bioassay of CGRP activity in the GI system. In this proof of principle study, we report that prophylactic administration of an anti-CGRP antibody is able to block CGRP-induced diarrhea in mice...
November 14, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866657/distribution-and-chemical-coding-of-sensory-neurons-innervating-the-skin-of-the-porcine-hindlimb
#3
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew Adamiak, Mariusz Majewski
The aim of the present study was to establish the origin and chemical phenotyping of neurons involved in skin innervation of the porcine hind leg. The dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of the lumbar (L4-L6) and sacral (S1-S3) spinal nerves were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB). The morphometric analysis of FB-positive (FB+)neurons showed that in the L4, L5, S1 and S2 DRGs, the small-sized perikarya constituted the major population, whereas in the L6 and S3 DRGs the medium-sized cells made up the major population...
November 5, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837916/the-neuropeptide-galanin-modulates-natural-killer-cell-function
#4
Andreas Koller, Rodolfo Bianchini, Sandra Schlager, Christian Münz, Barbara Kofler, Silke Wiesmayr
Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune system and combat pathogens and tumors by secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines like interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and by their cytotoxic action. Galanin is a neuropeptide also expressed in peripheral tissue where it impacts several physiological functions, including inflammation. The effects of galanin are mediated via three receptors, GAL1-3. Since other neuropeptides have been shown to regulate NK cell activity, we investigated the potential of galanin to modulate human NK cell function...
November 5, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866656/an-analysis-of-possible-off-target-effects-following-cas9-crispr-targeted-deletions-of-neuropeptide-gene-enhancers-from-the-mouse-genome
#5
Elizabeth Anne Hay, Abdulla Razak Khalaf, Pietro Marini, Andrew Brown, Karyn Heath, Darrin Sheppard, Alasdair MacKenzie
We have successfully used comparative genomics to identify putative regulatory elements within the human genome that contribute to the tissue specific expression of neuropeptides such as galanin and receptors such as CB1. However, a previous inability to rapidly delete these elements from the mouse genome has prevented optimal assessment of their function in-vivo. This has been solved using CAS9/CRISPR genome editing technology which uses a bacterial endonuclease called CAS9 that, in combination with specifically designed guide RNA (gRNA) molecules, cuts specific regions of the mouse genome...
November 4, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836326/diabetes-mellitus-influences-the-expression-of-npy-and-vegf-in-neurons-of-rat-trigeminal-ganglion
#6
Milka Jerić, Katarina Vukojević, Ana Vuica, Natalija Filipović
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) influences the trigeminal nerve function by changing the pain response and transduction of the orofacial sensory pathways. It affects the inflammatory response via neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which could potentially have a relevant role in the pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy. The aim was to investigate expression of VEGF and NPY in subpopulations of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons in rat models of early DM1 and DM2...
November 3, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814910/humanin-ameliorates-diazepam-induced-memory-deficit-in-mice
#7
Minetaka Murakami, Masatoshi Nagahama, Takuma Maruyama, Takako Niikura
Humanin (HN) is an endogenous 24-residue peptide. A highly potent HN derivative, S14G-HN, which has a substitution of serine 14 to glycine, reduced amyloid burden and suppressed cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. S14G-HN also suppressed amnesia induced by a muscarinic receptor antagonist in rodents. To understand the effects of HN on brain function, we tested the effect of S14G-HN on diazepam (DZP)-induced memory impairment and anxiety in mice using the object recognition test and zero-maze test, respectively...
October 29, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836325/the-upregulation-of-annexin-a2-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats-may-have-implication-for-astrocyte-proliferation
#8
Jiajia Chen, Zhiming Cui, Saishuai Yang, Chunshuai Wu, Weidong Li, Guofeng Bao, Guanhua Xu, Yuyu Sun, Lingling Wang, Jinlong Zhang
Annexin A2 (ANXA2), is a member of the annexin family of proteins that exhibit Ca(2+)-dependent binding to phospholipids. One attractive biological function of ANXA2 is participating in DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Previous studies have shown that ANXA2 play a role in the development of the central nervous system. However, the biological function of ANXA2 after spinal cord injury (SCI) is still with limited acquaintance. In the present study, we performed a SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of ANXA2 expression in the spinal cord...
October 27, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823858/ambient-temperature-modulates-the-effects-of-the-prader-willi-syndrome-candidate-gene-snord116-on-energy-homeostasis
#9
Y Qi, L Purtell, M Fu, K Sengmany, K Loh, L Zhang, S Zolotukhin, A Sainsbury, L Campbell, H Herzog
Germline deletion of the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) candidate gene Snord116 in mice leads to some classical symptoms of human PWS, notably reductions in body weight, linear growth and bone mass. However, Snord116 deficient mice (Snord116(-/-)) do not develop an obese phenotype despite their increased food intake and the underlying mechanism for that is unknown. We tested the phenotypes of germline Snord116(-/-) as well as neuropeptide Y (NPY) neuron specific Snord116(lox/lox)/NPY(cre/+) mice at 30°C, the thermoneutral temperature of mice, and compared these to previous reports studies conducted at normal room temperature...
October 27, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847128/effective-g-protein-coupling-of-y2-receptors-along-axonal-fiber-tracts-and-its-relevance-for-epilepsy
#10
Elisabeth Dum, Sabine Fürtinger, Elisabeth Gasser, Anneliese Bukovac, Meinrad Drexel, Ramon Tasan, Günther Sperk
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Y2 receptors are G-protein coupled receptors and, upon activation, induce opening of potassium channels or closing of calcium channels. They are generally presynaptically located. Depending on the neuron in which they are expressed they mediate inhibition of release of NPY and of the neuron's classical transmitter GABA, glutamate or noradrenaline, respectively. Here we provide evidence that Y2 receptor binding is inhibited dose-dependently by GTPγS along Schaffer collaterals, the stria terminalis and the fimbria indicating that Y2 receptors are functionally coupled to G-proteins along these fiber tracts...
October 26, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756486/repeated-asenapine-treatment-does-not-participate-in-the-mild-stress-induced-fosb-%C3%AE-fosb-expression-in-the-rat-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-neurons
#11
Alexander Kiss, Zuzana Majercikova
Effect of repeated asenapine (ASE) treatment on FosB/ΔFosB expression was studied in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of male rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) for 21days. Our intention was to find out whether repeated ASE treatment for 14days may: 1) induce FosB/ΔFosB expression in the PVN; 2) activate selected PVN neuronal phenotypes, synthesizing oxytocin (OXY), vasopressin (AVP), corticoliberin (CRH) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and 3) interfere with the impact of CMS. Control, ASE, CMS, and CMS+ASE treated groups were used...
October 15, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743609/sva-retrotransposons-as-potential-modulators-of-neuropeptide-gene-expression
#12
Olympia Gianfrancesco, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
Many facets of human behaviour are likely to have developed in part due to evolutionary changes in the regulation of neuropeptide and other brain-related genes. This has allowed species-specific expression patterns and unique epigenetic modulation in response to our environment, regulating response not only at the molecular level, but also contributing to differences in behaviour between individuals. As such, genetic variants or epigenetic changes that may alter neuropeptide gene expression are predicted to play a role in behavioural conditions and psychiatric illness...
October 11, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625299/acute-central-effects-of-alarin-on-the-regulation-on-energy-homeostasis
#13
Alexandra Mikó, Nóra Füredi, Judit Tenk, Ildikó Rostás, Szilvia Soós, Margit Solymár, Miklós Székely, Márta Balaskó, Susanne M Brunner, Barbara Kofler, Erika Pétervári
Hypothalamic neuropeptides influence the main components of energy balance: metabolic rate, food intake, body weight as well as body temperature, by exerting either an overall anabolic or catabolic effect. The contribution of alarin, the most recently discovered member of the galanin peptide family to the regulation of energy metabolism has been suggested. Our aim was to analyze the complex thermoregulatory and food intake-related effects of alarin in rats. Adult male Wistar rats received different doses of alarin (0...
September 5, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771144/corrigendum-to-migraine-and-neuropeptides-neuropeptides-2015-19-30
#14
János Tajti, Délia Szok, Zsófia Majláth, Bernadett Tuka, Anett Csáti, László Vécsei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751532/blockade-of-dorsal-hippocampal-orexin-1-receptors-impaired-morphine-induced-state-dependent-learning
#15
Maryam Farahmandfar, Mehdi Kadivar, Sareh Rastipisheh
Behavioral abnormalities associated with opiate addiction include memory and learning deficits, which are the result of some alterations in the neuromodulatory systems. Recently, orexin has shown to influence drug addiction neural circuitry, specifically in mediating reward-related perception and memory. To explore the possible interaction of orexinergic and opioidergic system on modulation of learning and memory, we have investigated the effects of intra-dorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) administration of orexin-1 receptor agonist and the competitive orexin-1 antagonist, SB-334867, on morphine-induced memory impairment by using step-down passive avoidance task in mice...
December 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745706/pka-novel-pkc-isoforms-and-erk-is-mediating-pacap-auto-regulation-via-pac1r-in-human-neuroblastoma-nb-1-cells
#16
Birgitte Georg, Birgitte Falktoft, Jan Fahrenkrug
The neuropeptide PACAP is expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system where it modulates diverse physiological functions including neuropeptide gene expression. We here report that in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cells PACAP transiently induces its own expression. Maximal PACAP mRNA expression was found after stimulation with PACAP for 3h. PACAP auto-regulation was found to be mediated by activation of PACAP specific PAC1Rs as PACAP had >100-fold higher efficacy than VIP, and the PAC1R selective agonist Maxadilan potently induced PACAP gene expression...
December 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743608/effects-of-chronic-restraint-stress-on-social-behaviors-and-the-number-of-hypothalamic-oxytocin-neurons-in-male-rats
#17
Jin Li, Han-Xia Li, Xiao-Jing Shou, Xin-Jie Xu, Tian-Jia Song, Song-Ping Han, Rong Zhang, Ji-Sheng Han
Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) are considered to be related to mammalian social behavior and the regulation of stress responses. The present study investigated the effects of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHRS) on social behaviors and anxiety, as well as its repercussions on OXT- and AVP-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) nuclei in rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving CHRS were exposed to repeated restraint stress of 30min per day for 10days. Changes in social approach behaviors were evaluated with the three-chambered social approach task...
December 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720230/neuropeptide-y-accelerates-post-fracture-bone-healing-by-promoting-osteogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Xiao-Chuan Gu, Xiao-Bin Zhang, Bing Hu, Ying Zi, Ming Li
Fracture repair is a complex yet well orchestrated regenerative process involving numerous signaling and cell types including osteoblasts. Here we showed that NPY, a neurotransmitter with regulatory functions in bone homeostasis, may contribute to the post-fracture bone healing in patients with traumatic brain injury-fracture combined injuries. Our results suggested NPY levels were increased in patients with the combined injuries, accomplished by arising of bone healing markers, such as ALP, OC, PICP and ICTP, than in those with simple fractures, and NPY have direct actions on MSCs to promote their osteogenic differentiation...
December 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592409/ala-5-galanin-2-11-is-a-gal2r-specific-galanin-analogue
#19
Kristin Webling, Johan Runesson, Andreas Lang, Indrek Saar, Barbara Kofler, Ülo Langel
It is over 30years since the regulatory peptide galanin was discovered by Professor Mutt and co-workers. Galanin exerts its effects by binding to three galanin G-protein coupled receptors, namely GAL1R, GAL2R and GAL3R. Each galanin receptor has a different distribution in the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system as well as distinctive signaling pathways, which implicates that the receptors are involved in different biological- and pathological effects. The delineation of the galaninergic system is however difficult due to a lack of stable, specific galanin receptor ligands...
December 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592408/apelin-13-protects-neurovascular-unit-against-ischemic-injuries-through-the-effects-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#20
Chuyi Huang, Chuanfu Dai, Kai Gong, Huancong Zuo, Heling Chu
Apelin-13 has protective effects on many neurological diseases, including cerebral ischemia. Here, we aimed to test Apelin-13's effects on ischemic neurovascular unit (NVU) injuries and investigate whether the effects were dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We detected the expression of VEGF and its receptors (VEGFRs) induced by Apelin-13 injection at 1d, 3d, 7d and 14d after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Meanwhile, we examined the effects of Apelin-13 on NVU in both in vivo and in vitro experiments as well as whether the effects were VEGF dependent by using VEGF antibody...
December 2016: Neuropeptides
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