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Neuropeptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396376/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-is-a-potent-inducer-of-oedema-in-rat-orofacial-tissue
#1
Bárbara F G de Queiroz, Marcella P A de Almeida, Y S Bakhle, Janetti N Francischi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to assess the potential of calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide released from sensory nerves, to induce oedema in orofacial tissue. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Wistar rats (150-200 g) anesthetized with isoflurane were injected intraorally with CGRP (100 μl; 8-33 pmol) in the right side of the mouth. The contralateral side was injected with the same volume of physiological saline. Increased cheek thickness (in mm), as a measure of oedema formation, was assayed bilaterally with a digital caliper before (T = 0) and up to 24 h following injection of CGRP...
January 30, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395120/blockage-of-spinal-endothelin-a-receptors-attenuates-bone-cancer-pain-via-regulation-of-the-akt-erk-signaling-pathway-in-mice
#2
Ming-Ming Han, Cheng-Wei Yang, Chi-Wai Cheung, Juan Li
Bone cancer pain (BCP) is a common source of pain in patients with advanced stage and metastatic cancer; however, existing treatment for this kind of pain remains deficient. Being closely related to sensory change and inflammatory pain in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, endothelin A receptor (ETAR) plays an essential role in pain processing. As a result, ETAR antagonist has been reported to alleviate both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Thus far, the role of ETAR in the process of BCP is still ambiguous...
January 26, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366515/antinociceptive-profiles-and-mechanisms-of-centrally-administered-oxyntomodulin-in-various-mouse-pain-models
#3
Soo-Hyun Park, Jae-Ryeong Lee, Sang-Pil Jang, Seyung-Hwan Park, Hee-Jung Lee, Jung-Woo Hong, Hong-Won Suh
In the present study, the antinociceptive profiles of oxyntomodulin were examined in ICR mice. Oxyntomodulin administered intrathecally (i.t.) and intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) (from 1 to 5μg/5μl) showed an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner as measured in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Moreover, cumulative response time of nociceptive behaviors induced by intraplantar formalin injection was reduced by i.t. or i.c.v. treatment with oxyntomodulin during the second, but not the first phase...
January 20, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329678/apelin-13-ameliorates-cognitive-impairments-in-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-substantia-nigra-lesion-in-rats
#4
Elham Haghparast, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Vahid Sheibani
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra...
January 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274843/oxaliplatin-induced-changes-in-expression-of-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-as-a-neuropathic-mechanism-for-cold-hypersensitivity
#5
Akiko Chukyo, Terumasa Chiba, Toshie Kambe, Ken Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi Kawakami, Kyoji Taguchi, Kenji Abe
Transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors are involved in the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain, which is a common side effect of selected chemotherapeutic agents such as oxaliplatin. However, the precise contribution of TRPs to this condition remains unknown. Cold hypersensitivity is the hallmark of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy, so we used a preclinical model of oxaliplatin-induced cold hypersensitivity in rats to determine the effects of oxaliplatin on TRP channels. To this end, immunohistochemistry was used to examine TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) expression in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after 4days of oxaliplatin treatment...
December 15, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29254662/blocking-constitutive-activity-of-ghsr1a-in-the-lateral-amygdala-facilitates-acquisition-of-conditioned-taste-aversion
#6
Nan Li, Ge Song, Yaohui Wang, Qianqian Zhu, Fubing Han, Chonghui Zhang, Yu Zhou
Ghrelin is a circulating peptide hormone promoting feeding and regulating energy metabolism in human and rodents. Ghrelin functions by binding to its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), which are widely distributed throughout the brain including the amygdala, a brain region important for regulating valenced behavior, such as aversion. Interestingly, GHSR1a was once characterized by highly constitutive, ligand-independent activity. However, the physiological importance of such ligand-independent signaling on aversive memory processing has not been tested yet...
December 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198480/peptides-isolated-from-animal-venom-as-a-platform-for-new-therapeutics-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
L C Camargo, G A A Campos, P Galante, A M Biolchi, J C Gonçalves, K S Lopes, M R Mortari
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that deeply affects patients, their family and society. Although scientists have made intense efforts in seeking the cure for AD, no drug available today is able to stop AD progression. In this context, compounds isolated from animal venom are potentially successful drugs for neuroprotection, since they selectively bind to nervous system targets. In this review, we presented different studies using peptides isolated from animal venom for the treatment of AD...
November 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273382/a%C3%AE-oligomer-eliminating-compounds-interfere-successfully-with-pea%C3%AE-3-42-induced-motor-neurodegenerative-phenotype-in-transgenic-mice
#8
Tina Dunkelmann, Kerstin Teichmann, Tamar Ziehm, Sarah Schemmert, Daniel Frenzel, Markus Tusche, Christina Dammers, Dagmar Jürgens, Karl-Josef Langen, Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Nadim Jon Shah, Janine Kutzsche, Antje Willuweit, Dieter Willbold
Currently, there are no causative or disease modifying treatments available for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, it has been shown that D3, a small, fully d-enantiomeric peptide is able to eliminate low molecular weight Aβ oligomers in vitro, enhance cognition and reduce plaque load in AD transgenic mice. To further characterise the therapeutic potential of D3 towards N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamated Aβ (pEAβ(3-42)) we tested D3 and its head-to-tail tandem derivative D3D3 both in vitro and in vivo in the new mouse model TBA2...
November 27, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993014/-r-%C3%AE-lipoyl-gly-l-pro-l-glu-dimethyl-ester-as-dual-acting-agent-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Lisa Marinelli, Erika Fornasari, Antonio Di Stefano, Hasan Turkez, Mehmet Enes Arslan, Piera Eusepi, Michele Ciulla, Ivana Cacciatore
In this study, effects of LA-GPE (R-α-Lipoyl-Gly-l-Pro-l-Glu dimethyl ester) and GPE (Gly-L-Pro-L-Glu) on the cytotoxic action of Aβ1-42 were tested with differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells as cellular Alzheimer model via measurements of mitochondrial viability (MTT assay) and lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH assay). Effects of LA-GPE and GPE on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and neural cell apoptosis and necrosis were also determined...
December 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180139/combined-gastrin-releasing-peptide-29-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-reduce-body-weight-more-than-each-individual-peptide-in-diet-induced-obese-male-rats
#10
Thaer R Mhalhal, Martha C Washington, Kayla D Newman, John C Heath, Ayman I Sayegh
To test the hypothesis that gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29) combined with glucagon like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1 (7-36)) reduce body weight (BW) more than each of the peptides given individually, we infused the two peptides (0.5nmol/kg each) in the aorta of free feeding, diet-induced obese (DIO) male Sprague Dawley rats once daily for 25days and measured BW. We found that GRP-29 and GLP-1 reduce BW, GRP-29 reduced it more than GLP-1 and GRP-29+GLP-1 reduce BW more than each peptide given alone. This reduction was accompanied by decrease 24-hour food intake (normal rat chow), meal size (MS), duration of first meal and number of meals, and increase latency to the first meal, intermeal interval (IMI) and satiety ratio (IMI/MS, amount of food consumed per a unit of time)...
November 21, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174415/neuroinflammation-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-modifies-mucin-type-o-glycosylation-in-the-rat-s-hippocampus
#11
Ivan Ramos-Martinez, Pamela Martínez-Loustalot, Liliana Lozano, Tarik Issad, Daniel Limón, Alfonso Díaz, Armando Perez-Torres, Jorge Guevara, Edgar Zenteno
Amyloid-β (Aβ) plays a relevant role in the neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 25-35 peptide of amyloid-β (Aβ25-35) induces the inflammatory response in brain experimental models. Mucin-type O-glycosylation has been associated with inflammation of brain tissues in AD, thus in this work, we aimed at identifying changes in the glycosylation profile generated by the injection of Aβ25-35 into the CA1 of the hippocampus of rats, using histochemistry with lectins. Our results indicate that 100μM Aβ25-35 induce increased recognition of the Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin (ALL) (specific for Galβ1,3-GalNAcα1,0-Ser/Thr); whereas concanavalin A (Con A) (specific for α-Man) showed no differences among treated and control groups of rats...
November 21, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174113/ghrelin-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-against-rotenone-via-inhibiting-apoptosis-restoring-mitochondrial-function-and-activating-akt-mtor-signaling
#12
Shenwen Liu, Sheng Chen, Jing Ren, Baijun Li, Bo Qin
Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide hormone, has protective effects on neuronal cells. The present study aimed to examine the neuroprotective effects of ghrelin on the rat retinal ganglion cells in the rotenone-induced in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cell viability and cell apoptosis were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial functions were detected by mitochondrial complex I activity assay and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively...
November 21, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169656/cardiovascular-responses-to-intranasal-neuropeptide-y-in-single-prolonged-stress-rodent-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#13
Robert Camp, Charles T Stier, Lidia I Serova, Jaclyn McCloskey, John G Edwards, Miguel Reyes-Zaragoza, Esther L Sabban
Delivery of neuropeptide Y (NPY) to the brain by intranasal administration shows promise as non-invasive means for preventing or treating PTSD symptoms. Here, radiotelemetry and echocardiography were used to determine effects of intranasal NPY on cardiovascular functions in absence and presence of stress. Male adult Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with radiotelemetric probes, and subjected to single prolonged stress (SPS), followed by intranasal vehicle (V) or NPY (150μg) under conditions shown to prevent development of many of the behavioral neuroendocrine and biochemical impairments...
November 8, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128104/effects-of-intermedin-on-autophagy-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Meng Wang, Jing Wang, Zhengang Liu, Xin Guo, Ning Wang, Nana Jia, Yanshu Zhang, Jie Yuan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intermedin (IMD) on autophagy in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (CIRI). METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly averaged into four groups: sham, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), IMD, and 3-methyladenine (3-MA). In the sham group, the right common carotid artery, external carotid artery, and internal carotid artery were detached, and no monofilament was inserted. In the other groups, two hours after cerebral ischemia, the rats were injected through the lateral ventricle with normal saline for I/R group, IMD for the IMD group, and 3-MA for the 3-MA group for 24h...
November 8, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195839/the-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-plays-an-important-role-in-anxiolytic-like-effect-of-neuropeptide-s
#15
Jin Hong Jiang, Ya Li Peng, Pei Jiang Zhang, Hong Xiang Xue, Zhen He, Xue Ya Liang, M Chang
Neuropeptide S (NPS), the endogenous neuropeptide ligand of NPSR, has been reported to regulate anxiety-related behavior involved in multiple brain regions, including amygdale, locus coeruleus and Barrington's nucleus. However, little research has been conducted on the anxiolytic-like behaviors of NPS on the hypothalamus, which was an important area in defensive behavior. Here, we investigated a role of hypothalamus in anxiolytic-like behaviors of NPS. We found that NPSR protein of mouse distributed mainly in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157865/peptide-yy-3-36-modulates-intracellular-calcium-through-activation-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-pathway-in-hippocampal-neurons
#16
Michelle Flores Domingues, Dênis Reis de Assis, Angela Regina Piovesan, Cháriston André Dal Belo, Jaderson Costa da Costa
Peptide YY (PYY) belongs to the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family, which also includes the pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and NPY. PYY is secreted by the intestinal L cells, being present in the blood stream in two active forms capable of crossing the blood brain barrier, PYY (1-36) and its cleavage product, PYY (3-36). PYY is a selective agonist for the Y2 receptor (Y2R) and these receptors are abundant in the hippocampus. Here we investigated the mechanisms by which PYY (3-36) regulates intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in hippocampal neurons by employing a calcium imaging technique in hippocampal cultures...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129406/neuropeptide-y-y2-antagonist-treated-ovariectomized-mice-exhibit-greater-bone-mineral-density
#17
K L Seldeen, P G Halley, C H Volmar, M A Rodríguez, M Hernandez, M Pang, S K Carlsson, L J Suva, C Wahlestedt, B R Troen, S P Brothers
Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by progressive bone loss and increased risk of fracture, often results from menopausal loss of estrogen in women. Neuropeptide Y has been shown to negatively regulate bone formation, with amygdala specific deletion of the Y2 receptor resulting in increased bone mass in mice. In this study, ovariectomized (OVX) mice were injected once daily with JNJ-31020028, a brain penetrant Y2 receptor small molecule antagonist to determine the effects on bone formation. Antagonist treated mice had reduced weight and showed increased whole-body bone mineral density compared to vehicle-injected mice...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129405/neurogenesis-and-morphological-neural-alterations-closely-related-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-25-35-induced-memory-impairment-in-male-rats
#18
Eleazar Ramírez, Liliana Mendieta, Gonzalo Flores, I Daniel Limón
Memory impairment by the Amyloid-β 25-35 (Aβ25-35) peptide in animal models has provided an understanding of the causes behind the similar deterioration that occurs in Alzheimer's disease. However, it is uncertain if a decrease of dendritic spines and neurogenesis conduces to cognitive impairment by an impairment in the retrieval of stored memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of impairment on spatial memory caused by the administration of the Aβ25-35 peptide in the hippocampus, which is associated whit morphological changes and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG)...
November 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137815/local-injection-of-d-lys-3-ghrp-6-in-the-rat-amygdala-dentate-gyrus-or-ventral-tegmental-area-impairs-memory-consolidation
#19
Siamak Beheshti, Neda Aslani
It is well known that the hormone ghrelin affects learning and memory in different experimental models of learning. Though, the effect of antagonism of ghrelin receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) in various regions of the brain and on different stages of learning has not been examined. In this study the effect of injection of a GHS-R1a selective antagonist (d-Lys-3-GHRP-6) into the basolateral amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area was examined on memory consolidation in the passive avoidance task. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-280g were used...
November 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089149/oxidative-stress-in-the-optic-nerve-and-cortical-visual-area-of-steptozotocin-induced-diabetic-wistar-rats-blockade-with-a-selective-bradykinin-b1-receptor-antagonist
#20
Orlando L Catanzaro, Jorgelina Aira Capponi, Irene Di Martino, Emilio S Labal, Pierre Sirois
The role of bradykinin B1 receptors on the oxidative stress as measured by the levels of Na+/K+ ATPase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in male Wistar rat optic nerve and visual cortex area 1 and 4weeks after STZ treatment was studied. Rats were divided into 4 groups (n=6-7): 1. Controls (non-diabetics); 2. Diabetics (65mg/kg streptozotocin, STZ); 3. Diabetics injected with B1 antagonist R-954 (2mg/Kg) during the last 3days of a one week period; 4. Diabetics injected with B1 antagonist R-954 (2mg/Kg) during the last 3days of a 4week period...
October 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
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