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Neuropeptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198480/peptides-isolated-from-animal-venom-as-a-platform-for-new-therapeutics-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
L C Camargo, G A A Campos, P Galante, A M Biolchi, J C Gonçalves, K S Lopes, M R Mortari
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that deeply affects patients, their family and society. Although scientists have made intense efforts in seeking the cure for AD, no drug available today is able to stop AD progression. In this context, compounds isolated from animal venom are potentially successful drugs for neuroprotection, since they selectively bind to nervous system targets. In this review, we presented different studies using peptides isolated from animal venom for the treatment of AD...
November 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180139/combined-gastrin-releasing-peptide-29-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-reduce-body-weight-more-than-each-individual-peptide-in-diet-induced-obese-male-rats
#2
Thaer R Mhalhal, Martha C Washington, Kayla D Newman, John C Heath, Ayman I Sayegh
To test the hypothesis that gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29) combined with glucagon like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1 (7-36)) reduce body weight (BW) more than each of the peptides given individually, we infused the two peptides (0.5nmol/kg each) in the aorta of free feeding, diet-induced obese (DIO) male Sprague Dawley rats once daily for 25days and measured BW. We found that GRP-29 and GLP-1 reduce BW, GRP-29 reduced it more than GLP-1 and GRP-29+GLP-1 reduce BW more than each peptide given alone. This reduction was accompanied by decrease 24-hour food intake (normal rat chow), meal size (MS), duration of first meal and number of meals, and increase latency to the first meal, intermeal interval (IMI) and satiety ratio (IMI/MS, amount of food consumed per a unit of time)...
November 21, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174415/neuroinflammation-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-modifies-mucin-type-o-glycosylation-in-the-rat-s-hippocampus
#3
Ivan Ramos-Martinez, Pamela Martínez-Loustalot, Liliana Lozano, Tarik Issad, Daniel Limón, Alfonso Díaz, Armando Perez-Torres, Jorge Guevara, Edgar Zenteno
Amyloid-β (Aβ) plays a relevant role in the neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 25-35 peptide of amyloid-β (Aβ25-35) induces the inflammatory response in brain experimental models. Mucin-type O-glycosylation has been associated with inflammation of brain tissues in AD, thus in this work, we aimed at identifying changes in the glycosylation profile generated by the injection of Aβ25-35 into the CA1 of the hippocampus of rats, using histochemistry with lectins. Our results indicate that 100μM Aβ25-35 induce increased recognition of the Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin (ALL) (specific for Galβ1,3-GalNAcα1,0-Ser/Thr); whereas concanavalin A (Con A) (specific for α-Man) showed no differences among treated and control groups of rats...
November 21, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174113/ghrelin-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-against-rotenone-via-inhibiting-apoptosis-restoring-mitochondrial-function-and-activating-akt-mtor-signaling
#4
Shenwen Liu, Sheng Chen, Jing Ren, Baijun Li, Bo Qin
Ghrelin, a 28-amino acid peptide hormone, has protective effects on neuronal cells. The present study aimed to examine the neuroprotective effects of ghrelin on the rat retinal ganglion cells in the rotenone-induced in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cell viability and cell apoptosis were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial functions were detected by mitochondrial complex I activity assay and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively...
November 21, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169656/cardiovascular-responses-to-intranasal-neuropeptide-y-in-single-prolonged-stress-rodent-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#5
Robert Camp, Charles T Stier, Lidia I Serova, Jaclyn McCloskey, John G Edwards, Miguel Reyes-Zaragoza, Esther L Sabban
Delivery of neuropeptide Y (NPY) to the brain by intranasal administration shows promise as non-invasive means for preventing or treating PTSD symptoms. Here, radiotelemetry and echocardiography were used to determine effects of intranasal NPY on cardiovascular functions in absence and presence of stress. Male adult Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with radiotelemetric probes, and subjected to single prolonged stress (SPS), followed by intranasal vehicle (V) or NPY (150μg) under conditions shown to prevent development of many of the behavioral neuroendocrine and biochemical impairments...
November 8, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128104/effects-of-intermedin-on-autophagy-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Meng Wang, Jing Wang, Zhengang Liu, Xin Guo, Ning Wang, Nana Jia, Yanshu Zhang, Jie Yuan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intermedin (IMD) on autophagy in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (CIRI). METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly averaged into four groups: sham, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), IMD, and 3-methyladenine (3-MA). In the sham group, the right common carotid artery, external carotid artery, and internal carotid artery were detached, and no monofilament was inserted. In the other groups, two hours after cerebral ischemia, the rats were injected through the lateral ventricle with normal saline for I/R group, IMD for the IMD group, and 3-MA for the 3-MA group for 24h...
November 8, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195839/the-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-plays-an-important-role-in-anxiolytic-like-effect-of-neuropeptide-s
#7
Jin Hong Jiang, Ya Li Peng, Pei Jiang Zhang, Hong Xiang Xue, Zhen He, Xue Ya Liang, M Chang
Neuropeptide S (NPS), the endogenous neuropeptide ligand of NPSR, has been reported to regulate anxiety-related behavior involved in multiple brain regions, including amygdale, locus coeruleus and Barrington's nucleus. However, little research has been conducted on the anxiolytic-like behaviors of NPS on the hypothalamus, which was an important area in defensive behavior. Here, we investigated a role of hypothalamus in anxiolytic-like behaviors of NPS. We found that NPSR protein of mouse distributed mainly in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157865/peptide-yy-3-36-modulates-intracellular-calcium-through-activation-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-pathway-in-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Michelle Flores Domingues, Dênis Reis de Assis, Angela Regina Piovesan, Cháriston André Dal Belo, Jaderson Costa da Costa
Peptide YY (PYY) belongs to the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family, which also includes the pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and NPY. PYY is secreted by the intestinal L cells, being present in the blood stream in two active forms capable of crossing the blood brain barrier, PYY (1-36) and its cleavage product, PYY (3-36). PYY is a selective agonist for the Y2 receptor (Y2R) and these receptors are abundant in the hippocampus. Here we investigated the mechanisms by which PYY (3-36) regulates intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in hippocampal neurons by employing a calcium imaging technique in hippocampal cultures...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129406/neuropeptide-y-y2-antagonist-treated-ovariectomized-mice-exhibit-greater-bone-mineral-density
#9
K L Seldeen, P G Halley, C H Volmar, M A Rodríguez, M Hernandez, M Pang, S K Carlsson, L J Suva, C Wahlestedt, B R Troen, S P Brothers
Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by progressive bone loss and increased risk of fracture, often results from menopausal loss of estrogen in women. Neuropeptide Y has been shown to negatively regulate bone formation, with amygdala specific deletion of the Y2 receptor resulting in increased bone mass in mice. In this study, ovariectomized (OVX) mice were injected once daily with JNJ-31020028, a brain penetrant Y2 receptor small molecule antagonist to determine the effects on bone formation. Antagonist treated mice had reduced weight and showed increased whole-body bone mineral density compared to vehicle-injected mice...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129405/neurogenesis-and-morphological-neural-alterations-closely-related-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-25-35-induced-memory-impairment-in-male-rats
#10
Eleazar Ramírez, Liliana Mendieta, Gonzalo Flores, I Daniel Limón
Memory impairment by the Amyloid-β 25-35 (Aβ25-35) peptide in animal models has provided an understanding of the causes behind the similar deterioration that occurs in Alzheimer's disease. However, it is uncertain if a decrease of dendritic spines and neurogenesis conduces to cognitive impairment by an impairment in the retrieval of stored memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of impairment on spatial memory caused by the administration of the Aβ25-35 peptide in the hippocampus, which is associated whit morphological changes and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG)...
November 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137815/local-injection-of-d-lys-3-ghrp-6-in-the-rat-amygdala-dentate-gyrus-or-ventral-tegmental-area-impairs-memory-consolidation
#11
Siamak Beheshti, Neda Aslani
It is well known that the hormone ghrelin affects learning and memory in different experimental models of learning. Though, the effect of antagonism of ghrelin receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) in various regions of the brain and on different stages of learning has not been examined. In this study the effect of injection of a GHS-R1a selective antagonist (d-Lys-3-GHRP-6) into the basolateral amygdala, dentate gyrus or ventral tegmental area was examined on memory consolidation in the passive avoidance task. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-280g were used...
November 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089149/oxidative-stress-in-the-optic-nerve-and-cortical-visual-area-of-steptozotocin-induced-diabetic-wistar-rats-blockade-with-a-selective-bradykinin-b1-receptor-antagonist
#12
Orlando L Catanzaro, Jorgelina Aira Capponi, Irene Di Martino, Emilio S Labal, Pierre Sirois
The role of bradykinin B1 receptors on the oxidative stress as measured by the levels of Na+/K+ ATPase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in male Wistar rat optic nerve and visual cortex area 1 and 4weeks after STZ treatment was studied. Rats were divided into 4 groups (n=6-7): 1. Controls (non-diabetics); 2. Diabetics (65mg/kg streptozotocin, STZ); 3. Diabetics injected with B1 antagonist R-954 (2mg/Kg) during the last 3days of a one week period; 4. Diabetics injected with B1 antagonist R-954 (2mg/Kg) during the last 3days of a 4week period...
October 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070438/humanin-affects-object-recognition-and-gliosis-in-short-term-cuprizone-treated-mice
#13
Minetaka Murakami, Masatoshi Nagahama, Yoichiro Abe, Takako Niikura
Humanin (HN) is a 24-residue peptide that manipulates cell survival under various stresses. A highly potent HN derivative, HNG, reduced amyloid burden and neuroinflammation and suppressed cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice. Cuprizone (CPZ), a copper chelator, provokes demyelination in the central nervous system of mice. A shorter (one week) exposure to CPZ induces schizophrenia-like behavior and glial activation prior to demyelination. We tested the effect of HNG on these short-term responses to CZP in mice...
October 14, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042065/analgesic-and-anxiolytic-effects-of-leu-31-pro-34-neuropeptide-y-microinjected-into-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-rats
#14
Priscila Vázquez-León, Luis G Mendoza-Ruiz, Eduardo Ramírez-San Juan, German Alberto Chamorro-Cevallos, Abraham Miranda-Páez
Several reports have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in food intake, epilepsy, circadian rhythms, drug seeking, pain and anxiety, and other physiological or pathological conditions. On the other hand, periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a key brain center for modulating pain, anxiety and fear. It is the main structure implicated in integrated defensive behaviors. One such behavior, tonic immobility (TI), resembles fear and is able to induce analgesia. After microinjection of [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-Neuropeptide Y ([Leu(31),Pro(34)]-NPY) into the PAG dorsal (D) or ventrolateral (VL) of adult male Wistar rats, the following parameters were assessed: i) the analgesic effect by means of the tail-flick test (TF), ii) the duration of TI as a passive defensive behavioral response and as an anxiety/fear model (considering both TF and TI as single behaviors), iii) TI-induced analgesia by the combination of TF/TI, and iv) the anxious-like state through the elevated plus maze (EPM), and defensive burying behavior (DBB)...
October 12, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985965/ghrelin-projection-from-the-lateral-hypothalamus-area-to-the-dorsal-vagal-complex-and-its-regulation-of-gastric-motility-in-cisplatin-treated-rats
#15
Yanling Gong, Yang Liu, Yaoyao Guo, Manqing Su, Yifan Zhong, Luo Xu, Feifei Guo, Shengli Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate ghrelin projection from the lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and its regulation of gastric motility in cisplatin-treated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, the protein and mRNA expression of ghrelin and its receptor GHSR-1a were measured by Western blot and PCR, respectively. The ghrelin fiber projections arising from the LHA and projecting to the DVC were investigated by retrograde tracing combined with fluoro-immunohistochemical staining...
September 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985964/the-hemoglobin-derived-peptide-lvv-hemorphin-7-evokes-behavioral-effects-mediated-by-oxytocin-receptors
#16
Kellen Rosa da Cruz, Larissa Córdova Turones, Gabriel Camargo-Silva, Karina Pereira Gomes, Michelle Mendanha Mendonça, Pablinny Galdino, Christielly Rodrigues-Silva, Robson Augusto Souza Santos, Elson Alves Costa, Paulo Cesar Ghedini, Danielle Ianzer, Carlos Henrique Xavier
LVV-hemorphin-7 (LVV-h7) is bioactive peptide resulting from degradation of hemoglobin β-globin chain. LVV-h7 is a specific agonist of angiotensin IV receptor. This receptor belongs to the class of insulin-regulated aminopeptidases (IRAP), which displays oxytocinase activity. Herein, our aims were to assess whether: i) LVV-h7 modifies centrally organized behavior and cardiovascular responses to stress and ii) mechanisms underlying LVV-h7 effects involve activation of oxytocin (OT) receptors, probably as result of reduction of IRAP proteolytic activity upon OT...
September 28, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993014/-r-%C3%AE-lipoyl-gly-l-pro-l-glu-dimethyl-ester-as-dual-acting-agent-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Lisa Marinelli, Erika Fornasari, Antonio Di Stefano, Hasan Turkez, Mehmet Enes Arslan, Piera Eusepi, Michele Ciulla, Ivana Cacciatore
In this study, effects of LA-GPE (R-α-Lipoyl-Gly-l-Pro-l-Glu dimethyl ester) and GPE (Gly-L-Pro-L-Glu) on the cytotoxic action of Aβ1-42 were tested with differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells as cellular Alzheimer model via measurements of mitochondrial viability (MTT assay) and lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH assay). Effects of LA-GPE and GPE on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and neural cell apoptosis and necrosis were also determined...
December 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755808/potential-role-of-cxcl10-cxcr3-signaling-in-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance-in-periaqueductal-gray
#18
Wei Wang, Yawen Peng, Hui Yang, Huilian Bu, Genhua Guo, Daiqiang Liu, Bin Shu, Xuebi Tian, Ailin Luo, Xuming Zhang, Feng Gao
Tolerance to morphine antinociception hinders its long-term use in clinical practice. Interaction between neuron and microglia has been proved to play critical role in the mechanism of morphine tolerance, while CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling has been implicated in neuron-glia signaling and morphine analgesia. This study aims to investigate whether CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling in periaqueductal gray (PAG) contributes to the development of morphine tolerance by modulating neuron-microglia interaction. The results showed that the expressions of CXCR3 and CXCL10 were gradually increased in parallel with repeated morphine administration and activation of microglia...
October 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751044/differently-polarized-macrophages-affect-the-viability-and-growth-of-nspcs-by-regulating-the-expression-of-pacap
#19
Min Liu, Ming Deng, Yonggang Ma
Objective To explore the influence of differently polarized macrophages, M1 or M2, to viability and growth of NSPCs and its possible mechanism, especially the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in it. METHOD: Spinal cord-derived NSPCs were co-cultured with M1 or M2 through a transwell system. Growth of NSPCs in both groups was observed through an inverted microscope within 3days. NSPCs viability of each group, represented as intracellular ATP levels, was measured using the Cellular ATP Kit HTS following co-culture for 24h...
October 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716393/combine-effect-of-chondroitinase-abc-and-low-level-laser-660nm-on-spinal-cord-injury-model-in-adult-male-rats
#20
Atousa Janzadeh, Arash Sarveazad, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Sima Dameni, Fazel Sahraneshin Samani, Kobra Mokhtarian, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
After spinal cord injury (SCI) there are many recoveries inhibiting factors such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and inflammation. The present study investigated the combinational effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) as anti-inflammatory agent and Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enzyme as CSPG digesting factor on spinal cord after injury. This study performed on 44 male Wistar rats, spinal cord injury induced by a clip compression injury. Animals received two-weeks treatment of 660nm low level laser (LLL) and intraspinal injection of 1μg ChABC...
October 2017: Neuropeptides
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