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Neuropeptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073591/neuropeptide-y-neuronal-network-dysfunction-in-the-frontal-lobe-of-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#1
Shunsuke Morosawa, Shuji Iritani, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Youta Torii, Chikako Habuchi, Keisuke Kuroda, Kozo Kaibuchi, Norio Ozaki
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been found to play a critical role in various mental functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in the development of schizophrenia, a particularly intractable psychiatric disease whose precise etiology remains unknown. Recent molecular biological investigations have identified several candidate genes which may be associated with this disease, including disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). The role of DISC1 would involve neurogenesis and neuronal migration. However, the functional consequences of this gene defect have not yet been fully clarified in neuronal systems...
January 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088317/neuropeptides-2015-aberdeen-university-scotland
#2
REVIEW
Alasdair MacKenzie, Erika Pinter, John Quinn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065675/altered-expression-of-irs2-and-grb2-in-demyelination-of-peripheral-neurons-implications-in-diabetic-neuropathy
#3
Mallahalli S Manu, Kuruvanthe S Rachana, Gopal M Advirao
Demyelination of the peripheral nerves and dysfunction of Schwann cells (SCs) are the chronic complications involved in the development of peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients. Insulin signaling plays an important role in restoring the myelin proteins in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Since insulin levels are altered in diabetes, it becomes of great interest to appreciate the role and regulation of docking and adaptor protein, how these proteins respond to variations in the levels of insulin as experienced in juvenile diabetes...
December 29, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043649/injections-of-galanin-like-peptide-directly-into-the-nucleus-of-the-tractus-solitarius-nts-reduces-food-intake-and-body-weight-but-increases-metabolic-rate-and-plasma-leptin
#4
Lindy Sergeant, Carla Rodriguez-Dimitrescu, Christopher C Barney, Gregory S Fraley
Galanin-Like Peptide (GALP) is a hypothalamic neuromediator of metabolism and reproduction. GALP is known to stimulate reproduction and alter food intake and body weight in multiple species. The regulation of body weight involves control of both energy intake and energy expenditure. Since GALP is known to alter food intake - possibly via the autonomic nervous system - we first hypothesized that GALP would increase metabolic rate. First, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulae and abdominal radiotelemetry temperature transmitters...
December 29, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041630/the-analgesic-effect-of-orexin-a-in-a-murine-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-neuropathic-pain
#5
Satoshi Toyama, Naohito Shimoyama, Megumi Shimoyama
Orexins are neuropeptides that are localized to neurons in the lateral and dorsal hypothalamus but its receptors are distributed to many different regions of the central nervous system. Orexins are implicated in a variety of physiological functions including sleep regulation, energy homeostats, and stress reactions. Furthermore, orexins administered exogenously have been shown to have analgesic effects in animal models. A type of intractable pain in patients is pain due to chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN)...
December 24, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024880/embryonic-ablation-of-neuronal-vgf-increases-energy-expenditure-and-reduces-body-weight
#6
Cheng Jiang, Wei-Jye Lin, Masato Sadahiro, Andrew C Shin, Christoph Buettner, Stephen R Salton
Germline ablation of VGF, a secreted neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine peptide precursor, results in lean, hypermetabolic, and infertile adult mice that are resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes (Hahm et al., 1999, 2002). To assess whether this phenotype is predominantly driven by reduced VGF expression in developing and/or adult neurons, or in peripheral endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, we generated and analyzed conditional VGF knockout mice, obtained by mating loxP-flanked (floxed) Vgf mice with either pan-neuronal Synapsin-Cre- or forebrain alpha-CaMKII-Cre-recombinase-expressing transgenic mice...
December 20, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012561/peripheral-apelin-13-administration-inhibits-gastrointestinal-motor-functions-in-rats-the-role-of-cholecystokinin-through-cck1-receptor-mediated-pathway
#7
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, İlknur Birsen, V Nimet İzgüt-Uysal
Apelin is the endogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor APJ. The APJ receptor is widely expressed in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues including stomach and small intestine. Apelin administration was shown to induce the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) which is a well-known alimentary hormone with its inhibitory actions on GI motor functions through CCK1 receptors on vagal afferent fibers. We investigated whether; (i) peripherally injected apelin-13 alters GI motor functions, (ii) apelin-induced changes are mediated by APJ receptor or CCK1 receptor and (iii) vagal afferents are involved in inhibitory effects of apelin...
December 16, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010996/pharmacological-characterization-of-rat-vd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-an-%C3%AE-hemoglobin-derived-peptide-exhibiting-cannabinoid-agonist-like-effects-in-mice
#8
Ting Zheng, Ting Zhang, Run Zhang, Zi-Long Wang, Zheng-Lan Han, Ning Li, Xu-Hui Li, Meng-Na Zhang, Biao Xu, Xiong-Li Yang, Quan Fang, Rui Wang
Hemopressin and related peptides have shown to function as the endogenous ligands or the regulator of cannabinoid receptors. Moreover, hemopressin and its truncated peptides were also reported to produce a slight modulatory effect on opioid system. In the present work, based on the amino acid sequence analyses of hemoglobin subunit α, rat VD-hemopressin(α) [(r)VD-Hpα] was predicted as a cannabinoid peptide derived from rat α-hemoglobin. Furthermore, (r)VD-Hpα was synthesized and characterized in a series of in vitro and in vivo assays...
December 16, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993375/role-of-hemokinin-1-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Éva Borbély, Zsuzsanna Helyes
Hemokinin-1 (HK-1), the newest tachykinin encoded by the Tac4 gene was discovered in 2000. Its name differs from that of the other members of this peptide family due to its first demonstration in B lymphocytes. Since tachykinins are classically found in the nervous system, the significant expression of HK-1 in blood cells is a unique feature of this peptide. Due to its widespread distribution in the whole body, HK-1 is involved in different physiological and pathophysiological functions involving pain inflammation modulation, immune regulation, respiratory and endocrine functions, as well as tumor genesis...
December 13, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993374/effects-of-rfamide-related-peptide-1-rfrp-1-microinjections-into-the-central-nucleus-of-amygdala-on-passive-avoidance-learning-in-rats
#10
Anita Kovács, Kristóf László, Olga Zagoracz, Tamás Ollmann, László Péczely, Rita Gálosi, László Lénárd
The amygdaloid body (AMY) plays an important role in memory, learning and reward-related processes. RFRP-1 immunoreactive fibers and NPFF receptors were identified in the AMY, and previously we verified that RFRP-1 infused into the central nucleus of AMY (CeA) induced place preference. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible effects of RFRP-1 in the CeA on passive avoidance learning. Male Wistar rats were examined in two-compartment passive avoidance paradigm. Animals were shocked with 0.5mA current and subsequently were microinjected bilaterally with 50ng or 100ng RFRP-1 in volume of 0...
December 13, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979380/central-administration-of-neuropeptide-y-differentially-regulates-monoamines-and-corticosterone-in-heat-exposed-fed-and-fasted-chicks
#11
Mohammad A Bahry, Vishwajit S Chowdhury, Hui Yang, Phuong V Tran, Phong H Do, Guofeng Han, Hiromi Ikeda, John F Cockrem, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Recently, we demonstrated that brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression was increased in heat exposed chicks. However, the functions of brain NPY during heat stress are unknown. This study was conducted to investigate whether centrally administered NPY affects food intake, rectal temperature, monoamines, stress hormones and plasma metabolites in chicks under high ambient temperatures (HT). Five or six-day-old chicks were centrally injected with 0, 188 or 375pmol of NPY and exposed to either HT (35±1°C) or a control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30±1°C) for 3h whilst fed or fasted...
December 6, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939689/aav-mediated-il-10-gene-transfer-counteracts-inflammation-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-and-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#12
Masanori Nakata, Sawako Yamamoto, Takashi Okada, Toshihiko Yada
Consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces energy imbalance and consequently obesity. In the pathogenesis of obesity, HFD triggers inflammation in the hypothalamus including arcuate nucleus (ARC). Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a representative anti-inflammatory cytokine, known to ameliorate the adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. However, the effect of IL-10 on the hypothalamic inflammation remains less defined. We here report the effect of over-expression of murine IL-10 using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector on the inflammation in ARC and feeding behavior in HFD-induced obese (DIO) mice...
December 6, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038787/using-the-crispr-cas9-system-to-understand-neuropeptide-biology-and-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Hay, Christopher Knowles, Andreas Kolb, Alasdair MacKenzie
Neuropeptides and their receptors play a role in physiological responses such as appetite, stress and inflammatory pain. With neuropeptides having such diverse and important physiological roles, knocking-out the genes encoding them, their receptors, parts of their regulatory sequences, or reproducing disease associated polymorphic variants are important steps in studying neuropeptides and how they may contribute to disease. Previously, knock-outs were generated using methods such as targeted homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells but this method is costly and time-consuming...
December 3, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932062/experiencing-neonatal-maternal-separation-increased-pain-sensitivity-in-adult-male-mice-involvement-of-oxytocinergic-system
#14
Hossein Amini-Khoei, Shayan Amiri, Ali Mohammadi-Asl, Sakineh Alijanpour, Simin Poursaman, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Mojgan Rastegar, Azam Mesdaghinia, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Ehsanollah Sadeghi, Elika Samiei, Shahram Ejtemaie Mehr, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Early-life stress adversely affects the development of the brain, and alters a variety of behaviors such as pain in later life. In present study, we investigated how early-life stress (maternal separation or MS) can affect the nociceptive response later in life. We particularly focused on the role of oxytocin (OT) in regulating nociception in previously exposed (MS during early postnatal development) mice that were subjected to acute stress (restraint stress or RS). Further, we evaluated whether such modulation of pain sensation in MS mice are regulated by shared mechanisms of the OTergic and opioidergic systems...
November 30, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914762/distribution-of-the-neuro-regulatory-peptide-galanin-in-the-human-eye
#15
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Daniela Bruckner, Bettina Hohberger, Anselm Jünemann, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A Reitsamer, Falk Schrödl
Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation...
November 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889070/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-modifies-locomotor-activity-and-induces-selective-changes-in-met-enk-expression-in-adolescent-rats
#16
P Abate, A C Reyes-Guzmán, K Hernández-Fonseca, M Méndez
Several studies suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) facilitates ethanol intake. Opioid peptides play a main role in ethanol reinforcement during infancy and adulthood. However, PEE effects upon motor responsiveness elicited by an ethanol challenge and the participation of opioids in these actions remain to be understood. This work assessed the susceptibility of adolescent rats to prenatal and/or postnatal ethanol exposure in terms of behavioral responses, as well as alcohol effects on Met-enk expression in brain areas related to drug reinforcement...
November 22, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865545/anti-cgrp-antibodies-block-cgrp-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#17
Eric A Kaiser, Brandon J Rea, Adisa Kuburas, Brian R Kovacevich, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Ana Recober, Andrew F Russo
The multifunctional neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that CGRP has roles in intestinal motility, water secretion, and inflammation. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated CGRP involvement in diarrhea secondary to C. difficile and food allergies. Diarrhea thus provides a convenient bioassay of CGRP activity in the GI system. In this proof of principle study, we report that prophylactic administration of an anti-CGRP antibody is able to block CGRP-induced diarrhea in mice...
November 14, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866657/distribution-and-chemical-coding-of-sensory-neurons-innervating-the-skin-of-the-porcine-hindlimb
#18
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew Adamiak, Mariusz Majewski
The aim of the present study was to establish the origin and chemical phenotyping of neurons involved in skin innervation of the porcine hind leg. The dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of the lumbar (L4-L6) and sacral (S1-S3) spinal nerves were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB). The morphometric analysis of FB-positive (FB+)neurons showed that in the L4, L5, S1 and S2 DRGs, the small-sized perikarya constituted the major population, whereas in the L6 and S3 DRGs the medium-sized cells made up the major population...
November 5, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837916/the-neuropeptide-galanin-modulates-natural-killer-cell-function
#19
Andreas Koller, Rodolfo Bianchini, Sandra Schlager, Christian Münz, Barbara Kofler, Silke Wiesmayr
Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune system and combat pathogens and tumors by secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines like interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and by their cytotoxic action. Galanin is a neuropeptide also expressed in peripheral tissue where it impacts several physiological functions, including inflammation. The effects of galanin are mediated via three receptors, GAL1-3. Since other neuropeptides have been shown to regulate NK cell activity, we investigated the potential of galanin to modulate human NK cell function...
November 5, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866656/an-analysis-of-possible-off-target-effects-following-cas9-crispr-targeted-deletions-of-neuropeptide-gene-enhancers-from-the-mouse-genome
#20
Elizabeth Anne Hay, Abdulla Razak Khalaf, Pietro Marini, Andrew Brown, Karyn Heath, Darrin Sheppard, Alasdair MacKenzie
We have successfully used comparative genomics to identify putative regulatory elements within the human genome that contribute to the tissue specific expression of neuropeptides such as galanin and receptors such as CB1. However, a previous inability to rapidly delete these elements from the mouse genome has prevented optimal assessment of their function in-vivo. This has been solved using CAS9/CRISPR genome editing technology which uses a bacterial endonuclease called CAS9 that, in combination with specifically designed guide RNA (gRNA) molecules, cuts specific regions of the mouse genome...
November 4, 2016: Neuropeptides
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