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Neuropeptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716393/combine-effect-of-chondroitinase-abc-and-low-level-laser-660nm-on-spinal-cord-injury-model-in-adult-male-rats
#1
Atousa Janzadeh, Arash Sarveazad, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Sima Dameni, Fazel Sahraneshin Samani, Kobra Mokhtarian, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
After spinal cord injury (SCI) there are many recoveries inhibiting factors such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and inflammation. The present study investigated the combinational effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) as anti-inflammatory agent and Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enzyme as CSPG digesting factor on spinal cord after injury. This study performed on 44 male Wistar rats, spinal cord injury induced by a clip compression injury. Animals received two-weeks treatment of 660nm low level laser (LLL) and intraspinal injection of 1μg ChABC...
July 14, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698051/effects-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-on-small-intestinal-int-407-cells
#2
A Illes, B Opper, D Reglodi, M Kerenyi, P Czetany, A Boronkai, E Schafer, G Toth, E Fabian, G Horvath
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide having a widespread distribution both in the nervous system and peripheral organs including the gastrointestinal tract. It has been shown to exert actions on intestinal functions, mainly affecting glandular secretion and motility. PACAP has several different effects on cell survival depending on the cell type and the applied stimulus. Its influences on small intestinal epithelial cells are not yet elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PACAP on intestinal epithelial cells having high turnover (INT 407) against different harmful stimuli, such as oxidative stress, in vitro hypoxia and gamma radiation...
July 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688524/prenatal-exposure-to-brain-specific-anion-transporter-1-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-impairs-cognitive-function-in-post-natal-life
#3
Eugene A Zubkov, Yana A Zorkina, Olga I Gurina, Pavel A Melnikov, Anna Y Morozova, Vladimir P Chekhonin
Subclinical hypothyroidism is caused by thyroid hormone deficit and can lead to impairments in mood and cognition. In brain, supply with thyroxine (T4) is mediated by thyroid hormone transporters including the brain-specific anion transporter-1 (BSAT-1). In humans and rodents, BSAT-1 is expressed in brain microvessels and astrocytes. In this study, we tested whether exposure in utero with BSAT-1-specific monoclonal antibodies (MabBSAT) will affect the cognitive function of the progeny. On gestation day 16th, females were intravenously treated with MabBSAT, non-specific antibodies (control 1), and saline (control 2)...
July 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619276/arginine-vasopressin-relates-with-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#4
Hong-Bo Jiang, Ai-Lin Du, Hai-Yang Luo, Jun Yang, Xiao-Qiu Luo, Rui-Qing Ma, Chang-He Shi, Yu-Ming Xu
Spinocerebellar ataxia is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that the most prevalent type is type 3 (SCA3). Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released within the lateral septum for controlling the learning and memory. This communication studied the effect of AVP on the spatial learning and memory of SCA3 mice. The spatial learning and memory were analyzed by Morris water maze test (MWM), and AVP concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that (Alves et al., 2010) the swimming velocity, distance traveled and latency to the platform of MWM in SCA3 mice were reduced slower than those in WT mice over 4 training days (p<0...
June 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624122/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-insulin-synergistically-activate-vagal-afferent-neurons
#5
Yusaku Iwasaki, Chayon Goswami, Toshihiko Yada
Intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic insulin, released postprandially, commonly regulate glucose metabolism. Recent clinical experience indicates that the GLP-1R agonist and insulin in combination, compared to insulin alone, results in better glycemic and weight controls in type 2 diabetic patients. These observations suggest possible interactive effect of these hormones. These hormones, in addition to peripherally controlling glycemia, exert central regulation of food intake and glucose metabolism, the effect at least partly mediated by signaling to the brain via the vagal afferents...
May 25, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559061/neuropeptides-a-promising-target-for-treating-seizures
#6
REVIEW
Neethi Menon, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh K Bhatt
Seizures are serious neurological disorders affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide. Seizures are characterized by abnormal, repetitive and synchronised firing of the neurons which is produced as a result of imbalance in the levels of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Neuropeptides are found to regulate seizures by rectifying this imbalance. These neuropeptides are stored in the dense core synaptic vesicles, and are released on excitation. This review focuses on certain neuropeptides which can alleviate both, the effects of seizures as well as epileptogenesis...
May 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559062/inhibitory-effect-of-angiotensin-1-7-on-angiotensin-iii-induced-nociceptive-behaviour-in-mice
#7
Wataru Nemoto, Ryota Yamagata, Yoshiki Ogata, Osamu Nakagawasai, Takeshi Tadano, Koichi Tan-No
We have previously demonstrated that the intrathecal (i.t.) administration of angiotensin (Ang) II into mice produces a nociceptive behaviour consisting of scratching, biting and licking accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the spinal cord, which was mediated through AT1 receptors. Both the p38 MAPK phosphorylation and subsequent nociceptive behaviour were attenuated by the i.t. co-administration of Ang (1-7), an N-terminal fragment of Ang II, that acted via Mas receptors. On the other hand, a C-terminal fragment of Ang II, namely Ang III, was also shown to induce a nociceptive behaviour by acting upon AT1 receptors on spinal astrocytes and neurons, and was found to be more potent than Ang II...
May 23, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024880/embryonic-ablation-of-neuronal-vgf-increases-energy-expenditure-and-reduces-body-weight
#8
Cheng Jiang, Wei-Jye Lin, Masato Sadahiro, Andrew C Shin, Christoph Buettner, Stephen R Salton
Germline ablation of VGF, a secreted neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine peptide precursor, results in lean, hypermetabolic, and infertile adult mice that are resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes (Hahm et al., 1999, 2002). To assess whether this phenotype is predominantly driven by reduced VGF expression in developing and/or adult neurons, or in peripheral endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, we generated and analyzed conditional VGF knockout mice, obtained by mating loxP-flanked (floxed) Vgf mice with either pan-neuronal Synapsin-Cre- or forebrain alpha-CaMKII-Cre-recombinase-expressing transgenic mice...
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865545/anti-cgrp-antibodies-block-cgrp-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#9
Eric A Kaiser, Brandon J Rea, Adisa Kuburas, Brian R Kovacevich, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Ana Recober, Andrew F Russo
The multifunctional neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have shown that CGRP has roles in intestinal motility, water secretion, and inflammation. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated CGRP involvement in diarrhea secondary to C. difficile and food allergies. Diarrhea thus provides a convenient bioassay of CGRP activity in the GI system. In this proof of principle study, we report that prophylactic administration of an anti-CGRP antibody is able to block CGRP-induced diarrhea in mice...
August 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460791/first-study-on-the-peptidergic-innervation-of-the-brain-superior-sagittal-sinus-in-humans
#10
Simone Sampaolo, Giovanna Liguori, Alfredo Vittoria, Filomena Napolitano, Luca Lombardi, Javier Figols, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Teresa Esposito, Giuseppe Di Iorio
The superior sagittal sinus (SSS) of the mammalian brain is a pain-sensitive intracranial vessel thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of migraine headaches. Here, we aimed to investigate the presence and the potential co-localization of some neurotransmitters in the human SSS. Immunohistochemical and double-labeling immunofluorescence analyses were applied to paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded, coronal sections of the SSS. Protein extraction and Western blotting technique were performed on the same material to confirm the morphological data...
April 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456437/spinal-neuropeptide-modulation-functional-assessment-and-cartilage-lesions-in-a-monosodium-iodoacetate-rat-model-of-osteoarthritis
#11
Colombe Otis, Martin Guillot, Maxim Moreau, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Francis Beaudry, Eric Troncy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Characterising the temporal evolution of changes observed in pain functional assessment, spinal neuropeptides and cartilage lesions of the joint after chemical osteoarthritis (OA) induction in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: On day (D) 0, OA was induced by an IA injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). Rats receiving 2mg MIA were temporally assessed at D3, D7, D14 and D21 for the total spinal cord concentration of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related-peptide (CGRP), bradykinin (BK) and somatostatin (STT), and for severity of cartilage lesions...
April 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476408/targeted-high-resolution-quadrupole-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry-analyses-reveal-a-significant-reduction-of-tachykinin-and-opioid-neuropeptides-level-in-pc1-and-pc2-mutant-mouse-spinal-cords
#12
Mouna Saidi, Francis Beaudry
Tachykinin and opioid neuropeptides play a fundamental role in pain transmission, modulation and inhibition. The proteolysis control of endogenous tachykinin and opioid neuropeptides has a significant impact on pain perception. The role of proprotein convertases (PCs) in the proteolysis of proneuropeptides was previously established but very few studies have shown the direct impact of PCs on the regulation of specific tachykinin and opioid peptides in the central nervous system. There is an increasing interest in the therapeutic targeting of PCs for the treatment of pain but it is imperative to assess the impact of PCs on the pronociceptive and the endogenous opioid systems...
April 22, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456436/centrally-located-glp-1-receptors-modulate-gastric-slow-waves-and-cardiovascular-function-in-ferrets-consistent-with-the-induction-of-nausea
#13
Zengbing Lu, Chi-Kong Yeung, Ge Lin, David T W Yew, P L R Andrews, John A Rudd
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are indicated for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and obesity, but can cause nausea and emesis in some patients. GLP-1 receptors are distributed widely in the brain, where they contribute to mechanisms of emesis, reduced appetite and aversion, but it is not known if these centrally located receptors also contribute to a modulation of gastric slow wave activity, which is linked causally to nausea. Our aim was to investigate the potential of the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, administered into the 3rd ventricle to modulate emesis, feeding and gastric slow wave activity...
April 21, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433253/neuropeptide-s-increases-motor-activity-and-thermogenesis-in-the-rat-through-sympathetic-activation
#14
Takuya Ensho, Keiko Nakahara, Yoshihiro Suzuki, Noboru Murakami
The central role of neuropeptide S (NPS), identified as the endogenous ligand for GPR154, now named neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR), has not yet been fully clarified. We examined the central role of NPS for body temperature, energy expenditure, locomotor activity and adrenal hormone secretion in rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of NPS increased body temperature in a dose-dependent manner. Energy consumption and locomotor activity were also significantly increased by icv injection of NPS. In addition, icv injection of NPS increased the peripheral blood concentration of adrenalin and corticosterone...
April 13, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434791/neuronal-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-functional-tool-of-melanocortin-system
#15
Nobuko Yamada-Goto, Yukari Ochi, Goro Katsuura, Yui Yamashita, Ken Ebihara, Michio Noguchi, Junji Fujikura, Daisuke Taura, Masakatsu Sone, Kiminori Hosoda, Paul E Gottschall, Kazuwa Nakao
BACKGROUND: The preparation of human neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can serve as a potential tool for evaluating the physiological and pathophysiological properties of human neurons and for drug development. METHODS: In the present study, the functional activity in neuronal cells differentiated from human iPS cells was observed. RESULTS: The differentiated cells expressed mRNAs for classical neuronal markers (microtubule-associated protein 2, β-tubulin III, calbindin 1, synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95) and for subunits of various excitatory and inhibitory transmitters (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, GABAA α1)...
April 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434790/short-n-terminal-galanin-fragments-are-occurring-naturally-in-vivo
#16
Robert Ihnatko, Elvar Theodorsson
The galanin family currently consists of four peptides, namely galanin, galanin-message associated peptide, galanin-like peptide and alarin. Unlike galanin that signals through three different G protein-coupled receptors; GAL1, GAL2, and GAL3, binding at its N-terminal end, the cognate receptors for other members of the galanin family are currently unknown. Research using short N-terminal galanin fragments generated either by enzymatic cleavage or solid-phase synthesis has revealed differences in their receptor binding properties exerting numerous biological effects distinct from galanin(1-29) itself...
April 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434792/cloning-and-expression-patterns-of-neuromedin-u-and-its-receptors-in-pigs
#17
Xiang Li, Mingfu Niu, Juan Su, Zhiyu Ma, Mengmeng Jin, Wenna Qiao, Ying Zhang, Yanyan Feng, Na An, Yuanlong Hou, Sheng Yang, Suo Chuan, Zhihai Lei
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide that performs a variety of physiological functions in animals via neuromedin U receptor-1 (NMUR1) and neuromedin U receptor-2 (NMUR2). In this study, we cloned the pig NMU, NMUR1 and NMUR2 genes. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the pig NMU cDNA encoded the amino acids Phe-Leu-Phe-Arg-Pro-Arg-Asn-NH2 at the C-terminus and that the NMU receptors, which are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), contained the seven transmembrane domains typical of GPCRs...
April 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427866/effect-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-in-hyperglycemic-and-hyperinsulinemic-rats-effects-on-phosphorylation-and-o-glcnacylation-of-tau-protein
#18
Liliana Lozano, Jorge Guevara, Tony Lefebvre, Ivan Ramos-Martinez, Daniel Limón, Alfonso Díaz, Eduarda Cerón, Edgar Zenteno
Aggregation of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, which are markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been reported also in diabetes mellitus (DM). One regulator of tau phosphorylation is O-GlcNAcylation, whereas for hyperphosphorylation it could be GSK3beta, which is activated in hyperglycemic conditions. With this in mind, both O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of tau protein were evaluated in the brain of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and treated with the Aß25-35 peptide in the hippocampal region CA1...
April 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431685/galr3-mediates-galanin-proliferative-effects-on-postnatal-hippocampal-precursors
#19
D Khan, M Khan, Johan Runesson, M Zaben, W P Gray
Galanin, a neuropeptide co-released from noradrenergic and serotonergic projection neurons to the dentate gyrus, has recently emerged as an important mediator for signaling neuronal activity to the subgranular neurogenic stem cell niche supporting adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Galanin and its receptors appear to play key roles in depression-like behavior, and effects on hippocampal neurogenesis are relevant to pharmacological strategies for treating depression, which in part appear to rely on restoring altered neurogenesis...
April 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173961/a-screen-for-modulators-reveals-that-orexin-a-rapidly-stimulates-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-expression-and-release-in-hypothalamic-cell-culture
#20
Antonieta Cote-Vélez, Anabel Martínez Báez, Leticia Lezama, Rosa María Uribe, Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Jean-Louis Charli
In the paraventricular nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus, hypophysiotropic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neurons integrate metabolic information and control the activity of the thyroid axis. Additional populations of TRH neurons reside in various hypothalamic areas, with poorly defined connections and functions, albeit there is evidence that some may be related to energy balance. To establish extracellular modulators of TRH hypothalamic neurons activity, we performed a screen of neurotransmitters effects in hypothalamic cultures...
April 2017: Neuropeptides
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