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Medicinal Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902434/biologically-active-quinoline-and-quinazoline-alkaloids-part-i
#1
REVIEW
Xiao-Fei Shang, Susan L Morris-Natschke, Ying-Qian Liu, Xiao Guo, Xiao-Shan Xu, Masuo Goto, Jun-Cai Li, Guan-Zhou Yang, Kuo-Hsiung Lee
Quinoline and quinazoline alkaloids, two important classes of N-based heterocyclic compounds, have attracted tremendous attention from researchers worldwide since the 19th century. Over the past 200 years, many compounds from these two classes were isolated from natural sources, and most of them and their modified analogs possess significant bioactivities. Quinine and camptothecin are two of the most famous and important quinoline alkaloids, and their discoveries opened new areas in antimalarial and anticancer drug development, respectively...
September 13, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862319/breakthroughs-in-modern-cancer-therapy-and-elusive-cardiotoxicity-critical-research-practice-gaps-challenges-and-insights
#2
REVIEW
Ping-Pin Zheng, Jin Li, Johan M Kros
To date, five cancer treatment modalities have been defined. The three traditional modalities of cancer treatment are surgery, radiotherapy, and conventional chemotherapy, and the two modern modalities include molecularly targeted therapy (the fourth modality) and immunotherapy (the fifth modality). The cardiotoxicity associated with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is well known. Similar adverse cardiac events are resurging with the fourth modality. Aside from the conventional and newer targeted agents, even the most newly developed, immune-based therapeutic modalities of anticancer treatment (the fifth modality), e...
September 1, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834581/pyrrolo-2-3-d-pyrimidine-7-deazapurine-as-a-privileged-scaffold-in-design-of-antitumor-and-antiviral-nucleosides
#3
REVIEW
Pavla Perlíková, Michal Hocek
7-Deazapurine (pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine) nucleosides are important analogues of biogenic purine nucleosides with diverse biological activities. Replacement of the N7 atom with a carbon atom makes the five-membered ring more electron rich and brings a possibility of attaching additional substituents at the C7 position. This often leads to derivatives with increased base-pairing in DNA or RNA or better binding to enzymes. Several types of 7-deazapurine nucleosides with potent cytostatic or cytotoxic effects have been identified...
August 23, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815732/antibacterial-and-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitory-activity-of-monocyclic-%C3%AE-lactams
#4
REVIEW
Lena Decuyper, Marko Jukič, Izidor Sosič, Aleš Žula, Matthias D'hooghe, Stanislav Gobec
Due to the widespread emergence of resistant bacterial strains, an urgent need for the development of new antibacterial agents with novel modes of action has emerged. The discovery of naturally occurring monocyclic β-lactams in the late 1970s, mainly active against aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, has introduced a new approach in the design and development of novel antibacterial β-lactam agents. The main goal was the derivatization of the azetidin-2-one core in order to improve their antibacterial potency, broaden their spectrum of activity, and enhance their β-lactamase stability...
August 16, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768055/harnessing-cxcr4-antagonists-in-stem-cell-mobilization-hiv-infection-ischemic-diseases-and-oncology
#5
REVIEW
Lun Kelvin Tsou, Ying-Huey Huang, Jen-Shin Song, Yi-Yu Ke, Jing-Kai Huang, Kak-Shan Shia
CXCR4 antagonists (e.g., Plerixafor(TM) ) have been successfully validated as stem cell mobilizers for peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Applications of the CXCR4 antagonists have heralded the era of cell-based therapy and opened a potential therapeutic horizon for many unmet medical needs such as kidney injury, ischemic stroke, cancer, and myocardial infarction. In this review, we first introduce the central role of CXCR4 in diverse cellular signaling pathways and discuss its involvement in several disease progressions...
August 2, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759124/recent-advances-in-uveal-melanoma-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Beatriz Álvarez-Rodríguez, Alfonso Latorre, Christian Posch, Álvaro Somoza
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Recent advances in the understanding of molecular characteristics helped to determine which tumors are most likely to progress. About 50% of patients carrying genetic alterations such as chromosomal aberrations and mutations are at significant risk for metastatic disease of which the majority will succumb to UM within few months. Currently, there is no effective treatment for metastatic uveal melanoma, and we hope this review will encourage researchers and clinicians to work to find a better standard of care...
July 31, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759115/anti-muc1-aptamer-a-potential-opportunity-for-cancer-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Maryam Sadat Nabavinia, Aida Gholoobi, Fahimeh Charbgoo, Mahboobeh Nabavinia, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous
Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a protein usually found on the apical surface of most normal secretory epithelial cells. However, in most adenocarcinomas, MUC1 is overexpressed, so that it not only appears over the entire cell surface, but is also shed as MUC1 fragments into the blood stream. These phenomena pinpoint MUC1 as a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer; consequently, interest has increased in MUC1 as a molecular target for overcoming cancer therapy challenges. MUC1 currently ranks second among 75 antigen candidates for cancer vaccines, and different antibodies or aptamers against MUC1 protein are proving useful for tracing cancer cells in the emerging field of targeted delivery...
July 31, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697282/exploring-the-potential-of-natural-and-synthetic-neuroprotective-steroids-against-neurodegenerative-disorders-a-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Ranju Bansal, Ranjit Singh
Neurodegeneration is a complex process, which leads to progressive brain damage due to loss of neurons. Despite exhaustive research, the cause of neuronal loss in various degenerative disorders is not entirely understood. Neuroprotective steroids constitute an important line of attack, which could play a major role against the common mechanisms associated with various neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Natural endogenous steroids induce the neuroprotection by protecting the nerve cells from neuronal injury through multiple mechanisms, therefore the structural modifications of the endogenous steroids could be helpful in the generation of new therapeutically useful neuroprotective agents...
July 11, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682469/a3-adenosine-receptors-as-modulators-of-inflammation-from-medicinal-chemistry-to-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Kenneth A Jacobson, Stefania Merighi, Katia Varani, Pier Andrea Borea, Stefania Baraldi, Mojgan Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Romeo Romagnoli, Pier Giovanni Baraldi, Antonella Ciancetta, Dilip K Tosh, Zhan-Guo Gao, Stefania Gessi
The A3 adenosine receptor (A3 AR) subtype is a novel, promising therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis, as well as liver cancer. A3 AR is coupled to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, leading to modulation of transcription. Furthermore, A3 AR affects functions of almost all immune cells and the proliferation of cancer cells. Numerous A3 AR agonists, partial agonists, antagonists, and allosteric modulators have been reported, and their structure-activity relationships (SARs) have been studied culminating in the development of potent and selective molecules with drug-like characteristics...
July 6, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682452/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-potential-anticancer-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Matilde E Lleonart, Robert Grodzicki, Dmitri M Graifer, Alex Lyakhovich
Mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) has been identified as an important factor in various diseases ranging from neurological disorders, to diseases of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndromes. MDF was also found in cancer as well as in cancer predisposition syndromes with defective DNA damage response (DDR) machinery. Moreover, a recent highlight arises from the detection of MDF in eukaryotic cells upon treatment with antibiotics. In this review, we focus on recent studies of MDF in pathological conditions with a particular emphasis on the effects of various classes of antibiotics on mitochondria...
July 6, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672082/toward-an-understanding-of-structural-insights-of-xanthine-and-aldehyde-oxidases-an-overview-of-their-inhibitors-and-role-in-various-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Raj Kumar, Gaurav Joshi, Harveen Kler, Sourav Kalra, Manpreet Kaur, Ramandeep Arya
Almost all drug molecules become the substrates for oxidoreductase enzymes, get metabolized into more hydrophilic products and eliminated from the body. These metabolites sometime may be more potent, active, inactive, or toxic in nature compared to parent molecule. Xanthine oxidoreductase and aldehyde oxidase belong to molybdenum containing family and are well characterized for their structures and functions, in particular to their ability to oxidize/hydroxylate the xenobiotics. Their upregulated clinical levels causing oxidative stress are associated with pathways either directly involved in the progression of diseases, gout, or indirectly with the succession of other diseases such as diabetes, cancer, etc...
July 3, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643862/tumor-angiogenesis-revisited-regulators-and-clinical-implications
#12
REVIEW
Roberto Ronca, Mohammed Benkheil, Stefania Mitola, Sofie Struyf, Sandra Liekens
Since Judah Folkman hypothesized in 1971 that angiogenesis is required for solid tumor growth, numerous studies have been conducted to unravel the angiogenesis process, analyze its role in primary tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenic diseases, and to develop inhibitors of proangiogenic factors. These studies have led in 2004 to the approval of the first antiangiogenic agent (bevacizumab, a humanized antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor) for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer...
June 23, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643446/artemisinin-as-an-anticancer-drug-recent-advances-in-target-profiling-and-mechanisms-of-action
#13
REVIEW
Yin Kwan Wong, Chengchao Xu, Karunakaran A Kalesh, Yingke He, Qingsong Lin, W S Fred Wong, Han-Ming Shen, Jigang Wang
Artemisinin and its derivatives (collectively termed as artemisinins) are among the most important and effective antimalarial drugs, with proven safety and efficacy in clinical use. Beyond their antimalarial effects, artemisinins have also been shown to possess selective anticancer properties, demonstrating cytotoxic effects against a wide range of cancer types both in vitro and in vivo. These effects appear to be mediated by artemisinin-induced changes in multiple signaling pathways, interfering simultaneously with multiple hallmarks of cancer...
June 23, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084618/drugs-in-clinical-trials-for-alzheimer-s-disease-the-major-trends
#14
REVIEW
Sergey O Bachurin, Elena V Bovina, Aleksey A Ustyugov
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative process resulting from the intracellular and extracellular accumulation of fibrillary proteins: beta-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated Tau. Overaccumulation of these aggregates leads to synaptic dysfunction and subsequent neuronal loss. The precise molecular mechanisms of AD are still not fully understood but it is clear that AD is a multifactorial disorder and that advanced age is the main risk factor. Over the last decade, more than 50 drug candidates have successfully passed phase II clinical trials, but none has passed phase III...
September 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052344/understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-the-interplay-between-herbal-medicines-and-gut-microbiota
#15
REVIEW
Jun Xu, Hu-Biao Chen, Song-Lin Li
Herbal medicines (HMs) are much appreciated for their significant contribution to human survival and reproduction by remedial and prophylactic management of diseases. Defining the scientific basis of HMs will substantiate their value and promote their modernization. Ever-increasing evidence suggests that gut microbiota plays a crucial role in HM therapy by complicated interplay with HM components. This interplay includes such activities as: gut microbiota biotransforming HM chemicals into metabolites that harbor different bioavailability and bioactivity/toxicity from their precursors; HM chemicals improving the composition of gut microbiota, consequently ameliorating its dysfunction as well as associated pathological conditions; and gut microbiota mediating the interactions (synergistic and antagonistic) between the multiple chemicals in HMs...
September 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029167/drug-mediated-regulation-of-glycosaminoglycan-biosynthesis
#16
REVIEW
Giancarlo Ghiselli
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a heterogeneous family of unbranched polysaccharides that exist in either a free state or attached to proteins and are found on the cell surface as well as in the extracellular matrix. GAGs play essential roles in cellular and tissue homeostasis, and their metabolism is altered in response to several pathological conditions. Despite strong experimental evidence supporting the function of GAGs in various diseases, little is known about the regulation of GAG biosynthesis via pharmacological intervention...
September 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005280/abcg2-bcrp-specific-and-nonspecific-modulators
#17
REVIEW
Diana Peña-Solórzano, Simone Alexandra Stark, Burkhard König, Cesar Augusto Sierra, Cristian Ochoa-Puentes
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is the development of resistance to a variety of structurally and functionally nonrelated anticancer drugs. This phenomenon has become a major obstacle to cancer chemotherapy seriously affecting the clinical outcome. MDR is associated with increased drug efflux from cells mediated by an energy-dependent mechanism involving the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, mainly P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), the MDR-associated protein-1 (ABCC1), and the breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2)...
September 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957758/enzyme-tunnels-and-gates-as-relevant-targets-in-drug-design
#18
REVIEW
Sergio M Marques, Lukas Daniel, Tomas Buryska, Zbynek Prokop, Jan Brezovsky, Jiri Damborsky
Many enzymes contain tunnels and gates that are essential to their function. Gates reversibly switch between open and closed conformations and thereby control the traffic of small molecules-substrates, products, ions, and solvent molecules-into and out of the enzyme's structure via molecular tunnels. Many transient tunnels and gates undoubtedly remain to be identified, and their functional roles and utility as potential drug targets have received comparatively little attention. Here, we describe a set of general concepts relating to the structural properties, function, and classification of these interesting structural features...
September 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029168/trends-in-regenerative-medicine-repigmentation-in-vitiligo-through-melanocyte-stem-cell-mobilization
#19
REVIEW
Stanca A Birlea, Gertrude-E Costin, Dennis R Roop, David A Norris
Vitiligo is the most frequent human pigmentary disorder, characterized by progressive autoimmune destruction of mature epidermal melanocytes. Of the current treatments offering partial and temporary relief, ultraviolet (UV) light is the most effective, coordinating an intricate network of keratinocyte and melanocyte factors that control numerous cellular and molecular signaling pathways. This UV-activated process is a classic example of regenerative medicine, inducing functional melanocyte stem cell populations in the hair follicle to divide, migrate, and differentiate into mature melanocytes that regenerate the epidermis through a complex process involving melanocytes and other cell lineages in the skin...
July 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005273/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-therapy-a-journey-toward-safety
#20
REVIEW
Catarina Pereira-Leite, Cláudia Nunes, Sarah K Jamal, Iolanda M Cuccovia, Salette Reis
The efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against inflammation, pain, and fever has been supporting their worldwide use in the treatment of painful conditions and chronic inflammatory diseases until today. However, the long-term therapy with NSAIDs was soon associated with high incidences of adverse events in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the search for novel drugs with improved safety has begun with COX-2 selective inhibitors (coxibs) being straightaway developed and commercialized...
July 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
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