Read by QxMD icon Read

Medicinal Research Reviews

Anna A Rybczynska, Hendrikus H Boersma, Steven de Jong, Jourik A Gietema, Walter Noordzij, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Philip H Elsinga, Aren van Waarde
Successful treatment of cancer patients requires balancing of the dose, timing, and type of therapeutic regimen. Detection of increased cell death may serve as a predictor of the eventual therapeutic success. Imaging of cell death may thus lead to early identification of treatment responders and nonresponders, and to "patient-tailored therapy." Cell death in organs and tissues of the human body can be visualized, using positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography, although unsolved problems remain concerning target selection, tracer pharmacokinetics, target-to-nontarget ratio, and spatial and temporal resolution of the scans...
March 12, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Michael Yamakawa, Susan J Doh, Samuel M Santosa, Mario Montana, Ellen C Qin, Hyunjoon Kong, Kyu-Yeon Han, Charles Yu, Mark I Rosenblatt, Andrius Kazlauskas, Jin-Hong Chang, Dimitri T Azar
In recent years, lymphangiogenesis, the process of lymphatic vessel formation from existing lymph vessels, has been demonstrated to have a significant role in diverse pathologies, including cancer metastasis, organ graft rejection, and lymphedema. Our understanding of the mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis has advanced on the heels of studies demonstrating vascular endothelial growth factor C as a central pro-lymphangiogenic regulator and others identifying multiple lymphatic endothelial biomarkers. Despite these breakthroughs and a growing appreciation of the signaling events that govern the lymphangiogenic process, there are no FDA-approved drugs that target lymphangiogenesis...
March 12, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Meng-Man Wei, Yong-Shi Wang, Xin-Shan Ye
Cancer is still one of the most serious threats to human worldwide. Aberrant patterns of glycosylation on the surface of cancer cells, which are correlated with various cancer development stages, can differentiate the abnormal tissues from the healthy ones. Therefore, tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) represent the desired targets for cancer immunotherapy. However, these carbohydrate antigens may not able to evoke powerful immune response to combat with cancer for their poor immunogenicity and immunotolerance...
March 7, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Xiao-Fei Shang, Susan L Morris-Natschke, Guan-Zhou Yang, Ying-Qian Liu, Xiao Guo, Xiao-Shan Xu, Masuo Goto, Jun-Cai Li, Ji-Yu Zhang, Kuo-Hsiung Lee
To follow-up on our prior Part I review, this Part II review summarizes and provides updated literature on novel quinoline and quinazoline alkaloids isolated during the period of 2009-2016, together with the biological activity and the mechanisms of action of these classes of natural products. Over 200 molecules with a broad range of biological activities, including antitumor, antiparasitic and insecticidal, antibacterial and antifungal, cardioprotective, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-asthma, antitussive, and other activities, are discussed...
February 27, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Martti Vaara
Polymyxin B and colistin (polymyxin E) are bactericidal pentacationic lipopeptides that act specifically on Gram-negative bacteria, first by disrupting their outermost permeability barrier, the outer membrane (OM), and then damaging the cytoplasmic membrane. The discovery of both polymyxin B and colistin was published independently by three laboratories as early as in 1947. They were subsequently used in intravenous therapy. Unfortunately, they also exhibit significant and dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. Therefore, polymyxins were reserved as agents of last-line defense...
February 27, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Abdullah Al Nahain, Vera Ignjatovic, Paul Monagle, John Tsanaktsidis, Vito Ferro
Heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide belonging to the glycosaminoglycan family, has been widely used as an anticoagulant drug for decades and remains the most commonly used parenteral anticoagulant in adults and children. However, heparin has important clinical limitations and is derived from animal sources which pose significant safety and supply problems. The ever growing shortage of the raw material for heparin manufacturing may become a very significant issue in the future. These global limitations have prompted much research, especially following the recent well-publicized contamination scandal, into the development of alternative anticoagulants derived from non-animal and/or totally synthetic sources that mimic the structural features and properties of heparin...
February 15, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Uma S Singh, Varughese A Mulamoottil, Chung K Chu
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, clinically approved nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) are very efficient in reducing the load of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with minimum side effects. However, the long-term administration of antiviral drugs promotes HBV for potential drug resistance. To overcome this problem, combination therapies are administered, but HBV progressively altered mutations remain a threat. Therefore, optimally designed NAs are urgently needed to treat drug-resistant HBV...
February 6, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Xiaoyun Lu, Lei Yu, Zhang Zhang, Xiaomei Ren, Jeff B Smaill, Ke Ding
Both the first-generation reversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib and the second-generation covalent epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) afatinib have significantly improved the survival of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with activating EGFR mutations. However, a secondary EGFRT790M mutation leads to the clinically acquired resistance to the first- and second-generation EGFR-TKIs drugs. A number of the third-generation wild-type sparing EGFR inhibitors, for example, WZ4002, CO1686, AZD9291, HM61713, EGF816, ASP8173, and PF0674775, have been developed, among which AZD9291 has been approved by US FDA for the treatment of NSCLC patients with EGFRT790M ...
January 26, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Poonam, Yash Gupta, Nikesh Gupta, Snigdha Singh, Lidong Wu, Bhupender Singh Chhikara, Manmeet Rawat, Brijesh Rathi
Over time, several exciting advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of malaria; however, this devastating disease continues to be a major global health problem and affects millions of people every year. Notably, the paucity of new efficient drug molecules and the inevitable drug resistance of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, against frontline therapeutics are the foremost struggles facing malaria eradication initiatives. According to the malaria eradication agenda, the discovery of new chemical entities that can destroy the parasite at the liver stage, the asexual blood stage, the gametocyte stage, and the insect ookinete stage of the parasite life cycle (i...
January 26, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Sulong Xiao, Zhenyu Tian, Yufei Wang, Longlong Si, Lihe Zhang, Demin Zhou
Viral infections cause many serious human diseases with high mortality rates. New drug-resistant strains are continually emerging due to the high viral mutation rate, which makes it necessary to develop new antiviral agents. Compounds of plant origin are particularly interesting. The pentacyclic triterpenoids (PTs) are a diverse class of natural products from plants composed of three terpene units. They exhibit antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. Oleanolic, betulinic, and ursolic acids are representative PTs widely present in nature with a broad antiviral spectrum...
January 19, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Pei Zhang, Jilian Wu, Fengmei Xiao, Dujuan Zhao, Yuxia Luan
Increasing numbers of disulfide linkage-employing polymeric drug carriers that utilize the reversible peculiarity of this unique covalent bond have been reported. The reduction-sensitive disulfide bond is usually employed as a linkage between hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, polymers and drugs, or as cross-linkers in polymeric drug carriers. These polymeric drug carriers are designed to exploit the significant redox potential difference between the reducing intracellular environments and relatively oxidizing extracellular spaces...
January 17, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Yuan Quan, Zhong-Yi Wang, Xin-Yi Chu, Hong-Yu Zhang
In the modern drug discovery pipeline, identification of novel drug targets is a critical step. Despite rapid progress in developing biomedical techniques, it is still a great challenge to find promising new targets from the ample space of human genes. This fact is partially responsible for the situation of "more investments, fewer drugs" in the pharmaceutical industry. A series of recent researches revealed that successfully targeted genes share some common evolutionary and genetic features, which means that the knowledge accumulated in modern evolutionary biology and genetics is very helpful to identify potential drug targets and to find new drugs as well...
January 17, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Mingyue Zheng, Jihui Zhao, Chen Cui, Zunyun Fu, Xutong Li, Xiaohong Liu, Xiaoyu Ding, Xiaoqin Tan, Fei Li, Xiaomin Luo, Kaixian Chen, Hualiang Jiang
Over the past quarter of a century, there has been rapid development in structural biology, which now can provide solid evidence for understanding the functions of proteins. Concurrently, computational approaches with particular relevance to the chemical biology and drug design (CBDD) field have also incrementally and steadily improved. Today, these methods help elucidate detailed working mechanisms and accelerate the discovery of new chemical modulators of proteins. In recent years, integrating computational simulations and predictions with experimental validation has allowed for more effective explorations of the structure, function and modulation of important therapeutic targets...
January 11, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Minhang Xin, Xinyue Ji, Ladie Kimberly De La Cruz, Suresh Thareja, Binghe Wang
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is an essential pathway in the human body, and plays a major role in embryo development and tissue patterning. Constitutive activation of the Hh signaling pathway through sporadic mutations or other mechanisms is explicitly associated with cancer development and progression in various solid malignancies. Therefore, targeted inhibition of the Hh signaling pathway has emerged as an attractive and validated therapeutic strategy for the treatment of a wide range of cancers. Vismodegib, a first-in-class Hh signaling pathway inhibitor was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2012, and sonidegib, another potent Hh pathway inhibitor, received FDA's approval in 2015 as a new treatment of locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma...
January 5, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Přemysl Mladěnka, Lenka Applová, Jiří Patočka, Vera Marisa Costa, Fernando Remiao, Jana Pourová, Aleš Mladěnka, Jana Karlíčková, Luděk Jahodář, Marie Vopršalová, Kurt J Varner, Martin Štěrba
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in most developed countries of the world. Pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, and toxins can significantly contribute to the overall cardiovascular burden and thus deserve attention. The present article is a systematic overview of drugs that may induce distinct cardiovascular toxicity. The compounds are classified into agents that have significant effects on the heart, blood vessels, or both. The mechanism(s) of toxic action are discussed and treatment modalities are briefly mentioned in relevant cases...
January 5, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Changmai Chen, Zhenjun Yang, Xinjing Tang
Gene-based therapy is one of essential therapeutic strategies for precision medicine through targeting specific genes in specific cells of target tissues. However, there still exist many problems that need to be solved, such as safety, stability, selectivity, delivery, as well as immunity. Currently, the key challenges of gene-based therapy for clinical potential applications are the safe and effective nucleic acid drugs as well as their safe and efficient gene delivery systems. In this review, we first focus on current nucleic acid drugs and their formulation in clinical trials and on the market, including antisense oligonucleotide, siRNA, aptamer, and plasmid nucleic acid drugs...
January 5, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Paolo Spallarossa, Giovanni Meliota, Claudio Brunelli, Eleonora Arboscello, Pietro Ameri, Christian Cadeddu Dessalvi, Francesco Grossi, Martino Deidda, Donato Mele, Matteo Sarocchi, Andrea Bellodi, Rosalinda Madonna, Giuseppe Mercuro
Cancer immunotherapy has become a well-established treatment option for some cancers after the development of a family of drugs targeting the so-called immune checkpoints, such as CTLA4 and PD-1 with PD-L1. These co-receptors/ligands inhibit the activation of T-cell, thus preventing an excessive inflammatory response. Tumors exploit these pathways to induce immune tolerance to themselves. Thus, the main effect of checkpoint-blocking drugs is to awake an immune response primarily directed against cancer cells...
December 28, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
Mojtaba Khajeh Alizadeh Attar, Muhammad Ayaz Anwar, Mahsa Eskian, Mahsa Keshavarz-Fathi, Sangdun Choi, Nima Rezaei
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane components that sense danger signals, like damage- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules, as receptors, and maintain homeostasis in tissues. They are mainly involved in immune system activation through a variety of mediators, which either carry out (1) elimination of pathogenic threats and redressing homeostatic imbalances or (2) contribution to the initiation and worsening of pathological conditions, including cancers. Under physiological conditions, TLRs coordinate the innate and adaptive immunity, and inhibit autoimmune disorders...
December 28, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
Deepak Bhattarai, Xuezhen Xu, Kyeong Lee
Tumor hypoxia is a common feature in most solid tumors and is associated with overexpression of the hypoxia response pathway. Overexpression of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) protein leads to angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis resistance, and many other pro-tumorigenic responses in cancer development. HIF-1 is a promising target in cancer drug development to increase the patient's response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy as well as the survival rate of cancer patients. Since up to 1% of genes are hypoxia-sensitive, a target-specific HIF-1 inhibitor may be a better clinical candidate in cancer drug discovery...
December 26, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
Fubo Zhou, Wenting Shang, Xiaoling Yu, Jie Tian
Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type. Therefore, molecular targets are urgently required for the early detection of HCC and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Glypican-3 (GPC3), an oncofetal proteoglycan anchored to the cell membrane, is normally detected in the fetal liver but not in the healthy adult liver. However, in HCC patients, GPC3 is overexpressed at both the gene and protein levels, and its expression predicts a poor prognosis...
March 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"