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Medicinal Research Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785841/effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-neurites-relevant-to-schizophrenia-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Xu-Feng Huang, Xueqin Song
Although antipsychotic drugs are mainly used for treating schizophrenia, they are widely used for treating various psychiatric diseases in adults, the elderly, adolescents and even children. Today, about 1.2% of the worldwide population suffers from psychosis and related disorders, which translates to about 7.5 million subjects potentially targeted by antipsychotic drugs. Neurites project from the cell body of neurons and connect neurons to each other to form neural networks. Deficits in neurite outgrowth and integrity are implicated in psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785785/metabolism-within-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-its-implication-on-cancer-progression-an-ongoing-therapeutic-target
#2
REVIEW
Ma Carmen Ocaña, Beatriz Martínez-Poveda, Ana R Quesada, Miguel Ángel Medina
Since reprogramming energy metabolism is considered a new hallmark of cancer, tumor metabolism is again in the spotlight of cancer research. Many studies have been carried out and many possible therapies have been developed in the last years. However, tumor cells are not alone. A series of extracellular components and stromal cells, such as endothelial cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumor-associated macrophages, and tumor-infiltrating T cells, surround tumor cells in the so-called tumor microenvironment (TME)...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771460/targeting-prostate-cancer-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-based-diagnosis-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Till Wüstemann, Uwe Haberkorn, John Babich, Walter Mier
The high incidence rates of prostate cancer (PCa) raise demand for improved therapeutic strategies. Prostate tumors specifically express the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a membrane-bound protease. As PSMA is highly overexpressed on malignant prostate tumor cells and as its expression rate correlates with the aggressiveness of the disease, this tumor-associated biomarker provides the possibility to develop new strategies for diagnostics and therapy of PCa. Major advances have been made in PSMA targeting, ranging from immunotherapeutic approaches to therapeutic small molecules...
May 17, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766541/gold-nanoparticles-in-ophthalmology
#4
REVIEW
Florence Masse, Mathieu Ouellette, Guillaume Lamoureux, Elodie Boisselier
Many research projects are underway to improve the diagnosis and therapy in ophthalmology. Indeed, visual acuity deficits affect 285 million people worldwide and different strategies are being developed to strengthen patient care. One of these strategies is the use of gold nanoparticles (GNP) for their multiple properties and their ability to be used as both diagnosis and therapy tools. This review exhaustively details research developing GNPs for use in ophthalmology. The toxicity of GNPs and their distribution in the eye are described through in vitro and in vivo studies...
May 16, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733451/the-underlying-pathophysiology-and-therapeutic-approaches-for-osteoporosis
#5
REVIEW
Harshika Awasthi, Dayanandan Mani, Divya Singh, Atul Gupta
With an increase in the ageing population worldwide, the prevalence of osteoporosis increases at an alarming rate in both male and female irrespective of their ethnicity. At present, the currently available therapeutic options are mostly limited to either bone resorptive or bone forming efficacies and both approaches are associated with serious side effects. Despite these options, there is still need for newer therapeutics to treat osteoporosis, which can offer beneficial effects for maintaining balanced dynamics between bone formation and bone resorption, devoid of any side effect...
May 7, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733427/chimeric-hdac-inhibitors-comprehensive-review-on-the-hdac-based-strategies-developed-to-combat-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Heba M Hesham, Deena S Lasheen, Khaled A M Abouzid
Recently, molecular hybridization paradigm became an interesting and smart way to defeat the multifaceted cancer disease by a single molecular entity that acts via several mechanisms just like a magic bullet. Also, HDAC is an important epigenetic target in drug discovery, and the HDAC inhibitors showed successful pattern as cytotoxic agents. Because of their flexible structure activity relationship, it was easy to link them to other anticancer scaffolds. So, many dual action HDAC inhibitors have been developed and most of these hybrids have higher potency than the constituting parents in fighting of the cancer cells...
May 7, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727025/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-mammalian-thioredoxin-reductase-as-potential-anticancer-agents-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Junmin Zhang, Baoxin Zhang, Xinming Li, Xiao Han, Ruijuan Liu, Jianguo Fang
Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) enzymes are homodimeric flavin proteins sharing a unique yet essential selenocysteine residue at their C-terminus. TrxRs, together with their endogenous substrate thioredoxins, play a crucial role in regulating diverse cellular redox events. A wealth of evidence from both clinic observations and bench studies supports that overactivation/dysfunction of TrxRs has a close link to the onset and development of various diseases, such as cancer and neurodegeneration. Thus, an increasing interest has been attracted to find small molecule modulators of TrxRs during the past years...
May 4, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727017/recent-advances-in-the-discovery-and-development-of-factor-xi-xia-inhibitors
#8
REVIEW
Rami A Al-Horani, Daniel K Afosah
Factor XIa (FXIa) is a serine protease homodimer that belongs to the intrinsic coagulation pathway. FXIa primarily catalyzes factor IX activation to factor IXa, which subsequently activates factor X to factor Xa in the common coagulation pathway. Growing evidence suggests that FXIa plays an important role in thrombosis with a relatively limited contribution to hemostasis. Therefore, inhibitors targeting factor XI (FXI)/FXIa system have emerged as a paradigm-shifting strategy so as to develop a new generation of anticoagulants to effectively prevent and/or treat thromboembolic diseases without the life-threatening risk of internal bleeding...
May 4, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719055/proteasome-mediated-proteostasis-novel-medicinal-and-pharmacological-strategies-for-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Ribhav Mishra, Arun Upadhyay, Vijay Kumar Prajapati, Amit Mishra
Proteins actively participate in a wide range of cellular physiological functions. But aggregation of proteins results in cytotoxicity, and unwanted aggregation of misfolded proteins often causes many diseases. During abnormal protein aggregation events, cells try to cope against such deleterious consequences because of the remarkable functional attempts of two distinct proteolytic mechanisms. These tightly regulative and signaling mechanisms are autophagy pathway and ubiquitin proteasome system. Proteasome complex system holds the elimination capacity of intracellular aberrant protein aggregation...
May 2, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660786/activity-and-selectivity-cliffs-for-dpp-iv-inhibitors-lessons-we-can-learn-from-sar-studies-and-their-application-to-virtual-screening
#10
REVIEW
María José Ojeda-Montes, Aleix Gimeno, Sarah Tomas-Hernández, Adrià Cereto-Massagué, Raúl Beltrán-Debón, Cristina Valls, Miquel Mulero, Gerard Pujadas, Santiago Garcia-Vallvé
The inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) has emerged over the last decade as one of the most effective treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and consequently (a) 11 DPP-IV inhibitors have been on the market since 2006 (three in 2015), and (b) 74 noncovalent complexes involving human DPP-IV and drug-like inhibitors are available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The present review aims to (a) explain the most important activity cliffs for DPP-IV noncovalent inhibition according to the binding site structure of DPP-IV, (b) explain the most important selectivity cliffs for DPP-IV noncovalent inhibition in comparison with other related enzymes (i...
April 16, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635825/influence-of-protein-properties-and-protein-modification-on-biodistribution-and-tumor-uptake-of-anticancer-antibodies-antibody-derivatives-and-non-ig-scaffolds
#11
REVIEW
Frank-Jan Warnders, Marjolijn N Lub-de Hooge, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Jos G W Kosterink
Newly developed protein drugs that target tumor-associated antigens are often modified in order to increase their therapeutic effect, tumor exposure, and safety profile. During the development of protein drugs, molecular imaging is increasingly used to provide additional information on their in vivo behavior. As a result, there are increasing numbers of studies that demonstrate the effect of protein modification on whole body distribution and tumor uptake of protein drugs. However, much still remains unclear about how to interpret obtained biodistribution data correctly...
April 10, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635752/inhibition-of-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-targets-primary-tumors-metastases-and-cancer-stem-cells-three-for-the-price-of-one
#12
REVIEW
Claudiu T Supuran, Vincenzo Alterio, Anna Di Fiore, Katia D' Ambrosio, Fabrizio Carta, Simona Maria Monti, Giuseppina De Simone
Human carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX is a tumor-associated protein, since it is scarcely present in normal tissues, but highly overexpressed in a large number of solid tumors, where it actively contributes to survival and metastatic spread of tumor cells. Due to these features, the characterization of its biochemical, structural, and functional features for drug design purposes has been extensively carried out, with consequent development of several highly selective small molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies to be used for different purposes...
April 10, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528513/avenues-to-molecular-imaging-of-dying-cells-focus-on-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Anna A Rybczynska, Hendrikus H Boersma, Steven de Jong, Jourik A Gietema, Walter Noordzij, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Philip H Elsinga, Aren van Waarde
Successful treatment of cancer patients requires balancing of the dose, timing, and type of therapeutic regimen. Detection of increased cell death may serve as a predictor of the eventual therapeutic success. Imaging of cell death may thus lead to early identification of treatment responders and nonresponders, and to "patient-tailored therapy." Cell death in organs and tissues of the human body can be visualized, using positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography, although unsolved problems remain concerning target selection, tracer pharmacokinetics, target-to-nontarget ratio, and spatial and temporal resolution of the scans...
March 12, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528507/potential-lymphangiogenesis-therapies-learning-from-current-antiangiogenesis-therapies-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Michael Yamakawa, Susan J Doh, Samuel M Santosa, Mario Montana, Ellen C Qin, Hyunjoon Kong, Kyu-Yeon Han, Charles Yu, Mark I Rosenblatt, Andrius Kazlauskas, Jin-Hong Chang, Dimitri T Azar
In recent years, lymphangiogenesis, the process of lymphatic vessel formation from existing lymph vessels, has been demonstrated to have a significant role in diverse pathologies, including cancer metastasis, organ graft rejection, and lymphedema. Our understanding of the mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis has advanced on the heels of studies demonstrating vascular endothelial growth factor C as a central pro-lymphangiogenic regulator and others identifying multiple lymphatic endothelial biomarkers. Despite these breakthroughs and a growing appreciation of the signaling events that govern the lymphangiogenic process, there are no FDA-approved drugs that target lymphangiogenesis...
March 12, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485730/biologically-active-quinoline-and-quinazoline-alkaloids-part-ii
#15
REVIEW
Xiao-Fei Shang, Susan L Morris-Natschke, Guan-Zhou Yang, Ying-Qian Liu, Xiao Guo, Xiao-Shan Xu, Masuo Goto, Jun-Cai Li, Ji-Yu Zhang, Kuo-Hsiung Lee
To follow-up on our prior Part I review, this Part II review summarizes and provides updated literature on novel quinoline and quinazoline alkaloids isolated during the period of 2009-2016, together with the biological activity and the mechanisms of action of these classes of natural products. Over 200 molecules with a broad range of biological activities, including antitumor, antiparasitic and insecticidal, antibacterial and antifungal, cardioprotective, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-asthma, antitussive, and other activities, are discussed...
February 27, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485690/new-polymyxin-derivatives-that-display-improved-efficacy-in-animal-infection-models-as-compared-to-polymyxin-b-and-colistin
#16
REVIEW
Martti Vaara
Polymyxin B and colistin (polymyxin E) are bactericidal pentacationic lipopeptides that act specifically on Gram-negative bacteria, first by disrupting their outermost permeability barrier, the outer membrane (OM), and then damaging the cytoplasmic membrane. The discovery of both polymyxin B and colistin was published independently by three laboratories as early as in 1947. They were subsequently used in intravenous therapy. Unfortunately, they also exhibit significant and dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. Therefore, polymyxins were reserved as agents of last-line defense...
February 27, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659056/in-honor-of-professor-li-he-zhang-on-the-occasion-of-his-80th-birthday
#17
EDITORIAL
Xinjing Tang, Shaoru Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512174/carbohydrate-based-vaccines-for-oncotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Meng-Man Wei, Yong-Shi Wang, Xin-Shan Ye
Cancer is still one of the most serious threats to human worldwide. Aberrant patterns of glycosylation on the surface of cancer cells, which are correlated with various cancer development stages, can differentiate the abnormal tissues from the healthy ones. Therefore, tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) represent the desired targets for cancer immunotherapy. However, these carbohydrate antigens may not able to evoke powerful immune response to combat with cancer for their poor immunogenicity and immunotolerance...
May 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406612/2-fluoro-6-methylene-carbocyclic-adenosine-and-its-phosphoramidate-prodrug-a-novel-anti-hbv-agent-active-against-drug-resistant-hbv-mutants
#19
REVIEW
Uma S Singh, Varughese A Mulamoottil, Chung K Chu
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, clinically approved nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) are very efficient in reducing the load of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with minimum side effects. However, the long-term administration of antiviral drugs promotes HBV for potential drug resistance. To overcome this problem, combination therapies are administered, but HBV progressively altered mutations remain a threat. Therefore, optimally designed NAs are urgently needed to treat drug-resistant HBV...
May 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350407/recent-progress-in-the-antiviral-activity-and-mechanism-study-of-pentacyclic-triterpenoids-and-their-derivatives
#20
REVIEW
Sulong Xiao, Zhenyu Tian, Yufei Wang, Longlong Si, Lihe Zhang, Demin Zhou
Viral infections cause many serious human diseases with high mortality rates. New drug-resistant strains are continually emerging due to the high viral mutation rate, which makes it necessary to develop new antiviral agents. Compounds of plant origin are particularly interesting. The pentacyclic triterpenoids (PTs) are a diverse class of natural products from plants composed of three terpene units. They exhibit antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. Oleanolic, betulinic, and ursolic acids are representative PTs widely present in nature with a broad antiviral spectrum...
May 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
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