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Anticancer Research

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November 2016: Anticancer Research
Faisal Inayat, Muhammad Wasif Saif
BACKGROUND: Molecularly targeted therapy has revolutionized the treatment of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Specifically, the consistent dependence of GISTs on proto-oncogene c-KIT signaling led to the development and successful implementation of imatinib, a small-molecule c-KIT inhibitor. Imatinib induces, rapid and sustained clinical benefit by blocking the signaling via c-KIT. The most frequently reported adverse reactions (>30%) include edema, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps, musculoskeletal pain, diarrhea, rash, fatigue and abdominal pain...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Vilma Rutkauskaitė, Lina Ragelienė, Rėda Matuzevičienė, Katažina Sinkevič, Mykolas Mauricas, Dainius Characiejus
AIM: To evaluate quantitative changes in B, NK and T lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) undergoing chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Children with ALL were treated according to NOPHO ALL 2008 protocol. Levels of B lymphocytes (CD19(+)), NK cells (CD3(-)CD56(+)) and subsets of T lymphocytes (CD3(+)CD4(+), CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+), CD3(+)CD8(+), CD3(+)CD8(+)CD57(+), CD3(+)CD8(+)CD57(-)) in peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry prior and during treatment with cytotoxic drugs...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Yi-Long Wu, L I Zhang, Lucia Trandafir, Tuochuan Dong, Vincent Duval, Katharine Hazell, Binghe Xu
BACKGROUND/AIM: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is frequently activated in cancer. Buparlisib (BKM120), an oral pan-PI3K inhibitor, inhibits proliferation of human cancer in preclinical models. Studies of buparlisib in Western and Japanese adults with advanced solid tumors established a recommended dose of 100 mg/day and showed an acceptable safety profile and evidence of efficacy. This phase I dose-escalation/expansion study aimed to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of single-agent, once daily oral buparlisib in Chinese patients with advanced solid tumors...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Antonio Giorgio, Maria Gabriella Merola, Luca Montesarchio, Francesca Merola, Bruno Santoro, Carmine Coppola, Pietro Gatti, Ferdinando Amendola, Antonella DI Sarno, Andrea Calvanese, Paolo Matteucci, Valentina Giorgio
AIM: To compare in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) 3-year survival of cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) treated with sorafenib plus percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of both intraparenchymal HCC and PVTT (combination Group) or sorafenib alone (sorafenib-alone Group). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-nine consecutive Child A cirrhotics were randomized to receive RFA of both HCC and main portal vein tumor thrombus (MPVTT) plus sorafenib (n=49) or sorafenib alone (n=50)...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Yoshiaki Shinden, Yuko Kijima, Munetsugu Hirata, Hideo Arima, Akihiro Nakajyo, Kiyonori Tanoue, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
BACKGROUND/AIM: Despite the fact that breast cancer patients are generally administered systemic chemotherapy after surgical treatment, predictive factors that allow optimization of chemotherapy are needed. The histoculture drug response assay (HDRA) is a clinically practical in vitro drug-response assay for identifying optimal anticancer agents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight primary breast cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment without receiving systemic neoadjuvant therapy were analyzed...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Shinichi Asaka, Takeshi Shimakawa, Kentaro Yamaguchi, Minoru Murayama, Asako Shimazaki, Takao Katsube, Yoshihiko Naritaka
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with docetaxel, nedaplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in esophageal cancer may adversely affect the postoperative clinical course following esophagectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the perioperative white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin, body temperature (BT), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), water balance, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio, postoperative complications and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in patients who underwent NAC or surgery alone (SA group)...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Kristen D Starbuck, Richard D Drake, G Thomas Budd, Peter G Rose
: Uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal tumors. Many have malignant behavior, and no successful treatment strategy has been established. Identification of mutations in the tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1) and TSC2 genes producing constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway presents an opportunity for targeted therapy. Patients with advanced malignant uterine PEComa treated with mTOR inhibitors were identified and records were retrospectively reviewed for treatment response based on radiographic assessment...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Chun-Ru Chien, William Tzu-Liang Chen, Hwei-Min Wang, Tao-Wei Ke, Hua-Che Chiang, Sheng-Chi Chang, Yu-Chun Huang, Che-Hung Lin, Chun-Lin Huang, Ying-Chun Lin, Tsung-Wei Chen, Chia-Chin Li, K S Clifford Chao
BACKGROUND/AIM: Capecitabine is the current standard oral chemotherapy used in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NCCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) in North America. We compared the effectiveness of another oral chemotherapy agent, UFT (an oral combination of uracil and tegafur), to that of capecitabine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified LARC patients diagnosed from 2007 to 2011 using a population-based registry in Taiwan (Health and Welfare Data Science Center, HWDC) and constructed a propensity score matched cohort to balance observable potential confounders...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Mahmoud Abu-Amna, Halim Awadie, Gil Bar-Sela
BACKGROUND: Imatinib is generally well tolerated in the treatment of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Gastrointestinal vascular ectasia (GIVE) and gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), while rare, are significant under-reported complications of imatinib therapy. CASE REPORT: We present one patient with GIVE complicating imatinib therapy with a literature review of this rare side-effect. RESULTS: A 68-year-old woman was diagnosed with advanced GIST, wild-type CKIT...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Haruo Kato, Yosuke Furuya, Yoshiyuki Miyazawa, Takeshi Miyao, Takahiro Syuto, Masashi Nomura, Yoshitaka Sekine, Hidekazu Koike, Hiroshi Matsui, Yasuhiro Shibata, Kazuto Ito, Kazuhiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND/AIM: Recent studies have shown that an early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to androgen receptor (AR)-targeting agents in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is associated with a better prognosis. We analyzed early PSA response to enzalutamide and oncological outcomes to study their prognostic significance in the Japanese population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients with mCRPC (26 of pre-docetaxel and 25 of post-docetaxel status) were treated with enzalutamide...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Nadezhda Romanchikova, Arnis Strods, Julija Strazdina, Boriss Strumfs, Peteris Trapencieris
BACKGROUND: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by hyperactive neoplastic B-cells and extended tumor cell survival. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a crucial kinase in the B-cell antigen receptor signaling pathway, has emerged as a novel target of MCL therapy. A novel BTK-targeting inhibitor, JuSt-23F was prepared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The WST-8 assay was used to determine cytotoxicity and half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for JuSt-23F against the MCL cell lines Mino and Maver-1...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Hani Mutlak A Hassan
Cancer is one of the major health challenges in modern times. Considering its high mortality rate, many proteins that are linked to cancer have been targeted for therapy, with one of them being the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A drug that is currently in the market for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and targets EGFR is erlotinib. In a quest for improved efficacy of erlotinib, herein we report molecular docking studies of thirteen erlotinib analogues by modification of the alkyne and anilino groups, all of which displayed better binding affinity than erlotinib...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Ishfaq Ahmad Sheikh, Arwa Abu Khweek, Mohd Amin Beg
BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environment-contaminating synthetic chemicals that have been associated with increased risk of hepatic cancer, melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cancer of many other body organs. Structural binding analyses of PCB 77 and PCB 118 with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ) was performed to predict the association of PCBs with potential disruption of PPAR signaling pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crystal structures of human PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ were obtained from the Protein Data Bank...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Nayoung Kim, Sang Hyub Lee, Jun Hyuk Son, Jae Min Lee, Min-Jung Kang, Bo Hye Kim, Jung-Su Lee, Ji Kon Ryu, Yong-Tae Kim
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignancy with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Effective prevention and treatment of CCA require developing novel anticancer agents and improved therapeutic regimens. As natural products are concidered a rich source of potential anticancer agents, we investigated the anticancer effect of fisetin in combination with gemcitabine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxic effect of fisetin and gemcitabine on a human CCA cell line SNU-308 was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and apoptosis assay using propidium iodine and annexin V...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Hesham M Korashy, Osamah M Belali, Mushtaq A Ansar, Naif O Alharbi
BACKGROUND: Sunitinib (SUN), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a promising treatment for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most aggressive and fast-growing type of breast cancer. Yet, the protective effect of SUN against TNBC is poorly investigated and the role of Forkhead box type O (FOXO3a) transcription factor is still unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation was evaluated using the MTT assay. The mRNA and protein expression of apoptotic, oxidative stress and cell cycle genes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses, respectively...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Stavros Vassiliou, Emeka Nkenke, Nikos Lefantzis, Anastasios Ioannidis, Christos Yapijakis, Margarita Zoga, Veronica Papakosta, Spyridoula Derka, Chryssoula Nikolaou, Eleftherios Vairaktaris
AIM: To study if the angiotensin receptor blocker olmesartan reduces levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), a risk factor for oral cancer, in a mouse model and therefore whether it could be used in the treatment of this malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve transgenic PAI1 mice aged 16-20 weeks were divided in two groups each containing six animals. One group was given olmesartan every day for 30 days in drinking water in an amount corresponding to their weight, 0...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Hikaru Watarai, Masashi Okada, Kenta Kuramoto, Hiroyuki Takeda, Hirotsugu Sakaki, Shuhei Suzuki, Shizuka Seino, Hiroyuki Oizumi, Mitsuaki Sadahiro, Chifumi Kitanaka
BACKGROUND: GSKJ4, an H3K27 demethylase inhibitor, reportedly exhibits antitumor activity against specific cancers harboring genetic alterations in genes encoding chromatin modulators. However, its potential as an anticancer agent against human cancers not associated with such genetic alterations, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of GSKJ4 on the growth of three NSCLC cell lines and normal lung fibroblasts was investigated using the WST-8, dye exclusion, and colony formation assays...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Yuka Takezaki, Tsutomu Namikawa, Tsuyoshi Koyama, Eri Munekage, Masaya Munekage, Hiromichi Maeda, Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Kazuhiro Hanazaki
BACKGROUND/AIM: One reason of poor survival rate of patients with pancreatic cancer is the development of chemoresistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of eribulin mesylate in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, Panc-1, and SUIT-2) and human pancreatic endoderm (hPE) cells were used to evaluate the antitumor effects of gemcitabine and eribulin mesylate...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
Y U Kamata, Tomoki Sumida, Ryuichi Murase, Hiroyuki Nakano, Tomohiro Yamada, Yoshihide Mori
BACKGROUND/AIM: Androgens are known to play a critical role in prostate cancer progression, but their effect on malignant phenotypes in salivary gland cancer is unclear. The androgen-androgen receptor (AR) axis may be involved in malignant phenotypes of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) cells and therefore may be a new target for SDC treatment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of the androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of SDC cells...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
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