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Bioscience Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082369/regulation-of-pi3k-effector-signalling-in-cancer-by-the-phosphoinositide-phosphatases
#1
Samuel J Rodgers, Daniel Ferguson, Christina Mitchell, Lisa Ooms
Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generates phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) at the plasma membrane in response to growth factors, activating a signalling cascade that regulates many cellular functions including cell growth, proliferation, survival, migration and metabolism. The PI3K pathway is commonly dysregulated in human cancer, and drives tumourigenesis by promoting aberrant cell growth and transformation. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 facilitates the activation of many PH domain-containing proteins including the serine/threonine kinase AKT...
January 12, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073971/sexual-dimorphisms-in-genetic-loci-linked-to-body-fat-distribution
#2
Sara L Pulit, Tugce Karaderi, Cecilia M Lindgren
Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Obesity confers an enormous burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity. Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution is present throughout life...
January 10, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062602/methods-used-to-study-the-oligomeric-structure-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#3
Hui Guo, Su An, Richard J Ward, Yang Yang, Ying Liu, Xiao-Xi Guo, Qian Hao, Tian-Rui Xu
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which constitute the largest family of cell surface receptors, were originally thought to function as monomers, but are now recognized as being able to act in a wide range of oligomeric states and indeed, it is known that the oligomerization state of a GPCR can modulate its pharmacology and function. A number of experimental techniques have been devised to study GPCR oligomerization including those based upon traditional biochemistry such as blue-native polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), co-immunoprecipitation and protein-fragment complementation assays, those based upon resonance energy transfer, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), time-resolved FRET, FRET spectrometry and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)...
January 6, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057889/association-between-il-13-1923c-t-polymorphism-and-asthma-risk-a-meta-analysis-based-on-26-case-control-studies
#4
Yueli Xu, Junjuan Li, Zhaolei Ding, Juan Li, Bin Li, Zhengang Yu, Wei Tan
Asthma is a serious and hereditary respiratory disorder affecting all age groups. Interleukin (IL)-13 is a central regulator of allergic inflammation. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relationship between IL-13 +1923C/T polymorphism and asthma susceptibility. Relevant case-control studies published between January 2000 and July 2016 were searched in the online databases. Review Manage (RevMan) 5.3 was used to conduct the statistical analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was employed to calculate the strength of association...
January 5, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057888/mtor-complex-1-signaling-regulates-the-balance-between-lipid-synthesis-and-oxidation-in-hypoxic-lymphocytes
#5
Geng Yin, Yan Liang, Ying Wang, Yuan Yang, Min Yang, Xiao-Min Cen, Qibing Xie
Mammalian cells adapt to different environmental conditions and alter cellular metabolic pathways to meet the energy demand for survival. Thus, the metabolic regulation of cells under special conditions, such as hypoxia, should be precisely regulated. During the metabolic regulation, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a vital role in the sensing extracellular stimulations and regulating intracellular adaptations. Here, we report that mTORC1 signaling is a central regulator of lipid homeostasis in lymphocyte...
January 5, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053197/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-therapy-for-tumor-immunotherapy
#6
Huanhuan Sha, Dandan Wang, Dali Yan, Yong Hu, Sujin Lang, Siwen Liu, Jifeng Feng
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells therapies, as one of the cancer immunotherapies, have heralded a new era of treating cancer. The accumulating data, especially about CAR modified T cells against CD19 support that CAR-T cells therapy is a highly effective immune therapy for B-cell malignancies. Apart from CD19, there have been many trials of CAR T cells directed other tumor specific or associated antigens (TSAs/TAAs) in hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. This review will briefly summarize basic CAR structure, parts of reported TSAs/TAAs, results of the clinical trials of CAR-T cells therapies as well as two life-threatening side effects...
January 4, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994047/contaminants-in-commercial-preparations-of-purified-small-leucine-rich-proteoglycans-may-distort-mechanistic-studies
#7
Sharon J Brown, Heidi R Fuller, Philip Jones, Bruce Caterson, Sally L Shirran, Catherine H Botting, Sally Roberts
This paper reports the perplexing results that came about because of seriously impure commercially available reagents. Commercial reagents and chemicals are routinely ordered by scientists and are expected to have been rigorously assessed for their purity. Unfortunately, we found this assumption to be risky. Extensive work was carried out within our laboratory using commercially-sourced preparations of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans, decorin and biglycan, to investigate their influence on nerve cell growth...
December 19, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986865/crosstalks-via-mtorc2-can-explain-enhanced-activation-in-response-to-insulin-in-diabetic-patients
#8
Rasmus Magnusson, Mika Gustafsson, Gunnar Cedersund, Peter Strålfors, Elin Nyman
The molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes have been extensively studied in primary human adipocytes, and mathematical modelling has clarified the central role of attenuation of mTORC1 activity in the diabetic state. Attenuation of mTORC1 in diabetes quells insulin signalling network-wide, except for the mTORC2-catalysed phosphorylation of PKB at serine-473, which is increased. This unique increase could potentially be explained by feedback and inter-branch crosstalk signals. To examine if such mechanisms operate in adipocytes, we herein analysed data from an un-biased phosphoproteomic screen in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
December 16, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986864/microrna-322-inhibits-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-and-promotes-cell-proliferation-in-lps-stimulated-murine-macrophages-by-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb1
#9
Kai Zhang, Fengling Song, Xiaoxia Lu, Wenxun Chen, Chunxiao Huang, Lexing Li, Danyang Liang, Shengbo Cao, Hanchuan Dai
Inflammation is the body's normal self-protection mechanism to eliminate pathogens and resist pathogen invasion. The excessive inflammatory response may lead to inflammatory lesions. The mechanisms accounting for inflammation remain hazy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed to have crucial effects on inflammation. In the current study, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation increases the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and the cell cycle progression was suppressed in RAW264.7 cells...
December 16, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980020/identification%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-ly2%C3%A2-members%C3%A2-as%C3%A2-novel%C3%A2-antimicrobial%C3%A2-peptides%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-zebrafish%C3%A2-danio%C3%A2-rerio
#10
Xuemin Liu, Xuwen Cao, Su Wang, Guangdong Ji, Shicui Zhang, Hongyan Li
The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) microbes caused by overuse of antibiotics leads to urgent demands for novel antibiotics exploration. Our recent data showed that Ly2.1-3 (a novel Ly6 gene cluster) were proteins with cationic nature and rich in cysteines content, that are characteristics of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), and their expression were all significantly up-regulated after challenge with LPS. These strongly suggested that Ly2.1-3 are potential AMPs, but firm evidences are lacking. Here we clearly showed that the recombinant proteins of Ly2...
December 15, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920278/a-meta-analysis-of-the-association-of-serum-ischemia-modified-albumin-levels-with%C3%A2-human-hypothyroidism-and-hyperthyroidism
#11
Varikasuvu Seshadri Reddy, Suman Bukke, Khageshwar Mahato, Vinod Kumar, Netala Vasudeva Reddy, Manne Munikumar
BACKGROUND: Serum levels of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) have been studied as a novel and simple measure of oxidative stress (OXS) in different thyroid pathologies. However, results of available studies in the literature were not consistent. This meta-analysis was attempted to quantify the overall effect size for serum IMA levels in human hypothyroidism (HT) and hyperthyroidism (HYT) and to study its associations with the thyroid profile. METHODS: Databases of PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Science Direct were searched for articles...
December 5, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920277/the%C3%A2-diffuse%C3%A2-reduction%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-spleen%C3%A2-density-%C3%A2-an%C3%A2-indicator%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-severe%C3%A2-acute%C3%A2-pancreatitis
#12
Guangdong Shao, Yanmei Zhou, Zengfu Song, Maitao Jiang, Xiaoqian Wang, Xiangren Jin, Bei Sun, Xuewei Bai
BACKGROUND: We observed that acute pancreatitis (AP) was associated with diffuse reduction of spleen density (DROSD) in some patients. Furthermore, the condition of these patients was more serious, and the potential relationship between DROSD and structural and functional injury of the spleen remained unclear. Therefore, we performed a preliminary exploration of these factors. METHODS: We analysed pertinent clinical data for AP patients with normal spleen density (control group) and for those with DROSD (reduction group) at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University (2013...
December 5, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920276/studies-of-recombinant-twa1-reveal-constitutive-dimerisation
#13
Ore Francis, Genevieve E Baker, Paul R Race, Josephine C Adams
The mammalian muskelin/RanBP9/CTLH complex and the S. cerevisiae GID complex are large, multi-protein complexes that each contain a RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. The yeast GID complex acts to degrade a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, under conditions of abundant fermentable carbon sources. However, the assembly and functions of the mammalian complex remain poorly understood. A striking feature of these complexes is the presence of multiple proteins that contain contiguous lissencephaly-1 homology (LisH), C-terminal to LisH (CTLH) and C-terminal CT11-RanBP9 (CRA) domains...
December 5, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920275/hypermethylation-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-bnp-gene-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#14
Ni Li, Dawei Zheng, Lebo Sun, Huoshun Shi, Xiuying Zhu, Guodong Xu, Qinning Wang, Caimin Zhu, Guofeng Shao
To investigate the contribution of BNP promoter DNA methylation to the risk of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and the influence of warfarin anticoagulant therapy on BNP methylation levels for RHD patients after surgery.BNP methylation levels were determined by bisulfite pyrosequencing from plasma samples of RHD patients compared with healthy controls. Several factors influencing the RHD patients were included age, smoking, and cholesterol levels. A fragment of 5 CG sites (CpG1-5) in the promoter region of BNP gene was measured...
December 5, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913753/neutrophil-derived-microparticles-are-released-into-the-coronary-circulation-following-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#15
Gonzalo J Martinez, Jennifer Y Barraclough, Shirley Nakhla, Vivian Kienzle, Stacy Robertson, Ziad Mallat, David S Celermajer, Sanjay Patel
AIMS: To evaluate (i) local coronary and systemic levels of microparticles (MP) in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and Stable Angina Pectoris (SAP) patients and (ii) their release after plaque disruption with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Microparticles are small vesicles originating from plasma membranes of cells after activation or apoptosis and are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Neutrophils play a role in plaque destabilisation and shed neutrophil-derived microparticles have the potential to drive significant pro-inflammatory and thrombotic downstream effects...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913752/expression-and-bioactivity-of-human-alpha-fetoprotein-in-a-bac-to-bac-system
#16
Bo Lin, Kun Liu, Wenting Wang, Wei Li, Xu Dong, Yi Chen, Yan Lu, Junli Guo, Mingyue Zhu, Mengsen Li
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an early serum growth factor in fetal embryonic development and hepatic oncogenesis. A growing number of investigations of AFP as a tumor-specific biomarker have concluded that AFP is an important target for cancer treatment. AFP also plays an immunomodulatory role in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and thyroiditis. In an effort to support biochemical screening and drug design and discovery, we attempted to express and purify human AFP in a Bac-to-Bac system...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913751/new-fungal-defensin-like-peptides-provide-evidence-for-fold-change-of-proteins-in-evolution
#17
Yucheng Wu, Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
Defensins containing a consensus cystine framework, Cys[1]..Cys[2]X3Cys[3]..Cys[4]..Cys[5]X1Cys[6] ("X", any amino acids normally except Cys; "...", variable residue numbers), are extensively distributed in a variety of multicellular organisms (plants, fungi and invertebrates) and essentially involved in immunity as microbicidal agents. This framework is a prerequisite for forming a cystine-stabilized α-helix and β-sheet (CSαβ) fold, in which the two invariant motifs, Cys[2]X3Cys[3]/Cys[5]X1Cys[6], are key determinants of fold formation...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899435/imaging-oxygen-metabolism-with-hyperpolarized-magnetic-resonance-a-novel-approach-for-cardiac-and-renal-function%C3%A2-assessement
#18
Marie Schroeder, Christoffer Lausten
Every tissue in the body critically depends on meeting its energetic demands with sufficient oxygen supply. Oxygen supply/demand imbalances underlie the diseases that inflict the greatest socioeconomic burden globally. The purpose of this review is to examine how hyperpolarized contrast media, used in combination with MR data acquisition methods, may advance our ability to assess oxygen metabolism non-invasively and thus improve management of clinical disease. We first introduce the concept of hyperpolarization and how hyperpolarized contrast media have been practically implemented to achieve translational and clinical research...
November 29, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884977/nanog-regulates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-chemoresistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#19
Shan Qin, Yanfang Li, Xuexia Cao, Jiexian Du, Xianghua Huang
A key transcription factor associated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer is NANOG. However, the mechanism by which NANOG functions remains undefined. It has been suggested that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) also contributes to development of drug resistance in different cancers. We thus determined whether NANOG expression was associated with EMT and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. NANOG expression was increased in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines compared with its expression in normal epithelial ovarian cell lines...
November 24, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011897/association-between-polymorphisms-of-thymidylate-synthase-gene-5-and-3-utr-and-gastric-cancer-risk-meta-analysis
#20
Ao Mo, Yongliang Zhao, Yan Shi, Feng Qian, Yingxue Hao, Jun Chen, Shiwei Yang, Yuxing Jiang, Ziyan Luo, Peiwu Yu
Gastric cancer is the most common cancer and the most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide. Several studies have identified the role of thymidylate synthase (TS) 5'- and 3'-UTR and gastric cancer susceptibility; however, the results still remain inconclusive. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to reinvestigate this correlation. In the present study, online databases were searched to retrieve relevant articles published between January 2000 and 2016. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed to calculate the strength of association...
December 2016: Bioscience Reports
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