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Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330328/assembling-a-cellular-user-manual-for-the-brain
#1
Steven A Sloan, Ben A Barres
For many years, efforts to decipher the various cellular components that comprise the central nervous system were stymied by a lack of technical strategies for isolating and profiling the brain's resident cell types. The advent of transcriptional profiling, combined with powerful new purification schemes, changed this reality and transformed our understanding of the macroglial populations within the brain. Here, we chronicle the historical context and scientific setting for our efforts to transcriptionally profile neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, and highlight some of the profound discoveries that were cultivated by these data...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330327/signal-complexity-of-human-intracranial-eeg-tracks-successful-associative-memory-formation-across-individuals
#2
Timothy C Sheehan, Vishnu Sreekumar, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
Memory performance is highly variable between individuals. Most studies examining human memory, however, have largely focused on the neural correlates of successful memory formation within individuals, rather than the differences between them. As such, what gives rise to this variability is poorly understood. Here, we examined intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings captured from 43 participants (23 male) implanted with subdural electrodes for seizure monitoring as they performed a paired-associates verbal memory task...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330326/loss-of-balance-between-striatal-feedforward-inhibition-and-corticostriatal-excitation-leads-to-tremor
#3
Yael Oran, Izhar Bar-Gad
Fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) exert powerful inhibitory control over the striatum and are hypothesized to balance the massive excitatory cortical and thalamic input to this structure. We recorded neuronal activity in the dorsolateral striatum and globus pallidus (GP) concurrently with the detailed movement kinematics of freely behaving female rats prior to and following selective inhibition of FSI activity using IEM-1460 microinjections. The inhibition led to the appearance of episodic rest tremor in the body part that depended on the somatotopic location of the injection within the striatum...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326174/muscle-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-may-mediate-trans-synaptic-signaling-at-the-mouse-neuromuscular-junction
#4
Xueyong Wang, J Michael McIntosh, Mark M Rich
Block of neurotransmitter receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has been shown to trigger upregulation of the number of synaptic vesicles released (quantal content, QC), a response termed homeostatic synaptic plasticity. The mechanism underlying this plasticity is not known. Here, we used selective toxins to demonstrate that block of α1-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the neuromuscular junction of male and female mice, triggers the upregulation of QC. Reduction of current flow through nAChRs, induced by drugs with antagonist activity, demonstrated that reduction in synaptic current per se does not trigger upregulation of QC...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#5
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that Zeb2 (a.k.a. Sip1 or Zfhx1b), a Mowat-Wilson-syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326172/diversity-and-connectivity-of-layer-5-somatostatin-expressing-interneurons-in-the-mouse-barrel-cortex
#6
Nigro Maximiliano José, Yoshiko Hashikawa, Bernardo Rudy
Inhibitory interneurons represent 10-15% of the neurons in the somatosensory cortex, and their activity powerfully shapes sensory processing. Three major groups of GABAergic interneurons have been defined according to developmental, molecular, morphological, electrophysiological, and synaptic features. Dendritic-targeting somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SST-INs) have been shown to display diverse morphological, electrophysiological and molecular properties and activity patterns in vivo. However, the correlation between these properties and SST-IN subtype is unclear...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326171/abdominal-vagal-afferents-modulate-the-brain-transcriptome-and-behaviors-relevant-to-schizophrenia
#7
Melanie Klarer, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Juliet Richetto, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Lydia Günther, Christine Winter, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Reduced activity of vagal efferents has long been implicated in schizophrenia and appears to be responsible for diminished parasympathetic activity and associated peripheral symptoms such as low heart rate variability and cardiovascular complications in affected individuals. In contrast, only little attention has been paid to the possibility that impaired afferent vagal signaling may be relevant for the disorder's pathophysiology as well. The present study explored this hypothesis using a model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) in male rats...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321139/bmp-smad-pathway-promotes-neurogenesis-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vivo-and-in-human-induced-pluripotent-and-neural-stem-cells
#8
V M Jovanovic, A Salti, H Tilleman, K Zega, M M Jukic, H Zou, R H Friedel, N Prakash, S Blaess, F Edenhofer, C Brodski
The embryonic formation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in vivo provides critical guidelines for the in vitro differentiation of mDA neurons from stem cells, currently being developed for Parkinson's disease cell replacement therapy. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD inhibition is routinely used during early steps of stem cell differentiation protocols, including for the generation of mDA neurons. However, the function of the BMP/SMAD pathway for in vivo specification of mammalian mDA neurons is virtually unknown...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321138/sensorimotor-functional-and-structural-networks-after-intracerebral-stem-cell-grafts-in-the-ischemic-mouse-brain
#9
Claudia Green, Anuka Minassian, Stefanie Vogel, Michael Diedenhofen, Andreas Beyrau, Dirk Wiedermann, Mathias Hoehn
Past investigations on stem cell mediated recovery after stroke have limited their focus on the extent and morphological development of the ischemic lesion itself over time or on the integration capacity of the stem cell graft ex vivo However, an assessment of the long-term functional and structural improvement in vivo is essential to reliably quantify the regenerative capacity of cell implantation after stroke.We induced ischemic stroke in nude mice and implanted human neural stem cells (H9 derived) into the ipsilateral cortex in the acute phase...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317485/meis1-coordinates-cerebellar-granule-cell-development-by-regulating-pax6-transcription-bmp-signaling-and-atoh1-degradation
#10
Tomoo Owa, Shinichiro Taya, Satoshi Miyashita, Mariko Yamashita, Toma Adachi, Koyo Yamada, Miwa Yokoyama, Shogo Aida, Tomoki Nishioka, Yukiko U Inoue, Ryo Goitsuka, Takuro Nakamura, Takayoshi Inoue, Kozo Kaibuchi, Mikio Hoshino
Cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) and granule cells (GCs) represent good models to study neuronal development. Here we report that the transcription factor, Meis1, plays pivotal roles to regulate mouse GC development. We found that Meis1 is expressed in granule cell lineage cells and astrocytes in the cerebellum during development. Targeted disruption of the Meis1 gene specifically in the GC lineage resulted in smaller cerebella with disorganized lobules. Knockdown/knockout experiments for Meis1 as well as in vitro assays show that Meis1 binds to an upstream sequence of Pax6 to enhance its transcription in GCPs/GCs and further suggested that the Meis1-Pax6 cascade regulates morphology of GCPs/GCs during development...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317484/chemogenetic-excitation-of-accumbens-projecting-infralimbic-cortical-neurons-blocks-toluene-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#11
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our lab has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs. prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs. deep; 5/6), target (core vs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311144/differentiation-and-characterization-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synapses-by-cryo-electron-tomography-and-correlative-microscopy
#12
Chang-Lu Tao, Yun-Tao Liu, Rong Sun, Bin Zhang, Lei Qi, Sakar Shivakoti, Chong-Li Tian, Peijun Zhang, Pak-Ming Lau, Z Hong Zhou, Guo-Qiang Bi
As key functional units in neural circuits, different types of neuronal synapses play distinct roles in brain information processing, learning and memory. Synaptic abnormalities are believed to underlie various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here, by combining cryo-electron tomography and cryo-correlative light and electron microscopy, we distinguished intact excitatory and inhibitory synapses of cultured hippocampal neurons, and visualized the in situ three-dimensional organization of synaptic organelles and macromolecules in their native state...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311143/neural-integration-of-stimulus-history-underlies-prediction-for-naturalistically-evolving-sequences
#13
Brian Maniscalco, Jennifer L Lee, Patrice Abry, Amy Lin, Tom Holroyd, Biyu J He
Forming valid predictions about the environment is crucial to survival. However, whether humans are able to form valid predictions about natural stimuli based on their temporal statistical regularities remains unknown. Here we presented subjects with tone sequences whose pitch fluctuation over time capture long-range temporal dependence structures prevalent in natural stimuli. We found that subjects were able to exploit such naturalistic statistical regularities to make valid predictions about upcoming items in a sequence...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311142/regulation-of-lateral-hypothalamic-orexin-activity-by-local-gabaergic-neurons
#14
Loris L Ferrari, Daniel Park, Lin Zhu, Matthew R Palmer, Rebecca Y Broadhurst, Elda Arrigoni
Orexin (also known as hypocretin) neurons are considered a key component of the ascending arousal system. They are active during wakefulness, at which time they drive and maintain arousal, and are silent during sleep. Their activity is controlled by long-range inputs from many sources, as well as by more short-range inputs, including from presumptive GABAergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical region (LH/PF). To characterize local GABAergic input to orexin neurons we employed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-assisted-circuit-mapping in brain slices...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311141/a-unique-homeostatic-signaling-pathway-links-synaptic-inactivity-to-postsynaptic-mtorc1
#15
Fredrick E Henry, Xiao Wang, David Serrano, Amanda S Perez, Cynthia J L Carruthers, Edward L Stuenkel, Michael A Sutton
mTORC1-dependent translational control plays a key role in several enduring forms of synaptic plasticity such as long term potentiation (LTP) and mGluR-dependent long term depression. Recent evidence demonstrates an additional role in regulating synaptic homeostasis in response to inactivity, where dendritic mTORC1 serves to modulate presynaptic function via retrograde signaling. Presently, it is unclear if LTP and homeostatic plasticity utilize a common route to mTORC1-dependent signaling or if each engage mTORC1 through distinct pathways...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311140/visual-short-term-memory-activity-in-parietal-lobe-reflects-cognitive-processes-beyond-attentional-selection
#16
Summer L Sheremata, David C Somers, Sarah Shomstein
Visual attention and short-term memory (VSTM) are distinct yet inter-related processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection, therefore, it is important to determine if overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311139/retrosplenial-cortex-indexes-stability-beyond-the-spatial-domain
#17
Stephen D Auger, Eleanor A Maguire
Retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is highly responsive to landmarks in the environment which remain fixed in a permanent location, and this has been linked with its known involvement in scene and spatial processing. However, it is unclear if RSC representations of permanence are a purely spatial phenomenon or whether they extend into behavioural and conceptual domains. To test this, during functional MRI (fMRI) scanning we had people (males and females) read three different types of sentence which described either something permanent or transient...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305536/pou6f1-mediates-neuropeptide-dependent-plasticity-in-the-adult-brain
#18
Cynthia K McClard, Mikhail Y Kochukov, Isabella Herman, Zhandong Liu, Aiden Eblimit, Yalda Moayedi, Joshua Ortiz-Guzman, Daniel Colchado, Brandon Pekarek, Sugi Paneerselvam, Graeme Mardon, Benjamin R Arenkiel
The mouse olfactory bulb (OB) features continued, activity-dependent integration of adult-born neurons, providing a robust model to examine mechanisms of plasticity in the adult brain. We previously reported that local OB interneurons secrete the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in an activity-dependent manner onto adult-born granule neurons, and that local CRH signaling promotes expression of synaptic machinery in the bulb. This effect is mediated via activation of the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), which is developmentally regulated during adult-born neuron maturation...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305535/an-insula-central-amygdala-circuit-for-guiding-tastant-reinforced-choice-behavior
#19
Hillary Schiff, Anna Lien Bouhuis, Kai Yu, Mario A Penzo, Haohong Li, Miao He, Bo Li
Predicting which substances are suitable for consumption during foraging is critical for animals to survive. Despite extensive study, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying such adaptive behavior remain poorly understood. Here we examined the anatomical and functional connectivity of the insular cortex (IC) to central amygdala (CeA) circuit and the role of this circuit in the establishment of appropriate behavioral responses in a tastant (sucrose/quinine)-reinforced "go/no-go" task in male and female mice...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305534/the-role-of-human-primary-motor-cortex-in-the-production-of-skilled-finger-sequences
#20
Atsushi Yokoi, Spencer A Arbuckle, Jörn Diedrichsen
Human primary motor cortex (M1) is essential for producing dexterous hand movements. While distinct subpopulations of neurons are activated during single finger movements, it remains unknown whether M1 also represents sequences of multiple finger movements. Using novel multivariate fMRI analysis techniques and combining evidence from both 3T and 7T fMRI data, we found that after 5 days of intense practice, premotor and parietal areas encoded the different movement sequences. There was little or no evidence for a sequence representation in M1...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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