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Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146590/camkii%C3%AE-mediates-the-effect-of-il-17-to-promote-ongoing-spontaneous-and-evoked-pain-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Xiaoyu Hu, Fang Huang, Zaijie Jim Wang
Pain is a common and severe symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The neurobiological mechanism underlying MS pain is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent kinase type IIα (CaMKIIα) in driving chronic pain in MS using a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We found that spinal CaMKIIα activity was enhanced in EAE correlating with the development of ongoing spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138282/trajectory-analysis-unveils-reelin-s-role-in-the-directed-migration-of-granule-cells-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#2
Shaobo Wang, Bianka Brunne, Shanting Zhao, Xuejun Chai, Jiawei Li, Jeremie Lau, Antonio Virgilio Failla, Bernd Zobiak, Mirjam Sibbe, Gary L Westbrook, David Lutz, Michael Frotscher
Reelin controls neuronal migration and layer formation. Previous studies in reeler mice deficient in Reelin focused on the result of the developmental process in fixed tissue sections. It has remained unclear whether Reelin affects the migratory process, migration directionality or migrating neurons guided by the radial glial scaffold. Moreover, Reelin has been regarded as an attractive signal, since newly generated neurons migrate toward the Reelin-containing marginal zone. Conversely, Reelin might be a stop signal, since migrating neurons in reeler, but not in wild-type mice, invade the marginal zone...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138281/a-conserved-cytoskeletal-signaling-cascade-mediates-neurotoxicity-of-ftdp-17-tau-mutations-in-vivo
#3
Farah H Bardai, Liqun Wang, Yamini Mutreja, Mythili Yenjerla, T Chris Gamblin, Mel B Feany
The microtubule binding protein tau is strongly implicated in multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), which is caused by mutations in tau. In vitro, FTDP-17 mutant versions of tau can reduce microtubule binding and increase aggregation of tau, but the mechanism by which these mutations promote disease in vivo is not clear. Here we take a combined biochemical and in vivo modeling approach to define functional properties of tau driving neurotoxicity in vivo We express wild type human tau and five FTDP-17 mutant forms of tau in Drosophila using a site-directed insertion strategy to ensure equivalent levels of expression...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133438/normal-topography-and-binocularity-of-the-superior-colliculus-in-strabismus
#4
John R Economides, Brittany C Rapone, Daniel L Adams, Jonathan C Horton
In subjects with alternating strabismus either eye can be used to saccade to visual targets. The brain must calculate the correct vector for each saccade, which will depend on the eye chosen to make it. The superior colliculus, a major midbrain center for saccade generation, was examined to determine if the maps serving each eye were shifted to compensate for strabismus.Alternating exotropia was induced in two male macaques at age one month by sectioning the tendons of the medial recti. Once the animals grew to maturity, they were trained to fixate targets with either eye...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133437/abnormal-microglia-and-enhanced-inflammation-related-gene-transcription-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-ctcf-in-camk2a-cre-expressing-neurons
#5
Bryan E McGill, Ruteja A Barve, Susan E Maloney, Amy Strickland, Nicholas Rensing, Peter Wang, Michael Wong, Richard Head, David F Wozniak, Jeffrey Milbrandt
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an 11 zinc finger DNA-binding domain protein that regulates gene expression by modifying three dimensional chromatin structure. Human mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features. Knocking out Ctcf in mouse embryonic neurons is lethal by neonatal age, but the effects of CTCF deficiency in postnatal neurons are less well studied. We knocked out Ctcf postnatally in glutamatergic forebrain neurons under the control of Camk2a-CreCtcf(loxP/loxP) ;Camk2a-Cre+ (Ctcf CKO) mice of both sexes were viable and exhibited profound deficits in spatial learning/memory, impaired motor co-ordination, and decreased sociability by 4 months of age...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133436/ventral-midline-thalamus-is-necessary-for-hippocampal-place-field-stability-and-cell-firing-modulation
#6
T Cholvin, V Hok, L Giorgi, F A Chaillan, B Poucet
The reuniens (Re) and Rhomboid (Rh) nuclei of the ventral midline thalamus are reciprocally connected with the hippocampus (Hip) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Growing evidence suggests that these nuclei might play a crucial role in cognitive processes requiring Hip-mPFC interactions, including spatial navigation. Here, we tested the effect of ReRh lesions on the firing properties and spatial activity of dorsal hippocampal CA1 place cells as male rats explored a familiar or a novel environment. We found no change in the spatial characteristics of CA1 place cells in the familiar environment following ReRh lesions...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133435/coordinated-plasticity-of-synapses-and-astrocytes-underlies-practice-driven-functional-vicariation-in-peri-infarct-motor-cortex
#7
Soo Young Kim, J Edward Hsu, Lincoln C Husbands, Jeffrey A Kleim, Theresa A Jones
Motor rehabilitative training after stroke can improve motor function and promote topographical reorganization of remaining motor cortical movement representations, but this reorganization follows behavioral improvements. A more detailed understanding of the neural bases of rehabilitation efficacy is needed to inform therapeutic efforts to improve it. Using a rat model of upper extremity impairments after ischemic stroke, we examined effects of motor rehabilitative training at the ultrastructural level in peri-infarct motor cortex...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133434/pkd1-promotes-functional-synapse-formation-coordinated-with-n-cadherin-in-hippocampus
#8
Cheng Cen, Li-Da Luo, Wen-Qi Li, Gang Li, Na-Xi Tian, Ge Zheng, Dong-Min Yin, Yimin Zou, Yun Wang
Functional synapse formation is critical for the wiring of neural circuits in the developing brain. The cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin plays important roles in target recognition and synaptogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the localization of N-cadherin and the subsequent effects remain poorly understood. Here, we show that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) directly binds to N-cadherin at amino acid residues 836-871 and phosphorylates it at Ser 869, 871, 872, thereby increasing the surface localization of N-cadherin and promoting functional synapse formation in primary cultured hippocampal neurons obtained from embryonic day 18 rat embryos of either sex...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133433/attention-priority-map-of-face-images-in-human-early-visual-cortex
#9
Ce Mo, Dongjun He, Fang Fang
Attention priority maps are topographic representations that are utilized for attention selection and guidance of task-related behavior during visual processing. Previous studies have identified attention priority maps of simple artificial stimuli in multiple cortical and subcortical areas, while investigating neural correlates of priority maps of natural stimuli is complicated by the complexity of their spatial structure and the difficulty of behaviorally characterizing their priority map. To overcome these challenges, we reconstructed the topographic representations of upright/invered face images from fMRI BOLD signals in human early visual areas V1-V3 based on a voxel-wise population receptive field model and behaviorally characterized the priority map as the first saccadic eye movement pattern when subjects performed a face matching task, relative to the condition in which subjects performed a phase-scrambled face matching task...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133432/locus-coeruleus-ablation-exacerbates-cognitive-deficits-neuropathology-and-lethality-in-p301s-tau-transgenic-mice
#10
Termpanit Chalermpalanupap, Jason P Schroeder, Jacki M Rorabaugh, L Cameron Liles, James J Lah, Allan I Levey, David Weinshenker
The brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) supplies norepinephrine (NE) to the forebrain and degenerates in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Loss of LC neurons is correlated with increased severity of other AD hallmarks including β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, tau neurofibrillary tangles and cognitive deficits, suggesting that it contributes to the disease progression. Lesions of the LC in amyloid-based transgenic mouse models of AD exacerbate Aβ pathology, neuroinflammation, and cognitive deficits, but it is unknown how the loss of LC neurons affects tau-mediated pathology or behavioral abnormalities...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133431/restoration-of-dendritic-complexity-functional-connectivity-and-diversity-of-regenerated-retinal-bipolar-neurons-in-adult-zebrafish
#11
Timothy E McGinn, Diana M Mitchell, Peter C Meighan, Natalie Partington, Dylan C Leoni, Christina E Jenkins, Michael D Varnum, Deborah L Stenkamp
Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are capable of regenerating retinal neurons that have been lost due to mechanical, chemical, or light damage. In the case of chemical damage, there is evidence that visually-mediated behaviors are restored following regeneration, consistent with recovery of retinal function. However, the extent to which regenerated retinal neurons attain appropriate morphologies and circuitry after such tissue-disrupting lesions has not been investigated. Adult zebrafish of both sexes were subjected to intravitreal injections of ouabain, which destroys the inner retina...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133430/the-dual-function-of-the-polybasic-juxtamembrane-region-of-syntaxin-1a-in-clamping-spontaneous-release-and-stimulating-ca-2-triggered-release-in-neuroendocrine-cells
#12
Dafna Singer-Lahat, Noa Barak-Broner, Anton Sheinin, Dafna Greitzer-Antes, Izhak Michaelevski, Ilana Lotan
The exact function of the polybasic juxtamembrane region (5RK) of the plasma membrane neuronal SNARE, syntaxin 1A (Syx), in vesicle exocytosis, although widely studied, is currently not clear. Here, we addressed the role of 5RK in Ca(2+)-triggered release, using our Syx-based intramolecular FRET probe, which previously allowed us to resolve a depolarization-induced Ca(+2)- dependent close-to-open transition (CDO) of Syx that occurs concomitant with evoked release, both in PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons and was abolished upon charge neutralization of 5RK...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118110/cellular-functions-of-the-autism-risk-factor-ptchd1-in-mice
#13
David Tora, Andrea M Gomez, Jean-Francois Michaud, Patricia T Yam, Frédéric Charron, Peter Scheiffele
The gene PTCHD1 is mutated in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) and has been hypothesized to contribute to Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and synapse formation. We identify a panel of Ptchd1 interacting proteins that include postsynaptic density proteins and the retromer complex, revealing a link to critical regulators of dendritic and postsynaptic trafficking. Ptchd1 knock-out male mice exhibit cognitive alterations, including defects in a novel object recognition task...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118109/activation-of-%C3%AE-secretase-trimming-activity-by-topological-changes-of-transmembrane-domain-1-of-presenilin-1
#14
Tetsuo Cai, Masahiro Yonaga, Taisuke Tomita
γ-Secretase is an intramembrane cleaving protease that is responsible for the generation of amyloid-β peptides, which are linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Recently, γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) have been shown to specifically decrease production of the aggregation-prone and toxic longer Aβ species, and concomitantly increase the levels of shorter Aβ. We previously found that phenylimidazole-type GSMs bind to presenilin 1 (PS1), the catalytic subunit of the γ-secretase, and allosterically modulate γ-secretase activity...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118108/network-configurations-in-the-human-brain-reflect-choice-bias-during-rapid-face-processing
#15
Tao Tu, Noam Schneck, Jordan Muraskin, Paul Sajda
Network interactions are likely to be instrumental in processes underlying rapid perception and cognition. Specifically, high-level and perceptual regions must interact to balance pre-existing models of the environment with new incoming stimuli. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI allows for the temporal characterization of brain-network interactions combined with improved anatomical localization of regional activity. In this paper we use simultaneous EEG/fMRI and multivariate dynamical systems (MDS) analysis to characterize network relationships between constitute brain areas that reflect a subject's choice for a face versus non-face categorization task...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118107/morphological-constraints-on-cerebellar-granule-cell-combinatorial-diversity
#16
Jesse I Gilmer, Abigail L Person
Combinatorial expansion by the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) is fundamental to theories of cerebellar contributions to motor control and learning. Granule cells sample approximately four mossy fiber inputs and are thought to form a combinatorial code useful for pattern separation and learning. We constructed a spatially realistic model of the cerebellar granule cell layer and examined how GCL architecture contributes to granule cell (GrC) combinatorial diversity. We found that GrC combinatorial diversity saturates quickly as mossy fiber input diversity increases, and that this saturation is in part a consequence of short dendrites, which limit access to diverse inputs and favor dense sampling of local inputs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118106/sleep-in-humans-stabilizes-pattern-separation-performance
#17
A Hanert, F D Weber, A Pedersen, J Born, T Bartsch
Replay of hippocampal neural representations during sleep is thought to promote systems consolidation of declarative memory. How this reprocessing of memory during sleep affects the hippocampal representation itself, is unclear. Here we tested hippocampal stimulus processing, i.e., pattern separation, before and after periods of sleep and wakefulness in humans (female and male participants). Pattern separation deteriorated across the wake period but remained stable across sleep (p = .013) with this sleep-wake difference being most pronounced for stimuli with low similarity to targets (p = ...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118105/neuropeptide-s-activates-paraventricular-oxytocin-neurons-to-induce-anxiolysis
#18
Thomas Grund, Stephanie Goyon, Yuting Li, Marina Eliava, Haikun Liu, Alexandre Charlet, Valery Grinevich, Inga D Neumann
Neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide S (NPS) and oxytocin (OXT) represent potential options for the treatment of anxiety disorders due to their potent anxiolytic profile. In this study, we aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the behavioral action of NPS, and present a chain of evidence that the effects of NPS within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are mediated via actions on local OXT neurons in male Wistar rats. First, retrograde studies identified NPS fibers originating in the brainstem locus coeruleus and projecting to the PVN...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118104/conditional-deletion-of-ric-8b-in-olfactory-sensory-neurons-leads-to-olfactory-impairment
#19
Cleiton F Machado, Maíra H Nagai, Cassandra S Lyra, Thiago M Reis-Silva, André Machado Xavier, Isaias Glezer, Luciano F Felicio, Bettina Malnic
The olfactory system can discriminate a vast number of odorants. This ability derives from the existence of a large family of odorant receptors expressed in the cilia of the olfactory sensory neurons. Odorant receptors signal through the olfactory-specific G-protein subunit, Gαolf. Ric-8b, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, interacts with Gαolf and can amplify odorant receptor signal transduction in vitro To explore the function of Ric-8b in vivo, we generated a tissue specific knockout mouse by crossing OMP-Cre transgenic mice to Ric-8b floxed mice...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118103/familiar-but-unexpected-effects-of-sound-context-statistics-on-auditory-responses-in-the-songbird-forebrain
#20
Kai Lu, David S Vicario
Rapid discrimination of salient acoustic signals in the noisy natural environment may depend not only on specific stimulus features, but also on previous experience that generates expectations about upcoming events. We studied the neural correlates of expectation in the songbird forebrain by using natural vocalizations as stimuli and manipulating the category and familiarity of context sounds. In our paradigm, we recorded bilaterally from auditory neurons in awake adult male zebra finches with multiple microelectrodes during repeated playback of a conspecific song, followed by further playback of this test song in different interleaved sequences with other conspecific or heterospecific songs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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