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Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539425/perceptual-competition-promotes-suppression-of-reward-salience-in-behavioral-selection-and-neural-representation
#1
Mengyuan Gong, Ke Jia, Sheng Li
Visual attentional selection is influenced by the value of objects. Previous studies have demonstrated that reward-associated items lead to rapid distraction and associated behavioral costs, which are difficult to override with top-down control. However, it has not been determined whether a perceptually competitive environment could render the reward-driven distraction more susceptible to top-down suppression. Here, we trained both genders of human subjects to associate two orientations with high and low magnitudes of reward...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539424/ca-2-permeable-ampars-mediate-glutamatergic-transmission-and-excitotoxic-damage-at-the-hair-cell-ribbon-synapse
#2
Joy Y Sebe, Soyoun Cho, Lavinia Sheets, Mark A Rutherford, Henrique von Gersdorff, David W Raible
We report functional and structural evidence for GluA2-lacking Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) at the mature hair cell ribbon synapse. By utilizing the methodological advantages of three species (of either sex), we demonstrate that CP-AMPARs are present at the hair cell synapse in an evolutionarily conserved manner. Via a combination of in vivo electrophysiological and Ca(2+) imaging approaches in the larval zebrafish, we show that hair cell stimulation leads to robust Ca(2+) influx into afferent terminals...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539423/mnemonic-encoding-and-cortical-organization-in-parietal-and-prefrontal-cortices
#3
Nicolas Y Masse, Jonathan M Hodnefield, David J Freedman
Persistent activity within the frontoparietal network is consistently observed during tasks which require working memory. However, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying persistent neuronal encoding within this network remain unresolved. Here, we ask how neural circuits support persistent activity by examining population recordings from posterior parietal (PPC) and prefrontal (PFC) cortices in two male monkeys that performed spatial and motion direction based tasks that required working memory. While spatially selective persistent activity was observed in both areas, robust selective persistent activity for motion direction was only observed in PFC...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539422/galanin-expressing-gaba-neurons-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-modulate-food-reward-and-non-compulsive-locomotion
#4
Emily Qualls-Creekmore, Sangho Yu, Marie Francois, John Hoang, Clara Huesing, Annadora Bruce-Keller, David Burk, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Christopher D Morrison, Heike Münzberg
The lateral hypothalamus (LHA) integrates reward and appetitive behavior and is composed of many overlapping neuronal populations. Recent studies associated LHA GABAergic neurons (LHA (GABA) ), that densely innervate the ventral tegmental area (VTA), with modulation of food reward and consumption; yet, LHA (GABA) >VTA projections exclusively modulated food consumption, not reward. We identified a subpopulation of LHA (GABA) neurons that co-express the neuropeptide galanin (LHA (Gal) ). These LHA (Gal) neurons also modulate food reward, but lack direct VTA innervation...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539421/sound-making-actions-lead-to-immediate-plastic-changes-of-neuromagnetic-evoked-responses-and-induced-beta-band-oscillations-during-perception
#5
Bernhard Ross, Masihullah Barat, Takako Fujioka
Auditory and sensorimotor brain areas interact during the action-perception cycle of sound making. Neurophysiological evidence of a feedforward model of the action and its outcome has been associated with attenuation of the N1 wave of auditory evoked responses elicited by self-generated sounds, such as vocalization or playing a musical instrument. Moreover, neural oscillations at beta-band frequencies have been related to predicting the sound outcome after action initiation. We hypothesized that a newly learned action-perception association would immediately modify interpretation of the sound during subsequent listening...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539420/a-selective-role-for-dopamine-in-learning-to-maximize-reward-but-not-to-minimize-effort-evidence-from-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Vasilisa Skvortsova, Bertrand Degos, Marie-Laure Welter, Marie Vidailhet, Mathias Pessiglione
Instrumental learning is a fundamental process through which agents optimize their choices, taking into account various dimensions of available options, such as the possible reward or punishment outcomes, and the costs associated with potential actions. While the implication of dopamine in learning from choice outcomes is well established, less is known about its role in learning the action costs such as effort. Here, we tested the ability of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to maximize monetary rewards and minimize physical efforts in a probabilistic instrumental learning task...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539419/microglia-are-irrelevant-for-neuronal-degeneration-and-axon-regeneration-after-acute-injury
#7
Alexander M Hilla, Heike Diekmann, Dietmar Fischer
The role of microglia in de- and regenerative processes after damage of the nervous system still remains ambiguous, partially due to the paucity of appropriate investigative methods. Here, we show that treatment with the pharmacological colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor PLX5622 specifically eliminated microglia in murine retinae and optic nerves. Interestingly, time course and extent of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration after optic nerve crush remained unaffected upon microglia depletion, although remnants of pre-labeled apoptotic RGCs were not cleared from the retina in these animals...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539418/loss-of-doc2-dependent-spontaneous-neurotransmission-augments-glutamatergic-synaptic-strength
#8
Denise M O Ramirez, Devon C Crawford, Natali L Chanaday, Brent Trauterman, Lisa M Monteggia, Ege T Kavalali
Action potential-evoked vesicle fusion comprises the majority of neurotransmission within chemical synapses, but action potential-independent spontaneous neurotransmission also contributes to the collection of signals sent to the postsynaptic cell. Previous work has implicated spontaneous neurotransmission in homeostatic synaptic scaling, but few studies have selectively manipulated spontaneous neurotransmission without substantial changes in evoked neurotransmission to study this function in detail. Here we used a quadruple knockdown strategy to reduce levels of proteins within the soluble calcium-binding double C2 domain (Doc2)-like protein family to selectively reduce spontaneous neurotransmission in cultured mouse and rat neurons...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539417/exposure-to-stressors-facilitates-long-term-synaptic-potentiation-in-the-lateral-habenula
#9
Hoyong Park, Jeehae Rhee, Kwanghoon Park, Jung-Soo Han, Roberto Malinow, ChiHye Chung
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small part of the epithalamus that projects to monoamine centers in the brain. Previously, neurotransmission onto the LHb was shown to be abnormally potentiated in animal models of depression. However, synaptic plasticity in this brain area and the effect of stressor exposure on synaptic plasticity of the LHb have not been investigated. Thus, we explored whether the LHb undergoes dynamic changes in synaptic efficacy or not. First, we observed that a moderate long-term potentiation (LTP) occurs in a fraction of LHb neurons obtained from naïve Sprague Dawley rats...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539416/the-extinction-of-cocaine-seeking-requires-a-window-of-infralimbic-pyramidal-neuron-activity-after-unreinforced-lever-presses
#10
Andrea L Gutman, Kelle E Nett, Caitlin V Cosme, Wensday R Worth, Subhash C Gupta, John A Wemmie, Ryan T LaLumiere
The infralimbic cortex (IL) mediates the extinction learning and active suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. However, the precise temporal relationship among IL activity, lever pressing, and extinction learning is unclear. To address this issue, we employed activity-guided optogenetics in male Sprague-Dawley rats to optically silence IL pyramidal neurons for 20 s immediately following unreinforced lever presses during early extinction training after cocaine self-administration. Optical inhibition of the IL increased active lever pressing during shortened extinction sessions but did not alter the retention of the extinction learning as assessed in ensuing extinction sessions with no optical inhibition...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536274/mapping-22q11-2-gene-dosage-effects-on-brain-morphometry
#11
Amy Lin, Christopher R K Ching, Ariana Vajdi, Daqiang Sun, Rachel K Jonas, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Leila Kushan-Wells, Laura Pacheco Hansen, Emma Krikorian, Boris Gutman, Deepika Dokoru, Gerhard Helleman, Paul M Thompson, Carrie E Bearden
Reciprocal chromosomal rearrangements at the 22q11.2 locus are associated with elevated risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. The 22q11.2 deletion confers the highest known genetic risk for schizophrenia, but a duplication in the same region is strongly associated with autism and is less common in schizophrenia cases than in the general population. Here we conducted the first study of 22q11.2 gene dosage effects on brain structure in a sample of 143 human subjects: 66 with 22q11.2 deletions (22q-del; 32 males), 21 with 22q11...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536273/metal-transporter-zip14-slc39a14-deletion-in-mice-increases-manganese-depositionnd-produces-neurotoxic-signaturesnd-diminished-motorctivity
#12
Tolunay Bekerydemir, Min-Hyun Kim, Jinhee Kim, Luis M Colon-Perez, Guita Banan, Thomas H Mareci, Marcelo Febo, Robert J Cousins
Mutations in human ZIP14 have been linked to symptoms of early onset of Parkinsonismnd Dystonia. This phenotype is likely related to excess manganeseccumulation in the central nervous system. The metal transporter ZIP14 (SLC39A14) is viewed primarilys zinc transporter that is inducible via proinflammatory stimuli. In vitro evidence shows that ZIP14 canlso transport manganese. To examine role for ZIP14 in manganese homeostasis, we used Zip14 knockout (KO) malend female mice to conduct comparative metabolic, imagingnd functional studies...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536272/social-laughter-triggers-endogenous-opioid-release-in-humans
#13
Sandra Manninen, Lauri Tuominen, Robin Dunbar, Tomi Karjalainen, Jussi Hirvonen, Eveliina Arponen, Riitta Hari, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
The size of human social networks significantly exceeds the network that can be maintained by social grooming or touching in other primates. It has been proposed that endogenous opioid release following social laughter would provide a neurochemical pathway supporting long-term relationships in humans (Dunbar, 2012) yet this hypothesis currently lacks direct neurophysiological support. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and μ-opioid-receptor (MOR) specific ligand [11C]carfentanil to quantify laughter-induced endogenous opioid release in 12 healthy males...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536271/contrasting-modulatory-effects-from-the-dorsal-and-ventral-premotor-cortex-on-primary-motor-cortex-outputs
#14
Sandrine L Côté, Adjia Hamadjida, Stephan Quessy, Numa Dancause
The dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv) each take part in unique aspects for the planning and execution of hand movements. These premotor areas are components of complex anatomical networks that include the primary motor cortex (M1) of both hemispheres. One way PMd and PMv could play distinct roles for hand movements is by differently modulating the outputs of M1. Yet, patterns of effects from PMd and PMv on the outputs of M1 have not been systematically compared. Our goals were to study how PMd within the same (i...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536270/different-signal-enhancement-pathways-of-attention-and-consciousness-underlie-perception-in-humans
#15
Jeroen J A van Boxtel
It is not yet known whether attention and consciousness operate through similar, or largely different mechanisms. Visual processing mechanisms are routinely characterized by measuring contrast response functions (CRFs). In this report, behavioural CRFs were obtained in humans (both males and females) by measuring afterimage durations over the entire range of inducer stimulus contrasts, to reveal visual mechanisms behind attention and consciousness. Deviations relative to the standard CRF, i.e. gain functions, describe the strength of signal enhancement, which were assessed for both changes due to attentional task and conscious perception...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536269/a-cognition-related-neural-oscillation-pattern-generated-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-can-control-operant-learning-in-rats
#16
Samuel Hernández-González, Celia Andreu-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel Martín-Pascual, Agnès Gruart, José María Delgado-García
The prelimbic (PrL) cortex constitutes one of the highest levels of cortical hierarchy dedicated to the execution of adaptive behaviors. We have identified a specific local field potential (LFP) pattern generated in the PrL cortex, associated with cognition-related behaviors, and used it to trigger the activation of a visual display on a touch screen as part of an operant conditioning task. Rats learned to increase the presentation rate of the selected theta/beta-gamma transition pattern across training sessions...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522736/myelin-associated-glycoprotein-mag-inhibits-schwann-cell-migration-and-induces-their-death
#17
Nagarathnamma Chaudhry, Corinne Bachelin, Violetta Zujovic, Melissa Hilaire, Katherine T Baldwin, Rose M Follis, Roman Giger, Bruce D Carter, Anne Baron-Van Evercooren, Marie T Filbin
Remyelination of central nervous system (CNS) axons by Schwann cells (SC) is not efficient, in part due to their poor migration into the adult CNS. Although it is known that migrating SC avoid white matter tracts, the molecular mechanisms underlying this exclusion has never been elucidated. We now demonstrate that myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a well-known inhibitor of neurite outgrowth, inhibits rat SC migration and induces their death via γ secretase-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (also known as p75 cleavage)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522735/d3-receptors-regulate-excitability-in-a-unique-class-of-prefrontal-pyramidal-cell
#18
Rebecca L Clarkson, Alayna T Liptak, Steven M Gee, Vikaas S Sohal, Kevin J Bender
The D3 dopamine receptor, a member of the Gi-coupled D2-family of dopamine receptors, is expressed throughout limbic circuits affected in neuropsychiatric disorders, including prefrontal cortex. These receptors are important for prefrontal executive function, as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that affect prefrontal D3 receptors alter anxiety, social interaction, and reversal learning. And yet, the mechanisms by which D3 receptors regulate prefrontal circuits, and whether D3 receptors regulate specific prefrontal subnetworks, remain unknown...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522734/voluntary-control-of-epileptiform-spike-wave-discharges-in-awake-rats
#19
Jeremy A Taylor, Krista M Rodgers, Florencia M Bercum, Carmen J Booth, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Genetically inherited absence epilepsy in humans is typically characterized by brief (seconds) spontaneous seizures, which involve spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG and interruption of consciousness and ongoing behavior. Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities and anti-absence drugs. SWDs have also been proposed as models of complex partial seizures (CPSs) following traumatic brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy; PTE). However, the ictal characteristics of these rat models, including SWDs and associated immobility, are also prevalent in healthy outbred laboratory rats...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522733/activation-of-perk-elicits-memory-impairment-through-inactivation-of-creb-and-downregulation-of-psd95-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Tanusree Sen, Rajaneesh Gupta, Helen Kaiser, Nilkantha Sen
The PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) a transmembrane protein resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activation of PERK serve as a key sensor of ER-stress which has been implicated in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The loss of memory is one of the most common symptoms following TBI; however, the precise role of PERK activation in memory impairment after TBI has not been well elucidated. Here we have shown that blocking the activation of PERK using GSK2656157 prevents the loss of dendritic spines and rescues memory deficits following TBI...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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