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Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242054/feature-specific-awake-reactivation-in-human-v1-after-visual-training
#1
Ji Won Bang, Yuka Sasaki, Takeo Watanabe, Dobromir Rahnev
Brain activity patterns observed during task performance have been shown to spontaneously reemerge in the following restful awake state. Such "awake reactivation" has been observed across higher-order cortex for complex images or associations. However, it is still unclear whether the reactivation extends to primary sensory areas that encode simple stimulus features. To address this question, we trained human subjects from both sexes on a particular visual feature - Gabor orientation - and tested whether this feature will be reactivated immediately after training...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242053/the-time-course-of-target-template-activation-processes-during-preparation-for-visual-search
#2
Anna Grubert, Martin Eimer
Search for target objects in visual scenes is guided by mental representations of target features (attentional templates). However, it is unknown when such templates are activated during each search episode and whether this can be controlled by temporal expectations. We used electrophysiological measures to track search template activation processes in real time. In three experiments, female and male humans searched for a colour-defined target object in search displays where targets were accompanied by distractors in different nontarget colours...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242052/the-first-annual-meeting-of-the-society-for-neuroscience-1971-reflections-approaching-the-50-th-anniversary-of-the-society-s-formation
#3
R Douglas Fields
The formation of the Society for Neuroscience in 1969 was a scientific landmark, remarkable for the conceptual transformation it represented by uniting all fields touching on the nervous system. The scientific program of the first annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, held in Washington, D.C. in 1971, is summarized here. By reviewing the scientific program from the vantage point of the 50th anniversary of the Society for Neuroscience, the trajectory of research now and into the future can be tracked to its origins, and the impact that the founding of the society has had on basic and biomedical science is evident...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242051/sox14-is-required-for-a-specific-subset-of-cerebello-olivary-projections
#4
Hong Ting Prekop, Anna Kroiss, Victoria Rook, Laskaro Zagoraiou, Thomas Jessell, Cathy Fernandes, Alessio Delogu, Richard Wingate
We identify Sox14 as an exclusive marker of inhibitory projection neurons in the lateral and interposed, but not medial, cerebellar nuclei. Sox14+ neurons make up approximately 80% of Gad1+ neurons in these nuclei and are indistinguishable by soma size from other inhibitory neurons. All Sox14+ neurons of the lateral and interposed cerebellar nuclei are generated at around E10(.5) and extend long range, predominantly contralaterally projections to the inferior olive. A small Sox14+ population in the adjacent, vestibular nucleus "Y" send an ipsilateral projection to the oculomotor nucleus...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242050/emergence-of-binocular-disparity-selectivity-through-hebbian-learning
#5
Tushar Chauhan, Timothée Masquelier, Alexandre Montlibert, Benoit R Cottereau
Neural selectivity in the early visual cortex strongly reflects the statistics of our environment (Barlow, 2001; Geisler, 2008). Although this has been described extensively in literature through various encoding hypotheses (Barlow and Földiák, 1989; Atick and Redlich, 1992; Olshausen and Field, 1996), an explanation as to how the cortex might develop the computational architecture to support these encoding schemes remains elusive. Here, using the more realistic example of binocular vision as opposed to monocular luminance-field images, we show how a simple Hebbian coincidence-detector is capable of accounting for the emergence of binocular, disparity selective, receptive fields...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242049/angiopoietin-tie2-axis-regulates-the-age-at-injury-cerebrovascular-response-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Thomas R Brickler, Amanda Hazy, Fernanda Guilhaume Correa, Rujuan Dai, Elizabeth J A Kowalski, Ross Dickerson, John Chen, Xia Wang, Paul D Morton, Abby Whittington, Ansar Ahmed, Michelle H Theus
While age-at-injury influences chronic recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI), the differential effects of age on early outcome remain understudied. Using a male murine model of moderate contusion injury, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) regulating the distinct response between juvenile and adult TBI. We demonstrate similar biomechanical and physical properties of naïve juvenile and adult brains. However, following controlled cortical impact (CCI), juvenile mice displayed reduced cortical lesion formation, cell death and behavioral deficits at 4 and 14 days...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242048/genomic-analyses-of-visual-cognition-perceptual-rivalry-and-top-down-control
#7
Biqing Chen, Zijian Zhu, Ren Na, Wan Fang, Wenxia Zhang, Qin Zhou, Shanbi Zhou, Han Lei, Ailong Huang, Tingmei Chen, Dongsheng Ni, Yuping Gu, Jianing Liu, Fang Fang, Yi Rao
Visual cognition in humans has traditionally been studied with cognitive behavioral methods and brain imaging, but much less with genetic methods. Perceptual rivalry, an important phenomenon in visual cognition, is the spontaneous perceptual alternation that occurs between two distinct interpretations of a physically constant visual stimulus (e.g. binocular rivalry stimuli) or a perceptually ambiguous stimulus (e.g. the Necker cube). The switching rate varies dramatically across individuals and can be voluntarily modulated by observers...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242047/molecular-and-genetic-evidence-for-the-pdgfr%C3%AE-independent-population-of-opcs-in-the-developing-mouse-brain
#8
Kang Zheng, Chunyang Wang, Junlin Yang, Hao Huang, Xiaofeng Zhao, Zunyi Zhang, Mengsheng Qiu
PDGFRα is specifically expressed by immature oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the central nervous system (CNS), and plays a critical role in OPC proliferation and migration. However, it has been controversial whether all cells of oligodendrocyte lineage are derived from the PDGFRα -expressing OPCs. In the present study, we uncovered a PDGFRα -independent oligodendrocyte lineage in the developing cortex. This subpopulation of OPCs originate from the local ventricular/subventricular zone after birth, and contribute to the earliest mature oligodendrocytes in the cortex...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242046/convergent-metabotropic-signalling-pathways-inhibit-sk-channels-to-promote-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#9
Cezar M Tigaret, Sophie E L Chamberlain, Joseph H L P Sadowski, Michael C Ashby, Jack R Mellor
Hebbian synaptic plasticity at hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses is tightly regulated by postsynaptic SK channels that restrict NMDA receptor activity. SK channels are themselves modulated by G-protein-coupled signalling pathways, but it is not clear under what conditions these are activated to enable synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) and type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) signalling pathways, which are known to inhibit SK channels and thereby disinhibit NMDA receptors, converge to facilitate spine calcium transients during the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses onto CA1 pyramidal neurons of male rats...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242045/theta-bursts-precede-and-spindles-follow-cortical-and-thalamic-downstates-in-human-nrem-sleep
#10
Chris Gonzalez, Rachel Mak-McCully, Burke Rosen, Sydney S Cash, Patrick Chauvel, Hélène Bastuji, Marc Rey, Eric Halgren
Since their discovery, slow oscillations have been observed to group spindles during non-REM sleep. Previous studies assert that the slow oscillation downstate (DS) is preceded by slow spindles (10-12Hz), and followed by fast spindles (12-16Hz). Here, using both direct transcortical recordings in patients with intractable epilepsy (n=10, 8 female), as well as scalp EEG recordings from a healthy cohort (n=3, 1 female), we find in multiple cortical areas that both slow and fast spindles follow the DS. Although discrete oscillations do precede DSs, they are theta bursts (TB) centered at 5-8Hz...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232223/neural-deletion-of-glucose-transporter-isoform-3-creates-distinct-postnatal-and-adult-neurobehavioral-phenotypes
#11
Bo-Chul Shin, Carlos Cepeda, Ana María Estrada-Sánchez, Michael S Levine, Laya Hodaei, Yun Dai, Jai Jung, Amit Ganguly, Peter Clark, Sherin U Devaskar
We created a neural-specific conditional murine glut3 ( Slc2A3 ) deletion ( glut3flox/flox/nestin-Cre+- ) to examine the effect of a lack of Glut3 on neurodevelopment. In comparison to age-matched glut3flox/flox = wild type ( wt ) and heterozygotes ( glut3flox/+/nestin-Cre+ ), >90% reduction in male and female brain Glut3 occurred by postnatal (PN) day 15 in glut3flox/flox/nestin-Cre+ This genetic manipulation caused a diminution in brain weight and cortical thickness at PN15, a reduced number of dendritic spines, and less ultrasonic vocalizations...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228231/on-the-role-of-cortex-basal-ganglia-interactions-for-category-learning-a-neuro-computational-approach
#12
Francesc Villagrasa, Javier Baladron, Julien Vitay, Henning Schroll, Evan G Antzoulatos, Earl K Miller, Fred H Hamker
In addition to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the basal ganglia (BG) have been increasingly often reported to play a fundamental role in category learning, but the systems-level circuits of how both interact remain to be explored. We developed a novel neuro-computational model of category learning that particularly addresses the BG-PFC interplay. We propose that the BG bias PFC activity by removing the inhibition of cortico-thalamo-cortical loop and thereby provide a teaching signal to guide the acquisition of category representations in the cortico-cortical associations to the PFC...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228230/neogenin-in-amygdala-for-neuronal-activity-and-information-processing
#13
Xiang-Dong Sun, Wen-Bing Chen, Dong Sun, Jie Huang, Yuan-Quan Li, Jin-Xiu Pan, Ya-Nan Wang, Kai Zhao, Zhao-Qi Dong, Hong-Sheng Wang, Lei Xiong, Aiguo Xuan, Shen-Ting Zhao, Anilkumar Pillai, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Fear learning and memory are vital for livings to survive, dysfunctions in which have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Appropriate neuronal activation in amygdala is critical for fear memory. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. Here we report that Neogenin, a DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) family receptor, which plays important roles in axon navigation and adult neurogenesis, is enriched in excitatory neurons in basolateral amygdala (BLA). Fear memory is impaired in male Neogenin mutant mice...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228229/a-sub-population-of-foxj1-expressing-non-myelinating-schwann-cells-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system-contribute-to-schwann-cell-remyelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#14
Dan Ma, Bowei Wang, Malgorzata Zadwadzka, Ginez Gonzalez, Zhaozong Wu, Bin Yu, Emma L Rawlins, Robin J M Franklin, Chao Zhao
New myelin sheaths can be restored to demyelinated axons in a spontaneous regenerative process called remyelination. In general, new myelin sheaths are made by oligodendrocytes newly generated from a widespread population of adult CNS progenitors called oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). New myelin in CNS remyelination in both experimental models and clinical disease can also be generated by Schwann cells, the myelin forming cells of the peripheral nervous system. Fate mapping studies have shown that Schwann cells contributing to remyelination in the CNS are often derived from OPCs, and appear not to be derived from myelinating Schwann cells from the PNS...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228228/anterior-temporal-lobectomy-impairs-neural-classification-of-body-emotions-in-right-superior-temporal-sulcus-and-reduces-emotional-enhancement-in-distributed-brain-areas-without-affecting-behavioral-classification
#15
Laura Van de Vliet, Jan Jastorff, Yun-An Huang, Wim Van Paesschen, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Jan Van den Stock
Humans with amygdalar lesions show proportional reductions of the emotional response to facial expressions in the fusiform face area as well as deficits in emotion recognition from facial expressions. While processing of bodily expressions shares many similarities with facial expressions, there is no substantial evidence that lesions of the amygdala result in similar behavioral and neural sequellae. We combined behavioral assessment with functional neuroimaging in a group of male and female humans with unilateral anterior temporal lobe (ATL) resections including the amygdala (right: n= 10; left: n=10) and 12 matched controls...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228227/crest-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-regulates-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference-cocaine-seeking-behavior-and-synaptic-plasticity
#16
Yasaman Alaghband, Enikö Kramár, Janine L Kwapis, Earnest S Kim, Thekla J Hemstedt, Alberto J López, André O White, Amni Al-Kachak, Osasumwen V Aimiuwu, Kasuni K Bodinayake, Nicole C Oparaugo, Joseph Han, K Matthew Lattal, Marcelo A Wood
Epigenetic mechanisms result in persistent changes at the cellular level that can lead to long-lasting behavioral adaptations. Nucleosome remodeling is a major epigenetic mechanism that has not been well explored with regards to drug-seeking behaviors. Nucleosome remodeling is carried out by multi-subunit complexes that interact with DNA or chromatin structure and possess an ATP-dependent enzyme to disrupt nucleosome-DNA contacts and ultimately regulate gene expression. Calcium RESponsive Transactivator (CREST) is a transcriptional activator that interacts with enzymes involved in both histone acetylation and nucleosome remodeling...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201775/suppressing-interferon-gamma-stimulates-microglial-responses-and-repair-of-microbleeds-in-the-diabetic-brain
#17
Stephanie Taylor, Eslam Mehina, Emily White, Patrick Reeson, Kevin Yongblah, Kristian P Doyle, Craig E Brown
Microcirculatory damage is a common complication for those with vascular risk factors such as diabetes. In order to resolve vascular insults, the brain's immune cells (microglia) must rapidly envelop the site of injury. Currently it is unknown whether type 1 diabetes, a condition associated with chronic immune system dysfunction, alters microglial responses to damage and what mechanisms are responsible. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in adult male mice, we show that microglial envelopment of laser induced cerebral microbleeds is diminished in a hyperglycemic mouse model of type 1 diabetes, which could not be fully rescued with chronic insulin treatment...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201774/neuronal-response-latencies-encode-first-odor-identity-information-across-subjects
#18
Marco Paoli, Angela Albi, Mirko Zanon, Damiano Zanini, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Odorants are coded in the primary olfactory processing centers by spatially and temporally distributed patterns of glomerular activity. While the spatial distribution of odorant-induced responses is known to be conserved across individuals, the universality of its temporal structure is still debated. Via fast two-photon calcium imaging, we analyzed the early phase of neuronal responses in form of the activity onset latencies in the antennal lobe projection neurons of honeybee foragers. We show that each odorant evokes a stimulus-specific response latency pattern across the glomerular coding space...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201773/stac-proteins-suppress-ca-2-dependent-inactivation-of-neuronal-l-type-ca-2-channels
#19
Alexander Polster, Phillip J Dittmer, Stefano Perni, Hicham Bichraoui, William A Sather, Kurt G Beam
Stac protein (named for its SH3 and cysteine rich domains) was first identified in brain 20 years ago, and is currently known to have three isoforms. Stac2, Stac1 and Stac3 transcripts are found at high, modest and very low levels, respectively, in the cerebellum and forebrain, but their neuronal functions have been little investigated. Here, we tested the effects of Stac proteins on neuronal, high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. Over-expression of the three Stac isoforms eliminated Ca2+ -dependent inactivation (CDI) of L-type current in rat neonatal hippocampal neurons (sex unknown), but not CDI of non-L-type current...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201772/visuomotor-correlates-of-conflict-expectation-in-the-context-of-motor-decisions
#20
Gerard Derosiere, Pierre-Alexandre Klein, Sylvie Nozaradan, Alexandre Zénon, André Mouraux, Julie Duque
Many behaviors require choosing between conflicting options competing against each other in visuomotor areas. Such choices can benefit from top-down control processes engaging frontal areas in advance of conflict when it is anticipated. Yet, very little is known about how this proactive control system shapes the visuomotor competition.Here, we used electroencephalography in human subjects (male and female) to identify the visual and motor correlates of conflict expectation in a version of the Eriksen Flanker task that required left or right responses according to the direction of a central target arrow surrounded by congruent or incongruent (conflicting) flankers...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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