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Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012697/differentiation-of-human-medial-prefrontal-cortex-activity-underlies-long-term-resistance-to-forgetting-in-memory
#1
Youssef Ezzyat, Marika Inhoff, Lila Davachi
It is well known that distributing study events over time leads to better memory over long timescales, compared to massing study events together. One explanation for such long-term resistance to forgetting is that distributed study leads to neural differentiation in memory, which supports retrieval of past experiences by disambiguating highly similar memory representations. Neuroanatomical models of episodic memory retrieval propose that the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) work together to enable retrieval of behaviorally appropriate memories...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012696/identification-of-vapa-and-vapb-as-kv2-channel-interacting-proteins-defining-endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-junctions-in-mammalian-brain-neurons
#2
Michael Kirmiz, Nicholas C Vierra, Stephanie Palacio, James S Trimmer
Membrane contacts between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane (PM) or ER-PM junctions are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells and are platforms for lipid and calcium signaling and homeostasis. Recent studies have revealed proteins crucial to the formation and function of ER-PM junctions in non-neuronal cells, but little is known of the ER-PM junctions prominent in aspiny regions of mammalian brain neurons. The Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channel is abundantly clustered at ER-PM junctions in brain neurons and is the first PM protein that functions to organize ER-PM junctions...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012695/in-spoken-word-recognition-the-future-predicts-the-past
#3
Laura Gwilliams, Tal Linzen, David Poeppel, Alec Marantz
Speech is an inherently noisy and ambiguous signal. In order to fluently derive meaning, a listener must integrate contextual information to guide interpretations of the sensory input. While many studies have demonstrated the influence of prior context on speech perception, the neural mechanisms supporting the integration of subsequent context remain unknown. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record from human auditory cortex, we analysed responses to spoken words with a varyingly ambiguous onset phoneme, the identity of which is later disambiguated at the lexical uniqueness point...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012694/emergence-of-an-adaptive-command-for-orienting-behavior-in-premotor-brainstem-neurons-of-barn-owls
#4
Fanny Cazettes, Brian J Fischer, Michael V Beckert, Jose L Pena
The midbrain map of auditory space commands sound-orienting responses in barn owls. Owls precisely localize sounds in frontal space but underestimate the direction of peripheral sound sources. This bias for central locations was proposed to be adaptive to the decreased reliability in the periphery of sensory cues used for sound localization by the owl. Understanding the neural pathway supporting this biased behavior provides a means to address how adaptive motor commands are implemented by neurons. Here we find that the sensory input for sound direction is weighted by its reliability in premotor neurons of the midbrain tegmentum of owls (male and female), such that the mean population firing rate approximates the head-orienting behavior...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012693/persistent-sodium-current-drives-excitability-of-immature-renshaw-cells-in-early-embryonic-spinal-networks
#5
Juliette Boeri, Hervé Le Corronc, François Xavier Lejeune, Barbara Le Bras, Christine Mouffle, Monara Kaelle S C Angelim, Jean Marie Mangin, Pascal Branchereau, Pascal Legendre, Antonny Czarnecki A
Spontaneous network activity (SNA) emerges in the spinal cord (SC) before the formation of peripheral sensory inputs and central descending inputs. SNA is characterized by recurrent giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs). Because GDPs in motoneurons (MNs) are mainly evoked by prolonged release of GABA, they likely necessitate sustained firing of interneurons. To address this issue we analyzeds a model, embryonic Renshaw cell (V1R ) activity at the onset of SNA (E12.5) in the embryonic mouse SC (both sexes). V1R are one of the interneurons known to contact MNs, which are generated early in the embryonic SC...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012692/the-transmembrane-domain-of-synaptobrevin-influences-neurotransmitter-flux-through-synaptic-fusion-pores
#6
Chung-Wei Chiang, Che-Wei Chang, Meyer B Jackson
The SNARE proteins synaptobrevin (Syb), syntaxin, and SNAP-25 function in Ca2+ -triggered exocytosis in both endocrine cells and neurons. The transmembrane domains (TMDs) of Syb and syntaxin span the vesicle and plasma membrane, respectively, and influence flux through fusion pores in endocrine cells as well as fusion pores formed during SNARE-mediated fusion of reconstituted membranes. These results support a model for exocytosis in which SNARE TMDs form the initial fusion pore. The present study sought to test this model in synaptic terminals...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012691/cerebellar-processing-common-to-delay-and-trace-eyelid-conditioning
#7
Hunter E Halverson, Andrei Khilkevich, Michael D Mauk
Results from previous lesion studies have been interpreted as evidence that the cerebellar cortex plays different roles for delay and trace conditioning of eyelid responses. Yet the cerebellar cortex is organized by para-sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells (PCs) that converge onto common deep nucleus neurons and that receive common or related climbing fiber inputs. Based on this organization we hypothesized that cerebellar tasks involving the same response system, such as delay and trace eyelid conditioning, would engage the same PCs and that the relationships between PC activity and expression of behavioral responses would be similar for both tasks...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012690/neuronal-correlates-of-serial-decision-making-in-the-supplementary-eye-field
#8
Zachary M Abzug, Marc A Sommer
Human behavior is influenced by serial decision-making: past decisions affect choices that set the context for selecting future options. A primate brain region that may be involved in linking decisions across time is the supplementary eye field (SEF), which, in addition to its well-known visual responses and saccade-related activity, also signals the rules that govern flexible decisions and the outcomes of those decisions. Our hypotheses were that SEF neurons encode events during serial decision-making and link the sequential decisions with sustained activity...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012689/neural-firing-patterns-are-more-schematic-and-less-sensitive-to-changes-in-background-visual-scenes-in-the-subiculum-than-in-the-hippocampus
#9
Hyun-Woo Lee, Su-Min Lee, Inah Lee
Literature suggests that the hippocampus is central to processing visual scenes to remember contextual information, but the roles of its downstream structure, subiculum remain unknown. Here, single units were recorded simultaneously in the dorsal CA1 and subiculum while male rats made spatial choices using visual scenes as cues in a T-maze. The firing fields of subicular neurons were schematically organized following the task structure, largely divided into pre-choice and post-choice epochs, whereas those of CA1 cells were more punctate and bound to specific locations...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012688/perinatal-exposure-to-an-environmentally-relevant-mixture-of-phthalates-results-in-a-lower-number-of-neurons-and-synapses-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-decreased-cognitive-flexibility-in-adult-male-and-female-rats
#10
Daniel G Kougias, Elli P Sellinger, Jari Willing, Janice M Juraska
The growth and organization of the developing brain is known to be influenced by hormones, but little is known about whether disruption of hormones affects cortical regions, like the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This region is particularly important given its involvement in executive functions and implication in the pathology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we examine the long-term effects of perinatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds, the phthalates, on the mPFC and associated behavior...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012687/binocular-neuronal-processing-of-object-motion-in-an-arthropod
#11
Florencia Scarano, Julieta Sztarker, Violeta Medan, Martín Berón de Astrada, Daniel Tomsic
Animals use binocular information to guide many behaviors. In highly visual arthropods, complex binocular computations involved in processing panoramic optic flow generated during self-motion occur in the optic neuropils. However, the extent to which binocular processing of object motion occurs in these neuropils remains unknown. We investigated this in a crab, where the distance between the eyes and the extensive overlapping of their visual fields advocate for the use of binocular processing. By performing in vivo intracellular recordings from the lobula (third optic neuropil) of male crabs, we assessed responses of object-motion sensitive neurons to ipsilateral or contralateral moving objects under binocular and monocular conditions...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012686/abnormal-low-frequency-oscillations-reflect-trait-like-pain-ratings-in-chronic-pain-patients-revealed-through-a-machine-learning-approach
#12
Anton Rogachov, Joshua C Cheng, Kasey S Hemington, Rachael L Bosma, Junseok Kim, Natalie R Osborne, Robert D Inman, Karen D Davis
Measures of moment-to-moment fluctuations in brain activity of an individual at rest has been shown to be a sensitive and reliable metric for studying pathological brain mechanisms across various chronic pain patient populations. However, the relationship between pathological brain activity and clinical symptoms are not well defined. Therefore, we used regional BOLD signal variability/amplitude of low-frequency oscillations (LFO) to identify functional brain abnormalities in the dynamic pain connectome in chronic pain patients that are related to chronic pain characteristics (i...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012685/temporal-expectation-modulates-the-cortical-dynamics-of-short-term-memory
#13
Anna Wilsch, Molly J Henry, Björn Herrmann, Christoph S Herrmann, Jonas Obleser
Increased memory load is often signified by enhanced neural oscillatory power in the alpha range (8--13 Hz), taken to reflect inhibition of task-irrelevant brain regions. The corresponding neural correlates of memory decay, however, are not yet well-understood. In the current study, we investigated auditory short-term memory decay in humans (male and female) using a delayed matching-to-sample task with pure-tone sequences. First, in a behavioral experiment we modeled memory performance over six different delay-phase durations...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012684/archaeal-unfoldase-counteracts-protein-misfolding-retinopathy-in-mice
#14
Celine Brooks, Aaron Snoberger, Marycharmain Belcastro, Joseph Murphy, Oleg Kisselev, David M Smith, Maxim Sokolov
Deregulation of cellular proteostasis due to the failure of the ubiquitin proteasome system to dispose of misfolded aggregation-prone proteins is a hallmark of various neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Microorganisms have evolved to survive massive protein misfolding and aggregation triggered by heat shock, using their protein-unfolding ATPases (unfoldases) from the Hsp100 family. Since the Hsp100 chaperones are absent in homoeothermic mammals, we hypothesized that the vulnerability of mammalian neurons to misfolded proteins could be mitigated by expressing a xenogeneic unfoldase...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006367/selective-role-of-rgs9-2-in-regulating-retrograde-synaptic-signaling-of-indirect-pathway-medium-spiny-neurons-in-dorsal-striatum
#15
Chenghui Song, Garret R Anderson, Laurie P Sutton, Maria Dao, Kirill A Martemyanov
In the striatum, medium spiny neurons (MSN) are heavily involved in controlling movement and reward. MSNs form two distinct populations expressing either dopamine receptor 1 (D1-MSN) or dopamine receptor 2 (D2-MSN), which differ in their projection targets and neurochemical composition. The activity of both types of MSNs is shaped by multiple neuromodulatory inputs processed by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that fundamentally impact their synaptic properties biasing behavioral outcomes. How these GPCR signaling cascades are regulated and what downstream targets they recruit in D1-MSN and D2-MSN populations are incompletely understood...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006366/deep-er-learning
#16
Shyam Srinivasan, Ralph J Greenspan, Charles F Stevens, Dhruv Grover
Animals successfully thrive in noisy environments with finite resources. The necessity to function with resource constraints has led evolution to design animal brains (and bodies) to be optimal in their use of computational power while being adaptable to their environmental niche. A key process undergirding this ability to adapt is the process of learning. Though a complete characterization of the neural basis of learning remains ongoing, scientists for nearly a century have used the brain as inspiration to design artificial neural networks capable of learning...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006365/large-scale-high-resolution-comparison-of-the-core-visual-object-recognition-behavior-of-humans-monkeys-and-state-of-the-art-deep-artificial-neural-networks
#17
Rishi Rajalingham, Elias B Issa, Pouya Bashivan, Kohitij Kar, Kailyn Schmidt, James J DiCarlo
Primates-including humans-can typically recognize objects in visual images at a glance even in spite of naturally occurring identity-preserving image transformations (e.g. changes in viewpoint). A primary neuroscience goal is to uncover neuron-level mechanistic models that quantitatively explain this behavior by predicting primate performance for each and every image. Here, we applied this stringent behavioral prediction test to the leading mechanistic models of primate vision (specifically, deep, convolutional, artificial neural networks; ANNs) by directly comparing their behavioral signatures against those of humans and rhesus macaque monkeys...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006364/the-successor-representation-its-computational-logic-and-neural-substrates
#18
Samuel J Gershman
Reinforcement learning is the process by which an agent learns to predict long-term future reward. We now understand a great deal about the brain's reinforcement learning algorithms, but we know considerably less about the representations of states and actions over which these algorithms operate. A useful starting point is asking what kinds of representations we would want the brain to have, given the constraints on its computational architecture. Following this logic leads to the idea of the successor representation, which encodes states of the environment in terms of their predictive relationships with other states...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006363/efficient-coding-in-visual-working-memory-accounts-for-stimulus-specific-variations-in-recall
#19
Robert Taylor, Paul M Bays
Recall of visual features from working memory varies in both bias and precision depending on stimulus parameters. While a number of models can approximate the average distribution of recall error across target stimuli, attempts to model how error varies with the choice of target have been ad hoc Here we adapt a neural model of working memory to provide a principled account of these stimulus-specific effects, by allowing each neuron's tuning function to vary according to the principle of efficient coding, which states that neural responses should be optimised with respect to the frequency of stimuli in nature...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006362/a-generic-mechanism-for-perceptual-organization-in-the-parietal-cortex
#20
Pablo R Grassi, Natalia Zaretskaya, Andreas Bartels
Our visual system's ability to group visual elements into meaningful entities and to separate them from others is referred to as scene segmentation. Visual motion often provides a powerful cue for this process as parallax or coherence can inform the visual system about scene or object structure. Here we tested the hypothesis that scene segmentation by motion cues relies on a common neural substrate in the parietal cortex. We used fMRI and a set of three entirely distinct motion stimuli to examine scene segmentation in the human brain...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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