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Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779019/bidirectional-modulation-of-intrinsic-excitability-in-rat-prelimbic-cortex-neuronal-ensembles-and-non-ensembles-following-operant-learning
#1
Leslie R Whitaker, Brandon L Warren, Marco Venniro, Tyler C Harte, Kylie B McPherson, Jennifer M Bossert, Yavin Shaham, Antonello Bonci, Bruce T Hope
Learned associations between environmental stimuli and rewards drive goal-directed learning and motivated behavior. These memories are thought to be encoded by alterations within specific patterns of sparsely distributed neurons called neuronal ensembles that are selectively activated by reward-predictive stimuli. Here we use the Fos promoter to identify strongly activated neuronal ensembles in rat prelimbic cortex (PLC) and assess altered intrinsic excitability following 10 days of operant food self-administration training (1-h/day)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765333/selective-phosphorylation-of-ampa-receptor-contributes-to-the-network-of-long-term-potentiation-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#2
Qian Song, Hong-Wei Zheng, Xu-Hui Li, Richard L Huganir, Thomas Kuner, Min Zhuo, Tao Chen
Phosphorylation of AMPA receptor GluA1 plays important roles in synaptic potentiation. Most previous studies have been carried out in the hippocampus, while the roles of GluA1 phosphorylation in the cortex remain unknown. Here we investigated the involvement of phosphorylation of GluA1 in the LTP in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using mice with GluA1 knock-in mutation at the PKA phosphorylation site serine 845 (s845A) or CaMKII/PKC phosphorylation site serine 831 (s831A). The network LTP which is constructed by multiple recording of LTP at different location within the ACC was also investigated...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765332/n1-src-kinase-is-required-for-primary-neurogenesis-in-xenopus-tropicalis
#3
Philip A Lewis, Isobel C Bradley, Alastair R Pizzey, Harry V Isaacs, Gareth J O Evans
The presence of the neuronal-specific N1-Src splice variant of the C-Src tyrosine kinase is conserved through vertebrate evolution, suggesting an important role in complex nervous systems. Alternative splicing involving a N1-Src specific microexon leads to a five or six amino acid insertion into the SH3 domain of Src. A prevailing model suggests that N1-Src regulates neuronal differentiation via cytoskeletal dynamics in the growth cone. Here we have investigated the role of n1-src in the early development of the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis, and find that n1-src expression is regulated in embryogenesis, with highest levels detected during the phases of primary and secondary neurogenesis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765331/visual-perceptual-echo-reflects-learning-of-regularities-in-rapid-luminance-sequences
#4
Acer Y-C Chang, David J Schwartzman, Rufin VanRullen, Ryota Kanai, Anil K Seth
A novel neural signature of active visual processing has recently been described in the form of the 'perceptual echo', in which the cross-correlation between a sequence of randomly fluctuating luminance values and occipital electrophysiological (EEG) signals exhibits a long-lasting periodic (∼100ms cycle) reverberation of the input stimulus (VanRullen & Macdonald, 2012). As yet, however, the mechanisms underlying the perceptual echo and its function remain unknown. Reasoning that natural visual signals often contain temporally predictable, though non-periodic features, we hypothesized that the perceptual echo may reflect a periodic process associated with regularity learning...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765330/genome-stability-by-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-in-neural-progenitors-contributes-to-neuronal-differentiation-in-cortical-development
#5
Kohei Onishi, Akiko Uyeda, Mitsuhiro Shida, Teruyoshi Hirayama, Takeshi Yagi, Nobuhiko Yamamoto, Noriyuki Sugo
DNA repair is crucial for genome stability in the developing cortex, as somatic de novo mutations cause neurological disorders. However, how DNA repair contributes to neuronal development is largely unknown. To address this issue, we studied the spatiotemporal roles of DNA polymerase β (Polβ), a key enzyme in DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway, in the developing cortex using distinct forebrain-specific conditional knockout mice, Emx1-Cre/Polβ(fl/fl) and Nex-Cre/Polβ(fl/fl) mice. Polβ expression was absent in both neural progenitors and postmitotic neurons in Emx1-Cre/Polβ(fl/fl) mice, while only postmitotic neurons lacked Polβ expression in Nex-Cre/Polβ(fl/fl) mice...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760868/polysialylation-at-early-stages-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-promotes-myelin-repair
#6
Sebastian Werneburg, Hazel L S Fuchs, Iris Albers, Hannelore Burkhardt, Viktoria Gudi, Thomas Skripuletz, Martin Stangel, Rita Gerardy-Schahn, Herbert Hildebrandt
Polysialic acid is a glycan modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM produced by the polysialyltransferases ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4. Polysialic acid has been detected in multiple sclerosis plaques but its beneficial or adverse role in remyelination is elusive. Here, we show that, despite a developmental delay, myelination at the onset and during cuprizone-induced demyelination was unaffected in male Ncam1(-/-) or St8sia2(-/-) mice. However, remyelination, restoration of oligodendrocyte densities and motor recovery after cessation of cuprizone treatment were compromised...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760867/asymmetric-dichoptic-masking-in-visual-cortex-of-amblyopic-macaque-monkeys
#7
Christopher Shooner, Luke E Hallum, Romesh D Kumbhani, Virginia García-Marín, Jenna G Kelly, Najib J Majaj, J Anthony Movshon, Lynne Kiorpes
In amblyopia, abnormal visual experience leads to an extreme form of eye dominance, in which vision through the non-dominant eye is degraded. A key aspect of this disorder is perceptual suppression: The image seen by the stronger eye often dominates during binocular viewing, blocking the weaker eye's image from reaching awareness. Interocular suppression is the focus of ongoing work aimed at understanding and treating amblyopia, yet its physiological basis remains unknown. We measured binocular interactions in visual cortex of anesthetized amblyopic monkeys (female Macaca nemestrina), using 96-channel 'Utah' arrays to record from populations of neurons in V1 and V2...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760866/learning-predictive-statistics-strategies-and-brain-mechanisms
#8
Rui Wang, Yuan Shen, Peter Tino, Andrew Welchman, Zoe Kourtzi
When immersed in a new environment we are challenged to decipher initially incomprehensible streams of sensory information. Yet, quite rapidly, the brain finds structure and meaning in these incoming signals, helping us to predict and prepare ourselves for future actions. This skill relies on extracting the statistics of event streams in the environment that contain regularities of variable complexity: from simple repetitive patterns to complex probabilistic combinations. Here, we test the brain mechanisms that mediate our ability to adapt to the environment's statistics and predict upcoming events...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760865/dystroglycan-maintains-inner-limiting-membrane-integrity-to-coordinate-retinal-development
#9
Reena Clements, Rolf Turk, Kevin P Campbell, Kevin M Wright
Proper neural circuit formation requires the precise regulation of neuronal migration, axon guidance and dendritic arborization. Mutations affecting the function of the transmembrane glycoprotein dystroglycan cause a form of congenital muscular dystrophy that is frequently associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Despite its importance in brain development, the role for dystroglycan in regulating retinal development remains poorly understood. Using a mouse model of dystroglycanopathy (ISPD(L79*) ) and conditional dystroglycan mutants of both sexes, we show that dystroglycan is critical for the proper migration, axon guidance and dendritic stratification of neurons in the inner retina...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760864/reconfiguration-of-brain-network-architectures-between-resting-state-and-complexity-dependent-cognitive-reasoning
#10
Luke J Hearne, Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky, Jason B Mattingley
Our capacity for higher cognitive reasoning has a measureable limit. This limit is thought to arise from the brain's capacity to flexibly reconfigure interactions between spatially distributed networks. Recent work, however, has suggested that reconfigurations of task-related networks are modest when compared with intrinsic 'resting state' network architecture. Here we combined resting state and task-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how flexible, task-specific reconfigurations associated with increasing reasoning demands are integrated within a stable intrinsic brain topology...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760863/acute-increases-in-protein-o-glcnacylation-dampen-epileptiform-activity-in-hippocampus
#11
L T Stewart, A U Khan, K Wang, D Pizarro, S Pati, S C Buckingham, M L Olsen, J C Chatham, L L McMahon
O-GlcNAcylation is a ubiquitous and dynamic posttranslational modification involving the O-linkage of β-N-acetylglucosamine to serine/threonine residues of membrane, cytosolic, and nuclear proteins. This modification is similar to phosphorylation, and regarded as a key regulator of cell survival and homeostasis. Previous studies have shown that phosphorylation of serine residues on synaptic proteins is a major regulator of synaptic strength and long-term plasticity, suggesting O-GlcNAcylation of synaptic proteins is likely as important as phosphorylation; however, few studies have investigated its role in synaptic efficacy...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760862/myelinogenic-plasticity-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-following-spinal-cord-contusion-injury
#12
P Assinck, G J Duncan, J R Plemel, M J Lee, J S Stratton, S B Manesh, J Liu, L M Ramer, S H Kang, D E Bergles, J Biernaskie, W Tetzlaff
Spontaneous remyelination occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the extent of myelin repair and identity of the cells responsible remain incompletely understood and contentious. We assessed the cellular origin of new myelin by fate mapping PDGFRα+, Olig2+, and P0+ cells following contusion SCI in mice. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs; PDGFRα+) produced oligodendrocytes responsible for de novo ensheathment of ∼30% of myelinated spinal axons at injury epicenter three months after SCI, demonstrating that these resident cells are a major contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760861/feedback-inhibition-shapes-emergent-computational-properties-of-cortical-microcircuit-motifs
#13
Zeno Jonke, Robert Legenstein, Stefan Habenschuss, Wolfgang Maass
Cortical microcircuits are very complex networks, but they are composed of a relatively small number of stereotypical motifs. Hence one strategy for throwing light on the computational function of cortical microcircuits is to analyze emergent computational properties of these stereotypical microcircuit motifs. We are addressing here the question how spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) shapes the computational properties of one motif that has frequently been studied experimentally: interconnected populations of pyramidal cells and parvalbumin-positive inhibitory cells in layer 2/3...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760860/on-the-structure-of-cortical-micro-circuits-inferred-from-small-sample-sizes
#14
Marina Vegué, Rodrigo Perin, Alex Roxin
The structure in cortical micro-circuits deviates from what would be expected in a purely random network, which has been seen as evidence of clustering. To address this issue we sought to reproduce the non-random features of cortical circuits by considering several distinct classes of network topology, including clustered networks, networks with distance-dependent connectivity and those with broad degree distributions. To our surprise we found that all these qualitatively distinct topologies could account equally well for all reported non-random features, despite being easily distinguishable from one another at the network level...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760859/sound-evoked-activity-influences-myelination-of-brainstem-axons-in-the-trapezoid-body
#15
James L Sinclair, Matthew J Fischl, Olga Alexandrova, Martin Heß, Benedikt Grothe, Christian Leibold, Conny Kopp-Scheinpflug
Plasticity of myelination represents a mechanism to tune the flow of information by balancing functional requirements with metabolic and spatial constraints. The auditory system is heavily myelinated and operates at the upper limits of action potential generation frequency and speed observed in the mammalian CNS. This study aimed to characterize the development of myelin within the trapezoid body, a central auditory fiber tract, and determine the influence sensory experience has on this process in mice of both sexes...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760858/segregation-of-visual-response-properties-in-the-mouse-superior-colliculus-and-their-modulation-during-locomotion
#16
Shinya Ito, David A Feldheim, Alan M Litke
The superior colliculus (SC) receives direct input from the retina and integrates it with information about sound, touch and state of the animal that is relayed from other parts of the brain to initiate specific behavioral outcomes. The superficial SC layers (sSC) contain cells that respond to visual stimuli, while the deep SC layers (dSC) contain cells that also respond to auditory and somatosensory stimuli. Here we used a large-scale silicon probe recording system to examine the visual response properties of SC cells of head-fixed and alert male mice...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751460/optogenetic-central-amygdala-stimulation-intensifies-and-narrows-motivation-for-cocaine
#17
Shelley M Warlow, Mike J F Robinson, Kent C Berridge
Addiction is often characterized by intense motivation for a drug, which may be narrowly focused at the expense of other rewards. Here we examined the role of amygdala-related circuitry in the amplification and narrowing of motivation focus for intravenous cocaine. We paired optogenetic channelrhodopsin (ChR2) stimulation in either central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) or basolateral amygdala (BLA) of female rats with one particular nosepoke-porthole option for earning cocaine infusions (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.). A second alternative porthole earned identical cocaine but without ChR2 stimulation...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751459/pten-loss-increases-the-connectivity-of-fast-synaptic-motifs-and-functional-connectivity-in-a-developing-hippocampal-network
#18
Caitlynn M Barrows, Matthew P McCabe, Hongmei Chen, John W Swann, Matthew C Weston
Changes in synaptic strength and connectivity are thought to be a major mechanism through which many gene variants cause neurological disease. Hyperactivation of the PI3K-mTOR signaling network, via loss of function of repressors such as PTEN, causes epilepsy in humans and animal models, and altered mTOR signaling may contribute to a broad range of neurological diseases. Changes in synaptic transmission have been reported in animal models of PTEN loss; however, the full extent of these changes, and their effect on network function, is still unknown...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751458/information-theoretic-evidence-for-predictive-coding-in-the-face-processing-system
#19
Alla Brodski-Guerniero, Georg-Friedrich Paasch, Patricia Wollstadt, Ipek Özdemir, Joseph T Lizier, Michael Wibral
Predictive coding suggests that the brain infers the causes of its sensations by combining sensory evidence with internal predictions based on available prior knowledge. However, the neurophysiological correlates of (pre-)activated prior knowledge serving these predictions are still unknown. Based on the idea that such pre-activated prior knowledge must be maintained until needed we measured the amount of maintained information in neural signals via the active information storage (AIS) measure. AIS was calculated on whole-brain beamformer-reconstructed source time-courses from magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 52 human subjects during the baseline of a Mooney face/house detection task...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751457/2-arachidonoylglycerol-reduces-proteoglycans-and-enhances-remyelination-in-a-progressive-model-of-demyelination
#20
A Feliu, Bonilla I Del Río, F J Carrillo-Salinas, G Hernández-Torres, L Mestre, N Puente, S Ortega-Gutiérrez, M L López-Rodríguez, P Grandes, M Mecha, C Guaza
The failure to undergo remyelination is a critical impediment to recovery in multiple sclerosis (MS). Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) accumulate at demyelinating lesions creating a non-permissive environment that impairs axon regeneration and remyelination. Here, we reveal a new role for 2-arachinonoylglycerol (2-AG), the major CNS endocannabinoid, in the modulation of CSPG deposition in a progressive model of MS, the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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