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Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924013/reward-related-ventral-striatum-activity-buffers-against-the-experience-of-depressive-symptoms-associated-with-sleep-disturbances
#1
Reut Avinun, Adam Nevo, Annchen R Knodt, Maxwell L Elliott, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
Sleep disturbances represent one risk factor for depression. Reward-related brain function, particularly the activity of the ventral striatum (VS), has been identified as a potential buffer against stress-related depression. We were therefore interested in testing whether reward-related VS activity would moderate the effect of sleep disturbances on depression in a large cohort of young adults. Data were available from 1129 university students (mean age 19.71 ± 1.25 years; 637 women) who completed a reward-related functional MRI task to assay VS activity and provided self-reports of sleep using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and symptoms of depression using a summation of the General Distress/Depression (GDD) and Anhedonic Depression (AD) subscales of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire-short form...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924012/inhibition-of-il-1%C3%AE-signaling-normalizes-nmda-dependent-neurotransmission-and-reduces-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-mouse-model-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#2
Ilaria Bertani, Valentina Iori, Massimo Trusel, Mattia Maroso, Claudia Foray, Susanna Mantovani, Raffaella Tonini, Annamaria Vezzani, Roberto Chiesa
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by prion protein (PrP) misfolding, clinically recognized by cognitive and motor deficits, electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities and seizures. Its neurophysiological bases are not known. To assess the potential involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction, we analyzed NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices from Tg(CJD) mice, which model a genetic form of CJD. Because PrP depletion may result in functional upregulation of NMDARs, we also analyzed PrP knockout (KO) mice...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924011/contralateral-bias-of-high-spatial-frequency-tuning-and-cardinal-direction-selectivity-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#3
Kirstie J Salinas, Dario X Figueroa Velez, Jack H Zeitoun, Hyungtae Kim, Sunil P Gandhi
Binocular mechanisms for visual processing are thought to enhance spatial acuity by combining matched input from the two eyes. Studies in the primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates have confirmed that eye-specific neuronal response properties are largely matched. In recent years, the mouse has emerged as a prominent model for binocular visual processing, yet little is known about the spatial frequency tuning of binocular responses in mouse visual cortex. Using calcium imaging in awake mice of both sexes, we show that the spatial frequency preference of cortical responses to the contralateral eye is ∼35% higher than responses to the ipsilateral eye...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924010/microrna-1906-a-novel-regulator-of-toll-like-receptor-4-ameliorates-ischemic-injury-after-experimental-stroke-in-mice
#4
Xiaomeng Xu, Zhuoyu Wen, Nan Zhao, Xiaohui Xu, Fang Wang, Jie Gao, Yongjun Jiang, Xinfeng Liu
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pro-inflammatory cascade initiator in post-stroke inflammation. In this study, miR-1906, a novel regulator of TLR4, was identified via in silico analysis and microRNA profiling in male adult mice, and its expression was then quantitated in the ischemic hemisphere. We found miR-1906 to be significantly brain-enriched in the ischemic hemisphere and even more drastically enriched in the peri-infarct regions. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrated that during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), miR-1906 expression was increased in glial cells but decreased in neurons...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924009/site-specific-regulation-of-p2x7-receptor-function-in-microglia-gates-morphine-analgesic-tolerance
#5
Heather Leduc-Pessah, Nicholas L Weilinger, Churmy Y Fan, Nicole E Burma, Roger J Thompson, Tuan Trang
Tolerance to the analgesic effects of opioids is a major problem in chronic pain management. Microglia are implicated in opioid tolerance, but the core mechanisms regulating their response to opioids remain obscure. By selectively ablating microglia in the spinal cord using a saporin-conjugated antibody to Mac1, we demonstrate a causal role for microglia in the development, but not maintenance, of morphine tolerance in male rats. Increased P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) activity is a cardinal feature of microglial activation, and in this study we found that morphine potentiates P2X7R-mediated Ca(2+) responses in resident spinal microglia acutely isolated from morphine tolerant rats...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924008/primary-generators-of-visually-evoked-field-potentials-recorded-in-the-macaque-auditory-cortex
#6
Yoshinao Kajikawa, John F Smiley, Charles E Schroeder
Prior studies have reported "local" field potential (LFP) responses to faces in the macaque auditory cortex and have suggested that such face-LFPs may be substrates of audiovisual integration. However, while field potentials (FPs) may reflect the synaptic currents of neurons near the recording electrode, due to the use of a distant reference electrode, they often reflect those of synaptic activity occurring in distant sites as well. Thus, FP recordings within a given brain region (e.g., auditory cortex) may be "contaminated" by activity generated elsewhere in the brain...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924007/multiple-signaling-pathways-coordinately-regulate-forgetting-of-olfactory-adaptation-through-control-of-sensory-responses-in-c-elegans
#7
Tomohiro Kitazono, Sayuri Hara-Kuge, Osamu Matsuda, Akitoshi Inoue, Manabi Fujiwara, Takeshi Ishihara
Forgetting memories is important for animals to properly respond to continuously changing environments. To elucidate the mechanisms of forgetting, we used one of the behavioral plasticities of C. elegans hermaphrodite, olfactory adaptation to an attractive odorant, diacetyl, as a simple model of learning. In C. elegans, the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway accelerates forgetting of olfactory adaptation by facilitating neural secretion from AWC sensory neurons. In this study, to identify the downstream effectors of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the gain-of-function mutant of tir-1 (ok1052), which shows excessive forgetting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924006/the-neural-basis-of-aversive-pavlovian-guidance-during-planning
#8
Níall Lally, Quentin J M Huys, Neir Eshel, Paul Faulkner, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser
Important real-world decisions are often arduous as they frequently involve sequences of choices, with initial selections affecting future options. Evaluating every possible combination of choices is computationally intractable, particularly for longer multi-step decisions. Therefore, humans frequently employ heuristics to reduce the complexity of decisions. We recently used a goal-directed planning task to demonstrate the profound behavioral influence and ubiquity of one such shortcut, namely aversive pruning, a reflexive Pavlovian process that involves neglecting parts of the decision space residing beyond salient negative outcomes...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924005/nigral-glutamatergic-neurons-control-the-speed-of-locomotion
#9
Dimitri Ryczko, Swantje Grätsch, Laura Schläger, Avo Keuyalian, Zakaria Boukhatem, Claudia Garcia, François Auclair, Ansgar Büschges, Réjean Dubuc
The Mesencephalic Locomotor Region (MLR) plays a crucial role in locomotor control. In vertebrates, stimulation of the MLR at increasing intensities elicits locomotion of growing speed. This effect has been presumed to result from higher brain inputs activating the MLR like a dimmer switch. Here, we show in lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) of either sex that incremental stimulation of a region homologous to the mammalian substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) evokes increasing activation of MLR cells with a graded increase in the frequency of locomotor movements...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916521/behavioural-modeling-and-electrophysiological-evidence-for-supramodality-in-human-metacognition
#10
Nathan Faivre, Elisa Filevich, Guillermo Solovey, Simone Kühn, Olaf Blanke
Human metacognition, or the capacity to introspect on one's own mental states, has been mostly characterized through confidence reports in visual tasks. A pressing question is to what extent results from visual studies generalize to other domains. Answering this question allows determining whether metacognition operates through shared, supramodal mechanisms, or through idiosyncratic, modality-specific mechanisms. Here, we report three new lines of evidence for decisional and post-decisional mechanisms arguing for the supramodality of metacognition...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916520/rubrocerebellar-feedback-loop-isolates-the-interposed-nucleus-as-an-independent-processor-of-corollary-discharge-information-in-mice
#11
Christy S Beitzel, Brenda D Houck, Samantha M Lewis, Abigail L Person
Understanding cerebellar contributions to motor coordination requires deeper insight into how the output structures of the cerebellum, the cerebellar nuclei, integrate their inputs and influence downstream motor pathways. The magnocellular red nucleus (RNm), a brainstem premotor structure, is a major target of the interposed nucleus (IN), and has also been described in previous studies to send feedback collaterals to the cerebellum. Because such a pathway is in a key position to provide motor efferent information to the cerebellum, satisfying predictions about the use of corollary discharge in cerebellar computations, we studied it in mice of both sexes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912162/regional-cellular-environment-shapes-phenotypic-variations-of-hippocampal-and-neocortical-chandelier-cells
#12
Yugo Ishino, Michael J Yetman, Serena M Sossi, André Steinecke, Yasufumi Hayano, Hiroki Taniguchi
Different cortical regions processing distinct information, such as the hippocampus and the neocortex, share common cellular components and circuit motifs but form unique networks by modifying these cardinal units. Cortical circuits include diverse types of GABAergic interneurons (INs) that shape activity of excitatory principal neurons (PNs). Canonical IN types conserved across distinct cortical regions have been defined by their morphological, electrophysiological, and neurochemical properties. However, it remains largely unknown whether canonical IN types undergo specific modifications in distinct cortical regions and display "regional variants"...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912161/disruption-of-bmal1-impairs-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-via-pericyte-dysfunction
#13
Ryota Nakazato, Kenji Kawabe, Daisuke Yamada, Shinsuke Ikeno, Michihiro Mieda, Shigeki Shimba, Eiichi Hinoi, Yukio Yoneda, Takeshi Takarada
Circadian rhythm disturbances are well-established in neurological diseases. However, how these disruptions cause homeostatic imbalances remains poorly understood. Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1) is a major circadian clock transcriptional activator, and Bmal1 deficiency in male Bmal1nestin(-/-) mice induced marked astroglial activation without affecting the number of astrocytes in the brain and spinal cord. Bmal1 deletion caused blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability with an age-dependent loss of pericyte coverage of blood vessels in the brain...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912160/dopamine-d2-receptors-modulate-pyramidal-neurons-in-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex-through-a-stimulatory-g-protein-pathway
#14
Sarah E Robinson, Vikaas S Sohal
Dopaminergic modulation of prefrontal cortex is believed to play key roles in many cognitive functions and to be disrupted in pathological conditions such as schizophrenia. We have previously described a phenomenon whereby dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) activation elicits afterdepolarizations (ADPs) in subcortically-projecting (SC) pyramidal neurons within L5 of the prefrontal cortex. These D2R-induced ADPs only occur following synaptic input which activates NMDA receptors (NMDARs) even when the delay between the synaptic input and afterdepolarizations is relatively long, e...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912159/oscillatory-reinstatement-enhances-declarative-memory
#15
Amir-Homayoun Javadi, James C Glen, Sara Halkiopoulos, Mei Schulz, Hugo J Spiers
Declarative memory recall is thought to involve the reinstatement of neural activity patterns that occurred previously during encoding. Consistent with this view, greater similarity between patterns of activity recorded during encoding and retrieval has been found to predict better memory performance in a number of studies. Recent models have argued that neural oscillations may be crucial to reinstatement for successful memory retrieval. However, to date, no causal evidence has been provided to support this theory, nor has the impact of oscillatory electrical brain stimulation during encoding and retrieval been assessed...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912158/visual-responses-in-fef-unlike-v1-primarily-reflect-when-the-visual-context-renders-a-receptive-field-salient
#16
Wilsaan M Joiner, James Cavanaugh, Robert H Wurtz, Bruce G Cumming
When light falls within a neuronal visual receptive field (RF) the resulting activity is referred to as the visual response. Recent work suggests this activity is in response to both the visual stimulation and the abrupt appearance, or salience, of the presentation. Here we present a novel method for distinguishing the two, based on the timing of random and non-random presentations. We examined these contributions in frontal eye field (FEF, N = 51) and as a comparison, an early stage in the primary visual cortex (V1, N = 15) of male monkeys (Macaca mulatta)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912157/approaching-the-ground-truth-revealing-the-functional-organization-of-human-multisensory-stc-using-ultra-high-field-fmri
#17
Francesco Gentile, Nienke van Atteveldt, Federico De Martino, Rainer Goebel
Integrating inputs across sensory systems is a property of the brain that is vitally important in everyday life. More than two decades of fMRI research have revealed crucial insights on multisensory processing, yet the multisensory operations at the neuronal level in humans have remained largely unknown. Understanding the fine-scale spatial organization of multisensory brain regions is fundamental to shed light on their neuronal operations. Monkey electrophysiology revealed that the bimodal superior temporal cortex (bSTC) is topographically organized according to the modality preference (visual, auditory and bimodal) of its neurons...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912156/neutrophils-are-critical-for-myelin-removal-in-a-peripheral-nerve-injury-model-of-wallerian-degeneration
#18
Jane A Lindborg, Matthias Mack, Richard E Zigmond
Wallerian degeneration (WD) is considered an essential preparatory stage to the process of axonal regeneration. In the peripheral nervous system, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages that utilize the chemokine receptor CCR2 to gain entry to injured tissues from the bloodstream, are purportedly necessary for efficient WD. However, our lab has previously reported that myelin clearance in the injured sciatic nerve proceeds unhindered in the Ccr2(-/-) mouse model. Here, we extensively characterize WD in male Ccr2(-/-) mice and identify a compensatory mechanism of WD that is facilitated primarily by neutrophils...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912155/visual-motion-discrimination-by-propagating-patterns-in-primate-cerebral-cortex
#19
Rory Townsend, Selina S Solomon, Paul R Martin, Samuel G Solomon, Pulin Gong
Visual stimuli can evoke waves of neural activity that propagate across the surface of visual cortical areas. The relevance of these waves for visual processing is unknown. Here we measured the phase and amplitude of local field potentials (LFPs) in electrode array recordings from motion-processing medial temporal area (MT) of anesthetized male marmosets. Animals viewed grating or dot-field stimuli drifting in different directions. We found that on individual trials, the direction of LFP wave propagation is sensitive to the direction of stimulus motion...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912154/inhibition-of-p25-cdk5-attenuates-tauopathy-in-mouse-and-ipsc-models-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#20
Jinsoo Seo, Oleg Kritskiy, L Ashley Watson, Scarlett J Barker, Dilip Dey, Waseem K Raja, Yuan-Ta Lin, Tak Ko, Sukhee Cho, Jay Penney, M Catarina Silva, Steven D Sheridan, Diane Lucente, James F Gusella, Bradford C Dickerson, Stephen J Haggarty, Li-Huei Tsai
Increased p25, a proteolytic fragment of the regulatory subunit p35, is known to induce aberrant activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), which is associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we showed that replacing endogenous p35 with the non-cleavable mutant p35 (Δp35) attenuated amyloidosis and improved cognitive function in a familial AD mouse model. Here, to address the role of p25/Cdk5 in tauopathy, we generated double transgenic mice by crossing mice overexpressing mutant human tau (P301S) with Δp35KI mice...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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