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Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30643026/grey-matter-volume-differences-associated-with-extremely-low-levels-of-cannabis-use-in-adolescence
#1
Catherine Orr, Philip Spechler, Zhipeng Cao, Matthew Albaugh, Bader Chaarani, Scott Mackey, Deepak D'Souza, Nicholas Allgaier, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Patricia Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Sabina Millenet, Juliane H Fröhner, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Alexandra Potter, Hugh Garavan
Rates of cannabis use among adolescents are high, and are increasing concurrent with changes in the legal status of marijuana and societal attitudes regarding its use. Recreational cannabis use is understudied, especially in the adolescent period when neural maturation may make users particularly vulnerable to the effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on brain structure. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry to compare grey matter volume (GMV) in 46 fourteen year old human adolescents (males and females) with just one or two instances of cannabis use and carefully matched THC-naïve controls...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30643025/reduced-structural-connectivity-between-left-auditory-thalamus-and-the-motion-sensitive-planum-temporale-in-developmental-dyslexia
#2
Nadja Tschentscher, Anja Ruisinger, Helen Blank, Begoña Díaz, Katharina von Kriegstein
Developmental dyslexia is characterized by the inability to acquire typical reading and writing skills. Dyslexia has been frequently linked to cerebral cortex alterations; however recent evidence also points towards sensory thalamus dysfunctions: dyslexics showed reduced responses in the left auditory thalamus (medial geniculate body, MGB) during speech processing in contrast to neurotypical readers. In addition, in the visual modality, dyslexics have reduced structural connectivity between the left visual thalamus (lateral geniculate nucleus, LGN) and V5/MT - a cerebral cortex region involved in visual movement processing...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30630882/structural-thalamo-frontal-hypoconnectivity-is-related-to-oculomotor-corollary-discharge-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#3
B Yao, S F W Neggers, M Rolfs, L Rösler, I A Thompson, H J Hopman, L Ghermezi, R S Kahn, K N Thakkar
By predicting sensory consequences of actions, humans can distinguish self-generated sensory inputs from those that are elicited externally. This is one mechanism by which we achieve a subjective sense of agency over our actions. Corollary discharge signals (CD)-"copies" of motor signals sent to sensory areas-permit such predictions, and CD abnormalities are a hypothesized mechanism for the agency disruptions in schizophrenia that characterize a subset of symptoms. Indeed, behavioral evidence of altered CD, including in the oculomotor system, has been observed in schizophrenia patients...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30630881/two-distinct-sets-of-ca-2-and-k-channels-are-activated-at-different-membrane-potentials-by-the-climbing-fibre-synaptic-potential-in-purkinje-neuron-dendrites
#4
Karima Ait Ouares, Luiza Filipis, Alexandra Tzilivaki, Panayiota Poirazi, Marco Canepari
In cerebellar Purkinje neuron (PN) dendrites, the transient depolarisation associated with a climbing fibre (CF) EPSP activates voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs), voltage-gated K+ channels (VGKCs) and Ca2+ activated SK and BK K+ channels. The resulting membrane potential (Vm ) and Ca2+ transients play a fundamental role in dendritic integration and synaptic plasticity of parallel fibre inputs. Here we report a detailed investigation of the kinetics of dendritic Ca2+ and K+ channels activated by CF-EPSPs, based on optical measurements of Vm and Ca2+ transients and on a single-compartment NEURON model reproducing experimental data...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626701/loss-of-huntingtin-in-medial-and-lateral-ganglionic-lineages-differentially-disrupts-regional-interneuron-and-projection-neuron-subtypes-and-promotes-huntington-s-disease-associated-behavioral-cellular-and-pathological-hallmarks
#5
Mark F Mehler, Jenna R Petronglo, Eduardo E Arteaga-Bracho, Maria Gulinello, Michael L Winchester, Nandini Pichamoorthy, Stephen K Young, Christopher D DeJesus, Hifza Ishtiaq, Solen Gokhan, Aldrin E Molero
Emerging studies are providing compelling evidence that the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder with frequent midlife onset, encompasses developmental components. Moreover, our previous studies using a hypomorphic model targeting huntingtin during the neurodevelopmental period indicated that loss-of-function mechanisms account for this pathogenic developmental component (Arteaga-Bracho et al., 2016). In the present study, we specifically ascertained the roles of subpallial lineage species in eliciting the previously observed HD-like phenotypes...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626700/prior-exposure-to-salient-win-paired-cues-in-a-rat-gambling-task-increases-sensitivity-to-cocaine-self-administration-and-suppresses-dopamine-efflux-in-nucleus-accumbens-support-for-the-reward-deficiency-hypothesis-of-addiction
#6
Jacqueline-Marie N Ferland, Tristan J Hynes, Celine D Hounjet, David Lindenbach, Cole Vonder Haar, Wendy K Adams, Anthony G Phillips, Catharine A Winstanley
Rats trained to perform a version of the rat gambling task (rGT) in which salient audiovisual cues accompany reward delivery, similar to commercial gambling products, show greater preference for risky options. Given previous demonstrations that probabilistic reinforcement schedules can enhance psychostimulant-induced increases in accumbal dopamine and locomotor activity, we theorised that performing this cued task could perpetuate a pro-addiction phenotype. Significantly more rats developed a preference for the risky options in the cued versus uncued rGT at baseline, and this bias was further exacerbated by cocaine self-administration, whereas the choice pattern of optimal decision-makers was unaffected...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626699/cardiolipin-dependent-mitophagy-guides-outcome-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Honglu Chao, Chao Lin, Qiang Zuo, Yinlong Liu, Mengqing Xiao, Xiupeng Xu, Zheng Li, Zhongyuan Bao, Huimei Chen, Yongping You, Patrick M Kochanek, Huiyong Yin, Ning Liu, Valerian E Kagan, Hülya Bayır, Jing Ji
Mitochondrial energy production is essential for normal brain function. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases brain energy demands, results in the activation of mitochondrial respiration, associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species. This chain of events triggers neuronal apoptosis via oxidation of a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL). One pathway through which cells can avoid apoptosis is via elimination of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy. Previously, we showed that externalization of CL to the mitochondrial surface acts as an elimination signal in cells...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626698/activation-of-phox2b-expressing-neurons-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-drives-breathing-in-mice
#8
Congrui Fu, Luo Shi, Ziqian Wei, Hongxiao Yu, Yinchao Hao, Yanming Tian, Yixian Liu, Yi Zhang, Xiangjian Zhang, Fang Yuan, Sheng Wang
The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is implicated in the control of breathing, but the neuronal phenotype and circuit mechanism involved in such a physiological function remain incompletely understood. This study focused on the respiratory role of paired-like homeobox 2b gene (Phox2b)-expressing NTS neurons and sought to determine whether selective stimulation of this set of neurons activates breathing in male mice. A Cre-dependent vector encoding a Gq-coupled human M3 muscarinic receptor (hM3Dq) was microinjected into the NTS of Phox2b-Cre transgenic mice...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626697/cenpj-regulates-cilia-disassembly-and-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-mouse-cortex
#9
Wenyu Ding, Qian Wu, Le Sun, Na Clara Pan, Xiaoqun Wang
Primary cilia are microtubule-based protuberances that project from the eukaryotic cell body to sense the extracellular environment. Ciliogenesis is closely correlated to the cell cycle, and defects of cilia are related to human systemic diseases, such as primary ciliary dyskinesia. However, the role of ciliogenesis in cortical development remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Cenpj, a protein that is required for centriole biogenesis, plays a role in regulating cilium disassembly in vivo Depletion of Cenpj in neural progenitor cells results in long cilia and abnormal cilia disassembly...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626696/pyk2-signaling-through-graf1-and-rhoa-gtpase-is-required-for-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomer-triggered-synapse-loss
#10
Suho Lee, Santiago V Salazar, Timothy O Cox, Stephen M Strittmatter
The intracellular tyrosine kinase Pyk2 (PTK2B) is related to Focal Adhesion Kinase and localizes to post-synaptic sites in brain. Pyk2 genetic variation contributes to Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD) risk. We recently observed that Pyk2 is required for synapse loss and for learning deficits in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Here, we explore the cellular and biochemical basis for the action of Pyk2 tyrosine kinase in amyloid-β oligomer (Aβo) induced dendritic spine loss. Overexpression of Pyk2 reduces dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons by a kinase-dependent mechanism...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30626695/signaling-incentive-and-drive-in-the-primate-ventral-pallidum-for-motivational-control-of-goal-directed-action
#11
Atsushi Fujimoto, Yukiko Hori, Yuji Nagai, Erika Kikuchi, Kei Oyama, Tetsuya Suhara, Takafumi Minamimoto
Processing incentive and drive is essential for control of goal-directed behavior. The limbic part of the basal ganglia has been emphasized in these processes, yet the exact neuronal mechanism has remained elusive. In this study, we examined the neuronal activity of the ventral pallidum (VP) and its upstream area, the rostromedial caudate (rmCD), while two male macaque monkeys performed an instrumental lever-release task, in which a visual cue indicated the forthcoming reward size. We found that the activity of some neurons in VP and rmCD reflected the expected reward-size transiently following the cue...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622169/non-trigeminal-nociceptive-innervation-of-the-posterior-dura-implications-to-occipital-headache
#12
Rodrigo Noseda, Agustin Melo-Carrillo, Rony-Reuven Nir, Andrew M Strassman, Rami Burstein
Current understanding of the origin of occipital headache falls short of distinguishing between cause and effect. Most preclinical studies involving trigeminovascular neurons sample neurons that are responsive to stimulation of dural areas in the anterior 2/3 of the cranium and the periorbital skin. Hypothesizing that occipital headache may involve activation of meningeal nociceptors that innervate the posterior 1/3 of the dura, we sought to map the origin and course of meningeal nociceptors that innervate the posterior dura overlying the cerebellum...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622168/temperoammonic-stimulation-depotentiates-schaffer-collateral-ltp-via-p38-map-kinase-downstream-of-adenosine-a1-receptors
#13
Yukitoshi Izumi, Charles F Zorumski
We previously found that low frequency stimulation of direct temperoammonic (TA) inputs to hippocampal area CA1 depotentiates previously established long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway through complex signaling involving dopamine, endocannabinoids, neuregulin-1, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and adenosine, with adenosine being the most distal modulator identified to date. In the present studies, we examined mechanisms contributing to the effects of adenosine in hippocampal slices from male albino rats...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622167/mild-intraocular-pressure-elevation-in-mice-reveals-distinct-retinal-ganglion-cell-functional-thresholds-and-pressure-dependent-properties
#14
Xiaofeng Tao, Jasdeep Sabharwal, Robert L Seilheimer, Samuel M Wu, Benjamin J Frankfort
Elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) causes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and death and is a major risk factor for glaucoma. We used a bead injection technique to increase IOP in mice of both genders by an average of about 3 mmHg for 2 weeks. This level of IOP elevation was lower than that achieved in other studies, which allowed for the study of subtle IOP effects. We used multi-electrode array recordings to determine the cellular responses of RGCs exposed to this mild degree of IOP elevation...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622166/pkm%C3%AE-inhibition-disrupts-reconsolidation-and-erases-object-recognition-memory
#15
Janine I Rossato, Maria Carolina Gonzalez, Andressa Radiske, Gênedy Apolinário, Sergio Conde-Ocazionez, Lia R Bevilaqua, Martín Cammarota
Object recognition memory (ORM) confers the ability to discriminate the familiarity of previously encountered items. Reconsolidation is the process by which reactivated memories become labile and susceptible to modifications. The hippocampus is specifically engaged in reconsolidation to integrate new information into the original ORM through a mechanism involving activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling and induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). It is known that BDNF can control LTP maintenance through protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), an atypical protein kinase C isoform that is thought to sustain memory storage by modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30622165/ventral-pallidum-is-the-primary-target-for-accumbens-d1-projections-driving-cocaine-seeking
#16
Thibaut R Pardo-Garcia, Constanza Garcia-Keller, Tiffany Penaloza, Peter W Kalivas, Jasper A Heinsbroek
Outputs from the nucleus accumbens include projections to the ventral pallidum and the ventral tegmental area and subtantia nigra in the ventral mesencephalon. The medium spiny neurons (MSN) that give rise to these pathways are GABAergic and consist of two populations of equal number that are segregated by differentially expressed proteins, including D1- and D2-dopamine receptors. Afferents to the ventral pallidum arise from both D1- and D2-MSNs, while the ventral mesencephalon is selectively innervated by D1-MSN...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30617213/neural-mechanisms-of-emotion-regulation-moderate-the-predictive-value-of-affective-and-value-related-brain-responses-to-persuasive-messages
#17
B P Doré, S H Tompson, M B O'Donnell, L An, V Strecher, E B Falk
Emotionally evocative messages can be an effective way to change behavior, but the neural pathways that translate messages into effects on individuals and populations are not fully understood. We used a human functional neuroimaging approach to ask how affect-, value-, and regulation-related brain systems interact to predict effects of graphic anti-smoking messages for individual smokers (both males and females) and within a population-level messaging campaign. Results indicated that increased activity in the amygdala, a region involved in affective reactivity, predicted both personal quit intentions and population-level information-seeking, and this was mediated by activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a region involved in computing an integrative value signal...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30617212/transient-knock-down-of-prefrontal-disc1-in-immune-challenged-mice-causes-abnormal-long-range-coupling-and-cognitive-dysfunction-throughout-development
#18
Xiaxia Xu, Mattia Chini, Sebastian H Bitzenhofer, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
Compromised brain development has been hypothesized to account for mental illness. This concept was underpinned by the function of the molecule Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) that represents an intracellular hub of developmental processes and has been related to cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. Mice with whole-brain DISC1 knock-down show impaired prefrontal-hippocampal function and cognitive abilities throughout development and at adulthood, especially when combined with early environmental stressors, such as maternal immune activation (MIA)...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30617211/stroke-accelerates-and-uncouples-intrinsic-and-synaptic-excitability-maturation-of-mouse-hippocampal-dcx-adult-born-granule-cells
#19
Mihai Ceanga, Silke Keiner, Benedikt Grünewald, Holger Haselmann, Christiane Frahm, Sebastien Couillard-Després, Otto W Witte, Christoph Redecker, Christian Geis, Albrecht Kunze
Stroke robustly stimulates adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is currently unknown if this process induces beneficial or maladaptive effects, but morphological and behavioral studies have reported aberrant neurogenesis and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory following stroke. However, the intrinsic function and network incorporation of adult-born granule cells (ABGCs) after ischemia is unclear.Using patch-clamp electrophysiology we evaluated doublecortin positive (DCX+) ABGCs as well as DCX- dentate gyrus granule cells two weeks after a stroke or sham operation in DCX / DsRed transgenic mice of either sex...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30617210/nonlinear-processing-of-shape-information-in-rat-lateral-extrastriate-cortex
#20
Giulio Matteucci, Rosilari Bellacosa Marotti, Margherita Riggi, Federica B Rosselli, Davide Zoccolan
In rodents, the progression of extrastriate areas located laterally to primary visual cortex (V1) has been assigned to a putative object-processing pathway (homologous to the primate ventral stream), based on anatomical considerations. Recently, we found functional support for such attribution (Tafazoli et al., 2017), by showing that this cortical progression is specialized for coding object identity despite view changes - the hallmark property of a ventral-like pathway. Here, we sought to clarify what computations are at the base of such specialization...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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