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Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413647/four-unique-interneuron-populations-reside-in-neocortical-layer-1
#1
Benjamin Schuman, Robert Machold, Yoshiko Hashikawa, János Fuzik, Gord Fishell, Bernardo Rudy
Sensory perception depends on neocortical computations that contextually adjust sensory signals in different internal and environmental contexts. Neocortical layer 1 (L1) is the main target of cortical and subcortical inputs that provide "top-down" information for context-dependent sensory processing. While L1 is devoid of excitatory cells, it contains the distal "tuft" dendrites of pyramidal cells (PCs) located in deeper layers. L1 also contains a poorly characterized population of GABAergic interneurons (L1 INs), which regulate the impact that different top down inputs have on PCs...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413646/neurochemical-and-behavioral-dissections-of-decision-making-in-a-rodent-multi-stage-task
#2
Stephanie M Groman, Bart Massi, Samuel R Mathias, Daniel W Curry, Daeyeol Lee, Jane R Taylor
Flexible decision-making in dynamic environments requires both retrospective appraisal of reinforced actions and prospective reasoning about the consequences of actions. These complementary reinforcement-learning systems can be characterized computationally with model-free and model-based algorithms, but how these processes interact at a neurobehavioral level in normal and pathological states is unknown. Here, we developed a translationally analogous multi-stage decision-making task to independently quantify model-free and model-based behavioral mechanisms in rats...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413645/histamine-h1-receptor-contributes-to-vestibular-compensation
#3
Zhang-Peng Chen, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Shi-Yu Peng, Zhong-Qin Yang, Yan-Bo Wang, Yang-Xun Zhang, Xi Chen, Jian-Jun Wang, Jing-Ning Zhu
Vestibular compensation is responsible for the spontaneous recovery of postural, locomotor and oculomotor dysfunctions in patients with peripheral vestibular lesion or posterior circulation stroke. Mechanism investigation of vestibular compensation is of great importance in both facilitating recovery of vestibular function and understanding the post-lesion functional plasticity in the adult central nervous system. Here, we report that postsynaptic histamine H1 receptor contributes greatly to facilitating vestibular compensation...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30413644/the-transfer-characteristics-of-hair-cells-encoding-mechanical-stimuli-in-the-lateral-line-of-zebrafish
#4
Paul Pichler, Leon Lagnado
Hair cells transmit mechanical information by converting deflection of the hair bundle into synaptic release of glutamate. We have investigated this process in the lateral line of larval zebrafish (male and female) to understand how mechanical stimuli are encoded within a neuromast. Using multiphoton microscopy in vivo , we imaged synaptic release of glutamate using the reporter iGluSnFR and deflections of the cupula. We found that the neuromast is composed of a functionally diverse population of hair cells...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396914/structure-activity-and-function-of-a-singing-cpg-interneuron-controlling-cricket
#5
Pedro F Jacob, Berthold Hedwig
The evolution of species-specific song patterns is a driving force in the speciation of acoustic communicating insects. It must be closely linked to adaptations of the neuronal network controlling the underlying singing motor activity. What are the cellular and network properties that allow generating different songs? In five cricket species, we analyzed the structure and activity of the identified abdominal ascending opener interneuron, a homologous key component of the singing central pattern generator. The structure of the interneuron, based on the position of the cell body, ascending axon, dendritic arborization pattern, and dye-coupling is highly similar across species...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396913/detailed-visual-cortical-responses-generated-by-retinal-sheet-transplants-in-rats-with-severe-retinal-degeneration
#6
Andrzej T Foik, Georgina A Lean, Leo R Scholl, Bryce T McLelland, Anuradha Mathur, Robert B Aramant, Magdalene J Seiler, David C Lyon
To combat retinal degeneration, healthy fetal retinal sheets have been successfully transplanted into both rodent models and humans, with synaptic connectivity between transplant and degenerated host retina having been confirmed. In rodent studies transplants have been shown to restore responses to flashes of light in a region of the superior colliculus corresponding to the location of the transplant in the host retina. To determine the quality and detail of visual information provided by the transplant, visual responsivity was studied here at the level of visual cortex where higher visual perception is processed...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389842/an-alternative-exon-of-caps2-influences-catecholamine-loading-into-ldcvs-of-chromaffin-cells
#7
Olga Ratai, Claudia Schirra, Elvin Rajabov, Irene Brunk, Gudrun Ahnert-Hilger, Praneeth Chitirala, Ute Becherer, David R Stevens, Jens Rettig
The calcium-dependent activator proteins for secretion (CAPS) are priming factors for synaptic and large dense-core vesicles, promoting their entry into, and stabilizing the release-ready state. A modulatory role of CAPS in catecholamine loading of vesicles has been suggested. Though an influence of CAPS on monoamine transporter function and on vesicle acidification have been reported, a role of CAPS in vesicle loading is disputed. Using expression of naturally occurring splice variants of CAPS2 into chromaffin cells from CAPS1/CAPS2 double-deficient mice of both sexes, we show that an alternative exon of 40 amino acids is responsible for enhanced catecholamine loading of large dense-core vesicles in mouse chromaffin cells...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389841/the-relationship-between-age-neural-differentiation-and-memory-performance
#8
Joshua D Koen, Nedra Hauck, Michael D Rugg
Healthy aging is associated with decreased neural selectivity (dedifferentiation) in category-selective cortical regions. This finding has prompted the suggestion that dedifferentiation contributes to age-related cognitive decline. Consistent with this possibility, dedifferentiation has been reported to negatively correlate with fluid intelligence in older adults. Here, we examined whether dedifferentiation is associated with performance in another cognitive domain - episodic memory - that is also highly vulnerable to aging...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389840/the-social-brain-automatically-predicts-others-future-mental-states
#9
Mark A Thornton, Miriam E Weaverdyck, Diana I Tamir
Social life requires people to predict the future: people must anticipate others' thoughts, feelings, and actions in order to interact with them successfully. The theory of predictive coding suggests that the social brain may meet this need by automatically predicting others' social futures. If so, when representing others' current mental state, the brain should already start representing their future states. To test this hypothesis, we used functional neuroimaging to measure female and male human participants' neural representations of mental states...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389839/the-cognitive-thalamus-as-a-gateway-to-mental-representations
#10
Mathieu Wolff, Seralynne D Vann
Historically, the thalamus has been viewed as little more than a relay, simply transferring information to key players of the cast, the cortex and hippocampus, without providing any unique functional contribution. In recent years, evidence from multiple laboratories researching different thalamic nuclei has contradicted this idea of the thalamus as a passive structure. Dated models of thalamic functions are being pushed aside, revealing a greater and far more complex contribution of the thalamus for cognition...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389838/voltage-independent-sk-channel-dysfunction-causes-neuronal-hyperexcitability-in-the-hippocampus-of-fmr1-ko-mice
#11
Pan-Yue Deng, Dan Carlin, Young Mi Oh, Leila K Myrick, Stephen T Warren, Valeria Cavalli, Vitaly A Klyachko
Neuronal hyperexcitability is one of the major characteristics of Fragile X syndrome (FXS), yet the molecular mechanisms of this critical dysfunction remain poorly understood. Here we report a major role of voltage-independent K+ channel dysfunction in hyperexcitability of CA3 pyramidal neurons in Fmr1 KO mice. We observed a reduction of voltage-independent small conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (SK) currents in both male and female mice leading to decreased AP threshold and reduced medium afterhyperpolarization (mAHP)...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389837/top-down-and-bottom-up-regulated-auditory-phantom-perception
#12
Sven Vanneste, Ola Alsaman, Dirk De Ridder
Auditory phantom percepts such as tinnitus are associated with auditory deafferentation. The idea is that auditory deafferentation limits the amount of information the brain can acquire to make sense of the world. Because of this, auditory deafferentation increases the uncertainty of the auditory environment. In order to minimize uncertainty, the deafferented brain will attempt to obtain or fill in the missing information. A proposed multiphase compensation model suggests two distinct types of bottom-up related tinnitus: an auditory cortex related tinnitus and a parahippocampal cortex related tinnitus...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381406/characterization-of-brain-dysfunction-induced-by-bacterial-lipopeptides-that-alter-neuronal-activity-and-network-in-rodent-brains
#13
Kwang-Min Kim, Alsu I Zamaleeva, Youn Woo Lee, M Rafiuddin Ahmed, Eunkyung Kim, Hye-Ryeon Lee, Venkata Raveendra Pothineni, Juan Tao, Siyeon Rhee, Mithya Jayakumar, Mohammed Inayathullah, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Kristy Red-Horse, Theo D Palmer, Jon Park, Daniel V Madison, Ho-Young Lee, Jayakumar Rajadas
The immunopathological states of the brain induced by bacterial lipoproteins have been well-characterized by employing biochemical and histological assays. However, these studies have limitations in determining functional states of damaged brains involving aberrant synaptic activity and network, which makes it difficult to diagnose brain disorders during bacterial infection. To address this, we investigated the effect of Pam3 CSK4 (PAM), a synthetic bacterial lipopeptide, on synaptic dysfunction of female mice brains and cultured neurons in parallel...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377227/ctcf-governs-the-identity-and-migration-of-mge-derived-cortical-interneurons
#14
A Elbert, D Vogt, L A Watson, M Levy, Y Jiang, E Brûlé, M E Rowland, J L R Rubenstein, N G Bérubé
The CCCTC- binding factor (CTCF) is a central regulator of chromatin topology recently linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability, autism and schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify novel roles of CTCF in the developing mouse brain. We provide evidence that CTCF is required for the expression of the LIM homeodomain factor LHX6 involved in fate determination of cortical interneurons (CIN) that originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE). Conditional Ctcf ablation in the MGE of mice of either sex leads to delayed tangential migration, abnormal distribution of CIN in the neocortex, a marked reduction of CIN expressing Parvalbumin (Pv) and Somatostatin (Sst), and an increased number of MGE-derived cells expressing Lhx8 and other markers of basal forebrain projection neurons...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377226/molecular-fingerprinting-of-on-off-direction-selective-retinal-ganglion-cells-across-species-and-relevance-to-primate-visual-circuits
#15
Onkar S Dhande, Benjamin K Stafford, Katrin Franke, Rana El-Danaf, Kumiko A Percival, Ann H Phan, Peichao Li, Bryan J Hansen, Phong L Nguyen, Philipp Berens, W Rowland Taylor, Edward Callaway, Thomas Euler, Andrew D Huberman
The ability to detect moving objects is an ethologically salient function. Direction selective neurons have been identified in the retina, thalamus, and cortex of many species, but their homology has remained opaque. For instance, it is unknown whether direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DSGCs) exist in primates, and if so, whether they are the equivalent to mouse and rabbit DSGCs. Here, we used a molecular/circuit approach in both sexes to address these issues. In mice, we identify the transcription factor Satb2 (Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2) as a selective marker for three RGC types: On-Off DSGCs encoding motion in either the anterior or posterior direction, a newly identified type of Off-DSGC and an Off-sustained RGC type...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381405/dynamin-1-restrains-vesicular-release-to-a-sub-quantal-mode-in-mammalian-adrenal-chromaffin-cells
#16
Qihui Wu, Quanfeng Zhang, Bin Liu, Yinglin Li, Xi Wu, Shuting Kuo, Lianghong Zheng, Changhe Wang, Feipeng Zhu, Zhuan Zhou
Dynamin 1 (dyn1) is required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis in most secretory (neuronal and neuroendocrine) cells. There are two modes of Ca2+ -dependent catecholamine release from single dense-core vesicles: full-quantal (quantal) and sub-quantal in adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs), but their relative occurrences and impacts on total secretion remain unclear. To address this fundamental question in neurotransmission area using both sexes of animals, here we report 1) dyn1-KO increased quantal size (QS, but not vesicle size/content) by ≥250% in dyn1-KO mice; 2) the KO-increase QS was rescued by dyn1 (but not its deficient mutant or dyn2); 3) the ratio of quantal versus subquantal events was increased by KO; 4) following a release event, more protein contents were retained in WT vs KO vesicles; and 5) the fusion pore size dp was increased from ≤9 to ≥9 nm by KO...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381404/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-a-coming-of-age-story
#17
H Georg Kuhn, Tomohisa Toda, Fred H Gage
What has become standard textbook knowledge over the last decade was a hotly debated matter a decade earlier: the proposition that new neurons are generated in the adult mammalian CNS. The early discovery by Altman and colleagues in the 1960s was vulnerable to criticism due to the lack of technical strategies for unequivocal demonstration, quantification and physiological analysis of newly generated neurons in adult brain tissue. After several technological advancements had been made in the field, we published a paper in 1996 describing the generation of new neurons in the adult rat brain and the decline of hippocampal neurogenesis during aging...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373770/demethylation-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-151-promoter-facilitates-the-binding-of-kruppel-like-factor-5-and-enhances-neuropathic-pain-after-nerve-injury-in-mice
#18
Bao-Chun Jiang, Wen-Wen Zhang, Tian Yang, Chang-Yun Guo, De-Li Cao, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Yong-Jing Gao
G protein-coupled receptors are considered to be cell surface sensors of extracellular signals, thereby having a crucial role in signal transduction and being the most fruitful targets for drug discovery. G protein-coupled receptor 151 (GPR151) was reported to be expressed specifically in the habenular area. Here we report the expression and the epigenetic regulation of GRP151 in the spinal cord after spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and the contribution of GPR151 to neuropathic pain in male mice. SNL dramatically increased GPR151 expression in spinal neurons...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373769/membrane-potential-correlates-of-network-decorrelation-and-improved-snr-by-cholinergic-activation-in-the-somatosensory-cortex
#19
Inbal Meir, Yonatan Katz, Ilan Lampl
The nucleus basalis (NB) projects cholinergic axons to the cortex where they play a major role in arousal, attention and learning. Cholinergic inputs shift cortical dynamics from synchronous to asynchronous and improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of sensory responses. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of these changes remain unclear. Using simultaneous extracellular and whole-cell patch recordings in layer 4 of the mouse barrel cortex we show that electrical or optogenetic activation of the cholinergic system has a differential effect on ongoing and sensory evoked activities...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373768/ck1%C3%AE-collaborates-with-doubletime-to-regulate-period-function-in-the-drosophila-circadian-clock
#20
Vu H Lam, Ying H Li, Xianhui Liu, Katherine A Murphy, Jonathan S Diehl, Rosanna S Kwok, Joanna C Chiu
The animal circadian timing system interprets environmental time cues and internal metabolic status to orchestrate circadian rhythms of physiology, allowing animals to perform necessary tasks in a time-of-day dependent manner. Normal progression of circadian rhythms is dependent on the daily cycling of core transcriptional factors that make up cell-autonomous molecular oscillators. In Drosophila, PERIOD (PER), TIMELESS (TIM), CLOCK (CLK), and CYCLE (CYC) are core clock proteins that function in a transcriptional-translational feedback mechanism to regulate the circadian transcriptome...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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