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Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634307/prefrontal-neurons-encode-a-solution-to-the-credit-assignment-problem
#1
Wael F Asaad, Peter M Lauro, János A Perge, Emad N Eskandar
To adapt successfully to our environments, we must use the outcomes of our choices to guide future behavior. Critically, we must be able to correctly assign credit for any particular outcome to the causal features which preceded it. In some cases, the causal features may be immediately evident, whereas in others they may be separated in time or intermingled with irrelevant environmental stimuli, creating a potentially nontrivial credit assignment problem. We examined the neuronal representation of information relevant for credit assignment in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dPFC) of two male rhesus macaques performing a task that elicited key aspects of this problem...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634306/representations-of-time-varying-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#2
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
Electrical stimulation of the auditory periphery organ by cochlear implant (CI) generates highly synchronized inputs to the auditory system. It has long been thought such inputs would lead to highly synchronized neural firing along the ascending auditory pathway. However, neurophysiological studies with hearing animals have shown that the central auditory system progressively converts temporal representations of time-varying sounds to firing rate-based representations. It is not clear whether this coding principle also applies to highly synchronized CI inputs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634305/data-driven-extraction-of-a-nested-model-of-human-brain-function
#3
Taylor Bolt, Jason S Nomi, B T Thomas Yeo, Lucina Q Uddin
Decades of cognitive neuroscience research have revealed two basic facts regarding task-driven brain activation patterns. First, distinct patterns of activation occur in response to different task demands. Second, a superordinate, dichotomous pattern of activation/de-activation, is common across a variety of task demands. We explore the possibility that a hierarchical model incorporates these two observed brain activation phenomena into a unifying framework. We apply a latent variable approach, exploratory bi-factor analysis, to a large set of human (both sexes) brain activation maps (n = 108) encompassing cognition, perception, action and emotion behavioral domains, to determine the potential existence of a nested structure of factors that underlies a variety of commonly observed activation patterns...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630257/contrasting-effects-of-medial-and-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-lesions-on-credit-assignment-and-decision-making-in-humans
#4
MaryAnn P Noonan, Bolton Chau, Matthew Fs Rushworth, Lesley K Fellows
The orbitofrontal cortex is critical for goal-directed behavior. Recent work in macaques has suggested the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) is relatively more concerned with assignment of credit for rewards to particular choices during value-guided learning, while the medial orbitofrontal cortex (often referred to as ventromedial prefrontal cortex in humans; vmPFC/mOFC) is involved in constraining the decision to the relevant options. We examined whether people with damage restricted to sub-regions of prefrontal cortex showed the patterns of impairment observed in prior investigations of the effects of lesions to homologous regions in macaques...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630256/the-small-gtpase-rac1-contributes-to-extinction-of-aversive-memories-of-drug-withdrawal-by-facilitating-gabaa-receptor-endocytosis-in-the-vmpfc
#5
Wei-Sheng Wang, Yun-Yue Ju, Qi-Xin Zhou, Jian-Xin Tang, Meng Li, Lei Zhang, Shuo Kang, Zhong-Guo Chen, Yu-Jun Wang, Hui Ji, Yu-Qiang Ding, Lin Xu, Jing-Gen Liu
Extinction of aversive memories has been a major concern in neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders and drug addiction. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of aversive memories are not fully understood. Here, we report that extinction of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABAA receptor (GABAAR) endocytosis via triggering synaptic translocation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) through facilitating actin polymerization...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630255/social-context-dependent-activity-in-marmoset-frontal-cortex-populations-during-natural-conversations
#6
Samuel U Nummela, Vladimir Jovanovic, Lisa de la Mothe, Cory T Miller
Communication is an inherently interactive process that weaves together the fabric of both human and nonhuman primate societies. To investigate the properties of the primate brain during active social signaling, we recorded the responses of frontal cortex neurons as freely-moving marmosets engaged in conversational exchanges with a visually occluded Virtual Marmoset (VM). We found that small changes in firing rate (∼1Hz) occurred across a broadly distributed population of frontal cortex neurons when marmosets heard a conspecific vocalization, and that these changes corresponded to subjects' likelihood of producing or withholding a vocal reply...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630254/reward-selectively-modulates-the-lingering-neural-representation-of-recently-attended-objects-in-natural-scenes
#7
Clayton Hickey, Marius Peelen
Theories of reinforcement learning and approach behaviour suggest that reward can increase the perceptual salience of environmental stimuli, ensuring that potential predictors of outcome are noticed in the future. But outcome commonly follows visual processing of the environment, occurring even when potential reward cues have long disappeared. How can reward feedback retroactively cause now-absent stimuli to become attention-drawing in the future? One possibility is that reward and attention interact to prime lingering visual representations of attended stimuli that sustain through the interval separating stimulus and outcome...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630253/cold-induced-thermogenesis-and-inflammation-associated-cold-seeking-behavior-are-represented-by-different-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-sites-a-three-dimensional-functional-topography-study-in-conscious-rats
#8
Samuel P Wanner, M Camila Almeida, Yury P Shimansky, Daniela L Oliveira, Justin R Eales, Cândido C Coimbra, Andrej A Romanovsky
In the past, we showed that large electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) promoted hypothermia in cold-exposed restrained rats, but attenuated hypothermia in rats challenged with a high dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a thermogradient apparatus. The goal of this study was to identify the thermoeffector mechanisms and DMH representation of the two phenomena and, hence, understand how the same lesion could produce two opposite effects on body temperature. We found that the permissive effect of large electrolytic DMH lesions on cold-induced hypothermia was due to suppressed thermogenesis...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630252/alpha-band-brain-oscillations-shape-the-processing-of-perceptible-as-well-as-imperceptible-somatosensory-stimuli-during-selective-attention
#9
Norman Forschack, Till Nierhaus, Matthias M Müller, Arno Villringer
Attention filters and weights sensory information according to behavioral demands. Stimulus-related neural responses are increased for the attended stimulus. Does alpha-band activity mediate this effect and is it restricted to conscious sensory events (suprathreshold), or does it also extend to unconscious stimuli (subthreshold)? To address these questions, we recorded EEG in healthy male and female volunteers undergoing subthreshold and suprathreshold somatosensory electrical stimulation to the left or right index finger...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630251/valnoctamide-inhibits-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-developing-brain-and-attenuates-neurobehavioral-dysfunctions-and-brain-abnormalities
#10
Sara Ornaghi, Lawrence S Hsieh, Angélique Bordey, Patrizia Vergani, Michael J Paidas, Anthony N van den Pol
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of brain defects and neurological dysfunction in developing human babies. Due to the teratogenicity and toxicity of available CMV antivirals, treatment options during early development are markedly limited. Valnoctamide (VCD), a neuroactive mood stabilizer with no known teratogenic activity, was recently demonstrated to have anti-CMV potential. However, it is not known whether this can be translated into an efficacious therapeutic effect to improve CMV-induced adverse neurological outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630250/amplification-of-mglu5-endocannabinoid-signaling-rescues-behavioral-and-synaptic-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-adolescent-and-adult-dietary-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-imbalance
#11
Antonia Manduca, Anissa Bara, Thomas Larrieu, Olivier Lassalle, Corinne Joffre, Sophie Layé, Olivier J Manzoni
Energy-dense, yet nutritionally-poor food is a high-risk factor for mental health disorders. This is of particular concern during adolescence, a period often associated with increased consumption of low nutritional content food and higher prevalence of mental health disorders. Indeed, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms linking unhealthy diet and mental disorders. Deficiency in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) is a hallmark of poor nutrition and mood disorders. Here, we developed a mouse model of n-3 PUFAs deficiency lasting from adolescence into adulthood...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626019/neural-mechanisms-of-updating-under-reducible-and-irreducible-uncertainty
#12
Kenji Kobayashi, Ming Hsu
Adaptive decision-making depends on agents' ability to make use of environmental signals to reduce uncertainty. However, because there exist multiple types of uncertainty, agents should take into account not only the extent to which signals violate prior expectancy but also whether uncertainty can be reduced in the first place. Here we studied how the human brain of both sexes responds to signals under conditions of reducible and irreducible uncertainty. We show behaviorally that subjects' value updating was sensitivity to the reducibility of uncertainty, and could be quantitative characterized by a Bayesian model where agents ignore expectancy violations that do not update beliefs or values...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626018/dissecting-the-function-of-hippocampal-oscillations-in-a-human-anxiety-model
#13
Saurabh Khemka, Gareth Barnes, Raymond J Dolan, Dominik R Bach
Neural oscillations in hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are a hallmark of rodent anxiety models that build on conflict between approach and avoidance. Yet, the function of these oscillations, and their expression in humans, remain elusive. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate neural oscillations in a task that simulated approach-avoidance conflict, wherein 23 male and female human participants collected monetary tokens under a threat of virtual predation. Probability of threat was learned beforehand by direct experience...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626017/amyloid-beta-peptide-is-needed-for-cgmp-induced-long-term-potentiation-and-memory
#14
Agostino Palmeri, Roberta Ricciarelli, Walter Gulisano, Daniela Rivera, Claudia Rebosio, Elisa Calcagno, Maria Rosaria Tropea, Silvia Conti, Utpal Das, Subhojit Roy, Maria A Pronzato, Ottavio Arancio, Ernesto Fedele, Daniela Puzzo
High levels of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) have been related to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. However, in the healthy brain, low physiologically relevant concentrations of Aβ are necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. Because cGMP plays a key role in these processes, here we investigated whether the cyclic nucleotide cGMP influences Aβ levels and function during LTP and memory. We demonstrate that the increase of cGMP levels by the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) sildenafil and vardenafil induces a parallel release of Aβ due to a change in the approximation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626016/the-mtor-substrate-s6-kinase-1-s6k1-is-a-negative-regulator-of-axon-regeneration-and-a-potential-drug-target-for-central-nervous-system-injury
#15
Hassan Al-Ali, Ying Ding, Tatiana Slepak, Wei Wu, Yan Sun, Yania Martinez, Xiao-Ming Xu, V P Lemmon, J L Bixby
The mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) positively regulates axon growth in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Though axon regeneration and functional recovery from CNS injuries are typically limited, knockdown or deletion of PTEN, a negative regulator of mTOR, increases mTOR activity and induces robust axon growth and regeneration. It has been suggested that inhibition of S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1, gene symbol: RPS6KB1), a prominent mTOR target, would blunt mTOR's positive effect on axon growth. In contrast to this expectation, we demonstrate that inhibition of S6K1 in CNS neurons promotes neurite outgrowth in vitro by 2-3 fold...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626015/reciprocal-interaction-of-dendrite-geometry-and-nuclear-calcium-vegfd-signaling-gates-memory-consolidation-and-extinction
#16
Thekla J Hemstedt, C Peter Bengtson, Omar Ramírez, Ana Mm Oliveira, Hilmar Bading
Nuclear calcium is an important signaling end-point in synaptic excitation-transcription coupling that is critical for long-term neuroadaptations. Here we show that nuclear calcium acting via a target gene VEGFD is required for hippocampus-dependent fear memory consolidation and extinction in mice. Nuclear calcium-VEGFD signaling upholds structural integrity and complexity of the dendritic arbor of CA1 neurons that renders those cells permissive for the efficient generation of synaptic input-evoked nuclear calcium transients driving the expression of plasticity-related genes...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626014/bace1-cleavage-site-selection-critical-for-amyloidogenesis-and-alzheimer-s-pathogenesis
#17
Shuting Zhang, Zhe Wang, Fang Cai, Mingming Zhang, Yili Wu, Jing Zhang, Weihong Song
Mutations in amyloid β precursor protein (APP) gene alter APP processing, either causing familial Alzheimer's Disease (AD) or protecting against dementia. Under normal conditions beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) cleaves APP at minor Asp(1) site to generate C99 for amyloid β protein (Aβ) production, and predominantly at major Glu(11) site to generate C89, resulting in truncated Aβ production. We discovered that A673V mutation, the only recessive AD-associated APP mutation, shifted the preferential β-cleavage site of BACE1 in APP from the Glu(11) site to the Asp(1) site both in male and female transgenic mice in vivo and in cell lines and primary neuronal culture derived from timed pregnant rats in vitro, resulting in a much higher C99 level and C99/C89 ratio...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626013/sleep-disrupts-high-level-speech-parsing-despite-significant-basic-auditory-processing
#18
Shiri Makov, Omer Sharon, Nai Ding, Michal Ben-Shachar, Yuval Nir, Elana Zion Golumbic
The extent to which the sleeping brain processes sensory information remains unclear. This is particularly true for continuous and complex stimuli, such as speech, in which information is organized into hierarchically embedded structures. Recently, novel metrics for assessing the neural representation of continuous speech have been developed, using non-invasive brain recordings. Those were so far tested during wakefulness. Here we investigated, for the first time, the sleeping brain's capacity to process continuous speech at different hierarchical levels, using a newly developed Concurrent Hierarchical Tracking (CHT) approach that can online monitor the neural representation and processing-depth of continuous speech...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626012/pharmacological-modulation-of-noradrenergic-arousal-circuitry-disrupts-functional-connectivity-of-the-locus-coeruleus-in-humans
#19
Andrew H Song, Aaron Kucyi, Vitaly Napadow, Emery N Brown, Marco L Loggia, Oluwaseun Akeju
State dependent activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons has long suggested a role for noradrenergic modulation of arousal. However, in vivo insights into noradrenergic arousal circuitry have been constrained by the fundamental inaccessibility of the human brain for invasive studies. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies performed during site-specific pharmacological manipulations of arousal levels may be used to study brain arousal circuitry. Dexmedetomidine is an anesthetic that alters the level of arousal by selectively targeting α2 adrenergic receptors on LC neurons, resulting in reduced firing rate and norepinephrine release...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626011/effects-of-ventral-striatum-lesions-on-stimulus-versus-action-based-reinforcement-learning
#20
Kathryn M Rothenhoefer, Vincent D Costa, Ramón Bartolo, Raquel Vicario-Feliciano, Elisabeth A Murray, Bruno B Averbeck
Learning the values of actions versus stimuli may depend on separable neural circuits. In the current study, we evaluated ventral striatum (VS) lesioned macaques' performance on a two-arm bandit task that had randomly interleaved blocks of stimulus based and action based reinforcement learning (RL). Compared to controls, monkeys with VS lesions had deficits in learning to select rewarding images but not rewarding actions. We used a RL model to quantify learning and choice consistency and found that, in stimulus based RL, the VS lesion monkeys were more influenced by negative feedback and had lower choice consistency than controls...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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