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Journal of Biosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485126/investigating-the-genetic-and-epigenetic-basis-of-big-biological-questions-with-the-parthenogenetic-marbled-crayfish-a-review-and-perspectives
#1
Gunter Vogt
In the last 15 years, considerable attempts have been undertaken to develop the obligately parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis as a new model in biology. Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring that are genetically identical to the mother, making this crustacean particularly suitable for research in epigenetics. Now, a draft genome, transcriptome and genome-wide methylome are available opening new windows for research. In this article, I summarize the biological advantages and genomic and epigenetic features of marbled crayfish and, based on first promising data, discuss what this new model could contribute to answering of ''big'' biological questions...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485125/plant-reference-genes-for-development-and-stress-response-studies
#2
Joyous T Joseph, Najya Jabeen Poolakkalody, Jasmine M Shah
Many reference genes are used by different laboratories for gene expression analyses to indicate the relative amount of input RNA/DNA in the experiment. These reference genes are supposed to show least variation among the treatments and with the control sets in a given experiment. However, expression of reference genes varies significantly from one set of experiment to the other. Thus, selection of reference genes depends on the experimental conditions. Sometimes the average expression of two or three reference genes is taken as standard...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485124/structure-function-relations-in-pdz-domain-containing-proteins-implications-for-protein-networks-in-cellular-signalling
#3
G P Manjunath, Praveena L Ramanujam, Sanjeev Galande
Protein scaffolds as essential backbones for organization of supramolecular signalling complexes are a recurrent theme in several model systems. Scaffold proteins preferentially employ linear peptide binding motifs for recruiting their interaction partners. PDZ domains are one of the more commonly encountered peptide binding domains in several proteins including those involved in scaffolding functions. This domain is known for its promiscuity both in terms of ligand selection, mode of interaction with its ligands as well as its association with other protein interaction domains...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485123/triacylglycerol-nourishing-molecule-in-endurance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#4
Pratap C Mali, Laxman S Meena
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) to accumulate lipid-rich molecules as an energy source obtained from host cell debris remains interesting. Additionally, the potential of M. tuberculosis to survive under different stress conditions leading to its dormant state in pathogenesis remains elusive. The exact mechanism by which these lipid bodies generated in M. tuberculosis infection and utilized by bacilli inside infected macrophage for its survival is still not understood. In this, during bacillary infection, many metabolic pathways are involved that influence the survival of M...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485122/tetrahymena-dynamin-related-protein-6-self-assembles-independent-of-membrane-association
#5
Usha P Kar, Himani Dey, Abdur Rahaman
Self-assembly on target membranes is one of the important properties of all dynamin family proteins. Drp6, a dynaminrelated protein in Tetrahymena, controls nuclear remodelling and undergoes cycles of assembly/disassembly on the nuclear envelope. To elucidate the mechanism of Drp6 function, we have characterized its biochemical and biophysical properties using size exclusion chromatography, chemical cross-linking and electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that Drp6 readily forms high-molecular-weight self-assembled structures as determined by size exclusion chromatography and chemical cross-linking...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485121/blocking-dephosphorylation-at-serine-120-residue-in-t-snare-snap-23-leads-to-massive-inhibition-in-exocytosis-from-mast-cells
#6
Pieu Naskar, Nilofer Naqvi, Niti Puri
Mast cells (MCs) respond to allergen challenge by release of pre-stored inflammatory mediators from their secretory granules, on cross-linking of Fc(epsilon) receptor I (Fc(epsilon)RI) receptors. The target-SNARE (t-SNARE) SNAP-23 has been shown to play an important role in MC exocytosis and undergoes transient phosphorylation at Serine 95 (S95) and Serine 120 (S120), concomitant with mediator release. During current study we explored the importance of transient nature of phosphorylation at S120 in MC exocytosis...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485120/glucohexaose-induced-protein-phosphatase-2c-regulates-cell-redox-status-of-cucumber-seedling
#7
Q M Chen, Y Yu, C M Lin, N Cui, J Y Zhao, T F Song, H Y Fan
Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C) is an important phosphatase-like protein in eukaryotic organisms that can negatively regulate protein kinase cascade abscisic acid (ABA) signal system through phosphorylation and carry out vital roles in various cell processes. The previous study indicated that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a part of mechanism of glucohexaose-induced resistance in cucumber cotyledons, and CsPP2C80s might play a crucial role in processes related to ROS produce and signal transduction...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485119/root-transcripts-associated-with-arsenic-accumulation-in-hyperaccumulator-pteris-vittata
#8
Rasika M Potdukhe, Priyanka Bedi, Bijaya K Sarangi, Ram A Pandey, Sanjog T Thul
Hyperaccumulation of arsenic (As) by brake fern Pteris vittata has been described as an important genetic trait that provides an option for development of a sustainable phytoremediation process for As mitigation. Accumulation of very high concentration of arsenic in above-ground tissues may be the result of arsenic vacuole compartmentalization, but the mechanism(s) of arsenic uptake and transport by underground tissues are largely unknown. In this study, we made an attempt towards understanding the molecular mechanism of As hyperaccumulation in this plant...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485118/target-specific-delivery-of-doxorubicin-to-human-glioblastoma-cell-line-via-ssdna-aptamer
#9
Abdullah Tahir Bayrac, Oya Ercan Akca, Fusun Inci Eyidogan, Huseyin Avni Oktem
Targeted drug delivery approaches have been implementing significant therapeutic gain for cancer treatment since last decades. Aptamers are one of the mostly used and highly selective targeting agents for cancer cells. Herein, we address a nano-sized targeted drug delivery approach adorned with A-172 glioblastoma cell-line-specific single stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer in which the chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin (DOX) had been conjugated. DNA aptamer, GMT-3, was previously selected for specific recognition of glioblastoma and represented many advantageous characteristics for drug targeting purposes...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485117/acute-pharmacogenetic-activation-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-excitatory-neurons-regulates-anxiety-like-behaviour
#10
Sthitapranjya Pati, Ankit Sood, Sourish Mukhopadhyay, Vidita A Vaidya
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in anxiety-like behaviour. In rodent models, perturbations of mPFC neuronal activity through pharmacological manipulations, optogenetic activation of mPFC neurons or cell-type specific pharmacogenetic inhibition of somatostatin interneurons indicate conflicting effects on anxiety-like behaviour. In the present study we examined the effects of pharmacogenetic activation of Ca 2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase alpha (CamKII alpha)-positive excitatory neurons on anxiety-like behaviour...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485116/pax6-can-substitute-for-lhx2-and-override-nfia-induced-astrogliogenesis-in-developing-hippocampus-in-vivo
#11
Veena Kinare, Ashwin S Shetty, Agasthya Suresh, Shubha Tole
In the developing central nervous system, transcription factors play a crucial role in the regulation of cell fate. Previously we demonstrated that LHX2 is a critical regulator of the neuron-glia cell fate switch in the developing mouse hippocampus. Here, we test LHX2 target gene Pax6 for a role in this process. We report that Pax6 overexpression is able to suppress the enhanced astrogliogenesis arising due to loss of functional LHX2. Furthermore, we show that like Lhx2, Pax6 is also able to suppress induced astrogliogenesis caused by overexpression of progliogenic factor Nfia...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485115/thalassiosira-mala-bacillariophyta-a-potentially-harmful-marine-diatom-from-chilka-lake-and-other-coastal-localities-of-odisha-india-nomenclature-frustule-morphology-and-global-biogeography
#12
Akshinthala K S K K S K Prasad, James A Nienow, Eric Lochner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485114/an-individual-level-selection-model-for-the-apparent-altruism-exhibited-by-cellular-slime-moulds
#13
Amotz Zahavi, Keith D Harris, Vidyanand Nanjundiah
In Dictyostelium discoideum , cells that become part of the stalk or basal disc display behaviour that can be interpreted as altruistic. Atzmony et al. (Curr Sci 72:142-145, 1997) had hypothesised that this behaviour could be the outcome of an adaptive strategy based on differing intrinsic quality as reflected by phenotypes that indicate differences in potential for survival and reproduction, followed by intercellular competition among amoebae of differing qualities. Low-quality amoebae would have a poor chance of succeeding in the competition to form spores; they could enhance their chances of survival by adopting a presumptive stalk strategy...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485113/atr-kinase-regulates-its-attenuation-via-ppm1d-phosphatase-recruitment-to-chromatin-during-recovery-from-dna-replication-stress-signalling
#14
Debadrita Bhattacharya, Disha Hiregange, Basuthkar J Rao
In eukaryotes, in response to replication stress, DNA damage response kinase, ATR is activated, whose signalling abrogation leads to cell lethality due to aberrant fork remodelling and excessive origin firing. Here we report that inhibition of ATR kinase activity specifically during replication stress recovery results in persistent ATR signalling, evidenced by the presence of ATR-dependent phosphorylation marks (gamma H2AX, pChk1 and pRad17) and delayed cell cycle re-entry. Further, such disruption of ATR signalling attenuation leads to double-strand breaks, fork collapse and thereby 'replication catastrophe'...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485112/low-concentrations-of-ethanol-during-irradiation-drastically-reduce-dna-damage-caused-by-very-high-doses-of-ionizing-radiation
#15
Harinder Singh, Shree Kumar Apte
Presence of low concentrations (1-2%) of ethanol during irradiation exhibited significant protection against DNA damage caused by very high doses (2-12 kGy) of 60 Co-gamma-rays in vitro. Radiation-induced DNA damage was substantially reduced in different types of DNA molecules (chromosomal DNA from Anabaena 7120 or Deinococcus radiodurans or bacteriophage Lambda, and plasmid pBluescript DNA) when irradiated in the presence of ethanol, thus indicating the generic nature of ethanol protection. The radioprotection appeared to be a consequence of the well known ability of ethanol to scavenge hydroxyl radicals...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485111/sisyphus-desperately-seeking-publisher
#16
Antoinette Molinie, Geoffrey Bodenhausen
As a punishment for his trickery, King Sisyphus was made to endlessly roll a huge boulder up a steep hill. The maddening nature of the punishment was reserved for King Sisyphus due to his hubristic belief that his cleverness surpassed that of Zeus himself. Today's scientists also pay a heavy price for their hubris and narcissism. They try to trick the editors of a few 'top' journals by peppering their papers with glitter and 'bling-bling', making overblown promises, and giving minimal credit to their predecessors...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485110/liberating-primatology
#17
EDITORIAL
Sindhu Radhakrishna, Dale Jamieson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485109/how-do-biological-systems-escape-chaotic-state
#18
EDITORIAL
B J Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229887/multiple-oncogenic-roles-of-nuclear-beta-catenin
#19
Raju Kumar, Murali D Bashyam
β-Catenin is essential for embryonic development and required for cell renewal/regeneration in adult life. Cellular β-catenin exists in three different pools: membranous, cytoplasmic and nuclear. In this review, we focus on functions of the nuclear pool in relation to tumorigenesis. In the nucleus, beta-catenin functions as both activator and repressor of transcription in a context-dependent manner. It promotes cell proliferation and supports tumour growth by enhancing angiogenesis. β-Catenin-mediated signalling regulates cancer cell metabolism and is associated with tumour-initiating cells in multiple malignancies...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229886/criticality-in-cell-differentiation
#20
Indrani Bose, Mainak Pal
Cell differentiation is an important process in living organisms. Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with the progenitor cells choosing between two specific lineages. The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic and stochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell differentiation is a bifurcation phenomenon, well-known in dynamical systems theory. The bifurcation point has the character of a critical point with the system dynamics exhibiting specific features in its vicinity...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
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