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Journal of Biosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229887/multiple-oncogenic-roles-of-nuclear-beta-catenin
#1
Raju Kumar, Murali D Bashyam
β-Catenin is essential for embryonic development and required for cell renewal/regeneration in adult life. Cellular β-catenin exists in three different pools: membranous, cytoplasmic and nuclear. In this review, we focus on functions of the nuclear pool in relation to tumorigenesis. In the nucleus, beta-catenin functions as both activator and repressor of transcription in a context-dependent manner. It promotes cell proliferation and supports tumour growth by enhancing angiogenesis. β-Catenin-mediated signalling regulates cancer cell metabolism and is associated with tumour-initiating cells in multiple malignancies...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229886/criticality-in-cell-differentiation
#2
Indrani Bose, Mainak Pal
Cell differentiation is an important process in living organisms. Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with the progenitor cells choosing between two specific lineages. The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic and stochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell differentiation is a bifurcation phenomenon, well-known in dynamical systems theory. The bifurcation point has the character of a critical point with the system dynamics exhibiting specific features in its vicinity...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229885/mir-876-5p-suppresses-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-lung-cancer-by-directly-down-regulating-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4
#3
Liang Bao, Lei Lv, Jinping Feng, Yuyu Chen, Xinhua Wang, Shuguang Han, Hongqing Zhao
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death throughout the world. We aimed to investigate the role of a novel microRNA-876-5p and its potential molecular target bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung cancer. Expressions of microRNA-876-5p and its potential target BMP-4 were analysed in lung cancer cells and patient tissues. Luciferase activity assay was conducted to verify direct targeting of microRNA- 876-5p to the 3'-UTR of BMP-4 mRNA. Migration, invasion capacities of lung cancer cells expressing microRNA-876-5p were analysed, and characteristics of lung cancer EMT protein markers were also evaluated...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229884/enthalpy-entropy-compensation-and-the-isokinetic-temperature-in-enzyme-catalysis
#4
Athel Cornish-Bowden
Enthalpy-entropy compensation supposes that differences in activation enthalpy ΔH++ for different reactions (or, typically in biochemistry, the same reaction catalysed by enzymes obtained from different species) may be compensated for by differences in activation entropy ΔS++. At the isokinetic temperature the compensation is exact, so that all samples have the same activity. These ideas have been controversial for several decades, but examples are still frequently reported as evidence of a real phenomenon, nearly all of the reports ignoring or discounting the possibility of a statistical artefact...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229883/in-vitro-leishmanicidal-antibacterial-and-antitumour-potential-of-anhydrocochlioquinone-a-obtained-from-the-fungus-cochliobolus-sp
#5
Fernanda F Campos, Jonas P Ramos, Djalma M DE Oliveira, Tania M A Alves, Elaine M DE Souza-Fagundes, Carlos L Zani, Fabio C Sampaio, Attilio Converti, Betania B Cota
The bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Cochliobolus sp. highlighted leishmanicidal activity and allowed for anhydrocochlioquinone A (ANDC-A) isolation. MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra of this compound were in agreement with those published in the literature. ANDC-A exhibited leishmanicidal activity with EC 50 value of 22.4 microgram/mL (44 mu M) and, when submitted to the microdilution assay against Gram-ositive and Gram-negative bacteria, showed a minimal inhibitory concentration against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25295 of 128 microgram/mL (248...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229882/igf1-stimulates-differentiation-of-primary-follicles-and-their-growth-in-ovarian-explants-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-cultured-in-vitro
#6
Pancharatna A Katti, Sheetal S Narvekar, Basavaraj B Goundadkar, Prasad A Deshpande
The present study is an attempt to elucidate the involvement of insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) in the differentiation and growth of primary follicles in ovarian explant cultures of zebrafish. Ovaries from adult females were cultured in triplicate sets/treatment group for 15 days at 22° in the laboratory. Culture medium was supplemented with either insulin (1 ng/mL) or IGF1 (1 ng/mL) or insulin + IGF1 (Experiment 1) or 0.1 or 1.0 or 10 ng/mL of IGF1 (Experiment 2). Ovaries cultured in medium alone served as controls and those fixed at the beginning of the culture as initial controls...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229881/microrna-146-protects-a549-and-h1975-cells-from-lps-induced-apoptosis-and-inflammation-injury
#7
Qiang Wang, Dagang Li, Yuquan Han, Xiaoqian Ding, Tao Xu, Bingjian Tang
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition affecting the lungs, in which pro-inflammatory cytokines are secreted. It has been shown that microRNA-146 (miR-146) is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. The present study explored the protective effects of miR-146 overexpression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated injury in A549 and H1975 cells. In this study, A549 and H1975 cells were transfected with miR-146 mimic or inhibitor, and then were subjected with LPS. Thereafter, cell viability, colony formation capacity, apoptosis, the release of proinflammatory factors, Sirt1 expression, and the expression of NF-κB and Notch pathway proteins were respectively assessed...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229880/klebsiella-pneumoniae-antibiotic-resistance-identified-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#8
Vincenzo Ierardi, Paolo Domenichini, Silvia Reali, Gian Marco Chiappara, Gianluigi Devoto, Ugo Valbusa
In the last decade the detection of the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics treatment, developed by different kind of bacteria, is becoming a huge problem. We hereby present a different approach to the current problem of detection of bacteria resistance to antibiotics. Our aims were to use the atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate bacteria morphological changes in response to antibiotics treatment and explore the possibility of reducing the time required to obtain information on their resistance. In particular, we studied Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria provided by the Lavagna Hospital ASL4 Liguria (Italy), where there are cases linked with antibiotics resistance of the Klebsiella pneumoniae...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229879/small-phosphatidate-phosphatase-ttpah2-of-tetrahymena-complements-respiratory-function-and-not-membrane-biogenesis-function-of-yeast-pah1
#9
Anoop Narayana Pillai, Sushmita Shukla, Sudhanshu Gautam, Abdur Rahaman
Phosphatidate phosphatases (PAH) play a central role in lipid metabolism and intracellular signaling. Herein, we report the presence of a low-molecular-weight PAH homolog in the single-celled ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In vitro phosphatase assay showed that TtPAH2 belongs to the magnesium-dependent phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP1) family. Loss of function of TtPAH2 did not affect the growth of Tetrahymena. Unlike other known PAH homologs, TtPAH2 did not regulate lipid droplet number and ER morphology...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229878/uptake-of-phenolic-compounds-from-plant-foods-in-human-intestinal-caco-2-cells
#10
Gavirangappa Hithamani, Dhanya Kizhakayil, Krishnapura Srinivasan
In continuation of our studies on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds from food grains as influenced by domestic processing, we examined the uptake of phenolics from native/sprouted finger millet (Eleucine coracana) and green gram (Vigna radiata) and native/heat-processed onion (Allium cepa) in human Caco-2 cells. Absorption of pure phenolic compounds, as well as the uptake of phenolic compounds from finger millet, green gram, and onion, was investigated in Caco-2 monolayer model. Transport of individual phenolic compounds from apical compartment to the basolateral compartment across Caco-2 monolayer was also investigated...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229877/fermentative-metabolism-impedes-p53-dependent-apoptosis-in-a-crabtree-positive-but-not-in-crabtree-negative-yeast
#11
Abhay Kumar, Jaswandi Ujwal Dandekar, Paike Jayadeva Bhat
Tumour cells distinguish from normal cells by fermenting glucose to lactate in presence of sufficient oxygen and functional mitochondria (Warburg effect). Crabtree effect was invoked to explain the biochemical basis of Warburg effect by suggesting that excess glucose suppresses mitochondrial respiration. It is known that the Warburg effect and Crabtree effect are displayed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, during growth on abundant glucose. Beyond this similarity, it was also demonstrated that expression of human pro-apoptotic proteins in S...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229876/microrna-486-5p-suppresses-tgf-%C3%AE-2-induced-proliferation-invasion-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-lens-epithelial-cells-by-targeting-smad2
#12
Bei Liu, Jianhua Sun, Xiaoqin Lei, Zhongqiao Zhu, Cheng Pei, Li Qin
The pathological development of lens epithelial cells (LECs) leads to posterior capsular opacification (PCO). This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of microRNA-486-5p (miR-486-5p) on TGF-β2-induced proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the lens epithelial cell line SRA01/04, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The expression of miR-486-5p in TGF-β2-induced SRA01/04 cells was down-regulated, and the expression of Smad2, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 was up-regulated...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229875/re-engineering-the-two-component-systems-as-light-regulated-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Siya Ma, Siwei Luo, L I Wu, Zhi Liang, Jia-Rui Wu
Bacteria live in environments with dynamic changes. To sense and respond to different external stimuli, bacteria make use of various sensor-response circuits, called two-component systems (TCSs). A TCS comprises a histidine protein kinase (HK) sensing environmental stimuli and a response regulator protein (RR) regulating downstream genes. The two components are coupled via a phosphorylation control mechanism. In a recent study, we adopted an optogenetics approach to re-engineer the sensor HKs in Escherichia coli as a light-sensing fusion protein...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229874/induction-of-morphological-and-functional-differentiation-of-human-neuroblastoma-cells-by-mir-124
#14
Samaneh Sharif, Mohammad Hossein Ghahremani, Masoud Soleimani
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour in children, and differentiation is considered its most appropriate therapy. In this work, we studied effects of miR-124 overexpression on differentiation in M17 cell line as a model of neuroblastoma cancer. Influence of miR-124 overexpression on differentiation in M17 cells was studied. M17 cells were infected with lentivirus that contained miR-124 precursor sequence and followed for 2 weeks to differentiate. Ectopic expression of miR-124 in M17 cells changed the shape of spherical undifferentiated cells to cells with extended neurites that formed neuronal networks...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229873/thymoquinone-induces-cytotoxicity-and-reprogramming-of-emt-in-gastric-cancer-cells-by-targeting-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#15
Li-Min Feng, Xue-Feng Wang, Qing-Xian Huang
Gastric cancer is one of the lethal causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates of this disease is comparatively higher in China. In the current study, we evaluated the anticancer effects of Thymoquinone (TQ) against gastric cancer cells (MGC80-3 and SGC-7901) and normal noncancerous GES-1 cells and attempted to investigate the underlying mechanism. Our results indicated that TQ exhibited significant growth inhibitory effects on gastric cancer cells (MGC80-3 and SGC-7901). However, lower cytotoxicity was observed against normal GES-1 cells...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229872/specific-mutation-of-transglutaminase-gene-from-streptomyces-hygroscopicus-h197-and-characterization-of-microbial-transglutaminase
#16
Wenjie Wan, Donglan He, Zhijun Xue, Zewen Zhang
Microbial transglutaminase (MTG) gene (mtg) from Streptomyces hygroscopicus H197 strain was cloned by PCR and mutated by deleting a specific 84 bp fragment using overlapping extension PCR. The mutant MTG and the wild MTG genes expressed by recombinant plasmid pET32a+- mutant mtg and pET32a+ -mtg, respectively, and were harvested by alternating freeze-thaw steps and purified by Ni column. The purified mutant MTG and the wild MTG exhibited 0.22 U/mg and 0.16 U/mg activity, respectively, and 0.69 U/mg and 0.54 U/mg activity, respectively, after activated by trypsin...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229871/antifolate-drug-resistance-novel-mutations-and-haplotype-distribution-in-dhps-and-dhfr-from-northeast-india
#17
N P Sarmah, K Sarma, D R Bhattacharyya, A A Sultan, D Bansal, N Singh, P K Bharti, R Sehgal, P K Mohapatra, P Parida, J Mahanta
Malaria is a major public health concern in Northeast India with a preponderance of drug-resistant strains. Until recently the partner drug for artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP). Antifolate drug resistance has been associated with the mutations at dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolatereductase (dhfr) genes. This study investigated antifolate drug resistance at the molecular level. A total of 249 fever cases from Arunachal Pradesh, NE India, were screened for malaria, and of these, 75 were found to be positive for Plasmodium falciparum...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229870/what-history-tells-us-xliv-the-construction-of-the-zinc-finger-nucleases
#18
Michel Morange
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229869/irregular-designs-and-darwinism-in-biology-genomes-as-the-test-case
#19
B J Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569257/current-status-and-future-prospect-of-fshd-region-gene-1
#20
Arman Kunwar Hansda, Ankit Tiwari, Manjusha Dixit
FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1), as the name suggests, is the primary candidate gene for fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy disease. It seemingly affects muscle physiology in normal individuals but in FSHD, where it is found to be highly upregulated, might be involved in disruption of face, scapula and humeral skeletal muscle. Literature on FRG1, reviewed from 1996 to 2016, reveals that it is primarily associated with muscle development and maintenance. Approximately 75% of FSHD patients also show vascular abnormalities indicating that FRG1 might have some part to play in these abnormalities...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
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