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Journal of Biosciences

Sai Chaitanya Chiliveri, Mandar V Deshmukh
The advent of Transverse Relaxation Optimized SpectroscopY (TROSY) and perdeuteration allowed biomolecular NMR spectroscopists to overcome the size limitation barrier (approx. 20 kDa) in de novo structure determination of proteins. The utility of these techniques was immediately demonstrated on large proteins and protein complexes (e.g. GroELGroES, ClpP protease, Hsp90-p53, 20S proteasome, etc.). Further, recent methodological developments such as Residual Dipolar Couplings and Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement allowed accurate measurement of long-range structural restraints...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Prim B Singh
Twenty five years ago it was proposed that conserved components of constitutive heterochromatin assemble heterochromatinlike complexes in euchromatin and this could provide a general mechanism for regulating heritable (cell-to-cell) changes in gene expressibility. As a special case, differences in the assembly of heterochromatin-like complexes on homologous chromosomes might also regulate the parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression observed in placental mammals. Here, the progress made in the intervening period with emphasis on the role of heterochromatin and heterochromatin-like complexes in parent-of-origin effects in animals is reviewed...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Natalya P Bondar, Tatiana I Merkulova
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neural development and plasticity. Longterm changes in the BDNF pathway are associated with childhood adversity and adult depression symptoms. Initially, stress-induced decreases in the BDNF pathway were found in some studies, but subsequent reports indicated the relationship between stress and BDNF to be much more complex, and the concept was significantly revised. In the present mini-review, we focus on the structure and regulation of the Bbnf gene as well as on the stress-BDNF interactions under early-life adverse conditions...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Sukhen DAS Mandal, Sudipto Saha
Pluripotency is a unique property of stem cells that allows them to differentiate into all types of adult cells or maintain the self-renewal property. PluriPred predicts whether a protein is involved in pluripotency from primary protein sequence using manually curated pluripotent proteins as training datasets. Machine learning techniques (MLTs) such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naïve Base (NB), Random Forest (RF), and sequence alignment technique BLAST were used in our study. The combination of SVM and PSI-BLAST was our proposed best model, which obtained a sensitivity of 77...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Jianping Si, Yan Sun, L U Wang, Ying Qin, Chongying Wang, Xinyu Wang
DWF4 and CPD are key brassinosteroids (BRs) biosynthesis enzyme genes. To explore the function of Populus euphratica DWF4 (PeDWF4) and CPD (PeCPD), Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines (TLs) expressing PeDWF4, PeCPD or PeDWF4 plus PeCPD, namely PeDWF4-TL, PeCPD-TL and PeCP/DW-TL, were characterized. Compared with wild type (WT), the changes of both PeDWF4-TL and PeCPD-TL in plant heights, silique and hypocotyls lengths and seed yields were similar, but in bolting time and stem diameters, they were opposite...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Fei Xue, Guangzhan Fang, Xizi Yue, Ermi Zhao, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang
Right ear advantage (REA) exists in many land vertebrates in which the right ear and left hemisphere preferentially process conspecific acoustic stimuli such as those related to sexual selection. Although ecological and neural mechanisms for sexual selection have been widely studied, the brain networks involved are still poorly understood. In this study we used multi-channel electroencephalographic data in combination with Granger causal connectivity analysis to demonstrate, for the first time, that auditory neural network interconnecting the left and right midbrain and forebrain function asymmetrically in the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina), an anuran species which exhibits REA...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Vibha Dwivedi, Subhash C Lakhotia
Amalaki Rasayana (AR) is a common Ayurvedic herbal formulation of Phyllanthus emblica fruits and some other ingredients, and is used for general good health and healthy aging. We reported it to improve life history traits and to suppress neurodegeneration as well as induced apoptosis in Drosophila. The present study examines responses of Drosophila reared on AR-supplemented food to crowding, thermal or oxidative stresses. Wild-type larvae/flies reared on AR-supplemented food survived the various cell stresses much better than those reared on control food...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Kopal Saharia, Ranjeet Kumar, Kuldeep Gupta, Shrilekha Mishra, Jamuna R Subramaniam
Lifespan extension is an all systems encompassing event. Involvement of reduced insulin/IGF1 signalling is well worked out, first in the model organism Caenorhbaditis elegans followed by other systems including humans. But the role of neuronal component in lifespan extension is not well understood due to the refractory nature of neurons to small RNA interference (sRNAi) in C. elegans. Earlier, we have demonstrated that an antihypertensive drug, reserpine, extends lifespan through modulation of neurotransmitter release, especially, acetylcholine, in C...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Changxia Dong, Shaoyi Liu, Yongbin Lv, Chunping Zhang, Heying Gao, Lixia Tan, Hong Wang
Retinoblastoma is the most frequently occurring tumour in the eyes in early childhood. Novel targets that are important for the diagnosis or treatment of retinoblastoma could be valuable in increasing the survival rate of patients affected by this disease. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a recently discovered type of RNAs with no proteincoding function; yet it has become increasingly clear that lncRNAs are responsible for important gene regulatory functions in various diseases. In this study, the expression of lncRNA HOTAIR was measured by qRT-PCR, and HOTAIR expression was found to be significantly upregulated in human retinoblastomas tissues as compared with that in paracancerous tissues...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Kumar Abhiram Jha, Tapas C Nag, Shashi Wadhwa, Tara Sankar Roy
Light causes damage to the retina, which is one of the supposed factors for age-related macular degeneration in human. Some animal species show drastic retinal changes when exposed to intense light (e.g. albino rats). Although birds have a pigmented retina, few reports indicated its susceptibility to light damage. To know how light influences a cone-dominated retina (as is the case with human), we examined the effects of moderate light intensity on the retina of white Leghorn chicks (Gallus g. domesticus). The newly hatched chicks were initially acclimatized at 500 lux for 7 days in 12 h light: 12 h dark cycles (12L:12D)...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Han Sol Kim, Hongliang Li, Hye Won Kim, Sung Eun Shin, Il-Whan Choi, Amy L Firth, Hyoweon Bang, Young Min Bae, Won Sun Park
We examined the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline on voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells using the voltage-clamp technique. Sertraline decreased the Kv channel current in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 0.18 mu M and a slope value (Hill coefficient) of 0.61. Although the application of 1 mu M sertraline did not affect the steady-state activation curves, sertraline caused a significant, negative shift in the inactivation curves...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Vanessa Garcia-Rua, Sandra Feijoo-Bandin, Maria Garcia-Vence, Alana Aragon-Herrera, Susana B Bravo, Diego Rodriguez-Penas, Ana Mosquera-Leal, Pamela V Lear, John Parrington, Jana Alonso, Esther Rosello-Lleti, Manuel Portoles, Miguel Rivera, Jose Ramon Gonzalez-Juanatey, Francisca Lago
Two-pore channels (TPCs or TPCNs) are novel voltage-gated ion channels that have been postulated to act as Ca2+ and/or Na+ channels expressed exclusively in acidic organelles such as endosomes and lysosomes. TPCNs participate in the regulation of diverse biological processes and recently have been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders such as obesity, fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to the importance of these pathologies in the development of cardiovascular diseases, we aimed to study the possible role of two-pore channel 1 (TPCN1) in the regulation of cardiac metabolism...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Indrajeet Ghodke, K Muniyappa
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) protein complex plays pivotal roles in double-strand break (DSB) repair, replication stress and telomere length maintenance. Another protein linked to DSB repair is Sae2, which regulates MRX persistence at DSBs. However, very little is known about its role in DNA replication stress and repair. Here, we reveal a crucial role for Sae2 in DNA replication stress. We show that different mutant alleles of SAE2 cause hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents, and when combined with Δmre11 or nuclease-defective mre11 mutant alleles, the double mutants are considerably more sensitive suggesting that the sae2 mutations synergize with mre11 mutations...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Ewa Oblak, Agata Piecuch, Ewa Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Donata Wawrzycka
We investigated the influence of the quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) called IM (N-(dodecyloxycarboxymethyl)- N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium chloride) on yeast cells of the parental strain and the IM-resistant mutant (EO25 IMR) growth. The phenotype of this mutant was pleiotropic. The IMR mutant exhibited resistance to ethanol, osmotic shock and oxidative stress, as well as increased sensitivity to UV. Moreover, it was noted that mutant EO25 appears to have an increased resistance to clotrimazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, nystatin and cycloheximide...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Prashanth S Raghavan, Gagan D Gupta, Hema Rajaram, Vinay Kumar
The hypothetical protein 'Alr3200' of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 is highly conserved among cyanobacterial species. It is a member of the DUF820 (Domain of Unknown Function) protein family, and is predicted to have a DNase domain. Biochemical analysis revealed a Mg(II)-dependent DNase activity for Alr3200 with a specific activity of 8.62x104 Kunitz Units (KU) mg -1 protein. Circular dichroism analysis predicted Alr3200 to have approximately 40 percent beta-strands and approximately 9 percent alpha-helical structures...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Gholamreza Farnoosh, Khosro Khajeh, Ali Mohammad Latifi, Hossein Aghamollaei
The organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) has been used to degrade organophosphorus chemicals, as one of the most frequently used decontamination methods. Under chemical and thermal denaturing conditions, the enzyme has been shown to unfold. To utilize this enzyme in various applications, the thermal stability is of importance. The engineering of de novo disulphide bridges has been explored as a means to increase the thermal stability of enzymes in the rational method of protein engineering. In this study, Disulphide by Design software, homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations were used to select appropriate amino acid pairs for the introduction of disulphide bridge to improve protein thermostability...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Yuki Takauji, Kensuke Miki, Juma Mita, Mohammad Nazir Hossain, Masatake Yamauchi, Mitomu Kioi, Dai Ayusawa, Michihiko Fujii
Ayurveda is a holistic medical system of traditional medicine, and Triphala is one of the most popular formulations in Ayurveda. Triphala is composed of three kinds of herb, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Emblica officinalis. Since Triphala is shown to exhibit a protective activity against ionizing radiation in mice, we investigated its activity in HeLa cells. We found that Triphala showed the protective effects against X-radiation and bleomycin, both of which generate DNA strand breaks, in HeLa cells...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Megha Bansal, Ghanshyam Swarup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Chetan Chandola, Sheetal Kalme, Marco G Casteleijn, Arto Urtti, Muniasamy Neerathilingam
Aptamers are small, single-stranded oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) that bind to their target with high specificity and affinity. Although aptamers are analogous to antibodies for a wide range of target recognition and variety of applications, they have significant advantages over antibodies. Since aptamers have recently emerged as a class of biomolecules with an application in a wide array of fields, we need to summarize the latest developments herein. In this review we will discuss about the latest developments in using aptamers in diagnostics, drug delivery and imaging...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Sebastian John, Rashmi Mishra
Galectins is a family of non-classically secreted, beta-galactoside-binding proteins that has recently received considerable attention in the spatio-temporal regulation of surface 'signal lattice' organization, membrane dynamics, cell-adhesion and disease therapeutics. Galectin-9 is a unique member of this family, with two non-homologous carbohydrate recognition domains joined by a linker peptide sequence of variable lengths, generating isoforms with distinct properties and functions in both physiological and pathological settings, such as during development, immune reaction, neoplastic transformations and metastasis...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
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