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Journal of Biosciences

Shuchi Mittal, Mamta Upadhyay, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Rashmi Parihar, Subramaniam Ganesh
Correction to: J. Biosci. 40(5), December 2015, 863-871 The image of anti-Myc blot of figure 2C (third panel; Malin-Myc [C26S]) was inadvertently used once again for the c-tubulin loading control of figure 2B. The revised figure 2B with the correct image of the c-tubulin loading control is given below. The interpretation and conclusion provided in the article do not change because of the correction.
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Simon G Patching
The nucleobase cation symporter-1 (NCS1) family of secondary active transport proteins comprises over 2500 sequenced members from bacteria, archaea, fungi and plants. NCS1 proteins use a proton or sodium gradient to drive inward cellular transport of purine and pyrimidine nucleobases and nucleosides, hydantoins and related compounds. The structural organization, substrate binding residues and molecular mechanism of NCS1 proteins are defined by crystal structures of sodium-coupled hydantoin transporter, Mhp1...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
L I B Kanzaki
The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus claimed to be aetiologically linked to the adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) besides other minor pathologies. HTLV-1 infection is worldwide distributed, despite its heterogeneous prevalence. Environmental factors and host-genetic background are very likely to determine the epidemiological profile of HTLV-1 prevalence and related disease confinement in distinct human ethnic populations and geographical coordinates, which raises the question if the virus is a real pathogen or a runaway well-organized packed genome of a burden host cell near death process...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Neha Soleja, Ovais Manzoor, Imran Khan, Altaf Ahmad, Mohd Mohsin
Since the last decade, a lot of advancement has been made to understand biological processes involving complex intracellular pathways. The major challenge faced was monitoring and trafficking of metabolites in real time. Although a range of quantitative and imaging techniques have been developed so far, the discovery of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) has revolutionized the advancement in the field of metabolomics. GFPs and their variants have enabled researchers to 'paint' a wide range of biological molecules...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Andrzej Kowalski
Most of avian histone H1 non-allelic subtypes, i.e. eight out of nine, show polymorphic heterogeneity manifested by the presence of two or three allelic variants formed as a result of amino acid deletion and substitution. In addition, some of histone H1 non-allelic subtypes exhibit various allelic complements in different bird species leading to the widening of a whole pool of histone H1 polymorphic variation. A wide range of histone H1 heterogeneity may indicate that the polymorphic variants can individually modulate some histone H1-dependent cellular processes by showing allele-specific influence on chromatin organization and function...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
A Gupta, R Sugadev, Y K Sharma, Y Yahmad, P Khurana
Hypoxia is a complex pathophysiological condition. The physiological and molecular responses to this stress have been extensively studied. However, the management of its ill effects still poses a challenge to clinicians. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules that control post-transcriptional gene expression. The regulatory role of miRNAs in hypoxic environments has been studied in many hypoxia-related disorders, however a comprehensive compilation and analysis of all data and the significance of miRNAs in hypoxia adaption is still lacking...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Shibdas Banerjee
Tissue analysis in histology is extremely important and also considered to be a gold standard to diagnose and prognosticate several diseases including cancer. Intraoperative evaluation of surgical margin of tumor also relies on frozen section histopathology, which is time consuming, challenging and often subjective. Recent development in the ambient ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technique has enabled us to simultaneously visualize hundreds to thousands of molecules (ion images) in the biopsy specimen, which are strikingly different and more powerful than the single optical tissue image analysis in conventional histopathology...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Vikas Kumar, Mrinal Kashyap, Shristy Gautam, Prashant Shukla, Khashti Ballabh Joshi, Vandana Vinayak
Diatoms are photosynthetic unicellular microalgae and are nature's hidden source of several biosynthetic metabolites with their use in biofuel, food and drug industries. They mainly contain various lipids, sterols, isoprenoids and toxins with their use in apoptotic, fertility controlling and cancer drugs. Chemical studies on diatoms are limited due to various limitations such as variation of nutrients, contaminants and change in seasonal factors in the environment. To overcome these limitations, we obtained axenic cultures of 12 fresh-water diatom strains on the 22nd day of inoculation having a dry weight of 1 mg each and performed their Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study for the detection of functional groups responsible for their chemical moiety...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
A Arora, S Majhi, A Mishra
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a major health concern. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a class of peptides that are efficient in killing most microbes yet development of resistance to AMPs is rare. However, complex secondary and tertiary structures and difficulties in isolating AMPs have limited their use as antibiotics. It has been demonstrated earlier that small peptides derived from human β defensin-3 (HBD-3) also show antibacterial activity. Here, we perform a detailed characterization of the antibacterial activity of one such derivative: CHRG01...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Sushmita Shukla, Anoop Narayana Pillai, Abdur Rahaman
Nuclear envelope morphology protein 1 (NEM1) along with a phosphatidate phosphatase (PAH1) regulates lipid homeostasis and membrane biogenesis in yeast and mammals. We investigated four putative NEM1 homologues (TtNEM1A, TtNEM1B, TtNEM1C and TtNEM1D ) in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome. Disruption of TtNEM1B, TtNEM1C or TtNEM1D did not compromise normal cell growth. In contrast, we were unable to generate knockout strain of TtNEM1A under the same conditions, indicating that TtNEM1A is essential for Tetrahymena growth...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Utpalendu Ghosh, Samit Adhya
RNA binding proteins (RBPs) can regulate the stability and/or translatability of messengerRNAs (mRNAs) through interactions with their 30-untranslated regions. However, individual mRNAs may be regulated simultaneously or successively by more than one RBP, as well as by Argonaute (AGO)-bound miRNAs; the coordination of these various influences on an individual mRNA is therefore complex and not well studied. In this report we examine the roles of two RBPs that bind to AU-rich elements (ARE) - AUF1 and HuR - in the stability and translation of cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) mRNA in rat myoblasts transiting the G phase of the cell cycle, and their interactions with miRNAs...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Shaunak Ghosh, Monalisa Mishra
Butterflies and moths possess diverse patterns on their wings. Butterflies employ miscellaneous colour in the wings whereas moths use a combination of dull colours like white, grey, brown and black for the patterning of their wings. The exception is some of the toxic diurnal moths which possess bright wing colouration. Moths possess an obscure pattern in the dorsal part of the wings which may be a line, zigzag or swirl. Such patterns help in camouflage during resting period. Thus, the dorsal wing pattern of the moth is used for both intra- as well as inter-specific signal communication...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Hongshuai Ji, Jinrui Guo, Ying Yang, Chaochao Xu, Weiping Mao
The B7-H4 molecule, a unique negative regulator of T lymphocytes which is overexpressed on the surface of various tumor cells, is a particularly important target candidate for tumor therapy because it can be blocked with anti-B7-H4 antibodies to inhibit the B7-H4 signaling pathway. Our previous work established an anti-B7-H4 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) library, so we have now amplified the genes encoding anti-B7-H4-scFv and human IgG1 CH3 and ligated them by overlap extension PCR to obtain a recombinant gene...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Muhammad Sohail Anjum, Azra Mehmood, Faiza Mahmood, Muhammad Ali, Moazzam Nazir Tarrar, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin
Glucose-induced oxidative stress in the diabetic pancreas directly affects viability and the consequent therapeutic outcome of transplanted stem cells. Pretreatment of stem cells with growth factors induces tolerance in them against various stresses (hypoxia, thermal or hyperglycaemic). This study investigated the effect of pretreatment on insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs), with a combination of stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF1 α) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) against hyperglycaemic stress (17 or 33 mM glucose)...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Shriram N Rajpathak, Roumik Banerjee, Pawan G Mishra, Asmita M Khedkar, Yugandhara M Patil, Suraj R Joshi, Deepti D Deobagkar
Depletion of oxygen in certain marine areas creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which can alter the species composition and abundance. We have carried out high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling from the Bay of Bengal (BOB) OMZ and non-OMZ areas. Typically, a total of 35 families of micro-organisms were identified as biomarkers for OMZ and non-OMZ regions in the BOB. Our analysis has identified families Pseudoalteromonadaceae, OM60 and Synechococcaceae to be abundant in oxygenated water, whereas organisms belonging to families Pelagibacteraceae and Caulobacteraceae, which are involved in sulphur and nitrogen metabolism, were prominent in the OMZ areas...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Parul Varma, Rakesh K Mishra
Nuclear Matrix (NuMat) is the structural and functional framework of the nucleus. It has been shown that attachment of chromatin to NuMat brings significant regulation of the transcriptional activity of particular genes; however, key components of NuMat involved in this process remain elusive. We have identified Lid (Little imaginal discs) as one of the components of NuMat. It belongs to the TrxG group of proteins involved in activation of important developmental genes. However, unlike other activator proteins of TrxG, Lid is a Jumonji protein involved in H3K4me3 demethylation...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Mandar Phatak, Mahendra Sonawane
In vertebrates, early developing epidermis is a bilayered epithelium consisting of an outer periderm and the underlying basal epidermis. It eventually develops into a multi-layered epithelium. The mechanisms that control the architecture and homeostasis of early developing bilayered epidermis have remained poorly understood. Recently, we have shown that the function of Myosin Vb, an actin based molecular motor, is essential in peridermal cells for maintenance of plasma membrane homeostasis. Furthermore, our analyses of the goosepimples/myosin Vb mutant unravelled a direct link between plasma membrane homeostasis, cell size maintenance and tissue homeostasis in the developing epidermis...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Nandita Bachhawat
Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv is an intracellular pathogen responsible for causing tuberculosis in humans. The M. tuberculosis genome has been shown to contain a very large and unique family of PE proteins made of two sub-families: PE-only and PE_PGRS proteins. These two subtypes of proteins play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the microbe. However, despite numerous investigations, the role of these proteins in disease development remains obscure. In this study, sequence analysis with a search for short conserved motifs revealed a conserved tetra-peptide motif DEVS/DXXS at the PE domain of almost every PE-only and PE_PGRS protein...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Maria Grazia Volpe, Susan Costantini, Elena Coccia, Lucia Parrillo, Marina Paolucci
In the present study, the effects of polyphenols on the chemical composition of the hepatopancreas of the Astacus leptodactylus, a highly sought farmed crayfish, have been investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The hepatopancreas spectrum was quite complex and contained several peaks arising from the contribution of different functional groups belonging to protein, lipids and carbohydrates. The PCA statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences between crayfish fed a diet without polyphenols and crayfish fed a diet containing polyphenols...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Bhavini Kumari, Kislay K Sinha, Prolay DAS
5,6-Dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine (thymine glycol) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-20-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) are major DNA damage lesions produced by endogenous oxidative stress, as well as inflicted by carcinogens and ionizing radiation. The processing of Tg:G mismatch and 8-oxodG in close proximity of each other in a bistranded clustered environment in DNA oligomer duplexes as well as in a nucleosome core particle (NCP) model are reported here. The processing of the lesions was evaluated by purified enzyme cocktails of hNTH1 and hOGG1 as well as with a HeLa cell extract...
September 2018: Journal of Biosciences
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