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Journal of Biosciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569257/current-status-and-future-prospect-of-fshd-region-gene-1
#1
Arman Kunwar Hansda, Ankit Tiwari, Manjusha Dixit
FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1), as the name suggests, is the primary candidate gene for fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy disease. It seemingly affects muscle physiology in normal individuals but in FSHD, where it is found to be highly upregulated, might be involved in disruption of face, scapula and humeral skeletal muscle. Literature on FRG1, reviewed from 1996 to 2016, reveals that it is primarily associated with muscle development and maintenance. Approximately 75% of FSHD patients also show vascular abnormalities indicating that FRG1 might have some part to play in these abnormalities...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569256/regulation-of-dynamin-family-proteins-by-post-translational-modifications
#2
Usha P Kar, Himani Dey, Abdur Rahaman
Dynamin superfamily proteins comprising classical dynamins and related proteins are membrane remodelling agents involved in several biological processes such as endocytosis, maintenance of organelle morphology and viral resistance. These large GTPases couple GTP hydrolysis with membrane alterations such as fission, fusion or tubulation by undergoing repeated cycles of self-assembly/disassembly. The functions of these proteins are regulated by various post-translational modifications that affect their GTPase activity, multimerization or membrane association...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569255/an-evaluation-of-the-status-of-living-collections-for-plant-environmental-and-microbial-research
#3
Kevin McCLUSKEY, Jill P Parsons, Kimberly Quach, Clifford S Duke
While living collections are critical for biological research, support for these foundational infrastructure elements is inconsistent, which makes quality control, regulatory compliance, and reproducibility difficult. In recent years, the Ecological Society of America has hosted several National Science Foundation-sponsored workshops to explore and enhance the sustainability of biological research infrastructure. At the same time, the United States Culture Collection Network has brought together managers of living collections to foster collaboration and information exchange within a specific living collections community...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569254/maternal-high-fat-diet-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-affects-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-early-life-of-offspring-rat
#4
Yanhong Huang, Tingting Ye, Chongxiao Liu, Fang Fang, Yuanwen Chen, Yan Dong
We investigated whether maternal over-nutrition during pregnancy and lactation affects the offspring's lipid metabolism at weaning by assessing liver lipid metabolic gene expressions and analysing its mechanisms on the development of metabolic abnormalities. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with standard chow diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, and then continued feeding during gestation and lactation. The offspring whose dams were fed with HFD had a lower birth weight but an increased body weight with impaired glucose tolerance, higher serum cholesterol, and hepatic steatosis at weaning...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569253/enhanced-delivery-of-biodegradable-mpeg-plga-pll-nanoparticles-loading-cy3-labelled-pdgf-bb-sirna-by-utmd-to-rat-retina
#5
Jing DU, Ying Sun, Feng-Hua Li, Lian-Fang DU, You-Rong Duan
We investigated the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-targeted microbubble (MB) destruction (UTMD)-enhanced delivery of monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly-L-lysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) nanoparticles (NPs) loading Cy3-labelled platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) siRNA to rat retina in vivo. Eighty Wistar rats were divided into five groups (G). The right eyes, respectively, received an intravitreal injection as follows: normal saline (NS) (G1), NPs and NS (G2), NPs and MBs (G3), NPs and NS (G4) and NPs and MBs (G5)...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569252/somatic-pi3k-activity-regulates-transition-to-the-spermatocyte-stages-in-drosophila-testis
#6
Samir Gupta, Krishanu Ray
Spermatogenesis, involving multiple transit amplification divisions and meiosis, occurs within an enclosure formed by two somatic cells. As the cohort of germline cells divide and grow, the surface areas of the somatic cells expand maintaining a tight encapsulation throughout the developmental period. Correlation between the somatic cell growth and germline development is unclear. Here, we report standardization of a quantitative assay developed for estimating the somatic roles of target molecules on germline division and differentiation in Drosophila testis...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569251/long-term-dietary-restriction-up-regulates-activity-and-expression-of-renal-arginase-ii-in-aging-mice
#7
T Majaw, R Sharma
Arginase II is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of L-arginine into urea and ornithine. It is present in other extra-hepatic tissues that lack urea cycle. Therefore, it is plausible that arginase II has a physiological role other than urea cycle which includes polyamine, proline, glutamate synthesis and regulation of nitric oxide production. The high expression of arginase II in kidney, among extrahepatic tissues, might have an important role associated with kidney functions. The present study is aimed to determine the age-associated alteration in the activity and expression of arginase II in the kidney of mice of different ages...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569250/interleukin-8-in-progression-of-hormone-dependent-early-breast-cancer
#8
Jelena Milovanovic, Natasa Todorovic-Rakovic, Tijana Vujasinovic, Zaki Abu Rabi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569249/estrogen-is-essential-but-not-sufficient-to-induce-endometriosis
#9
Mosami Galvankar, Neha Singh, Deepak Modi
Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disorder of unknown aetiology. Among the several factors, estrogen has been implicated as a causative factor in endometriosis. In the present study using mouse model, we assessed the role of estrogen in the initial implantation and growth of endometrium in ectopic locations. Uterine tissues from green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were transplanted in to the peritoneum of wild type mice in presence and absence of estrogen. As compared to untreated controls, the implantation of uterine tissue at ectopic locations was higher when estrogen was administered to both host and donor animals...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569248/effect-of-foliar-application-of-salicylic-acid-hydrogen-peroxide-and-a-xyloglucan-oligosaccharide-on-capsiate-content-and-gene-expression-associatedwith-capsinoids-synthesis-in-capsicum-annuum-l
#10
A Y Zunun-Perez, T Guevara-Figueroa, S N Jimenez-Garcia, A A Feregrino-Perez, F Gautier, R G Guevara-Gonzalez
Capsinoids are non-pungent analogues of capsaicinoids in pepper (Capsicum spp). The absence of pungency, in addition to their biological activities similar to that of capsaicinoids such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, makes capsinoids an excellent option for increasing use in human and animal nutrition, as well as health and pharmaceutical industries. There are only few sources of pepper producing capsinoids, and one of them (accession 509-45-1), Capsicum annuum L., is a potential source for increasing capsinoids content using strategies as controlled elicitation during plant production in the greenhouse...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569247/cytoplasmic-tail-of-coronavirus-spike-protein-has-intracellular-targeting-signals
#11
Jibin Sadasivan, Manmeet Singh, Jayasri DAS Sarma
Intracellular trafficking and localization studies of spike protein from SARS and OC43 showed that SARS spike protein is localized in the ER or ERGIC compartment and OC43 spike protein is predominantly localized in the lysosome. Differential localization can be explained by signal sequence. The sequence alignment using Clustal W shows that the signal sequence present at the cytoplasmic tail plays an important role in spike protein localization. A unique GYQEL motif is identified at the cytoplasmic terminal of OC43 spike protein which helps in localization in the lysosome, and a novel KLHYT motif is identified in the cytoplasmic tail of SARS spike protein which helps in ER or ERGIC localization...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569246/inactivation-of-rad52-and-hdf1-dna-repair-genes-leads-to-premature-chronological-aging-and-cellular-instability
#12
Silvia Mercado-Saenz, Beatriz Lopez-Diaz, Francisco Sendra-Portero, Manuel Martinez-Morillo, Miguel J Ruiz-Gomez
The present study aims to investigate the role of radiation sensitive 52 (RAD52) and high-affinity DNA binding factor 1 (HDF1) DNA repair genes on the life span of budding yeasts during chronological aging. Wild type (wt) and rad52, hdf1, and rad52 hdf1 mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were used. Chronological aging and survival assays were studied by clonogenic assay and drop test. DNA damage was analyzed by electrophoresis after phenol extraction. Mutant analysis, colony forming units and the index of respiratory competence were studied by growing on dextrose and glycerol plates as a carbon source...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569245/genetic-diagnosis-of-a-chinese-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2a-family-through-whole-genome-sequencing
#13
Zhen-Fang DU, Peng-Fei Li, Jian-Qiang Zhao, Zhi-Lie Cao, Feng Li, Ju-Ming Ma, Xiao-Ping Qi
Approximately 98% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) have an identifiable RET mutation. Prophylactic or early total thyroidectomy or pheochromocytoma/parathyroid removal in patients can be preventative or curative and has become standard management. The general strategy for RET screening on family members at risk is to sequence the most commonly affected exons and, if negative, to extend sequencing to additional exons. However, different families with MEN 2A due to the same RET mutation often have significant variability in the clinical exhibition of disease and aggressiveness of the MTC, which implies additional genetic loci exsit beyond RET coding region...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229978/untranslated-regions-of-mrna-and-their-role-in-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-protozoan-parasites
#14
REVIEW
Shilpa J Rao, Sangeeta Chatterjee, Jayantapal K Pal
Protozoan parasites are one of the oldest living entities in this world that throughout their existence have shown excellent resilience to the odds of survival and have adapted beautifully to ever changing rigors of the environment. In view of the dynamic environment encountered by them throughout their life cycle, and in establishing pathogenesis, it is unsurprising that modulation of gene expression plays a fundamental role in their survival. In higher eukaryotes, untranslated regions (UTRs) of transcripts are one of the crucial regulators of gene expression (influencing mRNA stability and translation efficiency)...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229977/non-ribosomal-peptide-synthetases-identifying-the-cryptic-gene-clusters-and-decoding-the-natural-product
#15
REVIEW
Mangal Singh, Sandeep Chaudhary, Dipti Sareen
Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) present in bacteria and fungi are the major multi-modular enzyme complexes which synthesize secondary metabolites like the pharmacologically important antibiotics and siderophores. Each of the multiple modules of an NRPS activates a different amino or aryl acid, followed by their condensation to synthesize a linear or cyclic natural product. The studies on NRPS domains, the knowledge of their gene cluster architecture and tailoring enzymes have helped in the in silico genetic screening of the ever-expanding sequenced microbial genomic data for the identification of novel NRPS/PKS clusters and thus deciphering novel non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs)...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229976/immune-modulation-by-dendritic-cell-based-cancer-vaccines
#16
REVIEW
Chaitanya Kumar, Sakshi Kohli, Poonamalle Parthasarathy Bapsy, Ashok Kumar Vaid, Minish Jain, Venkata Sathya Suresh Attili, Bandana Sharan
The interplay between host immunity and tumour cells has opened the possibility of targeting tumour cells by modulation of the human immune system. Cancer immunotherapy involves the treatment of a tumour by utilizing the recombinant human immune system components to target the pro-tumour microenvironment or by revitalizing the immune system with the ability to kill tumour cells by priming the immune cells with tumour antigens. In this review, current immunotherapy approaches to cancer with special focus on dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines are discussed...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229975/diverse-roles-of-wdr5-rbbp5-ash2l-dpy30-wrad-complex-in-the-functions-of-the-set1-histone-methyltransferase-family
#17
REVIEW
Aamir Ali, Shweta Tyagi
WD repeat containing protein 5 (WDR5), Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 5 (RbBP5), Absent-Small-Homeotic-2- Like protein (ASH2L), and Dumpy-30 (Dpy30) have been reported to be the integral and shared components of all the SET1 family of histone 3 lysine 4 histone methyltransferase (HMT) complexes. Collectively called the WRAD complex, these proteins are pivotal to the HMT activity of the SET1 complexes. Recent reports highlight the novel non-canonical functions of WRAD in cellular processes other than its well-studied role in histone methylation and gene expression...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229974/molecular-mechanism-of-endosulfan-action-in-mammals
#18
REVIEW
Robin Sebastian, Sathees C Raghavan
Endosulfan is a broad-spectrum organochlorine pesticide, speculated to be detrimental to human health in areas of active exposure. However, the molecular insights to its mechanism of action remain poorly understood. In two recent studies, our group investigated the physiological and molecular aspects of endosulfan action using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo analyses. The results showed that apart from reducing fertility levels in male animals, Endosulfan induced DNA damage that triggers compromised DNA damage response leading to undesirable processing of broken DNA ends...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229973/female-conspecifics-restore-rhythmic-singing-behaviour-in-arrhythmic-male-zebra-finches
#19
Neelu Anand Jha, Vinod Kumar
The present study investigated whether pairing with a conspecific female would restore rhythmicity in the singing behaviour of arrhythmic male songbirds. We recorded the singing and, as the circadian response indicator, monitored the activity-rest pattern in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) housed without or with a conspecific female under 12 h light: 12 h darkness (12L:12D) or constant bright light (LL bright). Both unpaired and paired birds exhibited a significant daily rhythm in the singing and activity behaviour, but paired birds, under 12L:12D, showed a ~2 h extension in the evening...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229972/early-life-stress-experience-may-blunt-hypothalamic-leptin-signalling
#20
J H Lee, S B Yoo, J Y Kim, J Y Lee, B T Kim, K Park, J W Jahng
The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) - chronic stress experience in early life - affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1-14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH). NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and then food intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
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