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Journal of Biosciences

Chetan Chandola, Sheetal Kalme, Marco G Casteleijn, Arto Urtti, Muniasamy Neerathilingam
Aptamers are small, single-stranded oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) that bind to their target with high specificity and affinity. Although aptamers are analogous to antibodies for a wide range of target recognition and variety of applications, they have significant advantages over antibodies. Since aptamers have recently emerged as a class of biomolecules with an application in a wide array of fields, we need to summarize the latest developments herein. In this review we will discuss about the latest developments in using aptamers in diagnostics, drug delivery and imaging...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Sebastian John, Rashmi Mishra
Galectins is a family of non-classically secreted, beta-galactoside-binding proteins that has recently received considerable attention in the spatio-temporal regulation of surface 'signal lattice' organization, membrane dynamics, cell-adhesion and disease therapeutics. Galectin-9 is a unique member of this family, with two non-homologous carbohydrate recognition domains joined by a linker peptide sequence of variable lengths, generating isoforms with distinct properties and functions in both physiological and pathological settings, such as during development, immune reaction, neoplastic transformations and metastasis...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Mohammad Javad Dehghan Esmatabadi, Babak Bakhshinejad, Fatemeh Movahedi Motlagh, Sadegh Babashah, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Cancer recurrence is believed to be one of the major reasons for the failure of cancer treatment strategies. This biological phenomenon could arise from the incomplete eradication of tumour cells after chemo- and radiotherapy. Recent developments in the design of models reflecting cancer recurrence and in vivo imaging techniques have led researchers to gain a deeper and more detailed insight into the mechanisms underlying tumour relapse. Here, we provide an overview of three important drivers of recurrence including cancer stem cells (CSCs), neosis, and phoenix rising...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
S R Bharathi Devi, Aloysius Dhivya M, K N Sulochana
Copper, although known as a micronutrient, has a pivotal role in modulating the cellular metabolism. Many studies have reported the role of copper in angiogenesis. Copper chaperones are intracellular proteins that mediate copper trafficking to various cell organelles. However, the role and function of copper chaperones in relation to angiogenesis has to be further explored. The intracellular copper levels when in excess are deleterious and certain mutations of copper chaperones have been shown to induce cell death and influence various cellular metabolisms...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Varun Mehra, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Sharmila S Mande
Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) events, initially thought to be rare in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have recently been shown to be involved in the acquisition of virulence operons in M. tuberculosis. We have developed a new partitioning framework based HGT prediction algorithm, called Grid3M, and applied the same for the prediction of HGTs in Mycobacteria. Validation and testing using simulated and real microbial genomes indicated better performance of Grid3M as compared with other widely used HGT prediction methods...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Vandna Chawla, Rajnish Kumar, Ravi Shankar
With the advent of short-reads-based genome sequencing approaches, large number of organisms are being sequenced all over the world. Most of these assemblies are done using some de novo short read assemblers and other related approaches. However, the contigs produced this way are prone to wrong assembly. So far, there is a conspicuous dearth of reliable tools to identify mis-assembled contigs. Mis-assemblies could result from incorrectly deleted or wrongly arranged genomic sequences. In the present work various factors related to sequence, sequencing and assembling have been assessed for their role in causing mis-assembly by using different genome sequencing data...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Subaran Singh, Anupriya Singh, Ashis Kumar Nandi
Senescence is the final stage of plant development. Although expression of most of the genes is suppressed during senescence, a set of genes referred as senescence-associated genes (SAGs) is induced. Arabidopsis thaliana SAG12 (AtSAG12) is one such gene that has been mostly studied for its strict association with senescence. AtSAG12 encodes a papain-like cysteine protease, expressed predominantly in senescence-associated vacuoles. Rice genome contains multiple AtSAG12 homologues (OsSAGs). OsSAG12-1, the closest structural homologue of AtSAG12, is a negative regulator of developmental and stress-induced cell death...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Nusrat Saba, Osman Yusuf, Sadia Rehman, Saeeda Munir, Sheeraz Ahmad, Atika Mansoor, Ghazala K Raja
Asthma is a chronic disease due to inflammation of the airways of lungs that is clinically characterized by variable symptoms including wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a major role in fibrous tissue formation and is highly expressed in lungs. The main aim of this research work was to study the role of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, rs4646994, in asthma in Pakistani patients. A total of 854 subjects, including 333 asthma patients and 521 ethnically matched controls, were studied...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Bogna Grygiel-Gorniak, Maria Mosor, Justyna Marcinkowska, Juliusz Przyslawski, Jerzy Nowak
The relationship Pro12Ala (rs1801282) and C1431T (rs3856806) polymorphisms of PPAR gamma-2 with glucose and lipid metabolism is not clear after menopause. We investigated the impact of the Pro12Ala and C1431T silent substitution in the 6th exon in PPAR gamma-2 gene on nutritional and metabolic status in 271 postmenopausal women (122 lean and 149 obese). The general linear model (GLM) approach to the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to infer the interactions between the analysed genotypes. The frequency of the Pro-T haplotype was higher in obese than in lean women (p less than 0...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Sadhana Singh, Kavita Singh, Richa Trivedi, Satnam Goyal, Prabhjot Kaur, Namita Singh, Triptish Bhatia, Smita N Deshpande, Subash Khushu
Neuropsychological studies have reported that attention, memory, language, motor and emotion processing are impaired in schizophrenia. It is known that schizophrenia involves structural alterations in the white matter of brain that contribute to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Uncinate fasciculus (UNC), a bundle of white matter fibres, plays an important role in the pathology of this disorder and involved in cognitive functions such as memory, language and emotion processing. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate microstructural changes in UNC fibre in schizophrenia patients relative to controls and its correlation with neuropsychological scores...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
B Raghunath Reddy, Swati Maitra, Priya Jhelum, K Praveen Kumar, Pankaj K Bagul, Gagandeep Kaur, Sanjay K Banerjee, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
Hyperglycaemia in diabetes is either caused by reduced availability of insulin (type 1 diabetes, T1D) or insulin resistance to the cells (type 2 diabetes, T2D). In recent years, the prevalence of T2D has increased to an alarming proportion, encompassing 95 percent of the total diabetic burden, probably due to economy-driven changes in lifestyle. Recent epidemiological studies show comorbid depression, anxiety and related mental illness. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying this comorbid conditions, we used Sprague-Dawley rats on high-fructose diet for 8 weeks to induce prediabetic condition...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Weiyuan Ma, Pengxin Zhao, Leilei Zang, Kaili Zhang, Haiying Liao, Zhigang Hu
HUWE1 (the HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing protein 1) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase which plays an important role in coordinating diverse cellular processes. It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer type and its functions in tumorigenesis remain controversial. The potential tumour suppressive role of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer development was investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, WRO, FTC133 and BCPAP, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, scratch wound healing and invasion assays...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Rosana S Lopes, Marcelo M Cardoso, Arthur O Sampaio, Mario Santos Barbosa, Celice C Souza, Michelle C DA Silva, Elane Magno N Ferreira, Marco Aurelio M Freire, Rafael Rodrigues Lima, Walace Gomes-Leal
Neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate to striatum following stroke, but most of them die in the ischaemic milieu and this can be related to exacerbated microglial activation. Here, we explored the effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indomethacin on microglial activation, neuronal preservation and neuroblast migration following experimental striatal stroke in adult rats. Animals were submitted to endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced focal striatal ischaemia and were treated with indomethacin or sterile saline (i...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Gugan Jabeen, Robina Farooq
Bio-electrochemical synthesis (BES) is a technique in which electro-autotrophic bacteria such as Clostridium ljungdahlii utilize electric currents as an electron source from the cathode to reduce CO2 to extracellular, multicarbon, exquisite products through autotrophic conversion. The BES of volatile fatty acids and alcohols directly from CO2 is a sustainable alternative for non-renewable, petroleum-based polymer production. This conversion of CO2 implies reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The synthesis of heptanoic acid, heptanol, hexanoic acid and hexanol, for the first time, by Clostridium ljungdahlii was a remarkable achievement of BES...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Guangli Wang, Yuan Liu
Diazinon is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide often detected in the environment. A highly effective diazinon-degrading Ralstonia sp. strain DI-3 was isolated from agricultural soil. Strain DI-3 can utilize dimethoate as its sole carbon source for growth and degrade an initial concentration of 100 mg L-1 diazinon to non-detectable levels within 60 h in liquid culture. A small amount of second carbon source as co-substrate could slightly enhance the biodegradation of diazinon. In addition, a less toxic metabolic intermediate formed during the degradation of diazinon mediated by strain DI-3 was purified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and identified based on single-crystal Xray diffraction analysis, allowing a degradation pathway for diazinon by pure culture to be proposed...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Chandrakant B Jagtap, Pradeep Kumar, Krishnamurthy K Rao
Hfq is a global post-transcriptional regulator that modulates the translation and stability of target mRNAs and thereby regulates pleiotropic functions, such as growth, stress, virulence and motility, in many Gram-negative bacteria. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation and function(s) of Hfq in Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, in Bacillus subtilis, a role for Hfq in stationary phase survival has been suggested, although the possibility of Hfq having an additional role(s) cannot be ruled out...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Nachiket P Marathe, Swapnil S Gaikwad, Ankita A Vaishampayan, Mandar H Rasane, Yogesh S Shouche, Wasudev N Gade
Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters 1852) (Tilapia) is one of the most consumed fish globally. Tilapia thrives well in environments polluted by urban waste, which invariably contain antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Thus, Tilapia surviving in such polluted environments may serve as a potential source for dissemination of ARGs. To investigate this, we isolated bacterial strains from gut of Tilapia found in polluted rivers and lakes near Pune, India, and studied the prevalence of resistance genes by molecular methods...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Leena Thorat, Dasharath P Oulkar, Kaushik Banerjee, Bimalendu B Nath
Stressful environments are known to perturb developmental patterns in insects. In the purview of desiccation as a stressor, relatively little is known about the developmental consequences linked with desiccation tolerance. In this study, we have particularly focused on the exploration of the temporal profile of postembryonic development in response to desiccation exposure in Drosophila melanogaster and the associated trade-offs. We document a correlation between variations in 20-hydroxyecdysone levels and the altered timing of metamorphic events during the life cycle...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Michel Morange
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Maryam Hosseini Hasanabady, Fatemeh Kalalinia
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCP or MXR)/ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) was characterized as a multidrug resistance efflux transporter in 1998. ABCG2 physiologically acts as a part of a selfdefence mechanism for the organism; it enhances eliminating of toxic xenobiotic substances and harmful agents in the intestine, as well as through the blood-brain barrier and placenta. ABCG2 recognizes and transports numerous anticancer drugs including conventional chemotherapeutic and new targeted small therapeutic molecules in clinical usage...
June 2016: Journal of Biosciences
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