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Veterinary Research Communications

S Lee, U Trivedi, C Johnson, C Farquharson, G T Bergkvist
Advanced next generation sequencing approaches have started to reveal the cellular and molecular complexity of the microenvironment in many tissues. It is challenging to obtain high quality RNA from mineralised tissues. We developed an optimised method of RNA extraction from feline teeth collected in a clinical setting and at post mortem. Teeth were homogenised in phenol-guanidinium solution at near-freezing temperatures and followed by solid-phase nucleic acid extraction utilising a commercially available kit...
November 6, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Eleonora Iacono, Luisa Pascucci, Cinzia Bazzucchi, Marco Cunto, Francesca Ricci, Barbara Rossi, Barbara Merlo
The aim of the present study was to compare canine adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells cultured under normoxic (20% O2 ) and not severe hypoxic (7% O2 ) conditions in terms of marker expression, proliferation rate, differentiation potential and cell morphology. Intra-abdominal fat tissue samples were recovered from 4 dogs and cells isolated from each sample were cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Proliferation rate and adhesion ability were determined, differentiation towards chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages was induced; the expression of CD44, CD34, DLA-DQA1, DLA-DRA1 was determined by PCR, while flow cytometry analysis for CD90, CD105, CD45 and CD14 was carried out...
September 20, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
M Y Ganaie, S Qureshi, Z Kashoo, S A Wani, M I Hussain, R Kumar, R Maqbool, P Sikander, M S Banday, W A Malla, P Mondal, R I N Khan
Bovine mastitis causes severe economic losses to dairy farmers. Staphylococcus aureus, is one of the most important pathogen implicated in etiology of clinical and subclinical mastitis in bovines. In view of increasing antimicrobial resistance alternatives to antibiotic therapy are much needed. The present decade has witnessed a renewed interest in phage based therapeutics and diagnostics. The present study, describes isolation and characterization of two lytic phages SAJK-IND and MSP against Staphylococcus aureus having a potential to be used in therapy against mastitis...
September 15, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Karin Sanders, Jan A Mol, Hans S Kooistra, Sara Galac
Canine hypercortisolism is most often caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism; PDH). An interesting target for a selective medical treatment of PDH would be the receptor for ACTH: the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R). In this study we investigated whether two peptide compounds, BIM-22776 (#776) and BIM-22A299 (#299), are effective MC2R antagonists in vitro. Their effects on cortisol production and mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes, MC2R and melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) were evaluated in primary adrenocortical cell cultures (n = 8) of normal canine adrenal glands...
September 5, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Geeta Devi Leishangthem, Niraj Kumar Singh, Nittin Dev Singh, Gursimran Filia, Amarjit Singh
Mastitis is inflammation of mammary gland affecting all the species of domestic animals. Fragments of the mitochondrial genome released from dying cells are considered surrogate markers of mitochondrial injury. We hypothesized that bovine mastitis would be associated with increased cell free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in serum and milk. Milk and serum samples were collected from sub-clinical mastitic and normal animals. Mastitis was confirmed by California mastitis test and bacterial isolation. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines were also estimated...
August 25, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Jessica Ruggeri, Fabio Foresti, Roberta Pavesi, Alessia Terrini, Francesca Giudici, Diego Padoan, Attilio Corradi, Maria Cristina Ossiprandi, Paolo Pasquali, Giovanni Loris Alborali
This article was originally published with all author names incorrectly listed. All author names have now been transposed and appear correctly above.
September 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Satheesan Karthika, Sainulabdeen Anoop, C B Devanand, M K Narayanan, Madhavan Unni, Saji Eassow, Thapasimuthu Anilkumar
In regenerative medicine, despite the chances of graft-rejection, scaffolds prepared from extracellular matrices of various mammalian organs/tissues are widely used. Graft-assisted healing of full thickness skin-wounds is a major use of these bioscaffolds. Therefore, considering its prospective clinical use as a wound healing matrix, this study evaluated the healing potential of porcine cholecyst-derived scaffold (CDS) prepared by a non-detergent/enzymatic method for treating naturally occurring full thickness lacerated wounds in dogs...
September 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Diego F Varela-Ortiz, José E Barboza-Corona, Joaquín González-Marrero, Ma Fabiola León-Galván, Mauricio Valencia-Posadas, Alma A Lechuga-Arana, Cynthia G Sánchez-Felipe, Fernanda Ledezma-García, Abner J Gutiérrez-Chávez
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that may cause severe infections in livestock, and represents the major cause of mastitis in dairy cows. Currently, instead of using antibiotics, new strategies are sought to reduce this clinical health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of phage therapy to kill S. aureus strains obtained from farms located at the State of Guanajuato, México. Thirty-six S. aureus strains from cow milk with subclinical mastitis were isolated and identified, and the susceptibility to antibiotics and four phages also isolated in this work was tested...
September 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Jessica Ruggeri, Fabio Foresti, Roberta Pavesi, Alessia Terrini, Francesca Giudici, Diego Padoan, Attilio Corradi, Maria Cristina Ossiprandi, Paolo Pasquali, Giovanni Loris Alborali
Salmonella Typhimurium (including S.Typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i-) and other enteric pathogens cause acute infection in pigs during the weaning stage, often evolving into chronic infections responsible for the introduction of zoonotic bacteria into the slaughterhouse and thus determining carcass contamination. In addition to being zoonotic hazards, these pathogens are responsible for economic losses in affected farms. Traditionally, antibiotic treatments have been largely administered in order to reduce the infection burden but it favored, as a direct consequence, an increase in the number of multi-drug resistance strains...
September 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Vahid Tayeri, Alireza Seidavi, Leila Asadpour, Clive J C Phillips
Routine use of the antibiotic flavomycin in broiler production may lead to resistance, and alternative growth promoters are used to enhance performance. Two hundred day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were allocated to five dietary supplements included from d 1-42: flavomycin, three possible alternatives, a probiotic, prebiotic and a synbiotic, as well as a control treatment. There were four replicate cages of 10 birds each in each treatment. Compared with the control and antibiotics treatments, the probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments increased (p = 0...
September 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Mi Jeong Park, Jienny Lee, Jeong Su Byeon, Da-Un Jeong, Na-Yeon Gu, In-Soo Cho, Sang-Ho Cha
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are useful candidates for tissue engineering and cell therapy fields. We optimize culture conditions of equine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (eAD-MSCs) for treatment of horse fractures. To investigate enhancing properties of three-dimensional (3D) culture system in eAD-MSCs, we performed various sized spheroid formation and determined changes in gene expression levels to obtain different sized spheroid for cell therapy. eAD-MSCs were successfully isolated from horse tailhead. Using hanging drop method, spheroid formation was generated for three days...
September 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Manju Singh, Shoor Vir Singh, Saurabh Gupta, Kundan Kumar Chaubey, Bjorn John Stephan, Jagdip Singh Sohal, Manali Dutta
Early rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) bacilli in milk samples is the major challenge since traditional culture method is time consuming and laboratory dependent. We report a simple, sensitive and specific nano-technology based 'Nano-immuno test' capable of detecting viable MAP bacilli in the milk samples within 10 h. Viable MAP bacilli were captured by MAP specific antibody-conjugated magnetic nano-particles using resazurin dye as chromogen. Test was optimized using true culture positive (10-bovine and 12-goats) and true culture negative (16-bovine and 25-goats) raw milk samples...
September 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Mounir Adnane, Kieran G Meade, Cliona O'Farrelly
Cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM), the product of epithelial cells lining the uterus, cervix and vagina, is secreted to facilitate uterine lubrication and microbial clearance. Predominantly composed of water and mucins, CVM also contains high levels of immuno-active proteins such as immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin and lysozyme which protect against infection by blocking adhesion and mediating microbial killing. The repertoire of cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial peptides is predominantly generated by the secretions of endometrial epithelial cells into the uterine lumen and concentrated in the CVM...
August 16, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Huijeong Ahn, Jeongeun Kim, Sungkyun Kwon, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim, Hyuk Moo Kwon, Eunsong Lee, Geun-Shik Lee
Pigs are an important livestock and serve as a large animal model due to physiological and anatomical similarities with humans. Thus, components of the porcine immune system such as inflammasomes need to be characterized for disease control, vaccination, and translational research purposes. Previously, we and others elucidated porcine nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family Pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. However, until now, porcine NLR family caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing 4 (NLRC4) and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasomes have been not well studied...
August 10, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Qiu-Yan Chang, Fu-Cheng Guo, Xue-Rui Li, Jian-Hua Zhou, Xuepeng Cai, Qiuwei Pan, Xiao-Xia Ma
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes highly contagious diseases in domestic and particular wild small ruminants, leading to substantial economic loss. The development of effective and cheap antiviral medications shall help to circumvent this emerging burden. In this study, we found that ribavirin, a competitive inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor, significantly inhibits the replication of PPRV. As IMPDH is a key enzyme in purine nucleotide synthesis, supplementation of exogenous guanosine attenuate the anti-PPRV effect of ribavirin...
August 9, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Craig R Breheny, Richard J Mellanby, Julie A Hamilton, Adam G Gow
Hyperammonaemia is a common complication of liver disease in dogs. High concentrations of ammonia can be detrimental to dogs with liver disease for several reasons, notably by causing hepatic encephalopathy (HE) which describes the wide range of neurological abnormalities ranging from altered behaviour to seizures that are well recognised complications in dogs with hepatic disorders. In human patients with liver disease, hyperammonaemia has also been linked to the development of other systemic complications such as dysregulation of the innate immune system...
June 24, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
María Teresa Tejedor-Junco, Margarita González-Martín, Estefanía Bermeo-Garrido, Rebeca Villasana-Loaiza, Elena Carretón-Gómez
Doxycycline is an antibiotic that, in addition to the classic antibacterial use, is also prescribed to fight parasitic diseases, like heartworm disease in dogs. Despite the concern that the overuse of this antibiotic may decrease susceptibility of clinically important bacteria, the consequences of the prolonged doxycycline therapy in heartworm-infected dogs have never been studied before. We have analyzed the impact of this therapy on Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus antimicrobial resistance. In this study, 17 heartworm-infected dogs (10 that had completed the doxycycline treatment and 7 dogs that had not yet begun) were included...
June 24, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
D X Vega-Manriquez, R P Dávila-Arrellano, C A Eslava-Campos, E Salazar Jiménez, A C Negrete-Philippe, R Raigoza-Figueras, F A Muñoz-Tenería
Anthropogenic activities, predation, and diseases have contributed to a decrease in the sea turtle population in recent years. Ulcerative stomatitis is a condition that occurs in both wild and captive populations. The etiology of this condition is associated with bacteria such as E. coli, Citrobacter diversus, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Flavobacter calcoaceticus, Staphylococcus spp., and Flavobacterium spp. Some of these microorganisms are part of the oral microbiota of turtles, but alterations in the immune response can disturb the homeostatic relationship and cause an increase in the population of microorganisms, which in turn can cause disease...
June 22, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Ilaria Lippi, F Perondi, V Meucci, C Mannarini, L Intorre, G Guidi
The above article originally published with an error present in the article title, "Plasma alpha-tochopherol determined by HPLC in dogs at different stages of chronic kidney disease: a retrospective study" this should instead have read, "Plasma alpha-tocopherol determined by HPLC in dogs at different stages of chronic kidney disease: a retrospective study" [bold text used to highlight problem area].
June 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Mustafa Hamad, Omar Amen, Mohamed Mahmoud, Ola Hassanin, Mostafa Saif-Edin
Avian influenza (AI) vaccines are widely used to control and eliminate the ongoing avian influenza virus epidemic in Egypt. A strict vaccination policy with inactivated AI vaccines has been widely applied, however the virus still circulating, evolving and causing great negative impact to the poultry sector in Egypt. Therefore, an updated poultry vaccination policy using different vaccine technologies might be valuable as an innovative additional control strategy of AIV in Egypt. In the present study, the effectiveness of different avian influenza (AI) vaccination schedules was evaluated in 300 commercial layer chicks (ISA White) using either the oil-emulsion baculovirus-H5-prototype vaccine (baculovirus-H5 prototype) or turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vector vaccine containing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N1 strain (rHVT-H5), applied alone or in combination and in different settings...
June 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
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