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Neurobiology of Aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319836/a-cross-sectional-comparison-of-ethanol-related-cytokine-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-young-and-aged-fischer-344-rats
#1
Anny Gano, Tamara L Doremus-Fitzwater, Terrence Deak
Our work in Sprague Dawley rats has shown rapid alterations in neuroimmune gene expression (RANGE) in the hippocampus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). These manifest as increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IκBα, and suppressed IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha during acute ethanol intoxication. The present studies tested these effects across the lifespan (young adulthood at 2-3 months; senescence at 18 and 24 months), as well as across strain (Fischer 344) and sex. The hippocampus revealed age-dependent shifts in cytokine expression (IL-6, IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), but no changes were observed in the PVN at baseline or following ethanol...
March 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324764/enhancing-mitofusin-marf-ameliorates-neuromuscular-dysfunction-in-drosophila-models-of-tdp-43-proteinopathies
#2
Bilal Khalil, Marie-Jeanne Cabirol-Pol, Laetitia Miguel, Alexander J Whitworth, Magalie Lecourtois, Jean-Charles Liévens
Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) is considered a major pathological protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The precise mechanisms by which TDP-43 dysregulation leads to toxicity in neurons are not fully understood. Using TDP-43-expressing Drosophila, we examined whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a central determinant in TDP-43 pathogenesis. Expression of human wild-type TDP-43 in Drosophila neurons results in abnormally small mitochondria...
February 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324763/interaction-of-apoe-e4-and-poor-glycemic-control-predicts-white-matter-hyperintensity-growth-from-73-to-76
#3
Simon R Cox, Stuart J Ritchie, David Alexander Dickie, Alison Pattie, Natalie A Royle, Janie Corley, Benjamin S Aribisala, Sarah E Harris, Maria Valdés Hernández, Alan J Gow, Susana Muñoz Maniega, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
We examined whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) status interacts with vascular risk factors (VRFs) to predict the progression of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on brain MRI scans over a specific period of life in older age when the risk of dementia increases. At age 73 years, baseline VRFs were assessed via self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia, and via objective measures of blood HbA1c, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and blood high-density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (HDL) ratio...
February 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319835/convergent-and-divergent-effects-of-apolipoprotein-e-%C3%AE%C2%B54-and-%C3%AE%C2%B52-alleles-on-amygdala-functional-networks-in-nondemented-older-adults
#4
Liang Gong, Hao Shu, Cancan He, Qing Ye, Feng Bai, Chunming Xie, Zhijun Zhang
Traditionally, in the context of Alzheimer's disease, the apolipoprotein E ε2 (APOEε2) allele is a protective factor and the APOEε4 allele is a destructive factor. However, this inverse relationship has recently been challenged, and the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of APOE genotype on Alzheimer's disease remain unclear. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study was conducted to investigate the effects of APOE genotype and age on amygdala functional connectivity (AFC) networks in 84 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 124 cognitively normal order adults...
February 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318595/chchd10-mutations-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-in-mainland-china
#5
Shen Shen, Ji He, Lu Tang, Nan Zhang, Dongsheng Fan
Many genes have been found to be pathogenic for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Among them, the coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 10 (CHCHD10) has been reported to play a controversial role in ALS. We examined the coding region of this gene in 424 unrelated Chinese sporadic ALS subjects, 73 familial ALS subjects, and 204 healthy controls using a polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing strategy. Two types of variants were identified, and of these, one variant (g.877C>T, p.P23L) was identified to be damaging, and the other one was (g...
February 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314160/difference-in-imaging-biomarkers-of-neurodegeneration-between-early-and-late-onset-amnestic-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Anne-Laure Aziz, Bernard Giusiano, Sven Joubert, Lauréline Duprat, Mira Didic, Claude Gueriot, Lejla Koric, José Boucraut, Olivier Felician, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Eric Guedj, Mathieu Ceccaldi
Neuroimaging biomarkers differ between patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Whether these changes reflect cognitive heterogeneity or differences in disease severity is still unknown. This study aimed at investigating changes in neuroimaging biomarkers, according to the age of onset of the disease, in mild amnestic Alzheimer's disease patients with positive amyloid biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid. Both patient groups were impaired on tasks assessing verbal and visual recognition memory...
February 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314159/aging-alters-the-molecular-dynamics-of-synapses-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-pattern-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#7
Elif Tugce Karoglu, Dilara Ozge Halim, Bahriye Erkaya, Ferda Altaytas, Ayca Arslan-Ergul, Ozlen Konu, Michelle M Adams
The zebrafish has become a popular model for studying normal brain aging due to its large fecundity, conserved genome, and available genetic tools; but little data exists about neurobiological age-related alterations. The current study tested the hypothesis of an association between brain aging and synaptic protein loss across males and females. Western blot analysis of synaptophysin (SYP), a presynaptic vesicle protein, and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) and gephyrin (GEP), excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic receptor-clustering proteins, respectively, was performed in young, middle-aged, and old male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brains...
February 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292535/maintained-memory-in-aging-is-associated-with-young-epigenetic-age
#8
Sofie Degerman, Maria Josefsson, Annelie Nordin Adolfsson, Sigrid Wennstedt, Mattias Landfors, Zahra Haider, Sara Pudas, Magnus Hultdin, Lars Nyberg, Rolf Adolfsson
Epigenetic alterations during aging have been proposed to contribute to decline in physical and cognitive functions, and accelerated epigenetic aging has been associated with disease and all-cause mortality later in life. In this study, we estimated epigenetic age dynamics in groups with different memory trajectories (maintained high performance, average decline, and accelerated decline) over a 15-year period. Epigenetic (DNA-methylation [DNAm]) age was assessed, and delta age (DNAm age - chronological age) was calculated in blood samples at baseline (age: 55-65 years) and 15 years later in 52 age- and gender-matched individuals from the Betula study in Sweden...
February 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285794/missense-mutation-in-grn-gene-affecting-rna-splicing-and-plasma-progranulin-level-in-a-family-affected-by-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#9
Simona Luzzi, Lara Colleoni, Paola Corbetta, Sara Baldinelli, Chiara Fiori, Francesca Girelli, Mauro Silvestrini, Paola Caroppo, Giorgio Giaccone, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Giacomina Rossi
Gene coding for progranulin, GRN, is a major gene linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration. While most of pathogenic GRN mutations are null mutations leading to haploinsufficiency, GRN missense mutations do not have an obvious pathogenicity, and only a few have been revealed to act through different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as cytoplasmic missorting, protein degradation, and abnormal cleavage by elastase. The aim of this study was to disclose the pathogenetic mechanisms of the GRN A199V missense mutation, which was previously reported not to alter physiological progranulin features but was associated with a reduced plasma progranulin level...
February 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319837/kalirin-reduction-rescues-psychosis-associated-behavioral-deficits-in-appswe-psen1de9-transgenic-mice
#10
Josh M Krivinko, Susan L Erickson, Eric E Abrahamson, Zachary P Wills, Milos D Ikonomovic, Peter Penzes, Robert A Sweet
Psychosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD+P) represents a distinct clinical and neurobiological AD phenotype and is associated with more rapid cognitive decline, higher rates of abnormal behaviors, and increased caregiver burden compared with AD without psychosis. On a molecular level, AD+P is associated with greater reductions in the protein kalirin, a guanine exchange factor which has also been linked to the psychotic disease, schizophrenia. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular and behavioral consequences of kalirin reduction in APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice...
February 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286328/two-distinct-classes-of-degenerative-change-are-independently-linked-to-clinical-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Jean-Philippe Coutu, Emily R Lindemer, Ender Konukoglu, David H Salat
We previously demonstrated 2 statistically distinct factors of degeneration in Alzheimer's disease: one strongly related to white matter damage and age interpreted as "age- and vascular-related", and the other related to cortical atrophy thought to represent "neurodegenerative changes associated with Alzheimer's disease". Those factors are now replicated in a distinct cross-sectional data set of 364 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and their interpretation is improved using correlations with CSF biomarkers...
February 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262324/compliance-instead-of-flexibility-on-age-related-differences-in-cognitive-control-during-visual-search
#12
Christine Mertes, Edmund Wascher, Daniel Schneider
The effect of healthy aging on cognitive control of irrelevant visual information was investigated by using event-related potentials. Participants performed a spatial cuing task where an irrelevant color cue that was either contingent (color search) or noncontingent (shape search) on the attentional set was presented before a target with different stimulus-onset asynchronies. In the contingent condition, attentional capture appeared independent of age and persisted over the stimulus-onset asynchronies but was markedly pronounced for elderly people...
February 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268100/intrafamilial-variable-phenotype-including-corticobasal-syndrome-in-a-family-with-p-p301l-mutation-in-the-mapt-gene-first-report-in-south-america
#13
Emilia M Gatto, Ricardo F Allegri, Gustavo Da Prat, Patricio Chrem Mendez, David S Hanna, Michael O Dorschner, Ezequiel I Surace, Cyrus P Zabetian, Ignacio F Mata
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration is a neuropathological disorder that causes a variety of clinical syndromes including frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). FTD associated with parkinsonism occurs frequently as a result of mutations in the C9orf72 gene and also in the genes coding for the protein associated with microtubule tau (MAPT) and progranulin (GRN) on chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). Herein, we report an Argentinean family, of Basque ancestry, with an extensive family history of behavioral variant of FTD...
February 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262325/nonamyloidogenic-processing-of-amyloid-beta-precursor-protein-is-associated-with-retinal-function-improvement-in-aging-male-appswe-ps1%C3%AE-e9-mice
#14
Sandrine Joly, Simon Lamoureux, Vincent Pernet
Vision declines during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the toxic role of amyloid beta (Aβ) has been established in AD pathogenesis, its influence on the aging retina is unclear. Using APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic (TG) mice, a classical AD model, the retinal cell function and survival was assessed by electroretinogram (ERG) recordings and immunofluorescent stainings. Strikingly, photopic ERG measurements revealed that the retinal response mediated by cones was preserved in aging TG mice relative to WT controls...
February 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254590/subacute-ibuprofen-treatment-rescues-the-synaptic-and-cognitive-deficits-in-advanced-aged-mice
#15
Justin T Rogers, Chia-Chen Liu, Na Zhao, Jian Wang, Travis Putzke, Longyu Yang, Mitsuru Shinohara, John D Fryer, Takahisa Kanekiyo, Guojun Bu
Aging is accompanied by increased neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive deficits both in rodents and humans, yet the onset and progression of these deficits throughout the life span remain unknown. These aging-related deficits affect the quality of life and present challenges to our aging society. Here, we defined age-dependent and progressive impairments of synaptic and cognitive functions and showed that reducing astrocyte-related neuroinflammation through anti-inflammatory drug treatment in aged mice reverses these events...
February 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254589/excessive-tau-accumulation-in-the-parieto-occipital-cortex-characterizes-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Hanna Cho, Jae Yong Choi, Seung Ha Lee, Jae Hoon Lee, Young-Chul Choi, Young Hoon Ryu, Myoung Sik Lee, Chul Hyoung Lyoo
Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) is characterized by greater nonmemory dysfunctions, more rapid progression, and greater hypometabolism and atrophy than late-onset AD (LOAD). We sought to investigate the differences in tau accumulation patterns between early- and late-onset patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In 90 patients who completed (18)F-AV-1451 and (18)F-florbetaben positron emission tomography scans, only 59 amyloid-positive patients (11 EOAD, 10 EOMCI, 21 LOAD, and 17 LOMCI) were included in this study...
February 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259065/interaction-between-age-and-perceptual-similarity-in-olfactory-discrimination-learning-in-f344-rats-relationships-with-spatial-learning
#17
Wendy M Yoder, Leslie S Gaynor, Sara N Burke, Barry Setlow, David W Smith, Jennifer L Bizon
Emerging evidence suggests that aging is associated with a reduced ability to distinguish perceptually similar stimuli in one's environment. As the ability to accurately perceive and encode sensory information is foundational for explicit memory, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of discrimination impairments that emerge with advancing age could help elucidate the mechanisms of mnemonic decline. To this end, there is a need for preclinical approaches that robustly and reliably model age-associated perceptual discrimination deficits...
February 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259365/loss-of-precuneus-dendritic-spines-immunopositive-for-spinophilin-is-related-to-cognitive-impairment-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Zhiping Mi, Eric E Abrahamson, Angela Y Ryu, Kenneth N Fish, Robert A Sweet, Elliott J Mufson, Milos D Ikonomovic
Precuneus (PreC) cortex is affected with amyloid plaques early in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and this pathology may be associated with alterations in PreC synapses and cognitive impairment. We quantified the spinophilin-immunoreactive (ir) dendritic spine density and the intensity of spinophilin immunofluorescence, the latter as a measure of relative protein levels of spinophilin, in PreC lamina III from 33 subjects with clinical diagnoses of no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild-moderate AD (mAD), or severe AD (sAD)...
February 4, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242539/neural-patterns-underlying-the-effect-of-negative-distractors-on-working-memory-in-older-adults
#19
Noga Oren, Elissa L Ash, Ricardo Tarrasch, Talma Hendler, Nir Giladi, Irit Shapira-Lichter
Working memory (WM) declines with age. Older adults, however, perform similar to younger adults in WM tasks with negative distractors at low WM load. To clarify the neural basis of this phenomenon, older (n = 28) and younger (n = 24) adults performed an emotional n-back task during an fMRI scan, and activity in task-related regions was examined. Comparing negative with neutral distraction at low WM load, older adults demonstrated shorter reaction times (RT) and reduced activation in frontoparietal regions: bilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and left parietal cortex...
February 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235681/association-between-toxoplasma-gondii-seropositivity-and-memory-function-in-nondemented-older-adults
#20
Cynthia P Wyman, Shawn D Gale, Ariana Hedges-Muncy, Lance D Erickson, Eric Wilson, Dawson W Hedges
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) seropositivity may be associated with decreased memory in older adults. To further investigate the association between T. gondii seropositivity and memory in nondemented older adults, we obtained serum samples from 114 nondemented older adults evaluated by the Alzheimer's Disease and Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. We determined T. gondii seropositivity and anti-T. gondii IgG antibody titer and examined associations with memory function while controlling for socioeconomic status, education level, age, and apolipoprotein E4 status...
February 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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