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Neurobiology of Aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407467/neuroprotective-effects-of-voluntary-running-on-cognitive-dysfunction-in-an-%C3%AE-synuclein-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Erin K Crowley, Yvonne M Nolan, Aideen M Sullivan
Parkinson's disease (PD) is no longer primarily classified as a motor disorder due to increasing recognition of the impact on patients of several nonmotor PD symptoms, including cognitive dysfunction. These nonmotor symptoms are highly prevalent and greatly affect the quality of life of patients with PD, and so, therapeutic interventions to alleviate these symptoms are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of voluntary running on cognitive dysfunction in an adeno-associated virus-α-synuclein rat model of PD...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449030/the-frequency-of-the-c9orf72-expansion-in-a-brazilian-population
#2
Vívian Pedigone Cintra, Luciana Cardoso Bonadia, Helen Maia T Andrade, Milena de Albuquerque, Mayara Ferreira Eusébio, Daniel Sabino de Oliveira, Rinaldo Claudino, Marcus Vinicius Magno Gonçalves, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira, Laura de Godoy Rousseff Prado, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Mario Emilio Teixeira Dourado, Acary Souza Bulle Oliveira, Vitor Tumas, Marcondes C França, Wilson Marques
G 4 C 2 hexanucleotide repeat expansions in the C9orf72 gene seem to be the cause of numerous cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and/or frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In this study, we investigated the presence of the G 4 C 2 repeat expansion in 463 Brazilian probands, of whom 404 had ALS/motor neuron disease and 67 FTD, and in 63 healthy controls in the southeastern region of Brazil. The highest frequencies of the C9orf72 mutation were in the ALS-FTD group (50% of familial and 17.6% of sporadic cases), although it was also present in 5% of pure ALS/motor neuron disease patients (11...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407468/visual-and-visuomotor-interhemispheric-transfer-time-in-older-adults
#3
Brian Scally, Melanie Rose Burke, David Bunce, Jean-Francois Delvenne
Older adults typically experience reductions in the structural integrity of the anterior channels of the corpus callosum. Despite preserved structural integrity in central and posterior channels, many studies have reported that interhemispheric transfer, a function attributed to these regions, is detrimentally affected by aging. In this study, we use a constrained event-related potential analysis in the theta and alpha frequency bands to determine whether interhemispheric transfer is affected in older adults...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407465/hypermetabolism-in-the-hippocampal-formation-of-cognitively-impaired-patients-indicates-detrimental-maladaptation
#4
Ivayla Apostolova, Catharina Lange, Anja Mäurer, Per Suppa, Lothar Spies, Michel J Grothe, Till Nierhaus, Jochen B Fiebach, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, R Buchert
Structural deterioration and volume loss of the hippocampal formation is observed in many diseases associated with memory decline. Paradoxically, glucose metabolism of the hippocampal formation can be increased at the same time. This might be a consequence of compensatory (beneficial) or maladaptive (detrimental) mechanisms. Aim of this study was to differentiate between compensation and maladaptation by analyzing the association between glucose metabolism in the hippocampal formation measured by positron emission tomography with the glucose analogue 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and cognitive performance as characterized by the extended Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease test battery in a sample of 87 patients (81...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407466/age-differences-in-neural-correlates-of-feedback-processing-after-economic-decisions-under-risk
#5
Carina Fernandes, Rita Pasion, Ana R Gonçalves, Fernando Ferreira-Santos, Fernando Barbosa, Isabel P Martins, João Marques-Teixeira
This study examines age-related differences in behavioral responses to risk and in the neurophysiological correlates of feedback processing. Our sample was composed of younger, middle-aged, and older adults, who were asked to decide between 2 risky options, in the gain and loss domains, during an EEG recording. Results evidenced group-related differences in early and later stages of feedback processing, indexed by differences in the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3 amplitudes. Specifically, in the loss domain, younger adults showed higher FRN amplitudes after non-losses than after losses, whereas middle-aged and older adults had similar FRN amplitudes after both...
January 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398119/target-enriched-sequencing-of-chromosome-17q21-31-in-sporadic-tauopathies-reveals-no-candidate-variants
#6
Cristina Razquin, Sara Ortega-Cubero, Estefania Rojo-Bustamante, Monica Diez-Fairen, Elena Lorenzo, Elena Alonso, Mario Ezquerra, Owen A Ross, Maria Carcel, Oswaldo Lorenzo-Betancor, Alexandra I Soto, Jeremy D Burgess, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Dennis W Dickson, Maria A Pastor, Eduard Tolosa, Pau Pastor
The main genetic risk factors for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are located at chromosome 17q21.31. The identification of risk H1 subhaplotypes suggests that disease-specific variants can be identified by resequencing the 17q21.31 region (1.4 Mb) in carriers of risk H1 subhaplotypes. We hypothesized that PSP/CBD H1 subhaplotype carriers could have undergone a mutational event absent among unaffected carriers leading to the disease risk. We performed this strategy in definite PSP subjects, definite CBD subjects, and healthy controls and tried to replicate the findings in a larger PSP/CBD case-control series...
January 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407469/age-related-differences-in-the-neural-correlates-of-empathy-for-pleasant-and-unpleasant-touch-in-a-female-sample
#7
Federica Riva, Melanie Tschernegg, Patrizia A Chiesa, Isabella C Wagner, Martin Kronbichler, Claus Lamm, Giorgia Silani
Empathy is essential for successful social interactions and relationships. The neural underpinnings of empathy have predominantly been studied in the young adult population, thus little is known about how they evolve across the life span. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate age-related differences in brain activity associated to empathy for positive and negative emotions. Female participants of 3 age groups-adolescents, young, and older adults-underwent an experimental paradigm inducing both first-hand and empathic experience of pleasant and unpleasant touch...
January 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398123/association-study-of-essential-tremor-genetic-loci-in-parkinson-s%C3%A2-disease
#8
Jay P Ross, Sadaf Mohtashami, Etienne Leveille, Amelie M Johnson, Lan Xiong, Patrick A Dion, Edward Fon, Yves Dauvilliers, Nicolas Dupré, Guy A Rouleau, Ziv Gan-Or
A recent genome-wide association study identified variants associated with essential tremor (ET). The present study aimed to examine potential genetic overlap between ET and Parkinson's disease (PD). The top 22 variants identified by the ET genome-wide association study and 4 additional variants from previous studies were genotyped in a cohort of French and French-Canadian PD patients (n = 717) and controls (n = 595). Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex, was used to test for association between genotype and PD...
January 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398120/screening-of-gle1-mutations-in-chinese-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients
#9
Kang Zhang, Qing Liu, Dongchao Shen, Hongfei Tai, Hanhui Fu, Shuangwu Liu, Jinyi Chen, Xiaoguang Li, Mingsheng Liu, Xue Zhang, Liying Cui
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal neurological disease primarily involving the spinal cord, brainstem, and corticospinal tract. Recently, mutations in the GLE1 gene were reported in Caucasian ALS patients. To inquire whether Chinese ALS patients carried causal mutations in the gene, we screened all 16 coding exons of GLE1 with Sanger sequencing in a Han Chinese cohort of 250 ALS cases. No nonsynonymous coding variants were detected. Our results suggest that pathogenic variants in the GLE1 gene are rare in Chinese ALS patients...
January 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395286/an-apoe-independent-cis-esnp-on-chromosome-19q13-32-influences-tau-levels-and-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-risk
#10
Shuquan Rao, Mahdi Ghani, Zhiyun Guo, Yuetiva Deming, Kesheng Wang, Rebecca Sims, Canquan Mao, Yao Yao, Carlos Cruchaga, Dietrich A Stephan, Ekaterina Rogaeva
Although multiple susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) have been identified, a large portion of the genetic risk for this disease remains unexplained. LOAD risk may be associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for changes in gene expression (eSNPs). To detect eSNPs associated with LOAD, we integrated data from LOAD genome-wide association studies and expression quantitative trait loci using Sherlock (a Bayesian statistical method). We identified a cis-regulatory eSNP (rs2927438) located on chromosome 19q13...
January 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407464/abnormalities-of-resting-state-functional-cortical-connectivity-in-patients-with-dementia-due-to-alzheimer-s-and-lewy-body-diseases-an-eeg-study
#11
Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Giuseppe Noce, Susanna Lopez, Andrea Soricelli, Raffaele Ferri, Flavio Nobili, Dario Arnaldi, Francesco Famà, Dag Aarsland, Francesco Orzi, Carla Buttinelli, Franco Giubilei, Marco Onofrj, Fabrizio Stocchi, Paola Stirpe, Peter Fuhr, Ute Gschwandtner, Gerhard Ransmayr, Heinrich Garn, Lucia Fraioli, Michela Pievani, Giovanni B Frisoni, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Carlo De Lena, Bahar Güntekin, Lutfu Hanoğlu, Erol Başar, Görsev Yener, Derya Durusu Emek-Savaş, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Raffaella Franciotti, John Paul Taylor, Laura Vacca, Maria Francesca De Pandis, Laura Bonanni
Previous evidence showed abnormal posterior sources of resting-state delta (<4 Hz) and alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms in patients with Alzheimer's disease with dementia (ADD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and Lewy body dementia (DLB), as cortical neural synchronization markers in quiet wakefulness. Here, we tested the hypothesis of additional abnormalities in functional cortical connectivity computed in those sources, in ADD, considered as a "disconnection cortical syndrome", in comparison with PDD and DLB...
December 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407463/estimates-of-age-dependent-cutoffs-for-pathological-brain-volume-loss-using-siena-fsl-a-longitudinal-brain-volumetry-study-in-healthy-adults
#12
Roland Opfer, Ann-Christin Ostwaldt, Maria Pia Sormani, Carola Gocke, Christine Walker-Egger, Praveena Manogaran, Nicola De Stefano, Sven Schippling
Brain volume loss (BVL) has gained increasing interest for monitoring tissue damage in neurodegenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). In this longitudinal study, 117 healthy participants (age range 37.3-82.6 years) received at least 2 magnetic resonance imaging examinations. BVL (in %) was determined with the Structural Image Evaluation using Normalisation of Atrophy/FMRIB Software Library and annualized. Mean BVL per year was 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.46%, and 0.61% at ages 45, 55, 65, and 75 years, respectively...
December 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358118/polygenic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease-influences-precuneal-volume-in-two-independent-general-populations
#13
Jin Li, Xiaolong Zhang, Ang Li, Shu Liu, Wen Qin, Chunshui Yu, Yong Liu, Bing Liu, Tianzi Jiang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is heritable with complex genetic underpinnings. Based on previous results from large-scale genome-wide association studies, recent studies found an association between the polygenic risk score (PGRS) of AD and the structure of some preselected brain regions, but the effects of AD PGRS on all voxels of the brain have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we examined the voxel-wise effect of AD PGRS on the entire brain and the influence of AD PGRS on cognitive function in 2 independent healthy young cohorts...
December 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395285/the-effect-of-rare-variants-in-trem2-and-pld3-on-longitudinal-cognitive-function-in-the-wisconsin-registry-for-alzheimer-s-prevention
#14
Corinne D Engelman, Burcu F Darst, Murat Bilgel, Eva Vasiljevic, Rebecca L Koscik, Bruno M Jedynak, Sterling C Johnson
Recent studies have found an association between functional variants in TREM2 and PLD3 and Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their effect on cognitive function is unknown. We examined the effect of these variants on cognitive function in 1449 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, a longitudinal study of initially asymptomatic adults, aged 36-73 years at baseline, enriched for a parental history of AD. A comprehensive cognitive test battery was performed at up to 5 visits. A factor analysis resulted in 6 cognitive factors that were standardized into z scores (∼N [0, 1]); the mean of these z scores was also calculated...
December 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358117/the-effect-of-alzheimer-s-disease-on-spatial-navigation-strategies
#15
Martina Parizkova, Ondrej Lerch, Scott Douglas Moffat, Ross Andel, Adela Fendrych Mazancova, Zuzana Nedelska, Martin Vyhnalek, Jakub Hort, Jan Laczó
Hippocampal and basal forebrain (BF) atrophy is associated with allocentric navigation impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may lead to recruitment of compensatory navigation strategies. We examined navigation strategy preference, its association with allocentric navigation, and the role of hippocampal and BF volumes in this association in early clinical stages of AD. Sixty nine participants-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) due to AD (n = 28), AD dementia (n = 21), and cognitively normal (CN) older adults (n = 20)-underwent virtual Y-maze strategy assessment, real-space navigation testing, cognitive assessment, and hippocampal and BF volumetry...
December 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348045/supplementary-motor-area-primary-motor-cortex-facilitation-in-younger-but-not-older-adults
#16
Peta E Green, Michael C Ridding, Keith D Hill, John G Semmler, Peter D Drummond, Ann-Maree Vallence
Growing evidence implicates a decline in white matter integrity in the age-related decline in motor control. Functional neuroimaging studies show significant associations between functional connectivity in the cortical motor network, including the supplementary motor area (SMA), and motor performance. Dual-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation studies show facilitatory connections between SMA and the primary motor cortex (M1) in younger adults. Here, we investigated whether SMA-M1 facilitation is affected by age and whether the strength of SMA-M1 facilitation is associated with bilateral motor control...
December 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370934/mutation-analysis-of-the-tia1-gene-in-chinese-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#17
Zhenhua Yuan, Bin Jiao, Lihua Hou, Tingting Xiao, Xixi Liu, Junling Wang, Jun Xu, Lin Zhou, Xinxiang Yan, Beisha Tang, Lu Shen
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a group of dementia syndromes characterized by the progressive deterioration of behaviors, executive dysfunction, and verbal impairment. Increasing evidence indicates that these 2 diseases share a common genetic etiology and pathophysiological mechanism. Recently, rare mutations in the low-complexity domain of the RNA-binding protein T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1) gene were identified in Caucasian ALS and ALS-FTD patients...
December 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353101/amyloid-pathology-in-the-progression-to-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Philip S Insel, Oskar Hansson, R Scott Mackin, Michael Weiner, Niklas Mattsson
The objective of this study was to determine the cognitive and functional decline and development of brain injury in individuals progressing from preclinical (β-amyloid positive cognitively normal) to prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) (β-amyloid positive mild cognitive impairment [MCI]), and compare this with individuals who progress to MCI in the absence of significant amyloid pathology. Seventy-five cognitively healthy participants who progressed to MCI were followed for 4 years on average and up to 10 years...
December 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352617/high-frequency-of-c9orf72-hexanucleotide-repeat-expansion-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-from-two-founder-populations-sharing-the-same-risk-haplotype
#19
Orly Goldstein, Mali Gana-Weisz, Beatrice Nefussy, Batel Vainer, Omri Nayshool, Anat Bar-Shira, Bryan J Traynor, Vivian E Drory, Avi Orr-Urtreger
We characterized the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion (RE) mutation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients of 2 distinct origins, Ashkenazi and North Africa Jews (AJ, NAJ), its frequency, and genotype-phenotype correlations. In AJ, 80% of familial ALS (fALS) and 11% of sporadic ALS carried the RE, a total of 12.9% of all AJ-ALS compared to 0.3% in AJ controls (odds ratio [OR] = 44.3, p < 0.0001). In NAJ, 10% of fALS and 9% of sporadic ALS carried the RE, a total of 9.1% of all NAJ-ALS compared to 1% in controls (OR = 9...
December 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398121/insufficient-evidence-for-pathogenicity-of-snca-his50gln-h50q-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Cornelis Blauwendraat, Demis A Kia, Lasse Pihlstrøm, Ziv Gan-Or, Suzanne Lesage, J Raphael Gibbs, Jinhui Ding, Roy N Alcalay, Sharon Hassin-Baer, Alan M Pittman, Janet Brooks, Connor Edsall, Sun Ju Chung, Stefano Goldwurm, Mathias Toft, Claudia Schulte, Dena Hernandez, Andrew B Singleton, Mike A Nalls, Alexis Brice, Sonja W Scholz, Nicholas W Wood
SNCA missense mutations are a rare cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, 6 missense mutations in SNCA have been nominated as causal. Here, we assess the frequency of these 6 mutations in public population databases and PD case-control data sets to determine their true pathogenicity. We found that 1 of the 6 reported SNCA mutations, His50Gln, was consistently identified in large population databases, and no enrichment was evident in PD cases compared to controls. These results suggest that His50Gln is probably not a pathogenic variant...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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