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Biomedical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784876/diversity-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-differently-affects-non-neuronal-and-atropine-sensitive-ileal-contractile-responses-to-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-mice
#1
Masako Yajima, Shin-Ichiro Karaki, Takeshi Tsuruta, Shunsuke Kimura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Takaji Yajima
Non-neuronal and atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are detected in the neonatal stage, and change with age or inflammatory conditions. However, the roles of luminal SCFAs in developmental changes have not yet been elucidated. We examined ileal contractile responses to SCFAs in mice colonized with different SCFA-producing intestinal microbiota under normal and inflammatory conditions. Using conventional (Conv), germ-free (GF), and gnotobiotic mice infected with Bifidobacterium (GB-bif), Propionibacterium (GB-prop), or Lactobacillus (GB-lact), ileal contractions were measured in 1-day-old neonates and 7-week-old mice using an isotonic transducer...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784875/application-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cultured-in-different-oxygen-concentrations-for-treatment-of-graft-versus-host-disease-in-mice
#2
Dae Seong Kim, Myoung Woo Lee, Young Jong Ko, Hyun Jin Park, Yoo Jin Park, Dong-Ik Kim, Hye Lim Jung, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo, Keon Hee Yoo
Human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) heterogeneity and problems associated with the ex vivo expansion of MSC are linked with the failure of MSC clinical trials. In this study, we compared the effect of MSCs cultured in different oxygen concentrations on GVHD in mice to elucidate whether hypoxia improves the immunosuppressive capacity of MSCs. Hypoxia increased the proliferative activity and the expression of several stemness and chemokine genes, such as KLF4, OCT4, C-MYC, CCL2, and CXCL10. Mice that received MSCs cultured in normoxia or hypoxia showed alleviated symptoms of GVHD and increased survival times...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784874/the-effect-of-consuming-small-volumes-of-beer-on-gastric-motility-and-the-involvement-of-gene-polymorphisms
#3
Tomoyuki Shibata, Hiromi Yamashita, Tomohiko Kawamura, Yasutaka Jodai, Takafumi Omori, Kazuya Sumi, Yuichiro Ichikawa, Masaaki Okubo, Takamitsu Ishizuka, Tomomitsu Tahara, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Ichiro Hirata, Naoki Ohmiya, Makoto Nakao
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming small amounts of beer or a nonalcoholic beer taste beverage (non-beer) on gastric emptying and the polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism-related enzyme-encoding genes. Twenty male healthy volunteers were questioned regarding their alcohol consumption status, and body measurement was performed. The genetic polymorphisms in ADH1B (rs1229984, Arg47His) and ALDH2 (rs671 Glu487Lys) were analyzed. The subjects consumed 150 mL of beer or non-beer once per week, followed by the ingestion of 200 kcal of the test nutrient containing (13)C-acetate 15 min later, after which the subjects' exhalations were collected up to 120 min...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784873/atp-release-from-bladder-urothelium-and-serosa-in-a-rat-model-of-partial-bladder-outlet-obstruction
#4
Kazuhiro Shiina, Ken-Ichiro Hayashida, Kazuo Ishikawa, Masahito Kawatani
Overactive bladder is one of the major health problem especially in elderly people. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released from urinary bladder cells and acts as a smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal in micturition but little is known about the role of ATP release in the pathophysiology of overactive bladder. To assess the relationship between ATP and overactive bladder, we used a partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO) model in rats. The bladder caused several changes by pBOO: An increase in bladder weight, hypertrophy of sub-urothelium and sub-serosal area, and frequent non-voiding bladder contraction during urine storage...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784872/response-to-light-compressive-force-in-human-cementoblasts-in-vitro
#5
Kenji Matsunaga, Chika Ito, Kaichi Nakakogawa, Akina Sugiuchi, Ryo Sako, Masahiro Furusawa, Takashi Muramatsu
The objective of this study is to investigate the responses of human cementoblasts to light compressive force in vitro. A human cementoblast cell line (HCEM) was loaded for 12 h by mounting coverslips (0.25 gf/cm(2)). The coverslips were removed and the cells were cultured for up to 21 days. Cells without glass loading were used as controls. Cell growth, morphological changes, and the mRNA expression of RUNX2, ALP, WNT5A and SPON1 were investigated. No significant differences were observed in cell numbers between the compressed group and control group...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784871/the-role-of-tetraspanin-cd9-in-osteoarthritis-using-three-different-mouse-models
#6
Norihiko Sumiyoshi, Hiroyuki Ishitobi, Shigeru Miyaki, Kenji Miyado, Nobuo Adachi, Mitsuo Ochi
Although osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent aging-related joint disease, the understanding of mechanisms of OA pathogenesis remains limited. Key features include the progressive degradation of articular cartilage, synovial hyperplasia, and angiogenesis in joint tissues. CD9, a member of the tetraspanin family, is localized in the cell membranes and partly in the endosomes of all mammalian cell types. CD9 is associated with inflammation and angiogenesis through cell adhesion, migration, and signal transduction...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784870/induction-of-langerin-langerhans-cell-like-cells-expressing-reduced-tlr3-from-cd34-cord-blood-cells-stimulated-with-gm-csf-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-tnf-%C3%AE
#7
Hideko Azuma, Eri Watanabe, Yohei Otsuka, Yasuyuki Negishi, Sadayuki Ohkura, Eiji Shinya, Hidemi Takahashi
Langerhans cells (LCs), a subset of dendritic cells (DCs), reside in body surface presenting antigens from various pathogens and activate immune system after migrating to vicinal lymph nodes. We recently demonstrated that the E-cadherin interaction allowed peripheral blood (PB) CD14(+) cells to differentiate into LC-like cells that closely resemble primary LCs. Here, with a combination of GM-CSF, TGF-β, and TNF-α, we induced LC-like cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB)derived CD34(+) cells and compared them with those induced from PB CD14(+) cells...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545003/immunohistochemical-localization-of-fatty-acid-transporters-and-mct1-in-the-sebaceous-glands-of-mouse-skin
#8
Miao Zheng, Shinhye Lee, Satoshi Tsuzuki, Kazuo Inoue, Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita, Toshihiko Iwanaga
The sebaceous glands secrete sebum to protect the epidermis and hairs by the oily products. The glands express several transporters and binding proteins for the production of fatty acids and uptake of their sources. The present immunohistochemical study examined the expression and localization of CD36, MCT1, FATP4, and E-FABP in the sebaceous glands, including the meibomian and preputial glands of mice. CD36 and MCT1 in sebaceous glands were largely co-localized along the plasma membrane of secretory cells, while they were separately expressed in the glandular portion of meibomian and preputial glands...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545002/prevalence-of-low-penetrant-germline-tp53-d49h-mutation-in-japanese-cancer-patients
#9
Ken Yamaguchi, Kenichi Urakami, Takeshi Nagashima, Yuji Shimoda, Shumpei Ohnami, Sumiko Ohnami, Keiichi Ohshima, Tohru Mochizuki, Keiichi Hatakeyama, Masakuni Serizawa, Yasuto Akiyama, Kouji Maruyama, Hirohisa Katagiri, Yuji Ishida, Kaoru Takahashi, Seiichiro Nishimura, Masanori Terashima, Taiichi Kawamura, Yusuke Kinugasa, Yushi Yamakawa, Tetsuro Onitsuka, Yasuhisa Ohde, Takashi Sugino, Ichiro Ito, Hiroyuki Matsubayashi, Yasue Horiuchi, Maki Mizuguchi, Mutsumi Yamazaki, Kengo Inoue, Kimiko Wakamatsu, Misato Sugiyama, Katsuhiko Uesaka, Masatoshi Kusuhara
Using whole exome sequencing data obtained from 1,685 Japanese cancer patients, we examined genetic variations of germline TP53 and found 10 types of non-synonymous single nucleotide variants. In the present study, we focused on 6 patients with germline D49H mutation located in the transactivation domain 2 of p53 protein, since the mutation seemed to be prevalent in cancer patients and to be pathogenic. According to the initial survey for family history of the proband with the germline TP53 D49H mutation, one osteosarcoma patient and his pedigree fulfill the criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome and the 2009 Chompret criteria for germline TP53 mutation screening...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545001/amino-acid-composition-and-amino-acid-metabolic-network-in-supragingival-plaque
#10
Jumpei Washio, Tamaki Ogawa, Keisuke Suzuki, Yosuke Tsukiboshi, Motohiro Watanabe, Nobuhiro Takahashi
Dental plaque metabolizes both carbohydrates and amino acids. The former can be degraded to acids mainly, while the latter can be degraded to various metabolites, including ammonia, acids and amines, and associated with acid-neutralization, oral malodor and tissue inflammation. However, amino acid metabolism in dental plaque is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate what kinds of amino acids are available as metabolic substrates and how the amino acids are metabolized in supragingival plaque, by a metabolome analysis...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545000/plantar-injection-of-formalin-in-rats-reduces-the-expression-of-a-potassium-chroride-cotransporter-kcc2-in-the-spinal-cord-and-a-kinase-inhibitor-suppresses-this-reduction
#11
Kenkichi Tsuruga, Toshikazu Hashimoto, Ryoko Kato, Rui Kato, Yousuke Uchida, Tetsutaro Hase, Yuji Morimoto
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is released from activated microglia during neuropathic pain and is hypothesized to downregulate the expression of the potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) via the TrkB receptor. Previous studies reported that KCC2 is downregulated 5 min after the plantar injection of formalin in rats; however, the mechanism behind this decrease in KCC2 expression during acute inflammatory pain remains unknown. In this study, we determined whether the TrkB receptor contributes to the expression of KCC2 during the acute pain...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544999/immune-response-associated-gene-analysis-of-1-000-cancer-patients-using-whole-exome-sequencing-and-gene-expression-profiling-project-hope
#12
Yasuto Akiyama, Ryota Kondou, Akira Iizuka, Keiichi Ohshima, Kenichi Urakami, Takeshi Nagashima, Yuji Shimoda, Tomoe Tanabe, Sumiko Ohnami, Shumpei Ohnami, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Tohru Mochizuki, Ken Yamaguchi
Project HOPE (High-tech Omics-based Patient Evaluation) has been progressing since its implementation in 2014 using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and gene expression profiling (GEP). With the aim of evaluating immune status in cancer patients, a gene panel consisting of 164 immune response-associated genes (56 antigen-presenting cell and T-cell-associated genes, 34 cytokine- and metabolism-associated genes, 47 TNF and TNF receptor superfamily genes, and 27 regulatory T-cell-associated genes) was established, and its expression and mutation status were investigated using 1,000 cancer patient-derived tumors...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544998/hericium-erinaceus-extracts-alter-behavioral-rhythm-in-mice
#13
Shoko Furuta, Rika Kuwahara, Eri Hiraki, Koichiro Ohnuki, Shinobu Yasuo, Kuniyoshi Shimizu
Hericium erinaceus (HE), an edible mushroom, has been used as a herbal medicine in several Asian countries since ancient times. HE has potential as a medicine for the treatment and prevention of dementia, a disorder closely linked with circadian rhythm. This study investigated the effects of the intake of HE extracts on behavioral rhythm, photosensitivity of the circadian clock, and clock gene mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a central clock, in mice. Although the HE ethanol extract only affected the offset time of activity, the HE water extract advanced the sleep-wake cycle without affecting the free-running period, photosensitivity, or the clock gene mRNA expression in SCN...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544997/naftopidil-improves-locomotor-activity-and-urinary-frequency-in-rats-with-pelvic-venous-congestion
#14
Kimio Sugaya, Saori Nishijima, Katsumi Kadekawa, Katsuhiro Ashitomi, Tomoyuki Ueda, Hideyuki Yamamoto
The α1D/A receptor antagonist, naftopidil, inhibits micturition reflex by acting on various different sites. We examined the effects of naftopidil on bladder activity and changes in the induced urinary frequency using female rats with pelvic venous congestion (PC). Twenty-four female rats were divided into sham, PC, and PC/naftopidil groups. After anesthetizing rats in the PC and PC/naftopidil groups, the bilateral common iliac veins and uterine veins were ligated. Rats in the sham and PC groups were fed a standard diet, while rats in the PC/naftopidil group were fed diets containing 0...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356609/steroid-changes-adipokine-concentration-in-the-blood-and-bone-marrow-fluid
#15
Tatsuya Fukushima, Akira Hozumi, Masato Tomita, Akihiko Yonekura, Noriaki Miyata, Takashi Miyamoto, Kenji Taguchi, Hisataka Goto, Keiichi Tsuda, Makoto Osaki
Our previous study has shown that plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) gene expression and secretion from bone marrow adipocytes increased markedly with dexamethasone administration. The purpose of the present study was to measure the secretion of various adipokines from human bone marrow and blood, and investigate how adipokine secretion changes in a steroid environment. Human blood and bone marrow fluid were collected from a steroid treatment group and a control group during hip replacement surgery, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the adiponectin, leptin, and PAI-1 levels...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356608/developmental-changes-in-primary-cilia-in-the-mouse-tooth-germ-and-oral-cavity
#16
Meri Hisamoto, Marie Goto, Mami Muto, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Atsuro Yokoyama
The primary cilium, a sensory apparatus, functions as both a chemical and mechanical sensor to receive environmental stimuli. The present study focused on the primary cilia in the epithelialmesenchymal interaction during tooth development. We examined the localization and direction of projection of primary cilia in the tooth germ and oral cavity of mice by immunohistochemical observation. Adenylyl cyclase 3 (ACIII)-immunolabeled cilia were visible in the inner/outer enamel epithelium of molars at the fetal stage and then conspicuously developed in the odontoblast layer postnatally...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356607/vitamin-d3-analog-maxacalcitol-oct-induces-hcap-18-ll-37-production-in-human-oral-epithelial-cells
#17
Hiroyuki Tada, Takamitsu Shimizu, Isao Nagaoka, Haruhiko Takada
Maxacalcitol (22-oxacalcitriol: OCT) is a synthetic vitamin D3 analog with a limited calcemic effect. In this study, we investigated whether OCT increases the production of LL-37/CAP-18, a human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, in human gingival/oral epithelial cells. A human gingival epithelial cell line (Ca9-22) and human oral epithelial cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, and HSC-4) exhibited the enhanced expression of LL-37 mRNA upon stimulation with OCT as well as active metabolites of vitamins D3 and D2. Among the human epithelial cell lines, Ca9-22 exhibited the strongest response to these vitamin D-related compounds...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356606/the-selective-distribution-of-lyve-1-expressing-endothelial-cells-and-reticular-cells-in-the-reticulo-endothelial-system%C3%A2-res
#18
Miao Zheng, Shunsuke Kimura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Toshihiko Iwanaga
LYVE-1, a receptor molecule for hyaluronan, is expressed in the lymphatic endothelium, blood sinus endothelium, and certain macrophage lineages. The present immunohistochemical study revealed a broader distribution of LYVE-1 in vascular endothelial cells of the murine lung, adrenal gland, and heart as well as the liver and spleen. In addition, sinus reticular cells-including sinuslining cells-in the medulla of the lymph node also intensely expressed LYVE-1. Ultrastructurally, immuno-gold particles for LYVE-1 were localized on the entire length of plasma membrane in all cell types...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356605/megalo-type-%C3%AE-1-6-glucosaccharides-induce-production-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-in-primary-macrophages-via-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling
#19
Ga-Hyun Joe, Midori Andoh, Aki Shinoki, Weeranuch Lang, Yuya Kumagai, Juri Sadahiro, Masayuki Okuyama, Atsuo Kimura, Hidehisa Shimizu, Hiroshi Hara, Satoshi Ishizuka
The term "megalo-saccharide" is used for saccharides with ten or more saccharide units, whereas the term "oligo-saccharide" is used for saccharides containing fewer than ten monosaccharide units. Megalo-type α-1,6-glucosaccharide (M-IM) is a non-digestible saccharide and not utilized by intestinal bacteria, suggesting that ingested M-IM may encounter ileum Peyer's patches that contains immune cells such as macrophages. Macrophages are responsible for antigen incorporation and presentation during the initial step of immune responses...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356604/ppar%C3%AE-induced-nos1-phosphorylation-via-pi3k-akt-in-guinea-pig-antral-mucous-cells-no-enhancement-in-ca-2-regulated-exocytosis
#20
Saori Tanaka, Shigekuni Hosogi, Yukinori Sawabe, Chikao Shimamoto, Hitoshi Matsumura, Toshio Inui, Yoshinori Marunaka, Takashi Nakahari
A PPARα (peroxisome proliferation activation receptor α) agonist (GW7647) activates nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) to produce NO leading to cGMP accumulation in antral mucous cells. In this study, we examined how PPARα activates NOS1. The NO production stimulated by GW7647 was suppressed by inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin) and Akt (AKT 1/2 Kinase Inhibitor, AKT-inh), although it was also suppressed by the inhibitors of PPARα (GW6471) and NOS1 (N-PLA). GW7647 enhanced the ACh (acetylcholine)-stimulated exocytosis (Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis) mediated via NO, which was abolished by GW6471, N-PLA, wortmannin, and AKT-inh...
2016: Biomedical Research
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