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Biomedical Research

Miao Zheng, Shinhye Lee, Satoshi Tsuzuki, Kazuo Inoue, Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita, Toshihiko Iwanaga
The sebaceous glands secrete sebum to protect the epidermis and hairs by the oily products. The glands express several transporters and binding proteins for the production of fatty acids and uptake of their sources. The present immunohistochemical study examined the expression and localization of CD36, MCT1, FATP4, and E-FABP in the sebaceous glands, including the meibomian and preputial glands of mice. CD36 and MCT1 in sebaceous glands were largely co-localized along the plasma membrane of secretory cells, while they were separately expressed in the glandular portion of meibomian and preputial glands...
2016: Biomedical Research
Ken Yamaguchi, Kenichi Urakami, Takeshi Nagashima, Yuji Shimoda, Shumpei Ohnami, Sumiko Ohnami, Keiichi Ohshima, Tohru Mochizuki, Keiichi Hatakeyama, Masakuni Serizawa, Yasuto Akiyama, Kouji Maruyama, Hirohisa Katagiri, Yuji Ishida, Kaoru Takahashi, Seiichiro Nishimura, Masanori Terashima, Taiichi Kawamura, Yusuke Kinugasa, Yushi Yamakawa, Tetsuro Onitsuka, Yasuhisa Ohde, Takashi Sugino, Ichiro Ito, Hiroyuki Matsubayashi, Yasue Horiuchi, Maki Mizuguchi, Mutsumi Yamazaki, Kengo Inoue, Kimiko Wakamatsu, Misato Sugiyama, Katsuhiko Uesaka, Masatoshi Kusuhara
Using whole exome sequencing data obtained from 1,685 Japanese cancer patients, we examined genetic variations of germline TP53 and found 10 types of non-synonymous single nucleotide variants. In the present study, we focused on 6 patients with germline D49H mutation located in the transactivation domain 2 of p53 protein, since the mutation seemed to be prevalent in cancer patients and to be pathogenic. According to the initial survey for family history of the proband with the germline TP53 D49H mutation, one osteosarcoma patient and his pedigree fulfill the criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome and the 2009 Chompret criteria for germline TP53 mutation screening...
2016: Biomedical Research
Jumpei Washio, Tamaki Ogawa, Keisuke Suzuki, Yosuke Tsukiboshi, Motohiro Watanabe, Nobuhiro Takahashi
Dental plaque metabolizes both carbohydrates and amino acids. The former can be degraded to acids mainly, while the latter can be degraded to various metabolites, including ammonia, acids and amines, and associated with acid-neutralization, oral malodor and tissue inflammation. However, amino acid metabolism in dental plaque is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate what kinds of amino acids are available as metabolic substrates and how the amino acids are metabolized in supragingival plaque, by a metabolome analysis...
2016: Biomedical Research
Kenkichi Tsuruga, Toshikazu Hashimoto, Ryoko Kato, Rui Kato, Yousuke Uchida, Tetsutaro Hase, Yuji Morimoto
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is released from activated microglia during neuropathic pain and is hypothesized to downregulate the expression of the potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) via the TrkB receptor. Previous studies reported that KCC2 is downregulated 5 min after the plantar injection of formalin in rats; however, the mechanism behind this decrease in KCC2 expression during acute inflammatory pain remains unknown. In this study, we determined whether the TrkB receptor contributes to the expression of KCC2 during the acute pain...
2016: Biomedical Research
Yasuto Akiyama, Ryota Kondou, Akira Iizuka, Keiichi Ohshima, Kenichi Urakami, Takeshi Nagashima, Yuji Shimoda, Tomoe Tanabe, Sumiko Ohnami, Shumpei Ohnami, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Tohru Mochizuki, Ken Yamaguchi
Project HOPE (High-tech Omics-based Patient Evaluation) has been progressing since its implementation in 2014 using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and gene expression profiling (GEP). With the aim of evaluating immune status in cancer patients, a gene panel consisting of 164 immune response-associated genes (56 antigen-presenting cell and T-cell-associated genes, 34 cytokine- and metabolism-associated genes, 47 TNF and TNF receptor superfamily genes, and 27 regulatory T-cell-associated genes) was established, and its expression and mutation status were investigated using 1,000 cancer patient-derived tumors...
2016: Biomedical Research
Shoko Furuta, Rika Kuwahara, Eri Hiraki, Koichiro Ohnuki, Shinobu Yasuo, Kuniyoshi Shimizu
Hericium erinaceus (HE), an edible mushroom, has been used as a herbal medicine in several Asian countries since ancient times. HE has potential as a medicine for the treatment and prevention of dementia, a disorder closely linked with circadian rhythm. This study investigated the effects of the intake of HE extracts on behavioral rhythm, photosensitivity of the circadian clock, and clock gene mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a central clock, in mice. Although the HE ethanol extract only affected the offset time of activity, the HE water extract advanced the sleep-wake cycle without affecting the free-running period, photosensitivity, or the clock gene mRNA expression in SCN...
2016: Biomedical Research
Kimio Sugaya, Saori Nishijima, Katsumi Kadekawa, Katsuhiro Ashitomi, Tomoyuki Ueda, Hideyuki Yamamoto
The α1D/A receptor antagonist, naftopidil, inhibits micturition reflex by acting on various different sites. We examined the effects of naftopidil on bladder activity and changes in the induced urinary frequency using female rats with pelvic venous congestion (PC). Twenty-four female rats were divided into sham, PC, and PC/naftopidil groups. After anesthetizing rats in the PC and PC/naftopidil groups, the bilateral common iliac veins and uterine veins were ligated. Rats in the sham and PC groups were fed a standard diet, while rats in the PC/naftopidil group were fed diets containing 0...
2016: Biomedical Research
Tatsuya Fukushima, Akira Hozumi, Masato Tomita, Akihiko Yonekura, Noriaki Miyata, Takashi Miyamoto, Kenji Taguchi, Hisataka Goto, Keiichi Tsuda, Makoto Osaki
Our previous study has shown that plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) gene expression and secretion from bone marrow adipocytes increased markedly with dexamethasone administration. The purpose of the present study was to measure the secretion of various adipokines from human bone marrow and blood, and investigate how adipokine secretion changes in a steroid environment. Human blood and bone marrow fluid were collected from a steroid treatment group and a control group during hip replacement surgery, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the adiponectin, leptin, and PAI-1 levels...
2016: Biomedical Research
Meri Hisamoto, Marie Goto, Mami Muto, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Atsuro Yokoyama
The primary cilium, a sensory apparatus, functions as both a chemical and mechanical sensor to receive environmental stimuli. The present study focused on the primary cilia in the epithelialmesenchymal interaction during tooth development. We examined the localization and direction of projection of primary cilia in the tooth germ and oral cavity of mice by immunohistochemical observation. Adenylyl cyclase 3 (ACIII)-immunolabeled cilia were visible in the inner/outer enamel epithelium of molars at the fetal stage and then conspicuously developed in the odontoblast layer postnatally...
2016: Biomedical Research
Hiroyuki Tada, Takamitsu Shimizu, Isao Nagaoka, Haruhiko Takada
Maxacalcitol (22-oxacalcitriol: OCT) is a synthetic vitamin D3 analog with a limited calcemic effect. In this study, we investigated whether OCT increases the production of LL-37/CAP-18, a human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, in human gingival/oral epithelial cells. A human gingival epithelial cell line (Ca9-22) and human oral epithelial cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, and HSC-4) exhibited the enhanced expression of LL-37 mRNA upon stimulation with OCT as well as active metabolites of vitamins D3 and D2. Among the human epithelial cell lines, Ca9-22 exhibited the strongest response to these vitamin D-related compounds...
2016: Biomedical Research
Miao Zheng, Shunsuke Kimura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Toshihiko Iwanaga
LYVE-1, a receptor molecule for hyaluronan, is expressed in the lymphatic endothelium, blood sinus endothelium, and certain macrophage lineages. The present immunohistochemical study revealed a broader distribution of LYVE-1 in vascular endothelial cells of the murine lung, adrenal gland, and heart as well as the liver and spleen. In addition, sinus reticular cells-including sinuslining cells-in the medulla of the lymph node also intensely expressed LYVE-1. Ultrastructurally, immuno-gold particles for LYVE-1 were localized on the entire length of plasma membrane in all cell types...
2016: Biomedical Research
Ga-Hyun Joe, Midori Andoh, Aki Shinoki, Weeranuch Lang, Yuya Kumagai, Juri Sadahiro, Masayuki Okuyama, Atsuo Kimura, Hidehisa Shimizu, Hiroshi Hara, Satoshi Ishizuka
The term "megalo-saccharide" is used for saccharides with ten or more saccharide units, whereas the term "oligo-saccharide" is used for saccharides containing fewer than ten monosaccharide units. Megalo-type α-1,6-glucosaccharide (M-IM) is a non-digestible saccharide and not utilized by intestinal bacteria, suggesting that ingested M-IM may encounter ileum Peyer's patches that contains immune cells such as macrophages. Macrophages are responsible for antigen incorporation and presentation during the initial step of immune responses...
2016: Biomedical Research
Saori Tanaka, Shigekuni Hosogi, Yukinori Sawabe, Chikao Shimamoto, Hitoshi Matsumura, Toshio Inui, Yoshinori Marunaka, Takashi Nakahari
A PPARα (peroxisome proliferation activation receptor α) agonist (GW7647) activates nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) to produce NO leading to cGMP accumulation in antral mucous cells. In this study, we examined how PPARα activates NOS1. The NO production stimulated by GW7647 was suppressed by inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin) and Akt (AKT 1/2 Kinase Inhibitor, AKT-inh), although it was also suppressed by the inhibitors of PPARα (GW6471) and NOS1 (N-PLA). GW7647 enhanced the ACh (acetylcholine)-stimulated exocytosis (Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis) mediated via NO, which was abolished by GW6471, N-PLA, wortmannin, and AKT-inh...
2016: Biomedical Research
Motoko Takahashi, Kozo Tanaka, Toshifumi Wakai, Toru Hirota
Protein phosphorylation is the prime post-translational modification to drive cell division. Identification of phosphorylated proteins and their related kinases has uncovered molecular networks underlying mitotic processes, including chromosome assembly. Here we aimed to identify phosphoproteins from a mitotic chromosome-enriched lysate biochemically using mass spectrometry. We employed the Polo-box domain (PBD) of Polo-like kinase to tether phosphorylated proteins in the lysate. Resulting candidates included a number of chromosomal proteins that would not be identified unless using chromosome-enriched fractions...
2016: Biomedical Research
Yoshie Yamaguchi, Katsunori Yamamoto, Yoshinori Sato, Shinjiro Inoue, Tetsuo Morinaga, Eiichi Hirano
Placental extract contains several biologically active compounds, and pharmacological induction of placental extract has therapeutic effects, such as improving liver function in patients with hepatitis or cirrhosis. Here, we searched for novel molecules with an anti-tumor activity in placental extracts. Active molecules were separated by chromatographic analysis, and their antiproliferative activities were determined by a colorimetric assay. We identified aspartic acid and glutamic acid to possess the antiproliferative activity against human hepatoma cells...
2016: Biomedical Research
Zhusheng Liu, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Tomoka Hasegawa, Hiromi Hongo, Kanako Tsuboi, Erika Tsuchiya, Mai Haraguchi, Miki Abe, Paulo Henrique Luiz de Freitas, Akira Kudo, Kimimitsu Oda, Minqi Li, Norio Amizuka
We employed a well-standardized murine rib fracture model to assess the distribution, in the cortical bone, of three important osteocyte-derived molecules-dentine matrix protein 1 (DMP1), sclerostin and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23). Two days after the fracture, the periosteum thickened, and up to the seventh day post-fracture, the cortical surfaces were promoting neoformation of two tissue types depending on the distance from the fracture site: chondrogenesis was taking place near the fracture, and osteogenesis distant from it...
2016: Biomedical Research
Saori Yoshida, Toshiyuki Fukutomi, Toru Kimura, Hiroyuki Sakurai, Ryo Hatano, Hiroto Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi Mukaisho, Takanori Hattori, Hiroyuki Sugihara, Shinji Asano
Ezrin is an actin binding protein which cross-links membrane proteins with cytoskeleton directly or indirectly via PDZ domain-containing scaffold proteins. It is mainly expressed at the brush border membrane (BBM) of gastrointestinal tracts, and is involved in the construction of microvilli structure and the functional expression of membrane protein complexes at the cell surface. To precisely study the roles of ezrin on the expression of membrane proteins at the cell surface, here we prepared the BBM fractions of ileums from the wild-type and ezrin-knockdown (Vil2(kd/kd)) mice, analyzed them by mass spectrometry, and compared their proteomic patterns...
2016: Biomedical Research
Mika Ikegame, Yoshiaki Tabuchi, Yukihiro Furusawa, Mariko Kawai, Atsuhiko Hattori, Takashi Kondo, Toshio Yamamoto
Mechanical stress promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Although numerous growth factors and cytokines are known to regulate this process, information regarding the differentiation of mechanically stimulated osteoblasts from MSCs in in vivo microenvironment is limited. To determine the significant factors involved in this process, we performed a global analysis of differentially expressed genes, in response to tensile stress, in the mouse cranial suture wherein osteoblasts differentiate from MSCs...
2016: Biomedical Research
Masatoshi Okubo, Yoh-Ichi Satoh, Masato Hirakawa, Kana Sasaki, Kazuki Masu, Gabriel J McHonde, Chika Ikeda-Kurosawa, Daijiro Kurosaka, Tomoyuki Saino
5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT: serotonin) is an important transmitter that causes vessel constriction, although few studies have examined the effect of 5-HT on venous smooth muscles. The intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) plays an essential role in stimulus-response coupling in numerous tissue/cells including vascular smooth muscle cells. The present study was performed to examine whether differences between arteries and veins in the response to 5-HT can be detected under confocal microscope with respect to [Ca(2+)]i dynamics...
2016: Biomedical Research
Mitsunari Nakajima, Minetaro Ogawa, Yoshiaki Amakura, Morio Yoshimura, Satoshi Okuyama, Yoshiko Furukawa
In our previous studies, we reported anti-inflammatory functions of 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), which is a polymethoxyflavone rich in various citrus fruits. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory function of HMF in mice. HMF administration (50 mg/kg, i.p., 2 times/week) tended to reduce the production of antigen-specific IgE induced by ovalbumin in combination with aluminum hydroxide gel. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed the reduction of interleukin-4(+)CD4(+) spleen cells and sustained presence of interferon-γ(+)CD4(+) spleen cells in mice administered HMF, whereas the ratio of CD4(+)CD8(-) versus CD4(-)CD8(+) spleen cells was not affected...
2016: Biomedical Research
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