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Biomedical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899191/tumor-mutational-burden-analysis-of-2-000-japanese-cancer-genomes-using-whole-exome-and-targeted-gene-panel-sequencing
#1
Keiichi Hatakeyama, Takeshi Nagashima, Kenichi Urakami, Keiichi Ohshima, Masakuni Serizawa, Sumiko Ohnami, Yuji Shimoda, Shumpei Ohnami, Koji Maruyama, Akane Naruoka, Yasuto Akiyama, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Tohru Mochizuki, Ken Yamaguchi
Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is an emerging characteristic in cancer and has been associated with microsatellite instability, defective DNA replication/repair, and response to PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy. When estimating TMB, targeted panel sequencing is performed using a few hundred genes; however, a comparison of TMB results obtained with this platform and with whole exome sequencing (WES) has not been performed for various cancer types. In the present study, we compared TMB results using the above two platforms in 2,908 solid tumors that were obtained from Japanese patients...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899190/up-regulation-of-dusp5-and-dusp6-by-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-in-cultured-hypothalamic-neurons-gt1-7-cells
#2
Teruyuki Higa, Hana Takahashi, Sayomi Higa-Nakamine, Mikio Suzuki, Hideyuki Yamamoto
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from hypothalamic neurons (GnRH neurons) and stimulates anterior pituitary gonadotrophs to synthesize and secrete gonadotropins. In addition to gonadotrophs, GnRH neurons also express GnRH receptors, and the autocrine action of GnRH is reportedly involved in the regulation of functions of GnRH neurons. There is accumulating evidence that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), one of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), is activated by GnRH and involved in various effects of GnRH in GnRH neurons...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899189/docosahexaenoic-acid-suppresses-angiotensin-ii-induced-a7r5-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-migration-under-pulsatile-pressure-stress
#3
Takuji Machida, Mikiko Yutani, Akihiro Goto, Saaya Nishimura, Ayaka Kawamura, Kenji Iizuka, Masahiko Hirafuji
Elevated mechanical stress applied to vascular walls is well known to modulate vascular remodeling and plays a part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been shown to protect against several types of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and hypertension. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of pulsatile pressure stress and DHA on angiotensin II-induced proliferation and migration in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899188/effects-of-the-calcineurin-inhibitors-cyclosporine-and-tacrolimus-on-bone-metabolism-in-rats
#4
Junkichi Kanda, Nobuo Izumo, Megumi Furukawa, Taketoshi Shimakura, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki E Takahashi, Toshinari Asakura, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi
Immunosuppressive therapy is considered as one of the factors inducing to the onset of osteoporosis after organ transplantation. Chronic immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation is required for organ transplant patients, and it is important to prevent the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures to maintain the quality of life in patients. In this study, we examined the effects of cyclosporine and tacrolimus on bone metabolism in rats. Five-week-old male Wistar rats were treated orally with 15 mg/kg cyclosporine or 1...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899187/a-novel-role-for-scavenger-receptor-b1-as-a-contributor-to-the-capture-of-specific-volatile-odorants-in-the-nasal-cavity
#5
Satoshi Tsuzuki, Yusaku Kimoto, Shinhye Lee, Tatsuya Sugawara, Yuki Manabe, Kazuo Inoue
Class B scavenger receptors, scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), are broadly expressed cell-surface proteins and are believed to serve as multifaceted players in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in mammals. Because of its ability to recognise distinct odour-active volatile compounds and its presence in murine olfactory epithelium, CD36 has recently emerged as a participant in the detection of odorants within the nasal cavity. However, there have been no attempts to assess whether SR-B1 has such a role...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899186/gnetin-c-a-resveratrol-dimer-reduces-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-a%C3%AE-42-production-and-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-42-lowered-cell-viability-in-cultured-sh-sy5y-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#6
Syota Seino, Takeru Kimoto, Hidemi Yoshida, Kunikazu Tanji, Tomoh Matsumiya, Ryo Hayakari, Kazuhiko Seya, Shogo Kawaguchi, Kazushi Tsuruga, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tadaatsu Imaizumi
Accumulation and oligomerization of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides have been known to be a potent cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). To expand the possibilities of preventing AD, we investigated the effects of resveratrol dimers, gnetin C and ε-viniferin, on Aβ 1-42 (Aβ42) production and the reduced cell viability observed after Aβ42 treatment (monomers, 10 μM) in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Among them, addition of gnetin C (20 μM) into the media reduced Aβ42 production most efficiently...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669988/establishment-of-protocol-for-preparation-of-gene-edited-bovine-ear-derived-fibroblasts-for-somatic-cell-nuclear-transplantation
#7
Takeshi Ishino, Mayuko Hashimoto, Misato Amagasa, Natsuko Saito, Osamu Dochi, Rikio Kirisawa, Hiroshi Kitamura
Recently, gene-editing using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/ CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) technique has attempted to utilize fibroblasts of livestock animals for somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we establish the procedure for preparing skin fibroblast clones whose genes were edited by the CRISPR/Cas9 technique. After isolating fibroblasts from earlobes of Japanese Black cattle, subsequent collagenase-digestion and extensive wash procedures enabled us to avoid contamination of fungi...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669987/3-methyadenine-attenuates-chloroform-induced-hepatotoxicity-via-autophagy-activation
#8
Lei Wang, Xiankui Li, Cai Chen
Chloroform is a common contaminant in the drinking water. Exposure of human to chloroform leads to severe hepatotoxicity. In the present study, chloroform-induced acute liver injury was investigated in mice using 3-methyadenine (3-MA), a common autophagy inhibitor. At 24 h after intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mL/kg chloroform, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were increased significantly; extensive necrosis and inflammation occurred as identified by histological examinations. Moreover, chloroform induced an increase in lipid peroxidation as demonstrated by increased formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver tissues...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669986/quantitative-analyses-of-the-metaphase-to-anaphase-transition-reveal-differential-kinetic-regulation-for-securin-and-cyclin-b1
#9
Makoto Konishi, Norihisa Shindo, Masataka Komiya, Kozo Tanaka, Takehiko Itoh, Toru Hirota
Separation of sister chromatids is a drastic and irreversible step in the cell cycle. The key biochemistry behind this event is the proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase promoting complex, or APC/C. Securin and cyclin B1 are the two established substrates for APC/C whose degradation releases separase and inactivates cyclin B1-dependent kinase 1 (cdk1), respectively, at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. In this study, we have combined biochemical quantifications with mathematical simulations to characterize the kinetic regulation of securin and cyclin B1, in the cytoplasmic and chromosomal compartments, and found that they are differentially distributed and degraded with different rates...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669985/dynamics-of-basal-lamina-fenestrations-in-the-rat-intestinal-villous-epithelium-in-response-to-dietary-conditions
#10
Rie Azumi, Keisuke Morita, Yusuke Mizutani, Manabu Hayatsu, Shuji Terai, Tatsuo Ushiki
The epithelial basal lamina of the small intestine forms a felt-like sheet at the base of the epithelium. Previous studies have shown that the basal lamina has numerous fenestrations, which are produced by leukocytes penetrating through the basal lamina. In this study, we aimed to directly visualize fenestrations of the rat basal lamina in intestinal villi by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after removal of the villous epithelium by osmium maceration and ultrasonic treatment. Structural changes in fenestrations were then investigated in relation to dietary conditions...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669984/circadian-rhythms-of-micturition-during-jet-lag
#11
Kakeru Ito, Miho Yasuda, Yuki Maeda, Jean-Michel Fustin, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Yuka Kono, Hiromitsu Negoro, Akihiro Kanematsu, Osamu Ogawa, Masao Doi, Hitoshi Okamura
Micturition behavior follows regular day/night fluctuations, and unwanted increase in micturition could occur during night in jet lag condition. To clarify the effect of jet lag on micturition behavior, we simultaneously detected circadian micturition patterns and locomotor activity rhythms of mice under experimental jet lag conditions, by applying the improved automated Voided Stain on Paper (aVSOP) method. When wild-type (WT) mice were phase-advanced for 8 hours, day-night variation of micturition was disrupted suddenly, and this irregular daily micturition continued until 8 days, although their activity rhythms entrained gradually day by day until 8 days...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467351/short-and-long-photoperiods-differentially-exacerbate-corticosterone-induced-physical-and-psychological-symptoms-in-mice
#12
Hiroshi Kawai, Jin Inabe, Takuya Ishibashi, Naomi Kudo, Yoichi Kawashima, Atsushi Mitsumoto
Circadian disruption affects the pathogenesis and development of various diseases. Depression is one of the most common diseases that relate to circadian rhythm. In this study, we analyzed the effects of daily light/dark (LD) conditions on depression and other symptoms, and also analyzed the mixed effects of LD conditions and corticosterone treatment. Male adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with corticosterone in a normal LD cycle of 12 hours light and 12 hours dark (LD12 : 12), short day conditions of 6 hours light and 18 hours dark (LD6 : 18), or long day conditions of 21 hours light and 3 hours dark (LD21 : 3)...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467350/influence-of-nitrous-oxide-on-granule-cell-migration-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-the-neonatal-rat
#13
Hitoshi Saito, Rui Kato, Toshikazu Hashimoto, Yosuke Uchida, Tetsutaro Hase, Kenkichi Tsuruga, Koichi Takita, Yuji Morimoto
For several decades, the neurotoxicities of anesthetics to the developing brain have been reported by many researchers focusing on various phenomena such as apoptosis, neurodegeneration, electrophysiological aberrations, and behavioral abnormalities. According to these reports, signals via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-r) and/or γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA -r) are implicated in the anesthetic neurotoxicity. On the other hand, during brain development, NMDA-r and GABAA -r are also recognized to play primary roles in neural cell migration...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467349/targeting-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus-structural-proteins-to-the-ergic-endoplasmic-reticulum-golgi-intermediate-compartment-and-golgi-complex
#14
Tapiwa Lundu, Yoshimi Tsuda, Ryo Ito, Kenta Shimizu, Shintaro Kobayashi, Kentaro Yoshii, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Jiro Arikawa, Hiroaki Kariwa
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) is a newly emerged phlebovirus identified in China, Japan, and South Korea. Phlebovirus glycoproteins (GP) play a key role in targeting viral structural components to the budding compartments in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex. However, the role of SFTSV GP in targeting structural proteins to the ERGIC and Golgi complex remains unresolved. In this study, we show that SFTSV GP plays a significant role in targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) to the budding sites...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467348/combination-of-a-cryosectioning-method-and-section-scanning-electron-microscopy-for-immuno-scanning-electron-microscopy
#15
Satoshi Kusumi, Daisuke Koga, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Masahiro Shibata
We describe a novel immuno-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique that combines both Tokuyasu's cryosectioning and section SEM methods. In this technique, semithin cryosections, cut according to the Tokuyasu method, were adhered to glass microscope slides, immunostained for bio-molecules of interest and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The same sections were subsequently embedded in epoxy resin and ultrathin sections were cut on an ultramicrotome. These were then observed by SEM using a backscattered electron detector...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467347/a-cell-based-interferon-tau-assay-with-an-interferon-stimulated-gene-15-promoter
#16
Noriyuki Toji, Katsuo Koshi, Tadashi Furusawa, Toru Takahashi, Toshina Ishiguro-Oonuma, Keiichiro Kizaki, Kazuyoshi Hashizume
Interferon-tau (IFNT) is known as an early pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants. An accurate and convenient IFNT detection system is desirable for the diagnosis of endometrial and trophoblastic functions, including gestation status, in cows. The aim of this study was to develop a new cell-based assay, which involved the stable introduction of an interferon-stimulated gene promoter to a luciferase reporter system. The reactivity of four interferon-stimulated genes to IFNT in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells was confirmed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467346/absorption-and-metabolism-of-orally-administered-collagen-hydrolysates-evaluated-by-the-vascularly-perfused-rat-intestine-and-liver-in-situ
#17
Yoshihiro Osawa, Takafumi Mizushige, Sayuri Jinno, Fumihito Sugihara, Naoki Inoue, Hideyuki Tanaka, Yukihito Kabuyama
A number of studies have shown that oral administration of collagen hydrolysate (CH) results in the absorption of di- and tri-peptides. In order to understand the dynamics of CH absorption and metabolism, molecular profiles of hydroxyproline (Hyp) and Hyp-containing peptides (HCPs) were analyzed by in situ perfusion of rat intestine and liver. The total amount of absorbed HCPs during 1 h of perfusion was 16.6 μmol, which was significantly higher than that of free Hyp (6.6 μmol). In addition, HCPs were also reliably detected in hepatic perfusate at the level higher than free Hyp...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225215/cognitive-impairment-with-interferon-treatment-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#18
Hiroto Tanaka, Hideyuki Sasaki
Interferon (IFN) has various side effects, including psychiatric symptoms. Event-related potentials are used as an electrophysiologic index of cognitive disorders. Auditory event-related potentials (P300) are often used in conditions in which cognitive ability is affected. In this study, we evaluated the association between P300, used to assess cognitive impairment, and neuropsychological side effects of IFN treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Subjects were 20 patients with chronic hepatitis C; 13 patients were treated with peg IFN-α2b and ribavirin (riba group), and 7 patients were treated with peg IFN-α2a (alone group)...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225214/noradrenergic-effects-in-rat-sacral-autonomic-nucleus-using-in-vitro-slice-patch-clamp-recordings
#19
Masahiro Kawatani, Nozomi Akimoto, Akihiro Yamada, Hidemasa Furue, Masahito Kawatani
Noradrenergic modulation has been frequently discussed in the context of neural activities that are related to pelvic organs. The sacral preganglionic nucleus (SPN) is a spinal nucleus containing parasympathetic preganglionic neurons that send fibers to pelvic nerves. In spite of the abundant presence of noradrenergic fibers around the SPN, the effects of noradrenaline (NA) remain obscure. To explore this issue, NA (50 μM) was applied to parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the SPN during whole-cell patch clamp recording...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225213/fish-protein-hydrolysate-exhibits-anti-obesity-activity-and-reduces-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-y-and-agouti-related-protein-mrna-expressions-in-rats
#20
Takafumi Mizushige, Masaki Komiya, Moe Onda, Kenji Uchida, Kohsuke Hayamizu, Yukihito Kabuyama
Fish protein is a source of animal protein that is consumed worldwide. Although it has been reported that the intake of Alaska pollack protein (APP) reduces body fat accumulation and increases muscle weight in rats, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. As a possibility, peptides released from APP in the gastrointestinal tract are important to the functions of APP. In the present study, we examined the effects of APP hydrolysate digested artificially with pepsin and pancreatin on white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle...
2017: Biomedical Research
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