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Biomedical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467351/short-and-long-photoperiods-differentially-exacerbate-corticosterone-induced-physical-and-psychological-symptoms-in-mice
#1
Hiroshi Kawai, Jin Inabe, Takuya Ishibashi, Naomi Kudo, Yoichi Kawashima, Atsushi Mitsumoto
Circadian disruption affects the pathogenesis and development of various diseases. Depression is one of the most common diseases that relate to circadian rhythm. In this study, we analyzed the effects of daily light/dark (LD) conditions on depression and other symptoms, and also analyzed the mixed effects of LD conditions and corticosterone treatment. Male adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with corticosterone in a normal LD cycle of 12 hours light and 12 hours dark (LD12 : 12), short day conditions of 6 hours light and 18 hours dark (LD6 : 18), or long day conditions of 21 hours light and 3 hours dark (LD21 : 3)...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467350/influence-of-nitrous-oxide-on-granule-cell-migration-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-the-neonatal-rat
#2
Hitoshi Saito, Rui Kato, Toshikazu Hashimoto, Yosuke Uchida, Tetsutaro Hase, Kenkichi Tsuruga, Koichi Takita, Yuji Morimoto
For several decades, the neurotoxicities of anesthetics to the developing brain have been reported by many researchers focusing on various phenomena such as apoptosis, neurodegeneration, electrophysiological aberrations, and behavioral abnormalities. According to these reports, signals via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-r) and/or γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA -r) are implicated in the anesthetic neurotoxicity. On the other hand, during brain development, NMDA-r and GABAA -r are also recognized to play primary roles in neural cell migration...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467349/targeting-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus-structural-proteins-to-the-ergic-endoplasmic-reticulum-golgi-intermediate-compartment-and-golgi-complex
#3
Tapiwa Lundu, Yoshimi Tsuda, Ryo Ito, Kenta Shimizu, Shintaro Kobayashi, Kentaro Yoshii, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Jiro Arikawa, Hiroaki Kariwa
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) is a newly emerged phlebovirus identified in China, Japan, and South Korea. Phlebovirus glycoproteins (GP) play a key role in targeting viral structural components to the budding compartments in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex. However, the role of SFTSV GP in targeting structural proteins to the ERGIC and Golgi complex remains unresolved. In this study, we show that SFTSV GP plays a significant role in targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) to the budding sites...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467348/combination-of-a-cryosectioning-method-and-section-scanning-electron-microscopy-for-immuno-scanning-electron-microscopy
#4
Satoshi Kusumi, Daisuke Koga, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Masahiro Shibata
We describe a novel immuno-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique that combines both Tokuyasu's cryosectioning and section SEM methods. In this technique, semithin cryosections, cut according to the Tokuyasu method, were adhered to glass microscope slides, immunostained for bio-molecules of interest and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The same sections were subsequently embedded in epoxy resin and ultrathin sections were cut on an ultramicrotome. These were then observed by SEM using a backscattered electron detector...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467347/a-cell-based-interferon-tau-assay-with-an-interferon-stimulated-gene-15-promoter
#5
Noriyuki Toji, Katsuo Koshi, Tadashi Furusawa, Toru Takahashi, Toshina Ishiguro-Oonuma, Keiichiro Kizaki, Kazuyoshi Hashizume
Interferon-tau (IFNT) is known as an early pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants. An accurate and convenient IFNT detection system is desirable for the diagnosis of endometrial and trophoblastic functions, including gestation status, in cows. The aim of this study was to develop a new cell-based assay, which involved the stable introduction of an interferon-stimulated gene promoter to a luciferase reporter system. The reactivity of four interferon-stimulated genes to IFNT in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells was confirmed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467346/absorption-and-metabolism-of-orally-administered-collagen-hydrolysates-evaluated-by-the-vascularly-perfused-rat-intestine-and-liver-in-situ
#6
Yoshihiro Osawa, Takafumi Mizushige, Sayuri Jinno, Fumihito Sugihara, Naoki Inoue, Hideyuki Tanaka, Yukihito Kabuyama
A number of studies have shown that oral administration of collagen hydrolysate (CH) results in the absorption of di- and tri-peptides. In order to understand the dynamics of CH absorption and metabolism, molecular profiles of hydroxyproline (Hyp) and Hyp-containing peptides (HCPs) were analyzed by in situ perfusion of rat intestine and liver. The total amount of absorbed HCPs during 1 h of perfusion was 16.6 μmol, which was significantly higher than that of free Hyp (6.6 μmol). In addition, HCPs were also reliably detected in hepatic perfusate at the level higher than free Hyp...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225215/cognitive-impairment-with-interferon-treatment-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#7
Hiroto Tanaka, Hideyuki Sasaki
Interferon (IFN) has various side effects, including psychiatric symptoms. Event-related potentials are used as an electrophysiologic index of cognitive disorders. Auditory event-related potentials (P300) are often used in conditions in which cognitive ability is affected. In this study, we evaluated the association between P300, used to assess cognitive impairment, and neuropsychological side effects of IFN treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Subjects were 20 patients with chronic hepatitis C; 13 patients were treated with peg IFN-α2b and ribavirin (riba group), and 7 patients were treated with peg IFN-α2a (alone group)...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225214/noradrenergic-effects-in-rat-sacral-autonomic-nucleus-using-in-vitro-slice-patch-clamp-recordings
#8
Masahiro Kawatani, Nozomi Akimoto, Akihiro Yamada, Hidemasa Furue, Masahito Kawatani
Noradrenergic modulation has been frequently discussed in the context of neural activities that are related to pelvic organs. The sacral preganglionic nucleus (SPN) is a spinal nucleus containing parasympathetic preganglionic neurons that send fibers to pelvic nerves. In spite of the abundant presence of noradrenergic fibers around the SPN, the effects of noradrenaline (NA) remain obscure. To explore this issue, NA (50 μM) was applied to parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the SPN during whole-cell patch clamp recording...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225213/fish-protein-hydrolysate-exhibits-anti-obesity-activity-and-reduces-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-y-and-agouti-related-protein-mrna-expressions-in-rats
#9
Takafumi Mizushige, Masaki Komiya, Moe Onda, Kenji Uchida, Kohsuke Hayamizu, Yukihito Kabuyama
Fish protein is a source of animal protein that is consumed worldwide. Although it has been reported that the intake of Alaska pollack protein (APP) reduces body fat accumulation and increases muscle weight in rats, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. As a possibility, peptides released from APP in the gastrointestinal tract are important to the functions of APP. In the present study, we examined the effects of APP hydrolysate digested artificially with pepsin and pancreatin on white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225212/iron-deficiency-induces-autophagy-and-activates-nrf2-signal-through-modulating-p62-sqstm
#10
Hirofumi Inoue, Nobuaki Hanawa, Shin-Ichi Katsumata, Rie Katsumata-Tsuboi, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Mariko Uehara
Iron is an essential trace metal in almost all organisms and plays an important role in the redox system. We previously reported that iron deficiency activated autophagy and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling for oxidative stress. However, regulatory mechanisms underlying the association between autophagy and Nrf2 signaling are unclear. In this study, we found that treatment of cells with an iron-specific chelator deferoxamine (DFO) increased reactive oxidative species (ROS) production by elevating the expression of p47phox and p67phox compared with that in untreated cells...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225211/changes-in-foxo-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-the-late-stage-of-immobilized-fast-and-slow-muscle-atrophy
#11
Takeshi Okamoto, Shuichi Machida
The present study aimed to examine the changes in the expression of Forkhead box protein O (FOXO) and proinflammatory cytokines in both slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles following cast immobilization. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cast immobilization for 7 and 21 days. Cast immobilization increased FOXO3a mRNA and total protein expression in both the soleus and plantaris muscles. Although FOXO3a phosphorylation tended to increase in response to cast immobilization in both muscles, a significant increase was evident after 21 days of immobilization only in the soleus muscle...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225210/inhibitory-role-of-munc13-1-in-antigen-induced-mast-cell-degranulation
#12
Hironori Higashio, Yoh-Ichi Satoh, Tomoyuki Saino
Secretory granules (SGs) of mast cells are lysosome-related organelles that contain various inflammatory molecules such as histamine, which are stored in the cytoplasm. Mast cell degranulation is the regulated exocytosis of SGs in response to external stimuli, such as the antigen-mediated cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. Upon stimulation, SGs undergo priming to become fusion-competent prior to fusing with the plasma membrane, which is mediated by Munc13-4, one of the five members of the vesicle-priming Munc13 protein family...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070781/cordycepin-induces-apoptotic-cell-death-and-inhibits-cell-migration-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-via-regulation-of-microrna-21-and-pten-phosphatase
#13
Chao Yang, Linlin Zhao, Weitang Yuan, Jianguo Wen
Cordycepin is an active component extracted from Traditional Chinese medical herb Cordyceps militaris. Many reports demonstrated that cordycepin harbors antitumor activity in a broad spectrum of cancer types. In this study the actions and the underneath molecular mechanisms of cordycepin were investigated in renal cell carcinoma Caki-1 cell line. Results showed that cordycepin induced apoptotic cell death and inhibited cell migration in Caki-1 cells. Quantitative real-time PCR results and western blot analyses indicated cordycepin dose-dependently decreased microRNA-21 expression and Akt phosphorylation levels in Caki-1 cells, but increased PTEN phosphatase levels...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070780/no-change-in-the-prevalence-of-latent-prostate-cancer-over-the-last-10-years-a-forensic-autopsy-study-in-japan
#14
Masahito Hitosugi, Kenichi Mukaisho, Masahito Kido, Shuichi Kamimura, Satoshi Furukawa, Hiroyuki Sugihara
Although the morbidity rate of prostate cancer has increased with 2.3 times in these 10 years in Japan, little is known about the changes in the prevalence of latent prostate cancer. To understand changes in the prevalence of latent prostate cancer, a retrospective analysis was performed. Forensic autopsy findings from Tochigi Prefecture between September 2012 and February 2014 were collected. Two cross sections, from the base and apex of the prostate, were examined histopathologically. The prevalence of latent prostate cancer was compared with findings from forensic autopsies performed between August 2002 and July 2005 in the same region...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070779/effects-of-the-antiepileptic-drugs-topiramate-and-lamotrigine-on-bone-metabolism-in-rats
#15
Junkichi Kanda, Nobuo Izumo, Yoshiko Kobayashi, Kenji Onodera, Taketoshi Shimakura, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki E Takahashi, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi
Long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED) is associated with an elevated risk of bone fracture due to decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Phenytoin has been shown to affect bone metabolism adversely, whereas newly developed AEDs have not been studied. This study evaluated the effects of topiramate and lamotrigine on bone metabolism in rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with phenytoin (20 mg/kg), topiramate (5 or 20 mg/kg), or lamotrigine (2 or 10 mg/kg) daily for 12 weeks...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070778/integrative-method-for-three-dimensional-imaging-of-the-entire-golgi-apparatus-by-combining-thiamine-pyrophosphatase-cytochemistry-and-array-tomography-using-backscattered-electron-mode-scanning-electron-microscopy
#16
Daisuke Koga, Satoshi Kusumi, Tatsuo Ushiki, Tsuyoshi Watanabe
Thiamine pyrophosphatase (TPPase) cytochemistry is an established method for specific labeling of the trans-Golgi cisterns in tissue sections. Herein, we combined this enzyme cytochemical method with array tomography using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a new imaging technique based on collection of backscattered electron (BSE) images of consecutive resin-embedded sections on glass slides, to detect the entire three-dimensional (3D) organization of the Golgi apparatus with sufficient spatial resolution...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070777/calcification-in-rat-developing-mandibular-bone-demonstrated-by-whole-mount-staining-microcomputed-tomography-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-with-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectroscopy
#17
Akiko Henmi, Hiroshi Okata, Yasuto Mikami, Yasuyuki Sasano
The study was designed to investigate calcification in developing rat mandibular bone using whole mount staining, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Wistar rats at embryonic days 16, 18, and 20 and postnatal weeks 1 and 6 were used. Rats were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and heads were resected, frozen and sectioned for histology, then analysed with SEM-EDX. Some of the specimens were observed with micro-CT. Other rats were fixed and stained with alcian blue and alizarin red for whole mount staining...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070776/ccl5-is-induced-by-tlr-3-signaling-in-hucct1-human-biliary-epithelial-cells-possible-involvement-in-the-pathogenesis-of-biliary-atresia
#18
Taku Shimada, Tadaatsu Imaizumi, Kyogo Shirai, Tetsuya Tatsuta, Toshiro Kimura, Ryo Hayakari, Hidemi Yoshida, Tomoh Matsumiya, Hiroshi Kijima, Hiroki Mizukami, Kenichi Hakamada
Biliary atresia (BA) is a disease of the newborn that is characterized by progressive, inflammatory and sclerosing cholangiopathy. Innate immune responses to viral components are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of BA. It is also reported that some chemokines, such as CCL5, are possibly involved in the pathogenesis of experimental animal model of BA. We treated human biliary epithelial HuCCT1 cells with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC), an authentic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) which mimics viral RNA, and analyzed the CCL5 expression by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794403/chronological-immunolocalization-of-sclerostin-and-fgf23-in-the-mouse-metaphyseal-trabecular-and-cortical-bone
#19
Atsunaka Sakurai, Tomoka Hasegawa, Ai Kudo, Zhao Shen, Tomoya Nagai, Miki Abe, Taiji Yoshida, Hiromi Hongo, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki Yamamoto, Kimimitsu Oda, Paulo Henrique Luiz de Freitas, Minqi Li, Hidehiko Sano, Norio Amizuka
To assess the chronological participation of sclerostin and FGF23 in bone metabolism, this study tracked the immunolocalization of sclerostin and FGF23 in the metaphyses of murine long bones from embryonic day 18 (E18) through 1 day after birth, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks of age. We have selected two regions in the metaphyseal trabeculae for assessing sclerostin and FGF23 localization: close to the chondro-osseous junction, i.e., bone modeling site even in the adult animals, and the trabecular region distant from the growth plate, where bone remodeling takes place...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794402/dec1-negatively-regulates-the-expression-of-cxcl10-and-ccl5-induced-by-poly-ic-in-normal-human-mesangial-cells
#20
Qiang Liu, Tadaatsu Imaizumi, Keishu Murakami, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yunyan Wu, Tadashi Yoshizawa, Satoko Morohashi, Hiroko Seino, Hiroshi Kijima
The functions of differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene (DEC) 1, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, have been reported to be associated with the regulation of mammalian circadian rhythms, differentiation of chondrocytes and skeletal muscles, apoptosis, hypoxia-induced reactions and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Our previous report showed that another bHLH transcription factor DEC2 constitutes a negative feedback loop in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)/interferon (IFN)-β-mediated inflammatory responses in human mesangial cells...
2017: Biomedical Research
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