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Biomedical Research

Satoshi Tsuzuki, Shinhye Lee, Yusaku Kimoto, Tatsuya Sugawara, Yuki Manabe, Kazuo Inoue
Class B scavenger receptor family members, scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), are broadly expressed cell-surface proteins, both of which are believed to serve as multifaceted players in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in mammals. Because of its presence in the apical part of taste receptor cells within circumvallate taste buds and its ability to recognise long-chain fatty acids, CD36 has been believed to participate in the sensing of the lipid species within the oral cavity...
2018: Biomedical Research
Yohei Nishida, Yurie Yamada, Hiroko Kanemaru, Atsushi Ohazama, Takeyasu Maeda, Kenji Seo
Peripheral nerve injury has been suggested to up-regulate mRNA for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which enhances nerve regeneration. VEGF is known to regulate angiogenesis by binding with a specific receptor, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). However, little is known about the involvement of VEGF-VEGFR signaling in the nerve regeneration at early stages though previous studies contained a lengthy observation. The present study examined that relationship between angiogenesis and peripheral nerve regeneration at the early stage after nerve transection by focusing on the chronological changes in the expression patterns of VEGF-VEGFR signaling...
2018: Biomedical Research
Jun Hai, Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Ruojun Liang, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nociceptive cation channel that is activated by heat, protons and chemical ligands such as capsaicin. We investigated the roles of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, in controlling the energy metabolism of the whole body. It has been reported that the activation of TRPV1 by its agonists enhances energy metabolism. In this study, we used a respiratory gas analysis system to examine whether the inhibition of TRPV1 changes energy metabolism in mice. In addition, we examined the contributions of different modes of TRPV1 activation (heat, protons and capsaicin) to determine the influence of 3 different TRPV1 antagonists on energy metabolism...
2018: Biomedical Research
Kimio Sugaya, Saori Nishijima, Katsumi Kadekawa, Katsuhiko Noguchi, Katsuhiro Ashitomi, Tomoyuki Ueda, Hideyuki Yamamoto
Pelvic venous congestion (PC) is thought to be related to several diseases of the lower urinary tract (LUT). We examined the characteristics of the LUT in rats with PC. To create PC, female rats were anesthetized with isoflurane, and the bilateral common iliac veins and bilateral uterine veins were ligated. At 1-8 weeks after either ligation or sham surgery, we performed cystometry with or without administration of carbazochrome sodium sulfonate hydrate or propiverine hydrochloride, histologic examination of the bladder, blood flow imaging, assessment of locomotor activity, measurement of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), and the Evans blue dye extravasation test...
2018: Biomedical Research
Yuji Kasukawa, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Masazumi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Tsuchie, Chie Sato, Tetsuya Kawano, Manabu Akagawa, Yuichi Ono, Yoichi Shimada
We evaluated the analgesic effects of minodronate, alendronate and pregabalin on mechanical and thermal allodynia, as well as changes in bone mineral density and skeletal muscle volume caused by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in an ovariectomized rat. Ovariectomy was performed on four-week-old female Wistar rats. Thereafter, at 8-weeks of age, the left sciatic nerve was ligated to create the chronic pain model (CCI limb), and sham surgery was performed on the right hindlimb. In all rats, either minodronate (0...
2018: Biomedical Research
Hiroki Yoshioka, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Hiroyuki Ohnishi, Nobuyuki Fukuishi, Masae Yoshikawa, Ming-Yu Gui, Yong-Ri Jin, Xu-Wen Li, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno, Koichi Takeya, Yukio Hitotsuyanagi, Nobuhiko Miura, Yutaka Aoyagi
The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of kamebakaurin (KA) and 1O, 20O-diacetyl kamebakaurin (Ac2 KA) on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and compare the hepatoprotective mechanisms of the two chemicals. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were orally administered KA, Ac2 KA, or an ethanol/olive oil emulsion once per day for 7-days. Twenty-four hours after the final administration, the mice were fasted and then intraperitoneally injected with 450 mg/kg APAP or saline. At 16 h after injection, the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected for plasma analysis...
2018: Biomedical Research
Eri Matsubara, Tatsuro Ohira
Essential oils have potential to mitigate stress symptoms and treat symptoms related to mental health. Few studies have investigated the effects of wood-derived aromatics on endocrinological and psychological responses in an actual space. In this study, we evaluated the effects of essential oil derived from Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) wood on the recovery state of female participants after they performed monotonous work. We determined the levels of salivary stress markers to describe the endocrinological responses...
2018: Biomedical Research
Hidemi Yoshida, Tadaatsu Imaizumi, Tomoh Matsumiya, Kazuhiko Seya, Shogo Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Tanaka
The innate immune system is a prerequisite for biophylactic ability, but its dysregulation can cause inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To determine a safe method of controlling inflammatory reactions in the brain, we examined the effects of gnetin C, a natural resveratrol dimer, on C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL5 (pro-inflammatory chemokines) production observed after treatment with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly IC; a synthetic analog of dsRNA as a Toll-like receptor 3 (TRL3) ligand, 30 μg/mL] in cultured human astrocytoma U373MG and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
2018: Biomedical Research
Kan Hasegawa, Haruyuki Kamiya, Yuji Morimoto
Although diverse effects of volatile anesthetics have been investigated in various studies, the mechanisms of action of such anesthetics, especially sevoflurane, remain elusive. In contrast to their potent modulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission there is little information about their effects on excitatory transmission in the brain. In this study, we examined the effect of sevoflurane on the excitatory synaptic transmission at CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices of mice. Sevoflurane at 5% was mixed with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 and bubbled in artificial cerebral spinal fluid (0...
2018: Biomedical Research
Takahiro Hirabayashi, Michio Yamashita, Nobuhiro Wada, Fumiko Takenoya, Hiroko Ikeda, Junzo Kamei, Tomoo Ryushi, Noriyuki Yamamoto, Seiji Shioda
Previous studies have shown that dissolved substances in some natural hot springs have analgesic/anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions. However, the mechanisms underlying how such dissolved substances exert these actions are not fully understood. In the present study on mice, we examined the analgesic/anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of a mineral cream containing natural hot spring ingredients. The anti-nociceptive effects of the mineral cream were assessed by using the von Frey test...
2018: Biomedical Research
Jun-Ichi Hori, Daisuke Koga, Hidehiro Kakizaki, Tsuyoshi Watanabe
Despite their pharmacologically opposite actions, long-acting depot formulations of both GnRH agonists and antagonists have been clinically applied for treatment of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer. Sustained treatment with GnRH analogues commonly suppresses both the synthesis and release of gonadotropins, leading to depletion of testicular testosterone. To clarify the underlying differences in the effects of GnRH agonists and antagonists on spermatogenesis, we compared histological changes in the seminiferous epithelium after administration of depot formulations of GnRH agonist leuprorelin and antagonist degarelix to male rats...
2018: Biomedical Research
Yumi Matsushita, Naoki Kitamura, Masashi Higuchi, Yoshinao Z Hosaka, Izumi Shibuya
Ten pairs of protrusions, called accessory lobes (ALs), exist at the lateral sides of the avian lumbosacral spinal cord. Histological evidence indicates that neuron-like cells gather in the ALs, and behavioral evidence suggests that the ALs act as a sensory organ of equilibrium during bipedal walking. Recently, using an electrophysiological method, we reported that cells showing Na+ currents and action potentials exist among cells that were dissociated from the ALs. However, it was unclear which isoforms of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) are expressed in the ALs and whether cells having neuronal morphology in the ALs express VGSCs...
2018: Biomedical Research
Takefumi Uemura, Naoki Sawada, Takao Sakaba, Satoshi Kametaka, Masaya Yamamoto, Satoshi Waguri
Adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) and Golgi associated, γ-adaptin ear containing, Arf binding proteins (GGAs) are clathrin adaptors that regulate membrane trafficking between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. p56 is a clathrin adaptor accessory protein that may modulate the function of GGAs in mammalian cell lines. However, the precise relationship between p56 and the three GGAs (GGA1-3), as well as the physiological role of p56 in tissue cells, remain unknown. To this end, we generated an antibody against p56 and determined its cellular localization...
2018: Biomedical Research
Shunsuke Komaki, Eiko Sakai, Yutaka Fukuma, Kazuhisa Nishishita, Kuniaki Okamoto, Takayuki Tsukuba
Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone resorbing cells whose differentiation is regulated by several important signaling pathways. Several lines of evidence indicate that dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an anti-malarial drug, inhibits osteoclast differentiation with little cytotoxicity. However, the detailed inhibitory mechanisms of DHA on osteoclastogenesis from native cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of DHA on the differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages into osteoclasts...
2018: Biomedical Research
Keiichi Hatakeyama, Takeshi Nagashima, Kenichi Urakami, Keiichi Ohshima, Masakuni Serizawa, Sumiko Ohnami, Yuji Shimoda, Shumpei Ohnami, Koji Maruyama, Akane Naruoka, Yasuto Akiyama, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Tohru Mochizuki, Ken Yamaguchi
Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is an emerging characteristic in cancer and has been associated with microsatellite instability, defective DNA replication/repair, and response to PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy. When estimating TMB, targeted panel sequencing is performed using a few hundred genes; however, a comparison of TMB results obtained with this platform and with whole exome sequencing (WES) has not been performed for various cancer types. In the present study, we compared TMB results using the above two platforms in 2,908 solid tumors that were obtained from Japanese patients...
2018: Biomedical Research
Teruyuki Higa, Hana Takahashi, Sayomi Higa-Nakamine, Mikio Suzuki, Hideyuki Yamamoto
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from hypothalamic neurons (GnRH neurons) and stimulates anterior pituitary gonadotrophs to synthesize and secrete gonadotropins. In addition to gonadotrophs, GnRH neurons also express GnRH receptors, and the autocrine action of GnRH is reportedly involved in the regulation of functions of GnRH neurons. There is accumulating evidence that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), one of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), is activated by GnRH and involved in various effects of GnRH in GnRH neurons...
2018: Biomedical Research
Takuji Machida, Mikiko Yutani, Akihiro Goto, Saaya Nishimura, Ayaka Kawamura, Kenji Iizuka, Masahiko Hirafuji
Elevated mechanical stress applied to vascular walls is well known to modulate vascular remodeling and plays a part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been shown to protect against several types of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and hypertension. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of pulsatile pressure stress and DHA on angiotensin II-induced proliferation and migration in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
2018: Biomedical Research
Junkichi Kanda, Nobuo Izumo, Megumi Furukawa, Taketoshi Shimakura, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki E Takahashi, Toshinari Asakura, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi
Immunosuppressive therapy is considered as one of the factors inducing to the onset of osteoporosis after organ transplantation. Chronic immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation is required for organ transplant patients, and it is important to prevent the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures to maintain the quality of life in patients. In this study, we examined the effects of cyclosporine and tacrolimus on bone metabolism in rats. Five-week-old male Wistar rats were treated orally with 15 mg/kg cyclosporine or 1...
2018: Biomedical Research
Satoshi Tsuzuki, Yusaku Kimoto, Shinhye Lee, Tatsuya Sugawara, Yuki Manabe, Kazuo Inoue
Class B scavenger receptors, scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), are broadly expressed cell-surface proteins and are believed to serve as multifaceted players in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in mammals. Because of its ability to recognise distinct odour-active volatile compounds and its presence in murine olfactory epithelium, CD36 has recently emerged as a participant in the detection of odorants within the nasal cavity. However, there have been no attempts to assess whether SR-B1 has such a role...
2018: Biomedical Research
Syota Seino, Takeru Kimoto, Hidemi Yoshida, Kunikazu Tanji, Tomoh Matsumiya, Ryo Hayakari, Kazuhiko Seya, Shogo Kawaguchi, Kazushi Tsuruga, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tadaatsu Imaizumi
Accumulation and oligomerization of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides have been known to be a potent cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). To expand the possibilities of preventing AD, we investigated the effects of resveratrol dimers, gnetin C and ε-viniferin, on Aβ 1-42 (Aβ42) production and the reduced cell viability observed after Aβ42 treatment (monomers, 10 μM) in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Among them, addition of gnetin C (20 μM) into the media reduced Aβ42 production most efficiently...
2018: Biomedical Research
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