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Biomedical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794403/chronological-immunolocalization-of-sclerostin-and-fgf23-in-the-mouse-metaphyseal-trabecular-and-cortical-bone
#1
Atsunaka Sakurai, Tomoka Hasegawa, Ai Kudo, Zhao Shen, Tomoya Nagai, Miki Abe, Taiji Yoshida, Hiromi Hongo, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki Yamamoto, Kimimitsu Oda, Paulo Henrique Luiz de Freitas, Minqi Li, Hidehiko Sano, Norio Amizuka
To assess the chronological participation of sclerostin and FGF23 in bone metabolism, this study tracked the immunolocalization of sclerostin and FGF23 in the metaphyses of murine long bones from embryonic day 18 (E18) through 1 day after birth, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks of age. We have selected two regions in the metaphyseal trabeculae for assessing sclerostin and FGF23 localization: close to the chondro-osseous junction, i.e., bone modeling site even in the adult animals, and the trabecular region distant from the growth plate, where bone remodeling takes place...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794402/dec1-negatively-regulates-the-expression-of-cxcl10-and-ccl5-induced-by-poly-ic-in-normal-human-mesangial-cells
#2
Qiang Liu, Tadaatsu Imaizumi, Keishu Murakami, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yunyan Wu, Tadashi Yoshizawa, Satoko Morohashi, Hiroko Seino, Hiroshi Kijima
The functions of differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene (DEC) 1, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, have been reported to be associated with the regulation of mammalian circadian rhythms, differentiation of chondrocytes and skeletal muscles, apoptosis, hypoxia-induced reactions and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Our previous report showed that another bHLH transcription factor DEC2 constitutes a negative feedback loop in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)/interferon (IFN)-β-mediated inflammatory responses in human mesangial cells...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794401/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-root-cells-and-interdental-cells-in-the-rat-inner-ear-by-serial-section-scanning-electron-microscopy
#3
Ryusuke Shodo, Manabu Hayatsu, Daisuke Koga, Arata Horii, Tatsuo Ushiki
In the cochlea, a high K(+) environment in the endolymph is essential for the maintenance of normal hearing function, and the transport of K(+) ions through gap junctions of the cochlear epithelium is thought to play an important role in endolymphatic homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure of spiral ligament root cells and interdental cells, which are located at both ends of the gap junction system of the cochlea epithelium. Serial semi-thin sections of plastic-embedded rat cochlea were mounted on glass slides, stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the backscattered electron (BSE) mode...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794400/tbx18-positive-cells-differentiated-from-murine-es-cells-serve-as-proepicardial-progenitors-to-give-rise-to-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-fibroblasts
#4
Nobuhito Ikeda, Natsumi Nakazawa, Yasutaka Kurata, Hisako Yaura, Fikri Taufiq, Hiroyuki Minato, Akio Yoshida, Haruaki Ninomiya, Yuji Nakayama, Masanari Kuwabara, Yasuaki Shirayoshi, Ichiro Hisatome
Proepicardium (PE) cells generate cardiac fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells that form coronary arteries. T-box18 (Tbx18) is a well-known marker of PE cells and epicardium. We examined whether Tbx18-positive cells differentiated from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells serve as PE progenitors to give rise to vascular SMCs and fibroblasts. To collect Tbx18-positive cells, we established Tbx18-EGFP knock-in mouse ES cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We harvested the Tbx18-EGFP-positive cells on day 8, 10 and 14 after the initiation of differentiation; Tbx18 mRNA was enriched on day 8 to 14 and Snai2 mRNA was enriched on day 8 and 10, indicating successful collection of Tbx18-positive cells...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794399/dec1-promotes-hypoxia-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#5
Keishu Murakami, Yunyan Wu, Tadaatsu Imaizumi, Yuka Aoki, Qiang Liu, Xu Yan, Hiroko Seino, Tadashi Yoshizawa, Satoko Morohashi, Yukio Kato, Hiroshi Kijima
Differentiated embryonic chondrocyte (DEC) 1 has been reported to be involved in cell differentiation, hypoxia response, and cancer progression. Recent studies have demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in carcinoma cells to facilitate cell invasiveness and metastasis. However, it remains unclear whether DEC1 participates in hypoxia-mediated EMT processes. In the present study, we reported that hypoxia induced DEC1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells, and DEC1 negatively regulated expression of HIF-1α and E-cadherin in transcriptional/translational levels...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637957/gm7325-is-myod-dependently-expressed-in-activated-muscle-satellite-cells
#6
Daisuke Takei, Miyuki Nishi, So-Ichiro Fukada, Masao Doi, Hitoshi Okamura, Akiyoshi Uezumi, Lidan Zhang, Morikatsu Yoshida, Mikiya Miyazato, Atsuhiko Ichimura, Hiroshi Takeshima
The Gm7325 gene, bioinformatically identified in the mouse genome, encodes a small protein but has not been characterized until recently. Our gene expression analysis revealed that Gm7325 transcription is remarkably upregulated in injured skeletal muscle tissues. Activated satellite cells and immature myotubes were densely decorated with positive signals for Gm7325 mRNA in in situ hybridization analysis, while no obvious signals were observed in quiescent satellite cells and mature myofibers. In the 5'-flanking regions of mouse Gm7325 and its human homologue, conserved E-box motifs for helix-loop-helix transcription factors are repeatedly arranged around the putative promoter regions...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637956/cd36-involvement-in-the-olfactory-perception-of-oleic-aldehyde-an-odour-active-volatile-compound-in-mice
#7
Shinhye Lee, Satoshi Tsuzuki, Takahiko Amitsuka, Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita, Kazuo Inoue
Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a broadly expressed transmembrane receptor that has multiple ligands. It has been found to occur abundantly on the surface of the olfactory epithelium in mice and postulated to play a role in mammalian olfaction. However, there have been no ethological analyses of the mammalian behaviour showing CD36 involvement in the olfactory perception of a distinct odour-active volatile compound. In this study, we aimed to assess whether mammals perceive oleic aldehyde, an odour-active volatile that serves as a potential CD36 ligand, and if so, whether CD36 is involved in the sensing by following measurements using CD36-knockout mice and their wild-type littermates...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637955/fine-structure-of-human-thoracic-duct-as-revealed-by-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#8
Tomohiro Chiba, Hirokazu Narita, Hiroshi Shimoda
Little information has been available regarding microanatomy of human thoracic duct in spite of the importance for an understanding of pathophysiology in clinical medicine. The present study demonstrated a fine structure of human thoracic duct system by light and scanning electron microscopy. A number of longitudinal or spiral ridges and grooves were formed on luminal surfaces of the lymphangia and lymph sac, it likely facilitating fluent lymph flow. The endothelial cells displayed various cell shapes in compliance with their distributed regions...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637954/increases-in-il-33-production-by-fimbriae-and-lipopeptide-from-porphyromonas-gingivalis-in-mouse-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-via-toll-like-receptor-2
#9
Hiroyuki Tada, Risako Suzuki, Eiji Nemoto, Hidetoshi Shimauchi, Kenji Matsushita, Haruhiko Takada
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an IL-1 cytokine family member that is involved in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and the initiation of allergic inflammation in response to pathogens. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a primary pathogen that is involved in chronic periodontitis and its bacterial components induce inflammatory responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogen- associated molecular patterns by expression of pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). DCs play an essential role in resistance to infection and maintenance of mucosal immune system...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637953/synapse-specific-effects-of-il-1%C3%AE-on-long-term-potentiation-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#10
Koji Hoshino, Kan Hasegawa, Haruyuki Kamiya, Yuji Morimoto
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key molecule in the inflammatory responses elicited during infection and injury. It exerts local effects on synaptic plasticity by binding to IL-1 receptors that are expressed at high levels in the hippocampus. We examined the effects of IL-1β on synaptic plasticity in different hippocampal regions in acute mouse brain slices by measuring long-term potentiation (LTP). IL-1β (1 ng/mL) was applied for 30 min before LTP was induced with high-frequency stimulation (HFS). LTP was significantly impaired by either IL-1β application to the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses or the associational/commissural (A/C) fiber-CA3 synapses, which are both dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637952/heat-shock-protein-72-promotes-platelet-aggregation-induced-by-various-platelet-activators-in-rats
#11
Hideaki Suzuki, Yuuko Kosuge, Koji Kobayashi, Yoshifumi Kurosaki, Naohito Ishii, Naoyoshi Aoyama, Kazuhiko Ishihara, Takafumi Ichikawa
Increase of thrombus in the coronary arteries is positively correlated with the level of heat-shock protein 72 (HSP72) in the blood of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Platelet aggregation participates in thrombus formation on ruptured plaque in AMI. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of HSP72 in thrombus formation by evaluating the effects of HSP72 on platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation activities were measured in platelet-rich plasma obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats with or without the platelet activators, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide-6 (TRAP-6), ristocetin, and arachidonic acid...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637951/porphyromonas-gingivalis-induced-il-33-down-regulates-hcap-18-ll-37-production-in-human-gingival-epithelial-cells
#12
Hiroyuki Tada, Takamitsu Shimizu, Kenji Matsushita, Haruhiko Takada
hCAP-18/LL-37 is an antimicrobial peptide that is mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Gingival epithelial cells play pivotal roles in antimicrobial defense by expressing hCAP-18/LL-37. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a primary pathogen for chronic periodontitis and produces cysteine proteinase gingipains, which induce proinflammatory cytokines production, leading to enhance inflammatory responses. In contrast, gingipains attenuate immune responses, leading to induce anti-inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated the ability of gingipains to attenuate P...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637950/adam17-regulates-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-upon-lipopolysaccharide-stimulation-in-oral-keratinocytes
#13
Aya Hirayama, Shuji Awano, Yuji Seta, Toshihiro Ansai
A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-converting enzyme and was first identified as the enzyme that cleaves the prodomain of TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in immune regulation and a variety of inflammatory responses in destructive periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to verify the presence of ADAM17 in the gingival epithelium and elucidate its involvement in the release of TNF-αin oral keratinocytes. Immunohistochemical analyses of ADAM17 were performed in gingival tissues obtained from patients and in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs)...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637949/comparative-analysis-of-allyl-isothiocyanate-aitc-induced-carbohydrate-oxidation-changes-via-trpv1-between-mice-and-chickens
#14
Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Ruojun Liang, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
Postprandial hyperglycemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It has been reported that intragastric administration of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is one of the pungent ingredients of wasabi and horseradish but it is not included in hot chili pepper, increased carbohydrate oxidation and reduced postprandial increase of blood glucose via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)in mice. However, the action site of AITC on TRPV1 for increasing carbohydrate oxidation is unclear. Both mammalian and chicken TRPV1 (cTRPV1) are activated by heat and acid, but unlike its mammalian counterpart, cTRPV1 is only faintly activated by capsaicin...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442666/role-of-pituitary-adenylyl-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-in-intracellular-calcium-dynamics-of-neurons-and-satellite-cells-in-rat-superior-cervical-ganglia
#15
Kanako Isobe, Takuya Yokoyama, Kasumi Moriguchi-Mori, Miho Kumagai, Yoh-Ichi Satoh, Akiyoshi Kuji, Tomoyuki Saino
Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. The present study investigated whether stimulation of PACAP receptors (PACAPRs) induces responses in neurons and satellite cells of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), with special reference to intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) changes. The expression of PACAPRs in SCG was detected by reverse transcription-PCR. PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type (VPAC)1R, and VPAC2R transcripts were expressed in SCG, with PAC1R showing the highest levels...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442665/the-amino-acid-at-position-624-in-the-glycoprotein-of-sftsv-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-virus-plays-a-critical-role-in-low-ph-dependent-cell-fusion-activity
#16
Yoshimi Tsuda, Manabu Igarashi, Ryo Ito, Sanae Nishio, Kenta Shimizu, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Jiro Arikawa
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a novel phlebovirus responsible for causing an emerging zoonotic disease. We previously established subclones from SFTSV strain YG1 based on differences in low-pH-dependent cell fusion activities and found two amino acid substitutions, Y328H and R624W, in the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of high fusion subclones. In this study, we show that transiently expressed GP with the R624W mutation, but not the Y328H mutation, induced cell fusion under acidic conditions...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442664/induction-of-neural-crest-cells-from-human-dental-pulp-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Eisuke Kawano, Taku Toriumi, Shinya Iguchi, Daigo Suzuki, Shuichi Sato, Masaki Honda
We previously generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human dental pulp cells of deciduous teeth. Neural crest cells (NCCs) play a vital role in the development of the oral and maxillofacial region. Therefore, NCCs represent a cell source for bone, cartilage, and tooth-related tissue engineering. In this study, we examined whether iPS cells are capable of differentiating into NCCs through modification of the human embryonic stem cell protocol. First, iPS cells were dissociated into single cells and then reaggregated in low-cell-adhesion plates with neural induction medium for 8 days in suspension culture to form neurospheres...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442663/histochemical-assessment-for-osteoblastic-activity-coupled-with-dysfunctional-osteoclasts-in-c-src-deficient-mice
#18
Hisashi Toray, Tomoka Hasegawa, Naoko Sakagami, Erika Tsuchiya, Ai Kudo, Shen Zhao, Yasuhito Moritani, Miki Abe, Taiji Yoshida, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki Yamamoto, Kimimitsu Oda, Nobuyuki Udagawa, Paulo Henrique Luiz de Freitas, Minqi Li
Since osteoblastic activities are believed to be coupled with osteoclasts, we have attempted to histologically verify which of the distinct cellular circumstances, the presence of osteoclasts themselves or bone resorption by osteoclasts, is essential for coupled osteoblastic activity, by examining c-fos(-/-) or c-src(-/-) mice. Osteopetrotic c-fos deficient (c-fos(-/-)) mice have no osteoclasts, while c-src deficient (c-src(-/-)) mice, another osteopetrotic model, develop dysfunctional osteoclasts due to a lack of ruffled borders...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442662/possible-involvement-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-the-progression-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#19
Kentaro Tominaga, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Toru Setsu, Naruhiro Kimura, Hiroki Honda, Hiroteru Kamimura, Yutaka Honda, Masaaki Takamura, Junji Yokoyama, Kenji Suzuki, Toshifumi Wakai, Shuji Terai
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells involved in anti-bacterial immunity. Recent studies have demonstrated that MAIT cells might be implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), but their precise function in IBD remains to be elucidated. We investigated the possible involvement of MAIT cells in the immunopathogenesis of IBDs. Heparinized peripheral blood and biopsy specimens of the colon were collected from 25 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 15 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), and 19 heathy individuals...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239035/characterization-of-membrane-progestin-receptor-%C3%AE-mpr%C3%AE-of-the-medaka-and-role-in-the-induction-of-oocyte-maturation
#20
Shimi Rani Roy, Jun Wang, Md Rubel Rana, Mikiko Nakashima, Toshinobu Tokumoto
Oocyte maturation in medaka is induced by the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) via its membrane receptor. The most likely candidates for the membrane receptor are membrane progestin receptors (mPRs). In order to characterize the mPRα subtype of medaka, a human cell line expressing the mPRα gene of medaka was established and its steroid binding property was assessed. The α subtype exhibited high binding affinity for 17,20β-DHP, the MIH in medaka. Treatment with a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide to mPRα blocked oocyte maturation in vivo...
2017: Biomedical Research
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