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Gan Chen, Xiang Song, Bo Wang, Guoxing You, Jingxiang Zhao, Sha Xia, Yuhua Zhang, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
Hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation involves overwhelming reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress, inflammation, and subsequent tissue injury. We investigated the effects of the potent antioxidant carboxyfullerene (C3) on acute liver injury during hemorrhage shock/resuscitation. C3 infusion reduced the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, methemoglobin content, malondialdehyde content, myeloperoxidase activity and expression levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and interleukin-6; it increased superoxide dismutase activity in the liver...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials
Daniel Hachim, Samuel T LoPresti, Cecelia C Yates, Bryan N Brown
The present study tests the hypothesis that transient, early-stage shifts in macrophage polarization at the tissue-implant interface from a pro-inflammatory (M1) to an anti-inflammatory/regulatory (M2) phenotype mitigates the host inflammatory reaction against a non-degradable polypropylene mesh material and improves implant integration downstream. To address this hypothesis, a nanometer-thickness coating capable of releasing IL-4 (an M2 polarizing cytokine) from an implant surface at early stages of the host response has been developed...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Jingjing Hu, Yihua Chen, Yunqi Li, Zhengjie Zhou, Yiyun Cheng
The development of thermo-degradable hydrogels is of great importance in drug delivery. However, it still remains a huge challenge to prepare thermo-degradable hydrogels with inherent degradation, reproducible, repeated and tunable dosing. Here, we reported a thermo-degradable hydrogel that is rapidly degraded above 44 °C by a facile chemistry. Besides thermo-degradability, the hydrogel also undergoes rapid photolysis with ultraviolet light. By embedding photothermal nanoparticles or upconversion nanoparticles into the gel, it can release the entrapped cargoes such as dyes, enzymes and anticancer drugs in an on-demand and dose-tunable fashion upon near-infrared light exposure...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Masayuki Kyomoto, Toru Moro, Shihori Yamane, Yoshio Takatori, Sakae Tanaka, Kazuhiko Ishihara
The surface and substrate of a cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) liner are designed to achieve resistance against oxidative degradation in the construction of hip joint replacements. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the oxidative degradation caused by lipid absorption of a highly hydrophilic nanometer-scaled thickness layer prepared by grafting a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) layer and a high-dose gamma-ray irradiated CLPE with vitamin E blending (HD-CLPE[VE]). The HD-CLPE(VE) and PMPC-grafted HD-CLPE(VE) exhibited extremely high oxidation resistance regardless of lipid absorption, even though residual-free radical levels were detectable...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Cyril G Eleftheriou, Jonas B Zimmermann, Henrik D Kjeldsen, Moshe David-Pur, Yael Hanein, Evelyne Sernagor
The choice of electrode material is of paramount importance in neural prosthetic devices. Electrodes must be biocompatible yet able to sustain repetitive current injections in a highly corrosive environment. We explored the suitability of carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes to stimulate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a mouse model of outer retinal degeneration. We investigated morphological changes at the bio-hybrid interface and changes in RGC responses to electrical stimulation following prolonged in vitro coupling to CNT electrodes...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Hwan D Kim, Hae Lin Jang, Hyo-Yong Ahn, Hye Kyoung Lee, Jungha Park, Eun-Seo Lee, Eunjee A Lee, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Do-Gyoon Kim, Ki Tae Nam, Nathaniel S Hwang
Bone remodeling process relies on complex signaling pathway between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and control mechanisms to achieve homeostasis of their growth and differentiation. Despite previous achievements in understanding complicated signaling pathways between cells and bone extracellular matrices during bone remodeling process, a role of local ionic concentration remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that synthetic whitlockite (WH: Ca18Mg2(HPO4)2(PO4)12) nanoparticles can recapitulate early-stage of bone regeneration through stimulating osteogenic differentiation, prohibiting osteoclastic activity, and transforming into mechanically enhanced hydroxyapatite (HAP)-neo bone tissues by continuous supply of PO4(3-) and Mg(2+) under physiological conditions...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Bo Tian, Qiuhong Wang, Qianqian Su, Wei Feng, Fuyou Li
Triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA)-based upconversion nanocapsules (UCNCs) have great potential in biological and medical applications. However, there are numerous unresolved issues with respect to the safety of these novel nanomaterials. In this work, for the first time, we studied the in vivo biodistribution of UCNCs which were synthesized by co-loading platinum (II)-tetraphenyl-tetrabenzoporphyrin (PtTPBP) and boron dipyrromethene derivative (BDP) into bovine serum albumin (BSA)-stabilized soybean oil droplets, and systematically assessed the potential toxicity of UCNCs both in vitro and in vivo...
October 8, 2016: Biomaterials
Mirko Nowak, Uwe Freudenberg, Mikhail V Tsurkan, Carsten Werner, Kandice R Levental
Matrix systems used to study complex three-dimensional (3D) cellular processes like mammary epithelial tissue morphogenesis and tumorigenesis ex vivo often require ill-defined biological components, which lead to poor reproducibility and a lack of control over physical parameters. In this study, a well-defined, tunable synthetic biohybrid hydrogel composed of the glycosaminoglycan heparin, star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) (starPEG), and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) cleavable crosslinkers was applied to dissect the biophysical and biochemical signals promoting human mammary epithelial cell (MEC) morphogenesis...
October 6, 2016: Biomaterials
Hyun Jeong Oh, Yoojin Shin, Seok Chung, Do Won Hwang, Dong Soo Lee
The effective role of exosome delivering neurogenic microRNA (miRNA) enables to induce efficient differentiation process during neurogenesis. The microfludic system capable of visualizing the exosomal behavior such as secretion, migration, and uptake of individual exosomes can be used as a robust technique to understand the exosome-mediated change of cellular behavior. Here, we developed the exosome-tracing microfluidic system to visualize exosomal transport carrying the neurogenic miRNA from leading to neighboring cells, and found a new mode of exosome-mediated cell-non-autonomous neurogenesis...
October 5, 2016: Biomaterials
Zhicheng Wang, Jia Nong, Robert B Shultz, Zhiling Zhang, Veronica J Tom, Ravi K Ponnappan, Yinghui Zhong
Many mechanisms contribute to the secondary injury cascades following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, most current treatment strategies only target one or a few elements in the injury cascades, and have been largely unsuccessful in clinical trials. Minocycline hydrochloride (MH) is a clinically available antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug that has been shown to target a broad range of secondary injury mechanisms via its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties. However, MH is only neuroprotective at high concentrations...
October 5, 2016: Biomaterials
Hongshi Ma, Jian Luo, Zhe Sun, Lunguo Xia, Mengchao Shi, Mingyao Liu, Jiang Chang, Chengtie Wu
Primary bone cancer brings patients great sufferings. To deal with the bone defects resulted from cancer surgery, biomaterials with good bone-forming ability are necessary to repair bone defects. Meanwhile, in order to prevent possible tumor recurrence, it is essential that the remaining tumor cells around bone defects are completely killed. However, there are few biomaterials with the ability of both cancer therapy and bone regeneration until now. Here, we fabricated a 3D-printed bioceramic scaffold with a uniformly self-assembled Ca-P/polydopamine nanolayer surface...
October 5, 2016: Biomaterials
Xiaoli Wei, Jie Gao, Ronnie H Fang, Brian T Luk, Ashley V Kroll, Diana Dehaini, Jiarong Zhou, Hyeon Woo Kim, Weiwei Gao, Weiyue Lu, Liangfang Zhang
Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is characterized by the production of pathological autoantibodies that cause reduction in platelet counts. The disease can have serious medical consequences, leading to uncontrolled bleeding that can be fatal. Current widely used therapies for the treatment of ITP are non-specific and can, at times, result in complications that are more burdensome than the disease itself. In the present study, the use of platelet membrane-coated nanoparticles (PNPs) as a platform for the specific clearance of anti-platelet antibodies is explored...
October 5, 2016: Biomaterials
Siran Wang, Chiara E Ghezzi, Rachel Gomes, Rachel E Pollard, James L Funderburgh, David L Kaplan
The interactions between corneal nerve, epithelium, and stroma are essential for maintaining a healthy cornea. Thus, corneal tissue models that more fully mimic the anatomy, mechanical properties and cellular components of corneal tissue would provide useful systems to study cellular interactions, corneal diseases and provide options for improved drug screening. Here a corneal tissue model was constructed to include the stroma, epithelium, and innervation. Thin silk protein film stacks served as the scaffolding to support the corneal epithelial and stromal layers, while a surrounding silk porous sponge supported neuronal growth...
October 4, 2016: Biomaterials
Neal K Bennett, Rebecca Chmielowski, Dalia S Abdelhamid, Jonathan J Faig, Nicola Francis, Jean Baum, Zhiping P Pang, Kathryn E Uhrich, Prabhas V Moghe
Neuroinflammation, a common neuropathologic feature of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson disease (PD), is frequently exacerbated by microglial activation. The extracellular protein α-synuclein (ASYN), whose aggregation is characteristic of PD, remains a key therapeutic target, but the control of synuclein trafficking and aggregation within microglia has been challenging. First, we established that microglial internalization of monomeric ASYN was mediated by scavenger receptors (SR), CD36 and SRA1, and was rapidly accompanied by the formation of ASYN oligomers...
October 4, 2016: Biomaterials
Daniel M Vasconcelos, Raquel M Gonçalves, Catarina R Almeida, Inês O Pereira, Marta I Oliveira, Nuno Neves, Andreia M Silva, António C Ribeiro, Carla Cunha, Ana R Almeida, Cristina C Ribeiro, Ana M Gil, Elisabeth Seebach, Katharina L Kynast, Wiltrud Richter, Meriem Lamghari, Susana G Santos, Mário A Barbosa
The hypothesis behind this work is that fibrinogen (Fg), classically considered a pro-inflammatory protein, can promote bone repair/regeneration. Injury and biomaterial implantation naturally lead to an inflammatory response, which should be under control, but not necessarily minimized. Herein, porous scaffolds entirely constituted of Fg (Fg-3D) were implanted in a femoral rat bone defect and investigated at two important time points, addressing the bone regenerative process and the local and systemic immune responses, both crucial to elucidate the mechanisms of tissue remodelling...
October 4, 2016: Biomaterials
Yaroslav Staroseletz, Aled Williams, Kepa K Burusco, Irfan Alibay, Valentin V Vlassov, Marina A Zenkova, Elena V Bichenkova
Traditional therapeutic interventions against abnormal gene expression in disease states at the level of expressed proteins are becoming increasingly difficult due to poor selectivity, off-target effects and associated toxicity. Upstream catalytic targeting of specific RNA sequences offers an alternative platform for drug discovery to achieve more potent and selective treatment through antisense interference with disease-relevant RNAs. We report a novel class of catalytic biomaterials, comprising amphipathic RNA-cleaving peptides placed between two RNA recognition motifs, here demonstrated to target the TΨC loop and 3'- acceptor stem of tRNA(Phe)...
October 3, 2016: Biomaterials
Hong Yang, Lisa Kozicky, Aabida Saferali, Shan-Yu Fung, Nicole Afacan, Bing Cai, Reza Falsafi, Erin Gill, Mingyao Liu, Tobias R Kollmann, R E W Hancock, Laura M Sly, Stuart E Turvey
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling plays a central role in the pathophysiology of many acute and chronic human inflammatory diseases, and pharmacological regulation of TLR responses is anticipated to be beneficial in many inflammatory conditions. Currently there are no specific TLR inhibitors in clinical use. To overcome this challenge, we have developed a nano-based TLR inhibitor (peptide-gold nanoparticle hybrids) that inhibits a broad spectrum of TLR responses. Through mechanistic studies, we established that specific peptide decorated-gold nanoparticles that display high cellular uptake in phagocytic immune cells modulate endosomal pH, leading to significant attenuation of signaling through multiple TLRs...
October 3, 2016: Biomaterials
Masaki Morishita, Yuki Takahashi, Akihiro Matsumoto, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
For cancer immunotherapy via tumor antigen vaccination in combination with an adjuvant, major challenges include the identification of a particular tumor antigen and efficient delivery of the antigen as well as adjuvant to antigen-presenting cells. In this study, we proposed an efficient exosome-based tumor antigens-adjuvant co-delivery system using genetically engineered tumor cell-derived exosomes containing endogenous tumor antigens and immunostimulatory CpG DNA. Murine melanoma B16BL6 cells were transfected with a plasmid vector encoding a fusion streptavidin (SAV; a protein that binds to biotin with high affinity)-lactadherin (LA; an exosome-tropic protein) protein, yielding genetically engineered SAV-LA-expressing exosomes (SAV-exo)...
October 3, 2016: Biomaterials
Xiaochu Ding, Jin Gao, Zhouguang Wang, Hassan Awada, Yadong Wang
We designed and tested a versatile hydrogel for tissue regeneration by preserving the bioactivity of growth factors. The shear-thinning gel self-assembles within 1 min from heparin and Laponite-a silicate nanoparticle, thus the name HELP gel. By not covalently modifying heparin, it should retain its natural affinity towards many proteins anchored in the extracellular matrix. In principle, HELP gel can bind any heparin-binding growth factor; we use fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) in this study to demonstrate its utility...
September 30, 2016: Biomaterials
Chun-Chieh Huang, Raghuvaran Narayanan, Satish Alapati, Sriram Ravindran
Achieving and maintaining safe and reliable lineage specific differentiation of stem cells is important for clinical translation of tissue engineering strategies. In an effort to circumvent the multitude of problems arising from the usage of growth factors and growth factor delivery systems, we have explored the use of exosomes as biomimetic tools to induce stem cell differentiation. Working on the hypothesis that cell-type specific exosomes can trigger lineage-specific differentiation of stem cells, we have evaluated the potential of exosomes derived from dental pulp cells cultured on under growth and odontogenic differentiation conditions to induce odontogenic differentiation of naïve human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and human bone marrow derived stromal cells (HMSCs) in vitro and in vivo...
September 30, 2016: Biomaterials
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