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Biomaterials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081460/blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-induced-by-silica-nps-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-involvement-of-oxidative-stress-and-rho-kinase-jnk-signaling-pathways
#1
Xin Liu, Baiyan Sui, Jiao Sun
Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) has been extensively exploited in biomedical fields and mostly designed to enter the circulatory system, however, few studies focused on the potential adverse effects of SiO2-NPs exposure on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that serves as a critical barrier between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral circulation. This study attempts to provide an understanding of whether and how SiO2-NPs disrupts the BBB in vitro and in vivo. Through a human BBB model, we found that SiO2-NPs could induce tight junction loss and cytoskeleton arrangement, and increase inflammatory response and the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs), which further activates astrocytes to amplify the generation of VEGF and increase the aquaporin-4 expression, and thus causing BBB disruption through a complex immunoregulatory loop between BMECs and astrocytes under SiO2-NPs exposure...
January 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088077/rhoa-knockdown-by-cationic-amphiphilic-copolymer-sirhoa-polyplexes-enhances-axonal-regeneration-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#2
So-Jung Gwak, Christian Macks, Da Un Jeong, Mark Kindy, Michael Lynn, Ken Webb, Jeoung Soo Lee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor and sensory function due to developmentally-related and injured-induced changes in the extrinsic microenvironment and intrinsic neuronal biochemistry that limit plasticity and axonal regeneration. Our long term goal is to develop cationic, amphiphilic copolymers (poly (lactide-co-glycolide)-g-polyethylenimine, PgP) for combinatorial delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) and drugs targeting these different barriers. In this study, we evaluated the ability of PgP to deliver siRNA targeting RhoA, a critical signaling pathway activated by multiple extracellular inhibitors of axonal regeneration...
January 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088075/development-of-a-hypoxia-triggered-and-hypoxic-radiosensitized-liposome-as-a-doxorubicin-carrier-to-promote-synergetic-chemo-radio-therapy-for-glioma
#3
Hongmei Liu, Yandong Xie, Yafei Zhang, Yifan Cai, Baiyang Li, Honglin Mao, Yingguo Liu, Jun Lu, Longzhen Zhang, Rutong Yu
The treatment of malignant primary brain tumors is challenging. Concomitant radiochemotherapy has become the standard clinical treatment for malignant glioma, but there are two critical challenges to overcome in order to increase efficacy. First, glioma is known to have increased resistant to radiation due to its intra-tumoral hypoxia. In addition, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the distribution of the chemotherapeutic agent to the brain. Therefore, we developed a hypoxic radiosensitizer-prodrug liposome (MLP), in order to deliver DOX to the tumor and to overcome the above challenges, achieving a synergistic chemo-/radiotherapy treatment of malignant glioma...
January 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086180/exosome-sirp%C3%AE-a-cd47-blockade-increases-cancer-cell-phagocytosis
#4
Eunee Koh, Eun Jung Lee, Gi-Hoon Nam, Yeonsun Hong, Eunji Cho, Yoosoo Yang, In-San Kim
CD47, a "don't eat me" signal, is over-expressed on the surface of most tumors that interacts with signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) on phagocytic cells. By engaging SIRPα, CD47 limits the ability of macrophages to engulf tumor cells, which acts as a major phagocytic barrier. In this study, we developed an exosome-based immune checkpoint blockade that antagonizes the interaction between CD47 and SIRPα. These exosomes harboring SIRPα variants (SIRPα-exosomes) were sufficient to induce remarkably augmented tumor phagocytosis, lead to prime effective anti-tumor T cell response...
January 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068593/visible-light-induced-crosslinking-and-physiological-stabilization-of-diselenide-rich-nanoparticles-for-redox-responsive-drug-release-and-combination-chemotherapy
#5
Shaodong Zhai, Xianglong Hu, Yongjun Hu, Baoyan Wu, Da Xing
Undesired physiological instability of nanocarriers and premature drug leakage during blood circulation result in compromised therapeutic efficacy and severe side effects, which have significantly impeded the development of nanomedicine. Facile crosslinking of drug-loaded nanocarriers while keeping the potency of site-specific degradation and drug release has emerged as a viable strategy to overcome these drawbacks. Additionally, combination therapy has already shown advantages in inhibiting advanced tumors and life extension than single drug therapy...
January 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081462/in%C3%A2-vitro-evaluation-of-biodegradable-lignin-based-nanoparticles-for-drug-delivery-and-enhanced-antiproliferation-effect-in-cancer-cells
#6
Patrícia Figueiredo, Kalle Lintinen, Alexandros Kiriazis, Ville Hynninen, Zehua Liu, Tomás Bauleth-Ramos, Antti Rahikkala, Alexandra Correia, Tomáš Kohout, Bruno Sarmento, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jouni Hirvonen, Olli Ikkala, Mauri A Kostiainen, Hélder A Santos
Currently, nanosystems have been developed and applied as promising vehicles for different biomedical applications. We have developed three lignin nanoparticles (LNPs): pure lignin nanoparticles (pLNPs), iron(III)-complexed lignin nanoparticles (Fe-LNPs), and Fe3O4-infused lignin nanoparticles (Fe3O4-LNPs) with round shape, narrow size distribution, reduced polydispersity and good stability at pH 7.4. The LNPs showed low cytotoxicity in all the tested cell lines and hemolytic rates below 12% after 12 h of incubation...
January 2, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081459/targeted-delivery-of-in-situ-pcr-amplified-sleeping-beauty-transposon-genes-to-cancer-cells-with-lipid-based-nanoparticle-like-protocells
#7
Kun Ma, Duo Fu, Dongli Yu, Changhao Cui, Li Wang, Zhaoming Guo, Chuanbin Mao
A Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is made of a transposon plasmid (containing gene encoding a desired functional or therapeutic protein) and a transposase plasmid (encoding an enzyme capable of cutting and pasting the gene into the host cell genome). It is a kind of natural, nonviral gene delivery vehicle, which can achieve efficient genomic insertion, providing long-term transgenic expression. However, before the SB transposon system could play a role in promoting gene expression, it has to be delivered efficiently first across cell membrane and then into cell nuclei...
January 2, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088076/in%C3%A2-vivo-visualization-of-endogenous-mir-21-using-hyaluronic-acid-coated-graphene-oxide-for-targeted-cancer-therapy
#8
Do Won Hwang, Han Young Kim, Fangyuan Li, Ji Yong Park, Dohyun Kim, Jae Hyung Park, Hwa Seung Han, Jung Woo Byun, Yun-Sang Lee, Jae Min Jeong, Kookheon Char, Dong Soo Lee
Oncogene-targeted nucleic acid therapy has been spotlighted as a new paradigm for cancer therapeutics. However, in vivo delivery issues and uncertainty of therapeutic antisense drug reactions remain critical hurdles for a successful targeted cancer therapy. In this study, we developed a fluorescence-switchable theranostic nanoplatform using hyaluronic acid (HA)-conjugated graphene oxide (GO), which is capable of both sensing oncogenic miR-21 and inhibiting its tumorigenicity simultaneously. Cy3-labeled antisense miR-21 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes loaded onto HA-GO (HGP21) specifically targeted CD44-positive MBA-MB231 cells and showed fluorescence recovery by interacting with endogenous miR-21 in the cytoplasm of the MBA-MB231 cells...
December 31, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063979/calcium-phosphate-phosphorylated-adenosine-hybrid-microspheres-for-anti-osteosarcoma-drug-delivery-and-osteogenic-differentiation
#9
Zi-Fei Zhou, Tuan-Wei Sun, Feng Chen, Dong-Qing Zuo, Hong-Sheng Wang, Ying-Qi Hua, Zheng-Dong Cai, Jun Tan
Biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioactivity are significantly important in practical applications of various biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. Herein, we develop a functional inorganic-organic hybrid system of calcium phosphate-phosphorylated adenosine (CPPA). Both calcium phosphate and phosphorylated adenosine molecules in CPPA are fundamental components in mammalians and play important roles in biological metabolism. In this work, we report our three leading research qualities: (1) CPPA hybrid microspheres with hollow and porous structure are synthesized by a facile one-step microwave-assisted solvothermal method; (2) CPPA hybrid microspheres show high doxorubicin loading capacity and pH-responsive drug release properties, and demonstrate positive therapeutic effects on six osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro and a mouse model of 143B osteosarcoma subcutaneous tumor in vivo; (3) CPPA hybrid microspheres are favorable to promote osteogenic differentiation of human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) by activating the AMPK pathway, with satisfactory evidences from cellular alkaline phosphatase staining, alizarin red staining, real time PCR and western analysis...
December 28, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063981/macrophage-activation-status-determines-the-internalization-of-mesoporous-silica-particles-of-different-sizes-exploring-the-role-of-different-pattern-recognition-receptors
#10
Audrey Gallud, Olesja Bondarenko, Neus Feliu, Natalia Kupferschmidt, Rambabu Atluri, Alfonso Garcia-Bennett, Bengt Fadeel
Mesoporous silica-based particles are promising candidates for biomedical applications. Here, we address the importance of macrophage activation status for internalization of AMS6 (approx. 200 nm in diameter) versus AMS8 (approx. 2 μm) mesoporous silica particles and the role of different phagocytosis receptors for particle uptake. To this end, FITC-conjugated silica particles were used. AMS8 were found to be non-cytotoxic both for M-CSF-stimulated (anti-inflammatory) and GM-CSF-stimulated (pro-inflammatory) macrophages, whereas AMS6 exhibited cytotoxicity towards M-CSF-stimulated, but not GM-CSF-stimulated macrophages; this toxicity was, however, mitigated in the presence of serum...
December 27, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063980/plant-viral-nanoparticles-based-her2-vaccine-immune-response-influenced-by-differential-transport-localization-and-cellular-interactions-of-particulate-carriers
#11
Sourabh Shukla, Jay T Myers, Sarah E Woods, Xingjian Gong, Anna E Czapar, Ulrich Commandeur, Alex Y Huang, Alan D Levine, Nicole F Steinmetz
Cancer vaccines are designed to elicit an endogenous adaptive immune response that can successfully recognize and eliminate residual or recurring tumors. Such approaches can potentially overcome shortcomings of passive immunotherapies by generating long-lived therapeutic effects and immune memory while limiting systemic toxicities. A critical determinant of vaccine efficacy is efficient transport and delivery of tumor-associated antigens to professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Plant viral nanoparticles (VNPs) with natural tropism for APCs and a high payload carrying capacity may be particularly effective vaccine carriers...
December 27, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049064/nanoparticles-for-multi-modality-cancer-diagnosis-simple-protocol-for-self-assembly-of-gold-nanoclusters-mediated-by-gadolinium-ions
#12
Wenxiu Hou, Fangfang Xia, Gabriel Alfranca, Hao Yan, Xiao Zhi, Yanlei Liu, Chen Peng, Chunlei Zhang, Jesus Martinez de la Fuente, Daxiang Cui
It is essential to develop a simple synthetic strategy to improve the quality of multifunctional contrast agents for cancer diagnosis. Herein, we report a time-saving method for gadolinium (Gd(3+)) ions-mediated self-assembly of gold nanoclusters (GNCs) into monodisperse spherical nanoparticles (GNCNs) under mild conditions. The monodisperse, regular and colloidal stable GNCNs were formed via selectively inducing electrostatic interactions between negatively-charged carboxylic groups of gold nanoclusters and trivalent cations of gadolinium in aqueous solution...
December 27, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081461/bdnf-gene-delivery-mediated-by-neuron-targeted-nanoparticles-is-neuroprotective-in-peripheral-nerve-injury
#13
Cátia D F Lopes, Nádia P Gonçalves, Carla P Gomes, Maria J Saraiva, Ana P Pêgo
Neuron-targeted gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat peripheral neuropathies. Here we propose the use of polymeric nanoparticles based on thiolated trimethyl chitosan (TMCSH) to mediate targeted gene delivery to peripheral neurons upon a peripheral and minimally invasive intramuscular administration. Nanoparticles were grafted with the non-toxic carboxylic fragment of the tetanus neurotoxin (HC) to allow neuron targeting and were explored to deliver a plasmid DNA encoding for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a peripheral nerve injury model...
December 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092777/controlling-the-3d-architecture-of-self-lifting-auto-generated-tissue-equivalents-slates-for-optimized-corneal-graft-composition-and-stability
#14
Ricardo M Gouveia, Elena González-Andrades, Juan C Cardona, Carmen González-Gallardo, Ana M Ionescu, Ingrid Garzon, Miguel Alaminos, Miguel González-Andrades, Che J Connon
Ideally, biomaterials designed to play specific physical and physiological roles in vivo should comprise components and microarchitectures analogous to those of the native tissues they intend to replace. For that, implantable biomaterials need to be carefully designed to have the correct structural and compositional properties, which consequently impart their bio-function. In this study, we showed that the control of such properties can be defined from the bottom-up, using smart surface templates to modulate the structure, composition, and bio-mechanics of human transplantable tissues...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061402/sequentially-crosslinked-bioactive-hydrogels-as-nano-patterned-substrates-with-customizable-stiffness-and-degradation-for-corneal-tissue-engineering-applications
#15
Muhammad Rizwan, Gary S L Peh, Heng-Pei Ang, Nyein Chan Lwin, Khadijah Adnan, Jodhbir S Mehta, Wui Siew Tan, Evelyn K F Yim
Naturally-bioactive hydrogels like gelatin provide favorable properties for tissue-engineering but lack sufficient mechanical strength for use as implantable tissue engineering substrates. Complex fabrication or multi-component additives can improve material strength, but often compromises other properties. Studies have shown gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) as a bioactive hydrogel with diverse tissue growth applications. We hypothesize that, with suitable material modifications, GelMA could be employed for growth and implantation of tissue-engineered human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) monolayer...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056401/toxicity-evaluation-of-magnetic-hyperthermia-induced-by-remote-actuation-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-in-3d-micrometastasic-tumor-tissue-analogs-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#16
Nathanael A Stocke, Pallavi Sethi, Amar Jyoti, Ryan Chan, Susanne M Arnold, J Zach Hilt, Meenakshi Upreti
Magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment modality is acquiring increased recognition for loco-regional therapy of primary and metastatic lung malignancies by pulmonary delivery of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). The unique characteristic of magnetic nanoparticles to induce localized hyperthermia in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) allows for preferential killing of cells at the tumor site. In this study we demonstrate the effect of hyperthermia induced by low and high dose of MNP under the influence of an AMF using 3D tumor tissue analogs (TTA) representing the micrometastatic, perfusion independent stage of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that infiltrates the lungs...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049065/nucleic-acid-scavenging-microfiber-mesh-inhibits-trauma-induced-inflammation-and-thrombosis
#17
Jaewoo Lee, Jennifer G Jackman, Jean Kwun, Miriam Manook, Angelo Moreno, Eric A Elster, Allan D Kirk, Kam W Leong, Bruce A Sullenger
Trauma patients produce a host of danger signals and high levels of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) after cellular injury and tissue damage. These DAMPs are directly and indirectly involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and thrombotic complications in patients with severe injuries. No effective therapeutic agents for the removal of DAMPs from blood or tissue fluid have been developed. Herein, we demonstrated that nucleic acid binding polymers, e.g., polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyamidoamine dendrimers, immobilized onto electrospun microfiber mesh can effectively capture various DAMPs, such as extracellular DNAs and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038353/decellularized-adipose-tissue-microcarriers-as-a-dynamic-culture-platform-for-human-adipose-derived-stem-stromal-cell-expansion
#18
Claire Yu, Anna Kornmuller, Cody Brown, Todd Hoare, Lauren E Flynn
With the goal of designing a clinically-relevant expansion strategy for human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), methods were developed to synthesize porous microcarriers derived purely from human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT). An electrospraying approach was applied to generate spherical DAT microcarriers with an average diameter of 428 ± 41 μm, which were soft, compliant, and stable in long-term culture without chemical crosslinking. Human ASCs demonstrated enhanced proliferation on the DAT microcarriers relative to commercially-sourced Cultispher-S microcarriers within a spinner culture system over 1 month...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063357/graphene-quantum-dots-with-nitrogen-doped-content-dependence-for-highly-efficient-dual-modality-photodynamic-antimicrobial-therapy-and-bioimaging
#19
Wen-Shuo Kuo, Hua-Han Chen, Shih-Yao Chen, Chia-Yuan Chang, Pei-Chi Chen, Yung-I Hou, Yu-Ting Shao, Hui-Fang Kao, Chih-Li Lilian Hsu, Yi-Chun Chen, Shean-Jen Chen, Shang-Rung Wu, Jiu-Yao Wang
Reactive oxygen species is the main contributor to photodynamic therapy. The results of this study show that a nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dot, serving as a photosensitizer, was capable of generating a higher amount of reactive oxygen species than a nitrogen-free graphene quantum dot in photodynamic therapy when photoexcited for only 3 min of 670 nm laser exposure (0.1 W cm(-2)), indicating highly improved antimicrobial effects. In addition, we found that higher nitrogen-bonding compositions of graphene quantum dots more efficiently performed photodynamic therapy actions than did the lower compositions that underwent identical treatments...
December 22, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033500/autonomous-assembly-of-ordered-metastable-dna-nanoarchitecture-and-in-situ-visualizing-of-intracellular-micrornas
#20
Jianguo Xu, Zai-Sheng Wu, Zhenmeng Wang, Jingqing Le, Tingting Zheng, Lee Jia
Facile assembly of intelligent DNA nanoobjects with the ability to exert in situ visualization of intracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) has long been concerned in the fields of DNA nanotechnology and basic medical study. Here, we present a driving primer (DP)-triggered polymerization-mediated metastable assembly (PMA) strategy to prepare a well-ordered metastable DNA nanoarchitecture composed of only two hairpin probes (HAPs), which has never been explored by assembly methods. Its structural features and functions are characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and gel electrophoresis...
December 22, 2016: Biomaterials
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