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Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128079/clinical-flow-cytometry-state-of-the-art-and-new-approaches
#1
EDITORIAL
David M Dorfman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128078/applications-of-mass-cytometry-in-clinical-medicine-the-promise-and-perils-of-clinical-cytof
#2
REVIEW
Gregory K Behbehani
Mass cytometry is a novel technology similar to flow cytometry in which antibodies are tagged with heavy metal molecules rather than fluorophores and then detected with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This enables measurement of up to 50 simultaneous parameters with no autofluorescent background and little or no spillover or required compensation. Mass cytometry has tremendous potential for the analysis of highly complex clinical samples for the diagnosis and monitoring of malignant and autoimmune disorders...
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128077/automated-analysis-of-clinical-flow-cytometry-data-a-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-illustration
#3
REVIEW
Richard H Scheuermann, Jack Bui, Huan-You Wang, Yu Qian
Flow cytometry is used in cell-based diagnostic evaluation for blood-borne malignancies including leukemia and lymphoma. The current practice for cytometry data analysis relies on manual gating to identify cell subsets in complex mixtures, which is subjective, labor-intensive, and poorly reproducible. This article reviews recent efforts to develop, validate, and disseminate automated computational methods and pipelines for cytometry data analysis that could help overcome the limitations of manual analysis and provide for efficient and data-driven diagnostic applications...
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128076/cost-effective-flow-cytometry-testing-strategies
#4
REVIEW
Catherine P Leith
Cost-effective flow cytometry (FC) requires development of FC panels focused to common diagnoses and strategies to identify cases where limited FC testing is sufficient. Focused panels include sufficient antibodies and to identify common diseases and appropriate analysis strategies to identify rare diseases that need additional FC testing. Strategies to limit FC testing include the use of algorithms to predict disease probability, with limited FC performed if disease is unlikely. Successful algorithms use easily available parameters, have well-defined rules for use, and are periodically reviewed and updated to maximize efficiency while containing costs...
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128075/flow-cytometric-evaluation-of-primary-immunodeficiencies
#5
REVIEW
Andreas Boldt, Michael Bitar, Ulrich Sack
Primary immunodeficiency diseases are genetic disorders that mostly cause susceptibility to infections and are sometimes associated with autoimmune and malignant diseases. For early detection and management of these diseases, flow cytometric procedures allow an encompassing assessment of cellular phenotypes and cellular functions. State-of-the art cytometry is based today on 8- to 10-color staining and includes an assessment of lineage maturation and functional markers.
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128074/flow-cytometry-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-malignancies
#6
REVIEW
Jie Li, Gerald Wertheim, Michele Paessler, Vinodh Pillai
Utility of flow cytometry in the evaluation of pediatric hematopoietic neoplasms and the differences from adult hematopoietic neoplasms are discussed in this review. Distinction of hematogones from B-lymphoblasts, detection of residual/relapsed disease after novel targeted therapies, and evaluation of pediatric myeloid neoplasms are discussed.
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128073/mast-cell-disease-assessment-by-flow-cytometric-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Jacqueline M Cortazar, David M Dorfman
Mast cells are present at a low frequency in bone marrow, rendering high-sensitivity multiparametric flow cytometric analysis an ideal method to assess antigen expression on mast cells. This article discusses the normal antigen expression profile of mast cells, established criteria to identify neoplastic mast cells, and new immunophenotypic markers and approaches to identify the presence of neoplastic mast cells in cases of mastocytosis.
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128072/paroxysmal-nocturnal-hemoglobinuria-assessment-by-flow-cytometric-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Mike Keeney, Andrea Illingworth, D Robert Sutherland
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an uncommon but frequently debilitating disease that, if untreated, may lead to death in up to 35% of patients within 5 years. Assessment of PNH clone size by flow cytometric analysis has increased in importance with the availability of therapeutic treatments, which prevent the hemolysis of red blood cells and, hence, the myriad symptoms that accompany the disease. This article addresses flow cytometric methodologies and highlights areas of importance in implementing testing, not only for classic PNH but also for other related bone marrow failure disorders, such as aplastic anemia and low-grade myelodysplastic syndrome...
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128071/diagnosis-of-plasma-cell-dyscrasias-and-monitoring-of-minimal-residual-disease-by-multiparametric-flow-cytometry
#9
REVIEW
Kah Teong Soh, Joseph D Tario, Paul K Wallace
Plasma cell dyscrasia (PCD) is a heterogeneous disease that has seen a tremendous change in outcomes due to improved therapies. Over the past few decades, multiparametric flow cytometry has played an important role in the detection and monitoring of PCDs. Flow cytometry is a high-sensitivity assay for early detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) that correlates well with progression-free survival and overall survival. Before flow cytometry can be effectively implemented in the clinical setting, sample preparation, panel configuration, analysis, and gating strategies must be optimized to ensure accurate results...
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128070/flow-cytometric-assessment-of-chronic-myeloid-neoplasms
#10
REVIEW
Min Shi, Phuong Nguyen, Dragan Jevremovic
Flow cytometry immunophenotyping of the hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow can help with diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of chronic myeloid neoplasms. Unlike with B-cell neoplasms, there is no simple phenotypic test to substitute for clonality. Therefore, antigen panels to evaluate myeloid neoplasms are larger, and the gating strategies more complex than for lymphoid neoplasms. The number of phenotypic abnormalities in hematopoietic cells correlates with disease severity and cytogenetic complexity, and can be integrated into a scoring system for diagnostic and prognostic purposes...
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128069/how-do-we-use-multicolor-flow-cytometry-to-detect-minimal-residual-disease-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#11
REVIEW
Jie Xu, Jeffrey L Jorgensen, Sa A Wang
Multicolor flow cytometry (MFC), combined with molecular and cytogenetic studies, is the most common method for detecting minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Studies have shown that a positive MFC MRD study after induction and/or consolidation, or before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, correlates with risk of relapse and inferior survival. However, there is little information on technical and analytical details. This article shares the authors' experience using MFC for AML MRD detection, including antibody panel design, data analysis, and interpretation...
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128068/b-lymphoblastic-leukemia-minimal-residual-disease-assessment-by-flow-cytometric-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Aaron C Shaver, Adam C Seegmiller
Among the most thoroughly evaluated modalities for assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) in B acute lymphoblastic leukemia is multiparameter flow cytometry. Flow cytometric evaluation of MRD for B-ALL requires complete understanding of the immunophenotype of hematogones, the normal counterpart of leukemic B lymphoblasts. Assessment of multiple flow cytometry markers, in concert with each other in multidimensional histograms, is necessary to distinguish hematogones from malignant blasts. Emerging therapies targeting CD19 and other B-cell markers can disrupt the most frequently MRD assessment, requiring a revised approach as use of targeted therapies becomes widespread...
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128067/acute-myeloid-leukemia-immunophenotyping-by-flow-cytometric-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Xueyan Chen, Sindhu Cherian
Flow cytometry plays an indispensible role in the diagnosis and subclassification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using a multiparametric approach, flow cytometry immunophenotyping has the advantage of efficiency with high sensitivity. This article reviews the general gating strategy, antibody panels for routine analysis, and additional markers for lineage assignment in the subclassification of AML. Also discussed are diagnostic immunophenotypic features of hard-to-classify entities considered within the differential diagnosis of AML...
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128066/flow-cytometry-of-t%C3%A2-cells-and-t-cell-neoplasms
#14
REVIEW
Jeffrey W Craig, David M Dorfman
Flow cytometry is ideally suited for the immunophenotypic analysis of T-cell neoplasia. This article covers the spectrum of flow cytometric findings associated with frequently encountered benign and neoplastic T-cell populations and details the most common immunophenotypic features associated with specific neoplasms of both immature and mature T cells.
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128065/flow-cytometry-of-b-cell-neoplasms
#15
REVIEW
Steven H Kroft, Alexandra M Harrington
Flow cytometric evaluation is considered a standard ancillary study for the diagnosis of most B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Establishing a neoplastic B-cell population depends on identification of light chain restriction or lack of light chain expression in mature neoplasms and demonstration of aberrant antigen expression in both immature and mature neoplasms, as compared with normal counterparts. The immunophenotypes of the most common B-cell neoplasms are herein described, with an emphasis on their immunophenotypic differential diagnosis and prognostic and therapeutic implications...
December 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802507/preface
#16
EDITORIAL
Steven D Billings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802506/inflammatory-dermatopathology-for-general-surgical-pathologists
#17
REVIEW
Emily H Smith, May P Chan
Owing to the wide variety and complexity of inflammatory skin diseases, inflammatory dermatopathology can be a challenging topic for dermatopathologists and general surgical pathologists alike. Following a basic tissue reaction pattern approach, this article reviews the most common and important entities of each pattern, with emphasis on differential diagnosis, diagnostic pitfalls, and appropriate workup when indicated. A few dermatologic emergencies are also discussed.
September 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802505/soft-tissue-tumors-of-uncertain-histogenesis-a-review-for-dermatopathologists
#18
REVIEW
Darya Buehler, Paul Weisman
The mesenchymal tumors discussed herein represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinctive morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular genetic features. These uncommon tumors often arise in the dermis and subcutis and can pose a major diagnostic challenge to dermatopathologists because they closely mimic melanoma, carcinoma, fibrous histiocytoma, schwannoma, or granulomatous inflammation. This article reviews the clinical presentation, histopathology, differential diagnosis, and diagnostic pitfalls of epithelioid sarcoma, clear cell sarcoma, perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, ossifying fibromyxoid tumor, pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor, and hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor...
September 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802504/cutaneous-malignant-vascular-neoplasms
#19
REVIEW
Wonwoo Shon, Steven D Billings
Accurate diagnosis of cutaneous malignant vascular tumors, including angiosarcoma and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, is critical for determination of appropriate clinical management and prognosis. Although there have been significant advances in understanding genetic aspects of cutaneous vascular biology, differential diagnosis of malignant vascular tumor involving skin and superficial soft tissue is a frequent source of difficulty. This brief overview highlights the clinicopathologic features of primary and secondary cutaneous angiosarcoma and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and also provides a short summary of newer molecular data...
September 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802503/fibrohistiocytic-tumors
#20
REVIEW
Ryan C Romano, Karen J Fritchie
Fibrohistiocytic tumors are a diverse group of reactive and neoplastic lesions including xanthoma, fibrous histiocytoma and its variants, solitary xanthogranuloma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and atypical fibroxanthoma. This article reviews some of the more commonly encountered fibrohistiocytic tumors with an emphasis on clinical presentation, macroscopic and histologic characteristics, molecular/cytogenetic findings where applicable, and differential diagnoses.
September 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
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