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Clinics in Laboratory Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776640/looking-good-in-your-genes-maximizing-one-s-personalized-molecular-fingerprint-for-optimal-health
#1
EDITORIAL
Martin H Bluth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776639/gynecologic-cancers-molecular-updates-2018
#2
REVIEW
Eman Abdulfatah, Quratulain Ahmed, Baraa Alosh, Sudeshna Bandyopadhyay, Martin H Bluth, Rouba Ali-Fehmi
Ovarian carcinoma continues to be a concern for woman and maintains significant morbidity and mortality. Emerging molecular markers are providing additional opportunities for effective diagnosis and prognosis of disease. An integrated clinicopathologic and molecular classification of gynecologic malignancies has the potential to refine the clinical risk prediction of patients with cancer and to provide more tailored treatment recommendations.
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776638/breast-carcinoma-updates-in-molecular-profiling-2018
#3
REVIEW
Sudeshna Bandyopadhyay, Martin H Bluth, Rouba Ali-Fehmi
The most significant contribution of molecular subtyping of breast carcinomas has been the identification of estrogen-positive and estrogen-negative tumor subtypes. Knowledge of genetic alterations in these tumors will help clinicians identify novel therapeutic targets. Understanding the progression pathways involved in the transition of in situ carcinoma to invasive carcinoma might lead to efficient risk stratification in these patients. The Cancer Genome Analysis Network has collected genomic and epigenomic data to provide comprehensive information regarding carcinogenesis and pathway interactions...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776637/an-update-regarding-the-molecular-genetics-of-melanocytic-neoplasms-and-the-current-applications-of-molecular-genetic-technologies-in-their-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Katrin Kiavash, Martin H Bluth, Andrew David Thompson
Molecular genetic technologies are used to aid in diagnosis and treatment of borderline melanocytic tumors as an adjuvant to the gold standard histopathologic evaluation. A specific set of fluorescence in situ hybridization probes is widely used to aid in diagnosing challenging melanocytic lesions. New melanoma probe cocktails have revealed increased sensitivity and specificity in ambiguous melanocytic cases. Array comparative genomic hybridization is a more complex technology used for the work-up of diagnostically problematic Spitzoid melanocytic proliferations...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776636/molecular-diagnostics-in-the-neoplasms-of-the-pancreas-liver-gallbladder-and-extrahepatic-biliary-tract-2018-update
#5
REVIEW
Lei Zhang, Martin H Bluth, Amarpreet Bhalla
Pancreatic neoplasms, including ductal adenocarcinoma, solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, pancreatic endocrine neoplasms, acinar cell carcinoma, and pancreatoblastoma, are associated with different genetic abnormalities. Hepatic adenomas with beta-catenin exon 3 mutation are associated with a high risk of malignancy. Hepatic adenoma with arginosuccinate synthetase 1 expression or sonic hedgehog mutations are associated with a risk of bleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma and choangiocarcinoma display heterogeneity at both morphologic and molecular levels Cholangiocellular carcinoma is most commonly associated with IDH 1/2 mutations...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776635/molecular-diagnostics-in-esophageal-and-gastric-neoplasms-2018-update
#6
REVIEW
Muhammad Zulfiqar, Martin H Bluth, Amarpreet Bhalla
Esophageal cancer (EC) is rapidly increasing in incidence in the United States. Genetic changes associated with the development of EC involve the p16, p53, and APC genes. Human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER-2) overexpression is seen in gastroesophageal junction carcinoma and a subset gastric carcinoma (GC). Interestingly, up to 50% cases of GC are related to Helicobacter pylori infection and up to 16% are related to EBV infection. Microsatellite instability is observed in up to 39% of GC and cell free nucleic acid analysis provides additional opportunities for diagnosis and prognosis of disease...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776634/molecular-diagnostics-in-the-neoplasms-of-small-intestine-and-appendix-2018-update
#7
REVIEW
Yingtao Zhang, Muhammad Zulfiqar, Martin H Bluth, Amarpreet Bhalla, Rafic Beydoun
Neoplasms of the small intestine are rare in comparison with colorectal tumors. The most common tumor types arising in the small intestine are adenocarcinomas, well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphoma. Primary appendiceal neoplasms are rare and found in less than 2% of appendectomy specimens with an incidence of approximately 1.2 cases per 100,000 people per year in the United States. This article explores molecular diagnostics in the neoplasms of small intestine and appendix...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776633/molecular-diagnostics-in-colorectal-carcinoma-advances-and-applications-for-2018
#8
REVIEW
Amarpreet Bhalla, Muhammad Zulfiqar, Martin H Bluth
The molecular pathogenesis and classification of colorectal carcinoma are based on the traditional adenomaecarcinoma sequence, serrated polyp pathway, and microsatellite instability (MSI). The genetic basis for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is the detection of mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM genes. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome includes MSI testing, methylator phenotype testing, BRAF mutation testing, and molecular testing for germline mutations in MMR genes. Molecular makers with predictive and prognostic implications include quantitative multigene reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and KRAS and BRAF mutation analysis...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776632/molecular-diagnosis-of-hematopoietic-neoplasms-2018-update
#9
REVIEW
Radhakrishnan Ramchandren, Tarek Jazaerly, Martin H Bluth, Ali M Gabali
Diagnosis of hematologic malignancies have matured to encompass molecular as well as phenotypic characteristics. Cytogenetic abnormalities are considered common events in this regard. These abnormalities generally consist of structural chromosomal abnormalities or gene mutations, which often are integral to the pathogenesis and subsequent evolution of an individual malignancy. Improvements made in identifying and interpreting these molecular alterations have resulted in advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring, and therapy for cancer...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776631/molecular-pathology-in-transfusion-medicine-new-concepts-and-applications
#10
REVIEW
Matthew B Elkins, Robertson D Davenport, Martin H Bluth
Virtually all the red blood cell and platelet antigen systems have been characterized at the molecular level. Highly reliable methods for red blood cell and platelet antigen genotyping are now available. Genotyping is a useful adjunct to traditional serology and can help resolve complex serologic problems. Although red blood cell and platelet phenotypes can be inferred from genotype, knowledge of the molecular basis is essential for accurate assignment. Genotyping of blood donors is an effective method of identifying antigen-negative and/or particularly rare donors...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776630/diagnostic-molecular-microbiology-a-2018-snapshot
#11
REVIEW
Marilynn Ransom Fairfax, Martin H Bluth, Hossein Salimnia
Molecular biological techniques have evolved expeditiously and in turn have been applied to the detection of infectious disease. Maturation of these technologies and their coupling with related technological advancement in fluorescence, electronics, digitization, nanodynamics, and sensors among others have afforded clinical medicine additional tools toward expedient identification of infectious organisms at concentrations and sensitivities previously unattainable. These advancements have been adapted in select settings toward addressing clinical demands for more timely and effective patient management...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776629/clinical-implication-of-micrornas-in-molecular-pathology-an-update-for-2018
#12
REVIEW
Seema Sethi, Sajiv Sethi, Martin H Bluth
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are poised to provide diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets for several diseases including malignancies for precision medicine applications. The miRNAs have immense potential in the clinical arena because they can be detected in the blood, serum, tissues (fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded), and fine-needle aspirate specimens. The most attractive feature of miRNA-based therapy is that a single miRNA could be useful for targeting multiple genes that are deregulated in cancers, which can be further investigated through systems biology and network analysis that may provide cancer-specific personalized therapy...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776628/molecular-pathology-techniques-advances-in-2018
#13
REVIEW
Mark J Bluth, Martin H Bluth
Molecular pathology techniques continue to evolve. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the cornerstone methodology for nucleic acid amplification, improvements in nucleic acid detection methodologies (i.e. PCR) have increased the detection sensitivity by using fluorescent and bead based array technologies. Single base pair lesions can be detected via sequencing and related techniques to discern point mutations in disease pathogenesis. Novel technologies, such as high- resolution melting analysis, provide fast high throughput post PCR analysis of genetic mutations or variance in nucleic acid sequences...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776627/introduction-molecular-medicine-in-the-common-era-applications-and-impact-of-molecular-pathology-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Martin H Bluth
The unprecedented expansion of molecular pathology continues to affect and influence the clinical laboratory. Technological advances in high-throughput automation, cost containment, and refined methodology have improved the understanding of pathobiology through application of molecular pathology to multiple disease spaces. Incorporation of this field to emerging omics platforms, pharmacovigilance and biomarker discovery, and accessibility by lay consumers demonstrates the widespread reach of molecular pathology in the clinical marketplace...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412893/pathology-central-and-essential
#15
EDITORIAL
Danny A Milner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412888/global-health-and-pathology
#16
Danny A Milner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412887/lymphoma-and-pathology-in-sub-saharan-africa-current-approaches-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Tamiwe Tomoka, Nathan D Montgomery, Eric Powers, Bal Mukunda Dhungel, Elizabeth A Morgan, Maurice Mulenga, Satish Gopal, Yuri Fedoriw
The care of patients with lymphoma relies heavily on accurate tissue diagnosis and classification. In sub-Saharan Africa, where lymphoma burden is increasing because of population growth, aging, and continued epidemic levels of human immunodeficiency virus infection, diagnostic pathology services are limited. This article summarizes lymphoma epidemiology, current diagnostic capacity, and obstacles and opportunities for improving practice in the region.
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412886/pathology-based-research-in-africa
#18
REVIEW
Maria P Lemos, Terrie E Taylor, Suzanne M McGoldrick, Malcolm E Molyneux, Manoj Menon, Steve Kussick, Nonhlanhla N Mkhize, Neil A Martinson, Andrea Stritmatter, Julie Randolph-Habecker
The process of conducting pathology research in Africa can be challenging. But the rewards in terms of knowledge gained, quality of collaborations, and impact on communities affected by infectious disease and cancer are great. This report reviews 3 different research efforts: fatal malaria in Malawi, mucosal immunity to HIV in South Africa, and cancer research in Uganda. What unifies them is the use of pathology-based approaches to answer vital questions, such as physiology, pathogenesis, predictors of clinical course, and diagnostic testing schemes...
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412885/from-access-to-collaboration-four-african-pathologists-profile-their-use-of-the-internet-and-social-media
#19
REVIEW
Julia Royall, Micongwe Moses Isyagi, Yawale Iliyasu, Robert Lukande, Edda Vuhahula
The shared practice of pathology via the Internet holds great potential for pathologists in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and their global partners. Application of the Internet is constrained by issues of bandwidth, cost, and power. The penetration of mobile telephony and the arrival of smartphones have changed the use of Internet and social media in Africa and therefore the work of the 4 African pathologists featured in this article. As pathology in SSA struggles for visibility and usefulness, the Internet and its electronic applications provide a critical infrastructure as well as a podium for pathologists across the continent...
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412884/training-the-next-generation-of-african-pathologists
#20
REVIEW
Ann Marie Nelson, Martin Hale, Mohenou Isidore Jean-Marie Diomande, Quentin Eichbaum, Yawale Iliyasu, Raphael M Kalengayi, Belson Rugwizangoga, Shahin Sayed
Quality patient care requires correct and timely evidence-based diagnoses. Pathology and laboratory medicine training varies significantly across the continent, but is inadequate to serve the needs of the population. This article summarizes the current state of pathology workforce and training in sub-Saharan Africa; discusses challenges to recruitment and retention; and outlines the necessary elements for training and sustaining a robust workforce in pathology and laboratory medicine. The authors provide several case studies of institutions around the continent that include expansion of existing programs, a de novo program, South-South collaborations, and skill building for the existing workforce...
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
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