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Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Deepti Suri, Sagar Bhattad, Anju Gupta, Amita Trehan, Deepak Bansal, Arvind Rajwanshi, Ashim Das, Amit Rawat, Surjit Singh
BACKGROUND: With improved survival in children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (CLHIV), malignancies are being increasingly recognized. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among the CLHIV registered at our institute from January 1994 to March 2015, children with malignancy were analysed in detail. RESULTS: In total, 734 children affected by HIV were registered. Out of these, 11 children (9 boys, 2 girls) were diagnosed to have malignancy...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Zu-Mu Zhou, Yi Xu, Cai-Song Hu, Qiong-Jiao Pan, Jing-Jiao Wei
This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) during 2008-14 in Wenzhou, China. The epidemiological data of HFMD retrieved from the Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention were retrospectively analyzed. HFMD infections with enterovirus 71 (EV71), Cox A16 or other pathogens were further verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. A total of 213 617 cases of HFMD were reported between 2008 and 2014 in Wenzhou. The average incidence was 384...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Alexandre Boulos, Katherine Rand, Josh A Johnson, Jacqueline Gautier, Michael Koster
Infections (including sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and tetanus) stand as a major contributor to neonatal mortality in Haiti (22%). Infants acquire bacteria that cause neonatal sepsis directly from the mother's blood, skin or vaginal tract either before or during delivery. Nosocomial and environmental pathogens introduce further risk after delivery. The absence of cohesive medical systems and methods for collecting information limits the available data in countries such as Haiti. This study seeks to add more information on the burden of severe bacterial infections and their etiology in neonates of Haiti...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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October 15, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Dongying Zhao, Yongjun Zhang, Zhaoqing Yin, Jing Zhao, Defeng Yang, Qun Zhou
Scrub typhus can produce multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Early recognition of the patients at risk of MODS would be helpful in providing timely management and reducing the mortality. In all, 449 children with scrub typhus were enrolled at three hospitals in Yunnan, China from January 2010 to January 2015. The patients' clinical status of organ system dysfunction was evaluated on the day of discharge from hospital by using standard criteria. The patients were classified into MODS present (64 cases, 14...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Evans M Mpabalwani, Jason M Mwenda, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, are increasingly being introduced in national immunization programmes in Africa to prevent severe dehydrating acute gastroenteritis. A low-level risk of intussusception has been associated with rotavirus vaccines. We reviewed published data on intussusception in children <2 years of age in Africa. PubMed electronic database search was used to retrieve papers published on intussusception. The search was further refined to identify surveillance reports and case series conducted from 1980 to 2014, with at least 25 cases...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Aurélia Stefani, Marie Cheuret, Duc N'Guyen, Stéphane Simon, Paul Brousse, Bernard Carme, Mathieu Nacher
INTRODUCTION: Most studies on nematode-malaria interactions were conducted outside of the Americas. The objective of the present study was thus to study the relation between malaria and nematodes in a cohort of children in an Amazonian village. METHODS: Odds ratios for intestinal nematode infections as an explanatory variable to malaria resistant vs. malaria sensitive were computed. RESULTS: Ascaris lumbricoides was significantly more frequent in the 'resistant' malaria group than in the 'sensitive' one...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Qiuyan Xu, Liqiong Zhang, Chuangli Hao, Wujun Jiang, Hui Tao, Huiquan Sun, Li Huang, Jing Zhou, Liping Fan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to find the relationship between the clinical characteristics and mucus plug formation and developed models to predict mucus plug formation in refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP) infection. METHODS: RMPP patients treated with bronchoscopy were retrospectively enrolled in the study between November 2011 and November 2015. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of mucus plug formation. RESULTS: Of the 173 RMPP patients enrolled, the mucus plug group accounted for 82 (47...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Neriman Sarı, Nurettin Okur, Gulin Uçmak, İnci Ergürhan İlhan
We report a 16-year-old male patient diagnosed with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis. The differential diagnosis between high or early stage of rhabdomyosarcoma and tuberculosis (TB) was critical in this patient without a history of TB. Unexpected lymphadenopathies detected during the staging of patients with malignancy should be carefully evaluated, and TB should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis especially in underdeveloped and developing countries...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Eitan N Berezin, Claudia C Lopes, Maria Regina A Cardoso
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level and the persistence of maternal antibodies in infants after maternal immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pn23V). METHODS: Pregnant women were assigned to two groups, during routine low-risk pre-natal visits. The first Group (VAC) received the Pn23V vaccine shortly after enrolment at 28 weeks or later, and the second Group (NO_VAC) received no vaccine. To investigate the antibody persistence, we collected blood samples from the mothers after 1 month of delivery and from the infants at 1 and 6 months of age...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Ragna S Boerma, Cissy Kityo, T Sonia Boender, Elizabeth Kaudha, Joshua Kayiwa, Victor Musiime, Andrew Mukuye, Mary Kiconco, Immaculate Nankya, Lilian Nakatudde, Peter N Mugyenyi, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Kim C E Sigaloff, Job C J Calis
BACKGROUND: Data on pediatric second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes are scarce, but essential to evaluate second-line and design third-line regimens. METHODS: Children ≤12 years switching to second-line ART containing a protease inhibitor (PI) in Uganda were followed for 24 months. Viral load (VL) was determined at switch to second-line and every 6 months thereafter; genotypic resistance testing was done if VL ≥ 1000 cps/ml. RESULTS: 60 children were included in the analysis; all had ≥1 drug resistance mutations at switch...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
C Muñoz-Antoli, A Pavón, P Pérez, R Toledo, J G Esteban
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) prevalence, intensity, polyparasitism and co-infections in 425 children from 3 schools of Laguna de Perlas (Nicaragua) were investigated. Single stool samples were analysed by the formalin-ether method and the Kato-Katz. A total of 402 (94.6%) children were infected. Trichuris trichiura 308 (72.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides 115 (27.1%) and Hookworms 54 (12.7%) were the most prevalent STHs. Polyparasitism (322; 75.8%) with two species was most prevalent (109; 25.6%). T. trichiura with A...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Therdpong Tempark, Ramrada Lekwuttikarn, Susheera Chatproedprai, Siriwan Wananukul
Nail scabies is an interesting clinical presentation of scabies. Although it is usually found concomitant with characteristic dermatologic manifestations, it may present as an isolated finding in the immunocompromised host. This condition is commonly mistaken with other diseases such as nail dystrophy, nail psoriasis and onychomycosis. We report two cases of unusual nail presentations that provide clues to diagnosis. Also, literature on unusual nail and dermatologic presentations was reviewed to recognize dermatologist consideration for appropriate treatment options...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Karen Zwi, Nikola Morton, Lisa Woodland, Kylie-Ann Mallitt, Pamela Palasanthiran
AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of health conditions in newly arrived refugee children and access to timely heath screening. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from screening of refugee children in regional Australia (2007-12) were analysed for health conditions and timeliness of primary care access. RESULTS: The health of 376 newly arrived refugee children (0-15 years) was assessed. Refugee children came from African (45%), Southeast Asian (29%) and Eastern Mediterranean (10%) regions...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Bahareh Nikooyeh, Zahra Abdollahi, Majid Hajifaraji, Hamid Alavi-Majd, Forouzan Salehi, Amir Hossein Yarparvar, Tirang R Neyestani
BACKGROUND: Recent data indicate a role for vitamin D in many health aspects including anthropometric measures and blood lipid profiles. Dermal vitamin D synthesis may be influenced by latitude. However, the contribution of latitude in vitamin D status and its association with anthropometric and blood lipid measures in Iranian children have not been studied to date. METHODS: We used data from the National Food and Nutritional Surveillance Program. In total, 667 apparently healthy children aged 5-18 years were randomly selected from six provinces of Iran with different latitudes, from 29 to 37°...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Nowneet Kumar Bhat, Vivek Ahuja, Minakshi Dhar, Sohaib Ahmad, Neerul Pandita, Vibha Gupta, Smita Chandra
Adult cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), predominantly males, have been reported in the past decade from natives of high altitude areas of North Indian state of Uttarakhand. We report 14 pediatric cases of VL, who were diagnosed and treated successfully over the past 7 years. All these children were born and brought up in this area and had never visited any of the endemic areas. High prevalence of pallor, splenohepatomegaly, thrombocytopenia and poor association with HIV are cardinal features of VL in this region...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Taco J Prins, Margreet Trip-Hoving, Moo Kho Paw, Mar Le Ka, Nyo Nyo Win, Gay Htoo, Mu Kaw Hser, Kesinee Chotivanich, François Nosten, Rose McGready
BACKGROUND: In populations with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, practices that can induce haemolysis need to be identified to raise awareness of preventable risks. The aim of this survey was to determine the proportion of prospective mothers using haemolytic agents and their knowledge and practice surrounding neonatal jaundice. METHODS: Pregnant mothers were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey conducted at Shoklo Malaria Research Unit on the Thailand-Myanmar border...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Qian-Qian Xin, Bo-Wen Chen, De-Lu Yin, Feng Xiao, Rui-Li Li, Tao Yin, Hui-Min Yang, Xiao-Guo Zheng, Li-Hong Wang
This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and sociodemographic factors of anemia in children <36 months old in China. In this study, data of 24 235 children were investigated from 32 primary health care (PHC) facilities in 11 province-level regions. Pearson χ(2)-test and logistic regression model were used to estimate potential risk factors associated with anemia. The overall prevalence of anemia was 24.4%, and 32.8% children from rural areas were anemic, but no statistically significant difference was observed between male and female...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Sharifah Wajihah Wafa, Nur Nadzirah Aziz, Mohd Razif Shahril, Hasmiza Halib, Marhasiyah Rahim, Xanne Janssen
This study describes the patterns of objectively measured sitting, standing and stepping in obese children using the activPAL(TM) and highlights possible differences in sedentary levels and patterns during weekdays and weekends. Sixty-five obese children, aged 9-11 years, were recruited from primary schools in Terengganu, Malaysia. Sitting, standing and stepping were objectively measured using an activPAL(TM) accelerometer over a period of 4-7 days. Obese children spent an average of 69.6% of their day sitting/lying, 19...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Elisa Lopez-Varela, Victor Guillermo Sequera, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Orvalho Joaquim Augusto, Khatia Munguambe, Jahit Sacarlal, Pedro L Alonso
BACKGROUND: There is limited literature regarding adherence rates for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in children. We aimed to describe TB treatment outcomes and adherence as well as to evaluate associated factors to poor adherence in Mozambican children. METHODS: This is a sub-study of a community TB incidence study among children <3 years of age. Incomplete adherence included the sum of lost-to-follow-up cases plus those with a delay of > 3 weeks to treatment completion...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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