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Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Amy L Slogrove, Leigh F Johnson, Kathleen M Powis
We aimed to quantify the contribution of excess mortality in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants to total mortality in HIV-uninfected infants in Botswana and South Africa in 2013. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) and excess infant deaths associated with HIV exposure in HIV-uninfected infants were estimated. Additionally, the Thembisa South African demographic model estimated the proportion of all infant mortality associated with excess mortality in HEU infants from 1990 to 2013. The PAF (lower bound; upper bound) of mortality associated with HIV exposure in HIV-uninfected infants was 16...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Madrid Lola, Varo Rosauro, Bassat Quique
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Marcela Fandiño-Cárdenas, Alvaro J Idrovo, Roman Velandia, Jessica Molina-Franky, Jorge L Alvarado-Socarras
Objective: The objectives of this study were to describe the findings of the auditory screening in children of mothers with ZIKV during pregnancy or suspicious of congenital ZIKV, and to determine whether hearing loss was in the first 2 years in life, regardless of whether microcephaly was also present. Methods: This is a cases report. The information was collected and recorded in a database between January 2016 and April 2018. We perform two auditory tests to 3 and 24 months of life...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Georgie Mathew, Venkatesh Arumugam, Suresh Murugesan, Neelaveni Duhli, Indira Agarwal
Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection often seen in immunocompromised hosts. Isolated renal mucormycosis may however present in immunocompetent children as renal failure and has a uniformly poor prognosis if not detected and treated early into the course of illness. We present a 3-year-old boy with unrelenting pyelonephritis in whom serial urine cultures done were negative. A final diagnosis of isolated renal mucormycosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging and renal biopsy.
September 25, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Mesut Dursun, Sinan Uslu, Ali Bulbul, Muhittin Celik, Umut Zubarioglu, Evrim Kiray Bas
Aims: To compare the effect of early nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in terms of the need for endotracheal ventilation in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants born between 24 and 32 gestational weeks. Methods: This is a randomized, controlled, prospective, single-centered study. Forty-two infants were randomized to nIPPV and 42 comparable infants to nCPAP (birth weight 1356 ± 295 and 1359 ± 246 g and gestational age 29...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Natee Sakornyutthadej, Preamrudee Poomthavorn, Pat Mahachoklertwattana
Background: Intravenous hypotonic fluid administered in children is associated with an increased risk of developing hyponatremia. This finding has been reported from temperate countries where climate is relatively cold. But whether this risk also occurs in tropical countries has not been elucidated. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between environmental temperature and serum sodium in non-critically ill children. Methods: A retrospective study...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Huiming Sun, Jiyang Sun, Wei Ji, Chuangli Hao, Yongdong Yan, Zhengrong Chen, Yuqing Wang
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess epidemiological and clinical features of human bocavirus (HBoV) coinfection with other viruses. Method: Children coinfected with HBoV between January 2012 and December 2014 were enrolled and retrospectively reviewed. Result: A total of 984 patients were stratified into five groups: HBoV infection alone (n = 249), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection alone (n = 649), HBoV coinfection with RSV (n = 28), with human rhinovirus (HRV) (n = 39) and with other virus (n = 19)...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Syed N Sarmast, Vykuntaraju K Gowda, Maaz Ahmed, G V Basvaraja, Jitender Saini, Asha Benakappa
Introduction: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is characterized by limb weakness with spinal cord grey matter lesion on imaging or electrodiagnostic evidence of spinal cord motor neuron injury. This Poliomyelitis-like illness is rare in children, and its natural course is not yet well defined. Purpose of the study: The purpose of the study was to report the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, management and outcome of children with AFM. Materials and methods: This is a prospective case series study...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
N B Mathur, Bijaylaxmi Behera
Objective: To determine the time to normalization of procalcitonin (PCT) levels and duration of antibiotics in neonatal sepsis. Methods: A prospective observational study design was used. The participants included were neonates with sepsis. The primary outcome measure was time to normalization of PCT levels and duration of antibiotics following clinical resolution. Results: Time to normalization of PCT levels was 9.6 ± 4.2 days in neonates with septic shock, 6...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Songül Aktas, Dilek Küçük Alemdar
Aim: The study was conducted to determine the correlation between infantile colic and maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, breastfeeding success and breast milk amount. Materials and methods: This descriptive study included 154 mothers, with infants of age between 3 weeks and 6 months who were diagnosed with infantile colic and who were admitted to the paediatric outpatient clinics of a hospital located in northern Turkey. Result: A negative correlation was found between 'parent-infant interaction + problem infant' and 'immature gastrointestinal system' subscales of the Infantile Colic Scale (ICS) and the total mean scores of mothers on the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Helen M Nabwera, Robin M Bernstein, Schadrac C Agbla, Sophie E Moore, Momodou K Darboe, Mariama Colley, Amadou T Jallow, Richard Bradbury, Jennifer Karafin, Anthony J Fulford, Andrew M Prentice
Background: Malnourished children show variable growth responses to nutritional rehabilitation. We aimed to investigate whether these differences could be explained by variations in growth and energy-regulating hormones. Methods: Quasi-experimental study: Children aged 6-24 months in rural Gambia were recruited to controls if weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) > -2 (n = 22), moderate acute malnutrition if WHZ < -2 and > -3 (n = 18) or severe acute malnutrition if WHZ < -3 (n = 20)...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Céline N Nkenfou, Edith S Temgoua, Elvis N Ndzi, Linda Chapdeleine Mouafo Mekue, Marie Nicole Ngoufack, Beatrice Dambaya, Jean De Dieu Anoubissi, Irenée Domkam, Elise Elong, Nadine Fainguem, Jacques Thèze, Vittorio Colizzi, Anne Cecile Z K Bissek, Alexis Ndjolo
Background: Some risk factors for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV have been identified. To further reduce MTCT, other risk factors were evaluated. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on early infant diagnosis was conducted. Two-sided chi-square test was used to assess associations with infant HIV status. Results: A total of 15 233 HIV-infected mothers and 15 404 infants were recruited. MTCT rate was 9.34%. Only 3.8% of infants born to mothers on antiretroviral treatment were infected...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Sheila Fernández-Luis, Laura Fuente-Soro, Orvalho Augusto, Edson Bernardo, Tacilta Nhampossa, Sonia Maculuve, Terence Manning Hernández, Denise Naniche, Elisa López-Varela
Introduction: Retention in care and reengagement of lost to follow-up (LTFU) patients are priority challenges in pediatric HIV care. We aimed to assess whether a telephone-call active tracing program facilitated reengagement in care (RIC) in the Manhiça District Hospital, Mozambique. Methods: Telephone tracing of LTFU children was performed from July 2016 to March 2017. Both ART (antiretroviral treatment) and preART patients were included in this study. LTFU was defined as not attending the clinic for ≥120 days after last attended visit...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Christopher B Eke, Robin A Brown, Ronalda J De Lacy, Komala Pillay, Elizabeth A Goddard
Collagenous gastritis is an uncommon gastrointestinal disease in children. Its cause remains uncertain. It may present as severe hypoproteinaemia manifesting as generalized oedema.We report a 15 months old female who presented with pica, generalized body oedema and diarrhoea. Diagnostic workup revealed gastric replacement of the lamina propria by hyalinized collagen on histology.This case seeks to highlight the need for early paediatric gastroenterology referral including oesophagogastroduodenoscopy with multiple tissue biopsies as part of a broad diagnostic workup in children with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms to improve diagnostic yield and enable accurate histologic diagnosis, so that appropriate therapy can be timeously applied...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Edward Tisungane Mwenyenkulu, Nuntiput Putthanachote, Owen Nkoka, Thomas Gabriel Mhone, Mfundi President Sebenele Motsa, Tinashe Tizifa
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the uptake and predictors of monovalent human rotavirus and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines among children of age 12-35 months in Malawi. Methods: This study used cross-sectional data obtained from the 2015-16 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors related to uptake of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination. Results: The uptake of rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines was 90...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Maria L Ekstrand, Elsa Heylen, Kayur Mehta, G N Sanjeeva, Anita Shet
This study was designed to examine the rates of HIV serostatus disclosure in a sample of HIV-infected children in the state of Karnataka in South India, their reactions to learning their HIV-positive status and the reasons for and barriers to disclosure from the point of view of their caregivers. We enrolled 233 HIV-infected children, aged 5-18 years and their caregivers between July 2011 and February 2013 at HIV clinics in three tertiary care centers. Caregiver interviews included information about demographic characteristics, medical history, type of disclosure to the child and other related factors, including disclosure barriers...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Shruti Sharma, Jagadeesh Menon, Sadhna Lal, Babu Ram Thapa
Bertiella is a common parasite seen in non-human primates. It is rarely seen in humans. We present the case of a 2-year-old child with bertiellosis. He had recurrent abdominal pain, and worm fragments were found in stool, which were refractory to albendazole therapy.
August 1, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Manas Pratim Roy, Ratan Gupta, Nidhi Chopra, Satish Kumar Meena, Kailash Chander Aggarwal
Objective: We conducted a study to find a relationship between main weather parameters with admission of positive dengue cases in a tertiary hospital. Methods: Retrospective analysis was undertaken to identify epidemiological trend of dengue in 2016 from paediatric wards of a tertiary hospital in New Delhi. Data were collected on patient particulars and daily weather from January to December 2016. Results: A total of 266 confirmed cases of dengue were considered...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Daniel A Gbadero, Emmanuel O Adegbite, Jean-Baptist LePichon, Tina M Slusher
We report a case of a 4-year-old boy from Oyo, Nigeria, presenting with prolonged seizures and coma with the subsequent development of oro-lingual-facial dyskinesia with frequent tongue thrusting, dysconjugate gaze and choreoathetoid movements of the limbs because of autoimmune encephalitis consistent with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis.
August 1, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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