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Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Nahida Z Walli, Emmanuel K Munubhi, Said Aboud, Karim P Manji
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate vitamin D levels/deficiency among malnourished children <5 years admitted at a tertiary care center, the Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Children with malnutrition may have co-existing vitamin D deficiency (VDD), which may be severe. METHODS:  Serum vitamin D and alkaline phosphatase were evaluated, and X-ray of the wrist was carried out on 134 children. RESULTS:  VDD was found in 41 of 134 children (30...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Roshni Julia Rajan, Promila Mohanraj, Winsley Rose
Basidiobolomycosis is an uncommon cutaneous zygomycete infection typically seen in immunocompetent individuals. Diagnosis can be made by biopsy and fungal culture of the lesion. Treatment with Potassium iodide and co-trimoxazole is simple and effective. Early and accurate diagnosis of basidiobolomycosis is essential to avoid dissemination and mortality. We present a case with basidiobolomycosis resembling Fournier's gangrene.
October 29, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Johanna Thomson, Myrto Schaefer, Belen Caminoa, David Kahindi, Northan Hurtado
Neonatal deaths comprise a growing proportion of global under-five mortality. However, data from the highest-burden areas is sparse. This descriptive retrospective study analyses the outcomes of all infants exiting the Médecins sans Frontières-managed neonatal unit in Aweil Hospital, rural South Sudan from 2011 to 2014. A total of 4268 patients were treated over 4 years, with annual admissions increasing from 687 to 1494. Overall mortality was 13.5% (n = 576), declining from 18.7% to 11.1% (p for trend <0...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Deepti Suri, Sagar Bhattad, Anju Gupta, Amita Trehan, Deepak Bansal, Arvind Rajwanshi, Ashim Das, Amit Rawat, Surjit Singh
BACKGROUND: With improved survival in children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (CLHIV), malignancies are being increasingly recognized. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among the CLHIV registered at our institute from January 1994 to March 2015, children with malignancy were analysed in detail. RESULTS: In total, 734 children affected by HIV were registered. Out of these, 11 children (9 boys, 2 girls) were diagnosed to have malignancy...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Zu-Mu Zhou, Yi Xu, Cai-Song Hu, Qiong-Jiao Pan, Jing-Jiao Wei
This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) during 2008-14 in Wenzhou, China. The epidemiological data of HFMD retrieved from the Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention were retrospectively analyzed. HFMD infections with enterovirus 71 (EV71), Cox A16 or other pathogens were further verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. A total of 213 617 cases of HFMD were reported between 2008 and 2014 in Wenzhou. The average incidence was 384...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Alexandre Boulos, Katherine Rand, Josh A Johnson, Jacqueline Gautier, Michael Koster
Infections (including sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and tetanus) stand as a major contributor to neonatal mortality in Haiti (22%). Infants acquire bacteria that cause neonatal sepsis directly from the mother's blood, skin or vaginal tract either before or during delivery. Nosocomial and environmental pathogens introduce further risk after delivery. The absence of cohesive medical systems and methods for collecting information limits the available data in countries such as Haiti. This study seeks to add more information on the burden of severe bacterial infections and their etiology in neonates of Haiti...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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October 15, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Dongying Zhao, Yongjun Zhang, Zhaoqing Yin, Jing Zhao, Defeng Yang, Qun Zhou
Scrub typhus can produce multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Early recognition of the patients at risk of MODS would be helpful in providing timely management and reducing the mortality. In all, 449 children with scrub typhus were enrolled at three hospitals in Yunnan, China from January 2010 to January 2015. The patients' clinical status of organ system dysfunction was evaluated on the day of discharge from hospital by using standard criteria. The patients were classified into MODS present (64 cases, 14...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Evans M Mpabalwani, Jason M Mwenda, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, are increasingly being introduced in national immunization programmes in Africa to prevent severe dehydrating acute gastroenteritis. A low-level risk of intussusception has been associated with rotavirus vaccines. We reviewed published data on intussusception in children <2 years of age in Africa. PubMed electronic database search was used to retrieve papers published on intussusception. The search was further refined to identify surveillance reports and case series conducted from 1980 to 2014, with at least 25 cases...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Aurélia Stefani, Marie Cheuret, Duc N'Guyen, Stéphane Simon, Paul Brousse, Bernard Carme, Mathieu Nacher
INTRODUCTION: Most studies on nematode-malaria interactions were conducted outside of the Americas. The objective of the present study was thus to study the relation between malaria and nematodes in a cohort of children in an Amazonian village. METHODS: Odds ratios for intestinal nematode infections as an explanatory variable to malaria resistant vs. malaria sensitive were computed. RESULTS: Ascaris lumbricoides was significantly more frequent in the 'resistant' malaria group than in the 'sensitive' one...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Qiuyan Xu, Liqiong Zhang, Chuangli Hao, Wujun Jiang, Hui Tao, Huiquan Sun, Li Huang, Jing Zhou, Liping Fan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to find the relationship between the clinical characteristics and mucus plug formation and developed models to predict mucus plug formation in refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP) infection. METHODS: RMPP patients treated with bronchoscopy were retrospectively enrolled in the study between November 2011 and November 2015. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of mucus plug formation. RESULTS: Of the 173 RMPP patients enrolled, the mucus plug group accounted for 82 (47...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Neriman Sarı, Nurettin Okur, Gulin Uçmak, İnci Ergürhan İlhan
We report a 16-year-old male patient diagnosed with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis. The differential diagnosis between high or early stage of rhabdomyosarcoma and tuberculosis (TB) was critical in this patient without a history of TB. Unexpected lymphadenopathies detected during the staging of patients with malignancy should be carefully evaluated, and TB should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis especially in underdeveloped and developing countries...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Eitan N Berezin, Claudia C Lopes, Maria Regina A Cardoso
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level and the persistence of maternal antibodies in infants after maternal immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pn23V). METHODS: Pregnant women were assigned to two groups, during routine low-risk pre-natal visits. The first Group (VAC) received the Pn23V vaccine shortly after enrolment at 28 weeks or later, and the second Group (NO_VAC) received no vaccine. To investigate the antibody persistence, we collected blood samples from the mothers after 1 month of delivery and from the infants at 1 and 6 months of age...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Ragna S Boerma, Cissy Kityo, T Sonia Boender, Elizabeth Kaudha, Joshua Kayiwa, Victor Musiime, Andrew Mukuye, Mary Kiconco, Immaculate Nankya, Lilian Nakatudde, Peter N Mugyenyi, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Kim C E Sigaloff, Job C J Calis
BACKGROUND: Data on pediatric second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes are scarce, but essential to evaluate second-line and design third-line regimens. METHODS: Children ≤12 years switching to second-line ART containing a protease inhibitor (PI) in Uganda were followed for 24 months. Viral load (VL) was determined at switch to second-line and every 6 months thereafter; genotypic resistance testing was done if VL ≥ 1000 cps/ml. RESULTS: 60 children were included in the analysis; all had ≥1 drug resistance mutations at switch...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
C Muñoz-Antoli, A Pavón, P Pérez, R Toledo, J G Esteban
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) prevalence, intensity, polyparasitism and co-infections in 425 children from 3 schools of Laguna de Perlas (Nicaragua) were investigated. Single stool samples were analysed by the formalin-ether method and the Kato-Katz. A total of 402 (94.6%) children were infected. Trichuris trichiura 308 (72.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides 115 (27.1%) and Hookworms 54 (12.7%) were the most prevalent STHs. Polyparasitism (322; 75.8%) with two species was most prevalent (109; 25.6%). T. trichiura with A...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Therdpong Tempark, Ramrada Lekwuttikarn, Susheera Chatproedprai, Siriwan Wananukul
Nail scabies is an interesting clinical presentation of scabies. Although it is usually found concomitant with characteristic dermatologic manifestations, it may present as an isolated finding in the immunocompromised host. This condition is commonly mistaken with other diseases such as nail dystrophy, nail psoriasis and onychomycosis. We report two cases of unusual nail presentations that provide clues to diagnosis. Also, literature on unusual nail and dermatologic presentations was reviewed to recognize dermatologist consideration for appropriate treatment options...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Bineeta Kashyap, Kanupriya Kusumakar, Yogesh Kumar Sarin
Candida species have been implicated as significant contributors to morbidity in the neonatal period and are associated with 25-50% of mortality in invasive neonatal candidiasis. Peritoneal candidiasis, being paucisymptomatic, cannot often be correctly identified in a preterm neonate. The correct approach to diagnosis of neonatal peritoneal candidiasis is taking into account the epidemiology along with a strong clinical suspicion and appropriate timely diagnostic interventions. We report a case of fatal neonatal peritoneal candidiasis which was misdiagnosed as mucormycosis...
October 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Chiara Altare, Tefera Darge Delbiso, George Mutembei Mutwiri, Regine Kopplow, Debarati Guha-Sapir
BACKGROUND: Stunting is a major public health problem in Africa and is associated with poor child survival and development. We investigate factors associated to child stunting in three Tanzanian regions. METHODS: A cross-sectional two-stage cluster sampling survey was conducted among children aged 6-59 months. The sample included 1360 children aged 6-23 months and 1904 children aged 24-59 months. Descriptive statistics and binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used...
October 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Winsley Rose, Roshni J Rajan, Anu Punnen, Urmi Ghosh
BACKGROUND: Identifying an eschar in scrub typhus is useful for initiation of prompt and appropriate antibiotic therapy. METHODS: The distribution of eschars in all children <15 years of age admitted with confirmed scrub typhus over a 5 year period is described. RESULTS: Of 431 children admitted with scrub typhus, eschars were present in 176 (40.8%) children with the following distribution: head, face and neck, 33 (19.1%); axillae, 37 (21%); chest and abdomen, 21 (11...
October 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Majeda S Hammoud, Abdullah Al-Taiar, Aditiya Raina, Dalal Elsori, Sarah Al-Qabandi, Mazen Al-Essa
OBJECTIVE: No guidelines exist on the use of palivizumab during outbreaks of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). We aimed to describe an outbreak of RSV in NICU settings and the role of palivizumab in controlling the outbreak. METHODS: The index case was a 30-day-old premature infant. During the outbreak, 13 cases of RSV were confirmed by RT-PCR. All infants in the NICU received palivizumab after RSV diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 13 cases, seven were male; and the median (interquartile) of birth weight was 1585 (IQR: 1480-1705) g...
October 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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