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Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Hayley K Hutton, Heather J Zar, Andrew C Argent
Aim: Severe acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Methods: This is a 12-month retrospective cohort study of children (0-12 years) admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with ALRTI to investigate risk factors, clinical course and in-hospital survival. Results: In total, 265 patients (median age = 4 months [2-12 months]) were identified. In all,102 (38...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Shu Hwa Ong, Winnie Siew Swee Chee, L Mageswary Lapchmanan, Shan Ni Ong, Zhi Chin Lua, Jowynna Xia-Ni Yeo
Background: Early detection of malnutrition in hospitalized children helps reduce length of hospital stay and morbidity. A validated nutrition tool is essential to correctly identify children at risk of malnutrition or who are already malnourished. This study compared the use of the Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA, nutrition assessment tool) and Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP, nutrition screening tool) with objective nutritional parameters to identify malnutrition in hospitalized children...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Jagdish Chandra, Puneet Kaur Sahi, Sourabh Gupta, Rohini Ajay Gupta, Renu Dutta, B L Sherwal, Anju Seth, Praveen Kumar, Varinder Singh
The WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses-HIV (IMCI-HIV) algorithm and its regional adaptation have shown variable performance in clinically identifying HIV-infected children with lack of validation in low prevalence areas. Addition of certain 'parental factors' (proxy indicators of parental HIV) may improve its utility. In this study, children aged 2 months to 5 years were enrolled into Group A (n = 1000, 'suspected symptomatic HIV infected' children as per the IMNCI-HIV algorithm) and group B (n = 50, children newly diagnosed with HIV infection)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Betsy Rebecca, Anila Chacko, Valsan Verghese, Winsley Rose
Background: Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is often underdiagnosed with poor estimate of its true burden. Availability of Xpert MTB/RIF assay enhances diagnostic capacity of pediatric TB. Methods: A 3-year retrospective review of hospital records was done for all children diagnosed with confirmed and unconfirmed TB. Comparison was made between intrathoracic, single-site extrathoracic and disseminated TB. Results: In total, 274 children had TB with 130 (47...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Arghya Das, Shampa Anupurba, Om P Mishra, Tuhina Banerjee, Rajneesh Tripathi
Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is now a global priority. With the advent of Xpert MTB/RIF, more TB cases in children are being reported. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of Xpert in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in children. Methods: Specimens from 171 suspected TB cases in children aged <15 years were tested with Xpert, culture and smear microscopy in the Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, India...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Anitha Ananthan, Ruchi Nanavati, Pragati Sathe, Haribalakrishna Balasubramanian
Aims: This prospective observational study compared placental lesions of stillbirth cases and live birth controls, and aimed to determine the cause of stillbirth. Methods: The study enrolled 85 stillbirths and 85 live births at the time of delivery. Results: There was significantly increased incidence of placental abruption (p = 0.005) and gestational diabetes (p = 0.032) in mothers with stillbirths. Histopathological examination of placenta was significantly abnormal in stillbirths compared with live births (p = 0...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Frans P van der Westhuizen, Amy L Slogrove, H Marlize Kunneke, Mariana Kruger
Background: Acute diarrhoea (AD) remains a leading cause of childhood death. We evaluated whether delayed healthcare seeking was associated with severe dehydration in rural South Africa. Methods: In a prospective cohort study of children with AD admitted to a secondary-level hospital, data were collected through structured caregiver interviews and hospital record review. The primary outcome was severe dehydration/death, and the primary determinant was delay >12 h between AD symptom onset and healthcare facility presentation...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Aditya Kurade, Sara Dhanawade, Sachin Shetti
Objective: The objective of this articlewas to study the success, tolerability of sputum induction and the bacterial isolates of induced sputum in children aged <5 years. Methods: The cross-sectional study included 120 hospitalized children aged 1-59 months meeting WHO criteria for pneumonia. Sputum induction was performed using hypertonic (3%) saline. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 19.5 months (2-59 months). Overall success of sputum induction was 53...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Kathy Burgoine, Juliet Ikiror, Ketty Naizuli, Linda Achom, Sylivia Akol, Peter Olupot-Olupot
Background: Without early recognition and treatment, neonatal meningitis (NM) has a high mortality and morbidity. Although some neonates have features of NM, many do not. In many low-resource settings, the laboratory support to diagnose NM is not available, and bedside diagnostics are needed. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a neonatal unit in Uganda. Clear cerebrospinal fluid samples were routinely screened for glucose, protein and leukocytes on a Combur®-10 urinalysis reagent strip...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Vijaya Ontela, Gowri Dorairajan, Vishnu B Bhat, Palanivel Chinnakali
Objective: The objective of this article was to study the effect of antenatal dexamethasone on the respiratory morbidity of late preterm newborns. Study design: A randomized controlled trial, conducted in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in collaboration with Neonatology department at JIPMER, India. In total, 155 women were studied in each group. Intention to treat analysis and per protocol analysis were done. Results: Overall 31 (10%) newborns were admitted to intensive care unit...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Silas Kabhele, Moses New-Aaron, Stephen Matthew Kibusi, Ainory P Gesase
Background: Childhood diarrhoea is a global public health problem especially in unplanned settlements of low- and middle-income countries. Different studies have associated household settlement and childhood diarrhoea, but the prevalence and risk factors associated with childhood diarrhoea at the community level are not clearly known. Method: A community-based cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with diarrhoea in among 480 children between 6 and 59 months of age in Mwanza city from June to August 2016...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Samuel Akech, Beatrice Rotich, Mercy Chepkirui, Philip Ayieko, Grace Irimu, Mike English
An audit of randomly selected case records of 810 patients admitted to 13 hospitals between December 2015 and November 2016 was done. Prevalence of dehydration was 19.7% (2293 of 11 636) [95% CI: 17.1-22.6%], range across hospitals was 9.4% to 27.0%. Most cases with dehydration were clinically diagnosed (82 of 153; 53.6%), followed by excessive weight loss (54 of 153; 35.3%) and abnormal urea/electrolytes/creatinine (23 of 153; 15.0%). Documentation of fluids prescribed was poor but, where data were available, Ringers lactate (30 of 153; 19...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Pradeep Kumar Sharma, Maneesh Kumar, Neha Bhandari, Anand Kushwaha
Chikungunya is usually a benign disease, and little is known on the occurrence of severe clinical complications. We describe a 12-year-old boy with rapid onset septic shock and multi-organ failure associated with chikungunya fever. Severe sepsis and septic shock can be associated with chikungunya.
January 6, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Indi Trehan, Quique Bassat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Anuradha Bose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Aditi Jain, Jhuma Sankar, Anubhuti Anubhuti, Dinesh Kumar Yadav, M Jeeva Sankar
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and effects of sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) in children with septic shock. Methodology: Enrolled children with septic shock (n = 31) and sepsis (n = 30) underwent echocardiography and cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) estimation within first 3 h. SIMD was defined as presence of systolic/diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography. Results: The prevalence of SIMD was 71% in 'septic shock' and 23% in 'sepsis'...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Gaurav Patwardhan, Ankit Soni, Nitin Rachwani, Sandeep Kadam, Sanjay Patole, Anand Pandit
Background: Feeding intolerance prolongs time to full feeds (TFFs) in preterm infants. We studied factors associated with TFF in preterm infants on standardized feeding regimen (SFR) and routine probiotic supplementation (RPS). Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of preterm infants ≤1500 g. Pearson's correlation, Mann-Whitney test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: In total, 37 of 304 admitted infants died before reaching full feeds...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Indi Trehan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Narayanasamy Dinesh Kumar, Thirunavukkarasu Arun Babu, Vijayasankar Vijayadevagaran, Shanthi Ananthakrishnan, Devi Kittu
Re-emerging scrub typhus is gaining recognition as an important cause of paediatric meningoencephalitis in tropics. We studied the clinical profile of scrub typhus meningoencephalitis (STME) in children <12 years. Of 270 serology-confirmed cases of scrub typhus, 14 (5%) had features consistent with STME and 9 (64%) of these children were between 5 and 12 years of age; 12 (85%) children presented to the hospital during the second week of illness. Fever, headache and altered sensorium were observed in all children, while meningeal signs, papilledema and seizures were observed in 8 (57%), 7 (50%) and 6 (43%) children, respectively...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Rosauro Varo, Antonio Sitoe, Anelsio Cossa, Jaume Ordi, Maria Rozman, Quique Bassat
Background: Leukoerythroblastosis, a non-specific and often short-lasting response of the bone marrow to different diseases such as malignancies or infections, is characterized by the presence in the peripheral blood of immature red and white cells. Methods: We present a case of leukoerythoblastosis occurring in a 24 months old Mozambican girl, in the context of a severe malaria episode and an associated urinary tract infection. Peripheral blood smear was used for diagnosis of malaria and leukoerythroblastosis...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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