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Human Immunology

Toshihiro Muraji, Hidenori Tanaka, Satoshi Ieiri
The cause of biliary atresia (BA) remains an enigma. However, an ethnic diversity in the incidence of BA is so unique that anthropological approach may provide some etiopathogenetic implications in the disease mechanism. We previously reported that an association of maternal microchimerism (MMc) in BA and a significant compatibility of HLA-A between the patient with BA and their mother. Acrossthe 10 countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, New Zealand (Maori population), UK, France, Germany, Norway, and Sweden), we determined the frequency of the most prevalentHLA haplotypes of each country from Allele Frequency Database and found that it was significantly correlated with the incidence of BA of the respective country (p =0...
July 10, 2018: Human Immunology
Louise Kofod, Anette Lindhard, Thomas Vauvert F Hviid
A range of studies have shown that the complex process of implantation and an establishment of a pregnancy also involves immune factors. Disturbances in these underlying immune mechanisms might lead to implantation and pregnancy failure and may be involved in the pathogenesis of unexplained infertility. Several studies have reported that imbalances in uterine NK (uNK) cell abundance are associated with infertility; however, controversies exist. An increased amount of CD56+ uNK cells along with a decrease in CD16+ uNK cells have been associated with normal fertility in some studies...
July 7, 2018: Human Immunology
Polyxeni T Mantani, Jenifer Vallejo, Irena Ljungcrantz, Jan Nilsson, Harry Björkbacka, Gunilla Nordin Fredrikson
BACKGROUND: The absence of interleukin-25 (IL-25) favors the induction of Th1 and Th17 immune responses in mice. Th1 immune responses have been associated with the pathology of atherosclerosis, a lipid and inflammation driven disease of the arterial wall. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: To evaluate the effect of IL-25 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) in the presence and absence of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), a key player in atherosclerosis development...
June 29, 2018: Human Immunology
Raul Emídio de Lima, Cyntia Maria de Holanda Martins, Rodrigo Feliciano do Carmo, Dayse Celia Barbosa Lins Aroucha, Leila Maria Moreira Beltrão Pereira, Luydson Richardson Silva Vasconcelos, Patrícia Moura
The complement system (CS) is a key element of immunity against pathogens but also seems to influence other events, such as tumorigenesis and tissue repair. Complement component 7 (C7) is a key component of the lytic pathway of CS, leading to the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). This study aimed to investigate the existence of the association of a polymorphism in the C7 gene, rs1063499, with hepatic fibrosis and the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis C. We analyzed 456 samples from patients with chronic hepatitis C...
June 29, 2018: Human Immunology
Patricia Castro-Santos, Ricardo A Verdugo, Roberto Díaz-Peña
Ninety healthy and unrelated volunteers were randomly selected to study the gene frequencies of Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) in a Chilean (Talca) population. KIR typing was resolved by PCR-single specific primer (SSP), and their gene frequencies were calculated by direct counting of the number of positive and negative loci. The KIR genotype data is publicly available in the Allele Frequencies Net Database under the name "Chile Talca KIR".
June 28, 2018: Human Immunology
J M Schaenman, M Rossetti, T Sidwell, V Groysberg, G Sunga, Y Korin, E Liang, X Zhou, B Abdallah, E Lum, S Bunnapradist, T Pham, G Danovitch, E F Reed
Older kidney transplant recipients experience increased rates of infection and death, and less rejection, compared with younger patients. However, little is known about immune dysfunction in older compared with younger kidney transplant recipients and whether it is associated with infection. We evaluated T cell phenotypes including maturation, immune senescence, and exhaustion in a novel investigation into differences in older compared with younger patients receiving identical immune suppression regimens. We evaluated PBMC from 60 kidney transplant recipients (23 older and 37 matched younger patients) by multiparameter immune phenotyping...
June 15, 2018: Human Immunology
Monal Sharma, Ranjithkumar Ravichandran, Sandhya Bansal, Ross M Bremner, Michael A Smith, T Mohanakumar
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that express self-antigens (SAgs) and donor human leukocyte antigens. Tissue-specific exosomes can be detected in the circulation following lung, heart, kidney and islet cell transplantations. We collected serum samples from patients who had undergone lung (n = 30), heart (n = 8), or kidney (n = 15) transplantations to isolate circulating exosomes. Exosome purity was analyzed by Western blot, using CD9 exosome-specific markers. Tissue-associated lung SAgs, collagen V (Col-V) and K-alpha 1 tubulin (Kα1T), heart SAgs, myosin and vimentin, and kidney SAgs, fibronectin and collagen IV (Col-IV), were identified using western blot...
June 15, 2018: Human Immunology
Juan M Galarza, Rodrigo Barquera, Ana M Tito Álvarez, Diana I Hernández Zaragoza, Gabriela Peralta Sevilla, Andrea Tamayo, Mariel Pérez, David Dávila, Lotty Birnberg, Víctor Acuña Alonzo, Johannes Krause, Marcelo Grijalva
We studied HLA class I (HLA-A, -B) and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1) alleles by PCR-SSP based typing in a total of 1101 Ecuadorian individuals from three regions of the country, the Coastal region, the Andean region, and the Amazonian region, to obtain information regarding allelic and haplotypic frequencies and their linkage disequilibrium. We find that the most frequent HLA haplotypes with significant linkage disequilibrium in those populations are HLA-A∗24∼B∗35∼DRB1∗04∼DQB1∗03:02, A∗02∼B∗35∼DRB1∗04∼DQB1∗03:02, A∗24∼B∗35∼DRB1∗14∼DQB1∗03:01, A∗02∼B∗35∼DRB1∗14∼DQB1∗03:01 and A∗02∼B∗40:02∼DRB1∗04∼DQB1∗03:02...
June 13, 2018: Human Immunology
Ming-Rui Huo, Ya-Jing Xu, Shu-Zhen Zhai, Meng Lv, Yu Wang, Le-Qing Cao, Lan-Ping Xu, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Huan Chen, Yu-Hong Chen, Feng-Rong Wang, Wei Han, Yu-Qian Sun, Chen-Hua Yan, Fei-Fei Tang, Xiao-Dong Mo, Ming-Feng Zhao, Kai-Yan Liu, Xiao-Jun Huang, Ying-Jun Chang
We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for antibodies to HLA in 1,663 haploidentical transplant candidates. Among these cases, 349 (21.0%) showed positive panel-reactive antibody (PRA) either for class I or class II HLA. Multivariate analysis showed the following: i) risk factors associated with the prevalence of PRA either for class I or class II HLA were female gender (P=0.018), prior transfusions (P<0.001) or pregnancy (P<0.001), and cases with MDS (P=0.018); compared to other patients, subjects with ALL had a lower prevalence of class I antibodies (P=0...
June 8, 2018: Human Immunology
Vani Seshasubramanian, Nirmal Kumar Manisekar, Aruna Devi Sathishkannan, Chandramouleeswaran Naganathan, Saranya Narayan
B:C:DRB1:DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies were determined among India, Andhra Pradesh, Telugu speaking population from South India by Next Generation Sequencing. 180 bone marrow registry donors and 6 cord blood units from Jeevan Stem Cell Foundation (part of Be The Cure Registry), Chennai, Tamilnadu state were included in the study.
June 8, 2018: Human Immunology
Sara Michelini, Muamera Sarajlic, Albert Duschl, Jutta Horejs-Hoeck
Dendritic cells play an important role in the initiation of immune reactions. Due to their high capacity to prime T-cell responses, the activation of dendritic cells must be tightly controlled. Because Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key player in autoinflammatory diseases, we compared the ability of IL-1β to activate human dendritic cells and induce immune-regulatory molecules versus the effects induced by pathogen-derived stimuli. Upon activation with either IL-1β or microbial stimuli, monocyte-derived dendritic cells showed enhanced expression of costimulatory molecules, increased secretion of chemokines and cytokines, and the ability to activate T cells...
June 7, 2018: Human Immunology
Janardan P Pandey, Aryan M Namboodiri, Kent E Armeson, Motoki Iwasaki, Yoshio Kasuga, Gerson S Hamada, Shoichiro Tsugane
Glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP) is a transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in breast cancer. Its overexpression correlates with worse survival, and antibodies to GARP appear to play a protective role in a mouse model. No large-scale studies of immunity to GARP in humans have yet been undertaken. In this investigation, using a large multiethnic cohort (1738 subjects), we aimed to determine whether the magnitude of anti-GARP antibody responsiveness was significantly different in patients with breast cancer from that in matched healthy controls...
June 4, 2018: Human Immunology
Steffen Klasberg, Kathrin Lang, Marie Günther, Grit Schober, Carolin Massalski, Alexander H Schmidt, Vinzenz Lange, Gerhard Schöfl
Our understanding of sequence variation in the HLA-DPB1 gene is largely restricted to the hypervariable antigen recognition domain (ARD) encoded by exon 2. Here, we employed a redundant sequencing strategy combining long-read and short-read data to accurately phase and characterise in full length the majority of common and well-documented (CWD) DPB1 alleles as well as alleles with an observed frequency of at least 0.0006% in our predominantly European sample set. We generated 664 DPB1 sequences, comprising 279 distinct allelic variants...
June 4, 2018: Human Immunology
Yoshihiko Hagiwara, Hiro Sato, Tiara Bunga Mayang Permata, Atsuko Niimi, Motohiro Yamauchi, Takahiro Oike, Takashi Nakano, Atsushi Shibata
Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (programmed death-ligand 1, PD-L1) are key factors that regulate a cytotoxic immune reaction. Anti-PD-1 therapy provides significant clinical benefits for patients with cancer, even those with advanced-stage cancer. We have recently demonstrated that DNA damage signaling from DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) promotes PD-L1 upregulation in cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate PD-L1 expression in primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) in response to DSBs...
May 30, 2018: Human Immunology
Julieta Lazarte, Mitchell B Adamson, Laura C Tumiati, Diego H Delgado
The Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) is a MHC-class Ib molecule with robust immunomodulatory properties; in transplant, it inhibits cytotoxic activity of immune cells and thus has a pivotal role in protecting the allograft from immune attack. The present review details a 10-year experience investigating the influence of HLA-G on heart transplantation, allograft rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy development. Exploration of HLA-G in transplantation began with the initial findings of its increased expression in allograft hearts...
May 30, 2018: Human Immunology
Marc A Judson
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown cause. Evidence supports an integral role for interactions at the MHC binding site in the development of sarcoidosis. However, despite this evidence, there are clinical data that suggest that additional mechanisms are involved in the immunopathogenesis of this disease. This manuscript provides a brief clinical description of sarcoidosis, and a clinician's perspective of the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis in terms of the MHC binding site, MHC functional elements beyond the binding site, and other possible alternative mechanisms...
May 30, 2018: Human Immunology
Sarita Kumari, Pushkar Shivam, Jagadish Hansa, Fauzia Jamal, Manish Kumar Singh, Sanjiva Bimal, Shyam Narayan, Krishna Pandey, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar K Singh
This study reports a structural and functional heterogeneity of CD8+ CD56+ NKT cells, which usually decrease quantitatively during visceral leishmaniasis. Based on fluorescence intensity of CD8 receptors on CD56+ NKT cells, two populations of CD8+ CD56+ NKT cells have been identified. These cells were recognized as CD8dim CD56+ NKT and CD8bright CD56+ NKT cells. We further analyzed the functional nature of CD8dim and CD8bright positive CD56+ NKT cells. In comparison to CD8bright CD56+ NKT cells, a significantly higher percentage of CD8dim CD56+ NKT cells expressed KIR during VL...
May 26, 2018: Human Immunology
Karina L Mine, Hélio Tedesco-Silva, Tuíla B Mourão, Erika F Campos, Larissa A Salzedas, Bruna Aguiar, Claudia R Felipe, Jose O Medina-Pestana, Maria Gerbase-DeLima
BACKGROUND: Accurate pre-transplant prediction of late graft function remains an unmet need in kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate HLA genes expression levels in pre-implantation biopsies (PIB) of deceased donor kidneys as markers for long-term graft outcome. METHODS: HLA genes expression analysis was initially performed using microarray data of 53 PIB, previously generated by our laboratory. The validation analysis was performed by real-time PCR in 116 PIB from an independent cohort...
May 22, 2018: Human Immunology
Lian Lopes Troncoso, Alessandra Pontillo, Enedina Maria Lobato de Oliveira, Alessandro Finkelszteijn, Silvete Schneider, José Artur Bogo Chies
BACKGROUND: Leucocyte infiltration and activation in the central nervous system (CNS) is an important step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is implicated in immune cell migration and cytokine release in the CNS, and it was demonstrated to strongly contribute to CNS inflammation and damage in several models of sterile and pathogen-mediated CNS diseases. Although the inhibition of CCR5 results in a beneficial effect in experimental models of MS, conflicting results have been found about the loss-of-function variant CCR5Δ32 (rs333) in MS patients...
May 2, 2018: Human Immunology
Divya Sai Katikaneni, Lei Jin
MHC class II regulates B cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation during cognate B cell-T cell interaction. This is, in part, due to the MHC class II signaling in B cells. Activation of MHC Class II in human B cells or "primed" murine B cells leads to tyrosine phosphorylation, calcium mobilization, AKT, ERK, JNK activation. In addition, crosslinking MHC class II with monoclonal Abs kill malignant human B cells. Several humanized anti-HLA-DR/MHC class II monoclonal Abs entered clinical trials for lymphoma/leukemia and MHC class II-expressing melanomas...
April 30, 2018: Human Immunology
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