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Developments in Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043394/complex-cases-in-pediatric-cataract
#1
REVIEW
Preeti Patil-Chhablani, Ramesh Kekunnaya, Kanwall Ken Nischal
This chapter describes the techniques and pitfalls that the reader may come across when dealing with complex pediatric cataract cases. Each eye in these circumstances is unique, and the examples and general advice shared are intended to help the reader develop a plan for surgery and a road map to avoid potential problems. As in all types of surgery, careful planning is essential. The old saying 'Fail to prepare, then you prepare to fail' is no more true than when dealing with children who have complex cataract...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043393/complications-of-pediatric-cataract-surgery
#2
REVIEW
Catherine Gasper, Rupal H Trivedi, M Edward Wilson
Postoperative complications associated with cataract surgery in children vary significantly from those typically seen in adults. Pediatric patients are at an increased risk of problems after intraocular surgery due to increased ocular elasticity, heightened inflammatory reactions, and an elevated risk of postoperative trauma. Any complication is particularly important to detect early in children due to the potential for aberrant development, which may result in decreased visual acuity. Further, complications arise throughout the immediate and extended postoperative periods that may be challenging to detect given the difficulty of the clinical examination of some young patients...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043392/visual-rehabilitation-in-pediatric-aphakia
#3
REVIEW
Michael X Repka
The management of childhood cataract begins at the initial contact with the family and typically extends far into the child's future. Decisions affecting long-term care and visual outcomes are often made in these initial preoperative encounters. Treatment will vary depending on whether the cataract is unilateral or bilateral and whether it is infantile onset or later. Thorough discussion of the treatment options is needed, especially with description of the life-long management issues for the child. Visual outcomes will vary, with the best visual acuity results being observed in older children with bilateral cataracts...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043391/incidence-of-and-risk-factors-for-postoperative-glaucoma-and-its-treatment-in-paediatric-cataract-surgery
#4
REVIEW
Asimina Mataftsi
Postoperative glaucoma is perhaps the most feared complication after paediatric cataract surgery, as it is difficult to control. Paediatric glaucoma is also challenging to diagnose, and different definitions of glaucoma have led to a rather big range of reported incidences of this disease. It can occur soon after surgery, in which case it is usually closed-angle glaucoma, or it can have a late onset, even more than a decade after surgery, and its aetiopathogenesis remains unclear to this day. There is significant controversy as to what the risk factors are for developing it, especially regarding intraocular lens implantation...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043390/changes-in-ocular-growth-after-pediatric-cataract-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Scott R Lambert
The human eye undergoes extensive changes during early childhood, including axial elongation, corneal flattening and reduced lens power. Animal studies have shown that removing the crystalline lens during infancy retards axial elongation. Axial elongation has been studied in children after cataract extraction both directly and indirectly. Children with a unilateral congenital cataract generally have a shorter axial length in their cataractous eye than in their fellow eye. This difference usually persists after cataract surgery...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043389/state-of-the-art-in-pediatric-cataract-surgery
#6
REVIEW
Kanwal Ken Nischal
Pediatric cataract surgery has evolved dramatically in the past 10 years. Our understanding of the child's eye both in terms of tissue mechanics, neurobiological plasticity and physiological growth has allowed better and better surgical outcomes. The fact remains that the younger the child - infants especially - the more difficult the surgery. It is also true to say that not only is a child's eye not a small adult eye, but also that the child him- or herself is not a small adult. The importance of this statement is evident when we discuss the effects of anesthesia and fluid input in infants during infant cataract surgery...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043388/genetics-of-congenital-cataract
#7
REVIEW
Francesco Pichi, Andrea Lembo, Massimiliano Serafino, Paolo Nucci
Congenital cataract is a type of cataract that presents at birth or during early childhood, and it is one of the most easily treatable causes of visual impairment and blindness during infancy, with an estimated prevalence of 1-6 cases per 10,000 live births. Approximately 50% of all congenital cataract cases may have a genetic cause, and such cases are quite heterogeneous. Although congenital nuclear cataract can be caused by multiple factors, genetic mutation remains the most common cause. All three types of Mendelian inheritance have been reported for cataract; however, autosomal dominant transmission seems to be the most frequent...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27035361/delphi-process-in-the-management-of-pediatric-cataract
#8
REVIEW
Massimiliano Serafino, Greta Castellucci, Giuseppe Banderali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023917/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-features-of-type-3-neovascularization-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#9
Giuseppe Querques, Alexandra Miere, Eric H Souied
PURPOSE: To characterize the imaging features of type 3 neovascularization secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration on optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with treatment-naïve early-stage type 3 neovascularization underwent multimodal imaging, including color retinal photography or multicolor imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain OCT and OCTA. The OCTA features of type 3 neovascularization were analyzed and correlated with the findings on angiography and spectral-domain OCT...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023884/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-retinal-vein-occlusion
#10
Eduardo A Novais, Nadia K Waheed
Retinal vein occlusion is the second most common cause of retinal vascular disease after diabetic retinopathy and is a frequent cause of significant vision loss and associated morbidity. Currently, fluorescein angiography is the gold standard for imaging of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. However, this imaging modality is invasive, involving the use of an intravenous contrast agent that can cause systemic side effects and rarely, anaphylaxis. Optical coherence tomography angiography is a noninvasive, depth-resolved imaging modality that allows for the appreciation of spatial relationships of fundus vessels and enables detailed en face visualization of the superficial and deep retinal vasculature separately without the risk of adverse affects associated with the intravenous administration of fluorescein dye...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023798/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-type-2-neovascularization-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#11
Eric H Souied, Ala El Ameen, Oudy Semoun, Alexandra Miere, Giuseppe Querques, Salomon Yves Cohen
Well-defined choroidal neovascularization, known as type 2 neovascularization (NV) or classic NV, is the least representative phenotype of exudative age-related macular degeneration. Clinical aspects of type 2 NV have been widely described in the literature, and to date fluorescein angiography remains the gold standard for imaging age-related macular degeneration at initial presentation. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) can be used to image vessels based on flow characteristics without any dye injection...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023788/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-retinal-artery-occlusion
#12
Caroline R Baumal
The optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) microvascular features of branch and central retinal artery occlusion are described and correlated with fluorescein angiographic and clinical findings. There may be differences in the distribution of reduced vascular perfusion/flow between the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexuses in retinal artery occlusive disease. The extent of macular ischemia and the status of flow in the radial peripapillary capillaries can be evaluated with OCTA. Overall, OCTA can be used to monitor changes in vascular flow during the clinical course of retinal artery occlusion...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023719/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-type-1-neovascularization-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#13
Nicholas A Iafe, Nopasak Phasukkijwatana, David Sarraf
Age-related macular degeneration continues to be the leading cause of severe central vision loss in older adults of European descent. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) enables more accurate identification of type 1 neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration than traditional fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies. In addition, OCT-A facilitates the morphological classification of type 1 lesions, including features characteristic of early, mature, and fibrotic lesions. Vessel complex analysis, including lesion area and capillary density quantification, can also be readily measured and monitored over time...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023703/new-findings-in-diabetic-maculopathy-and-proliferative-disease-by-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#14
Paulo E Stanga, Alessandro Papayannis, Emmanouil Tsamis, Francesco Stringa, Tim Cole, Yvonne D'Souza, Assad Jalil
PURPOSE: To describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) features of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Retrospective serial case reports were examined of patients who underwent routine clinical examination and OCTA with both DRI OCT Atlantis prototype and Triton Swept-Source OCT of the posterior pole and mid-periphery. When considered necessary, fluorescein fundus angiography (FFA) with OPTOS California wide-field imaging was performed. The findings were compared with the current literature...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023473/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-healthy-subjects
#15
Gabriel Coscas, Marco Lupidi, Florence Coscas
Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography provide information about normal retinal and choroidal anatomy that is nearly comparable to histological findings. These results are absolutely fundamental for the evaluation of retinal and choroidal vascular diseases and allow the clinician to define and diagnose several pathological conditions. Fluorescein angiography has become the 'gold standard' in retinal imaging due to its capacity to allow visualization of the retinal capillary bed and its changes, particularly in the macular area...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023453/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#16
F Bandello, Eleonora Corbelli, Adriano Carnevali, L Pierro, G Querques
PURPOSE: To describe the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) features of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Literature review and case series. RESULTS: Four cases are presented. CONCLUSION: OCTA is an effective method for evaluating retinal changes in diabetic retinopathy and represents a novel complement or alternative to fluorescein angiography. Although OCTA should currently be considered an investigational technique, in the near future, it may play key roles in the diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023365/image-analysis-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#17
Gabriel Coscas, Marco Lupidi, Florence Coscas
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCT-A) is a transformative approach in imaging ocular vessels based on flow rather than simple reflectance intensity. It is therefore a functional extension of OCT that can be used to visualize microvasculature by detecting motion contrast from flowing blood. As OCT-A is a depth-resolved examination, it needs careful axial segmentation in order to preserve important data on perfused structures and to avoid the risk of generating superimposed images, which are typical of dye angiographies...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023343/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-choroidal-neovascularization-secondary-to-pathologic-myopia
#18
Giuseppe Querques, Federico Corvi, Lea Querques, Eric H Souied, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: To analyze the ability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) to detect the presence of myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and to describe structural features of myopic CNV on OCT-A. METHODS: Patients with CNV secondary to high myopia (>6 diopters and >26 mm axial length) underwent multimodal imaging, including multicolor imaging, fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain (SD)-OCT and OCT-A. The OCT-A features of CNV were analyzed and correlated with the angiography and SD-OCT findings...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023316/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-miscellaneous-retinal-disease
#19
Luisa Pierro, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Alessandro Rabiolo, Ugo Introini, Giuseppe Querques, Francesco Bandello
In this chapter, we illustrate different clinical scenarios using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA, Triton, Topcon, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). The instrument is based on a long wavelength scanning light (1,050 nm) that can better penetrate the deeper ocular layers, such as the choroid and sclera. Our aim was to show how OCTA can be used to study the eye vascular network in a novel and innovative fashion. We have demonstrated that a specific disease can involve one or more layers; conversely, the same layer may be affected by different ocular pathologies...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023249/zeiss-angioplex%C3%A2-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-technical-aspects
#20
Philip J Rosenfeld, Mary K Durbin, Luiz Roisman, Fang Zheng, Andrew Miller, Gillian Robbins, Karen B Schaal, Giovanni Gregori
ZEISS Angioplex™ optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography generates high-resolution three-dimensional maps of the retinal and choroidal microvasculature while retaining all of the capabilities of the existing CIRRUS™ HD-OCT Model 5000 instrument. Angioplex™ OCT angiographic imaging on the CIRRUS™ HD-OCT platform was made possible by increasing the scanning rate to 68,000 A-scans per second and introducing improved tracking software known as FastTrac™ retinal-tracking technology. The generation of en face microvascular flow images with Angioplex™ OCT uses an algorithm known as OCT microangiography-complex, which incorporates differences in both the phase and intensity information contained within sequential B-scans performed at the same position...
2016: Developments in Ophthalmology
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