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Di Qin, Wen-Hui Lee, Zhiqin Gao, Weifen Zhang, Meiyu Peng, Tongyi Sun, Yuanyuan Gao
The unavoidable daily exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is proven to have deleterious effects. The action mechanism of antioxidin-RL, an antioxidant peptide purified from skin secretions of frog Odorrana livida with amino acid sequence of AMRLTYNRPCIYAT, is well characterized by NMR titration and mutation based on ABTS+ scavenging activities. In order to explore the protective effects of antioxidin-RL against UVB-irradiated skin photoaging, cell uptake assay was used to detect the location of antioxidin-RL molecules serving various biological functions in the cells...
January 13, 2018: Peptides
Panayoula C Tsiotra, Panagiotis Halvatsiotis, Konstantinos Patsouras, Eirini Maratou, George Salamalekis, Sotirios A Raptis, George Dimitriadis, Eleni Boutati
Maternal adipose tissue and the placenta secrete various molecules commonly called adipokines such as chemerin, omentin-1, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin that are important players in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a state of glucose intolerance characterized by β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. To examine whether circulating adipokines and their mRNA expression in the adipose tissue and the placenta are altered in GDM pregnancy, we compared 15 GDM women [obese (BMI > 30) and non-obese (BMI < 30)] to 23 NGT (normal glucose tolerance) women [obese and non-obese], at the time of the Cesarean section...
January 11, 2018: Peptides
Xiaoye Wang, Xun Li, Chuanhuo Hu
RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3), the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), has been proposed as a key inhibitory regulator of mammal reproduction. Our previous studies have demonstrated that RFRP-3 inhibited the expression of proliferation-related proteins in porcine granulose cells (GCs), but the inhibitory mechanism causing this has not been discovered. Here, we aim to elucidate the underlying mechanism and determine the cell cycle regulatory sites of action of RFRP-3 on porcine GC proliferation...
January 11, 2018: Peptides
John Howl, Lewis Howl, Sarah Jones
Mastoparan (MP) peptides, distributed in insect venoms, induce a local inflammatory response post envenomation. Most endogenous MPs share common structural elements within a tetradecapeptide sequence that adopts an amphipathic helix whilst traversing biological membranes and when bound to an intracellular protein target. Rational modifications to increase cationic charge density and amphipathic helicity engineered mitoparan (MitP), a mitochondriotoxic bioportide and potent secretagogue. Following intracellular translocation, MitP is accreted by mitochondria thus indicating additional utility as an antimicrobial agent...
January 11, 2018: Peptides
Patrícia Batista, Pedro M Castro, Ana Raquel Madureira, Bruno Sarmento, Manuela Pintado
Bioactive proteins and peptides have been used with either prophylactic or therapeutic purposes, presenting inherent advantages as high specificity and biocompatibility. Nanocarriers play an important role in the stabilization of proteins and peptides, offering enhanced buccal permeation and protection while crossing the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, preparation of nanoparticles as oral delivery systems for proteins/peptides may include tailored formulation along with functionalization aiming bioavailability enhancement of carried proteins or peptides...
January 9, 2018: Peptides
Dongao Zhang, Gang Lv
GLP-1 signaling pathway has been well studied for its role in regulating glucose homeostasis, as well as its beneficial effects in energy and nutrient metabolism. A number of drugs based on GLP-1 have been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1R is expressed in multiple organs and numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that GLP-1 signaling pathway exhibits pro-survival functions in various disorders. In the central nervous system, stimulation of GLP-1R produces neuroprotective effects in specific neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
January 9, 2018: Peptides
Mohammad Azimi, Reza Gharakhanlou, Nasser Naghdi, Davar Khodadadi, Soomaayeh Heysieattalab
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with loss of memory and cognitive abilities. Previous evidence suggested that exercise ameliorates learning and memory deficits by increasing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and activating downstream pathways in AD animal models. However, upstream pathways related to increase BDNF induced by exercise in AD animal models are not well known. We investigated the effects of moderate treadmill exercise on Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment as well as the upstream pathway responsible for increasing hippocampal BDNF in an animal model of AD...
January 5, 2018: Peptides
Hernán Gonzalo Villagarcía, Carolina Lisi Román, María Cecilia Castro, Luisa Arbeláez González, María Teresa Ronco, Daniel Eleazar Francés, María Laura Massa, Bárbara Maiztegui, Luis Emilio Flores, Juan José Gagliardino, Flavio Francini
Islet-Neogenesis Associated Protein-Pentadecapeptide (INGAP-PP) increases β-cell mass and enhances glucose and amino acids-induced insulin secretion. Our aim was to demonstrate its effect on liver metabolism. For that purpose, adult male Wistar rats were injected twice-daily (10 days) with saline solution or INGAP-PP (250 μg). Thereafter, serum glucose, triglyceride and insulin levels were measured and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and hepatic insulin sensitivity (HIS) were determined. Liver glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) expression and activity, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression, phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-2) protein content, P-Akt/Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (P-GSK3/GSK3) protein ratios and glycogen deposit were also determined...
January 3, 2018: Peptides
Camila F Roncari, Rafaela M Barbosa, Regina C Vendramini, Laurival A De Luca, José V Menani, Eduardo Colombari, Débora S A Colombari
Renovascular hypertensive 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rats have an increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and an initial transitory increase in daily water and NaCl intake. However, the dipsogenic and natriorexigenic responses to angiotensin II (ANG II) have not been tested yet in 2K1C rats. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated water and 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by water deprivation (WD)-partial rehydration (PR) or intracerebroventricular (icv) ANG II in 2K1C rats. In addition, the cardiovascular changes to these treatments were also evaluated...
January 2, 2018: Peptides
Tamotsu Tsukahara, Shuhei Yamagishi, Hiroyuki Neyama, Hiroshi Ueda
Kyotorphin (KTP; L-tyrosyl-L-arginine), an opioid-like analgesic discovered in the bovine brain, is potentially a neuromodulator because of its localization in synaptosomes, the existence of a specific KTP receptor, and the presence of its biosynthetic enzyme in the brain. KTP is formed in the brain from its constituent amino acids, L-tyrosine and L-arginine, by an enzyme termed KTP synthetase. However, the latter has never been identified. We aimed to test the hypothesis that tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is also KTP synthetase...
December 28, 2017: Peptides
María L Fernandez-Cachon, Søren L Pedersen, Kristoffer T Rigbolt, Chen Zhang, Katrine Fabricius, Henrik H Hansen, Lisbeth Elster, Lisbeth N Fink, Matthias Schäfer, Nicolai A Rhee, Ebbe Langholz, Erik Wandall, Steffen U Friis, Peter Vilmann, Viggo B Kristiansen, Christina Schmidt, Kay Schreiter, Kristin Breitschopf, Thomas Hübschle, Tina Jorsal, Tina Vilsbøll, Thorsten Schmidt, Stefan Theis, Filip K Knop, Philip Just Larsen, Jacob Jelsing
AIM: To determine whether intestinal expression of guanylate cyclase activator 2A (GUCA2A) and guanylate cyclase activator 2B (GUCA2B) genes is regulated in obese humans following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and to evaluate the corresponding guanylin (GN) and uroguanylin (UGN) peptides for potentially contributing to the beneficial metabolic effects of RYGB. METHODS: Enteroendocrine cells were harvested peri- and post-RYGB, and GUCA2A/GUCA2B mRNA expression was compared...
December 28, 2017: Peptides
Yiping Wan, Jiannan Zhang, Chao Fang, Junan Chen, Jing Li, Juan Li, Chenlei Wu, Yajun Wang
Neuromedin U (NMU) and its structurally-related peptide, neuromedin S (NMS), are reported to regulate many physiological processes and their actions are mediated by two NMU receptors (NMUR1, NMUR2) in mammals. However, the information regarding NMU, NMS, and their receptors is limited in birds. In this study, we examined the structure, functionality, and expression of NMS, NMU, NMUR1 and NMUR2 in chickens. The results showed that: 1) chicken (c-) NMU cDNA encodes a 181-amino acid precursor, which may generate two forms of NMU peptide with 9 (cNMU-9) and 25 amino acids (cNMU-25), respectively...
December 27, 2017: Peptides
Markus M Heimesaat, Eliezer Giladi, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Illana Gozes
The octapeptide NAP has been shown to exert neuroprotective properties and reduce neuro-inflammatory responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate if NAP provides anti-inflammatory effects in acute murine colitis. To address this, C57BL/6 j mice were challenged with 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium from day 0 until day 6 to induce colitis, either treated intraperitoneally with NAP or placebo (NaCl 0.9%) from day 1 until day 6 post-induction (p.i.) and subjected to in depth macroscopic, microscopic and immunological evaluations...
December 27, 2017: Peptides
Shruti Mohan, Dawood Khan, R Charlotte Moffett, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt
Oxytocin is associated mainly with modulating reproductive function. However, studies suggest that oxytocin also plays a role in endocrine pancreatic function. In the present study, islet expression of oxytocin and its related receptor was confirmed in mouse islets as well as cultured rodent and human beta-cells. Oxytocin significantly stimulated glucose-induced insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets. Similar insulinotropic actions were also observed in rodent BRIN BD11 and human 1.1B4 beta-cells. Positive effects of oxytocin on insulin secretion were almost fully annulled by the oxytocin receptor antagonist, atosiban...
December 20, 2017: Peptides
Federico Furlan, Gabriele Eden, Marco Archinti, Ralitsa Arnaudova, Giuseppina Andreotti, Valentina Citro, Maria Vittoria Cubellis, Andrea Motta, Bernard Degryse
D2A-Ala is a synthetic peptide that has been created by introducing mutations in the original D2A sequence, 130IQEGEEGRPKDDR142 of human urokinase receptor (uPAR). In vitro, D2A-Ala peptide displays strong anti-tumoural properties inhibiting EGF-induced chemotaxis, invasion and proliferation of a human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT 1080, and a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, HT 29. D2A-Ala exerts its effects by preventing EGF receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation. To test D2A-Ala in vivo, this peptide was PEGylated generating polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-D2A-Ala peptide...
December 19, 2017: Peptides
Sharareh Farahimanesh, Sara Karimi, Abbas Haghparast
Orexinergic system is involved in reward processing and drug addiction. Objectives here, we investigated the effect of intra-hippocampal CA1 administration of orexin-1 receptor (OX1r) antagonist on the expression, and extinction of morphine-induced place preference in rats. Conditioned place preference (CPP) was induced by subcutaneous injection of morphine (5 mg/kg) during a 3-day conditioning phase. Two experimental plots were designed; SB334867 as a selective OX1r antagonist was dissolved in 12% DMSO, prepared in solutions with different concentrations (3, 30, and 300 nM), and microinjected into the CA1 and some neighboring regions (0...
December 18, 2017: Peptides
Anke Wang, Brian M Anderson, Zachary M Novakovic, Patricia Grasso
We have previously shown that following oral delivery in dodecyl maltoside (DDM), [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and its myristic acid conjugate, MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3, improved energy balance and glucose homeostasis in genetically obese/diabetic mouse models. More recently, we have provided immunohistochemical evidence indicating that these synthetic peptide leptin mimetics cross the blood-brain barrier and concentrate in the area of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in normal C57BL/6J and Swiss Webster mice, in genetically obese ob/ob mice, and in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice...
December 18, 2017: Peptides
Pengchao Zhao, Yun Xue, Weina Gao, Jinghua Li, Xiangyang Zu, Dongliao Fu, Xuefei Bai, Yanjun Zuo, Zhigang Hu, Fengshou Zhang
Members of the Bacillaceae family, including Bacillus spp., Brevibacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp., Aneurinibacillus sp., and Halobacillus sp., are an important source of structurally diverse classes of short peptides of ∼ 30 residues or fewer possessing peculiar and rapid killing activity against various pathogens. Additionally, many have unique structures that enhance resistance to hydrolysis by proteases, and these are ideal therapeutic tools and potential alternatives to current antibiotics. The need for novel antibiotic lead compounds is urgent, and this review summarises 119 Bacillaceae compounds published since 2000, including 12 surfactin-like lipopeptides, 16 iturinic lipopeptides, fengycin C, 33 other cyclic lipopeptides, 26 linear lipopeptides, two thiopeptides, four 2,5-diketopiperazines, 20 typical cyclic peptides, and five standard linear peptides...
December 18, 2017: Peptides
Binbin Ma, Zhouhuan Xi, Jiahui Li, Tianqi Gao, Runzhi Liao, Shuhang Wang, Xianyao Li, Yaqin Tang, Zheng Wang, Shengjie Hou, Jinying Jiang, Meichun Deng, Zhigui Duan, Xing Tang, Liping Jiang
Lycosin-I, a spider peptide isolated from the venom of the spider Lycosa singoriensis, has anti-bacteria and anti-cancer properties in organisms. However, cardiovascular effects of Lycosin-I have not been studied. In this study, we investigated for the first time the vasodilator and hypotensive effects of Lycosin-I and the possible mechanisms, in order to develop a promising treatment for hypertension-related diseases. For in vitro experiments, thoracic aortas were isolated, and divided into two groups, endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings...
December 14, 2017: Peptides
Huafang Liang, Yin Lau, Ting Ting Zhou, Xiaoyuan Li, Bin Li, Siuming F Chan
The Molt Inhibiting Hormone gene and cDNA of the banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (FmMIH1) has been cloned and characterized. FmMIH1 possesses most of the characteristics of the eyestalk CHH/MIH/GIH family subtype-II neuropeptides. FmMIH1 open reading frame consists of 315 bp encoding for 105 amino acid residues. The mature peptide of FmMIH1 consists of 76 amino acid residues, a glycine residue at position 11 of the mature peptide and 6 cysteine residues located in the conserved position. In addition to eyestalk, high levels of FmMIH1 transcript could also be detected in the intestine...
December 13, 2017: Peptides
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