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Peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157578/evaluation-of-the-insulinotropic-and-glucose-lowering-actions-of-zebrafish-gip-in-mammalian-systems-evidence-for-involvement-of-the-glp-1-receptor
#1
Galyna V Graham, J Michael Conlon, Yasser H Abdel-Wahab, Victor A Gault, Peter R Flatt
The insulinotropic properties of zebrafish GIP (zfGIP) were assessed in vitro using clonal pancreatic β-cell lines and isolated mouse islets and acute effects on glucose tolerance and insulin release in vivo were evaluated in mice. The peptide produced a dose-dependent increase in the rate of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells at concentrations ≥30nM. Insulin release from 1.1 B4 human clonal β-cells and mouse islets was significantly increased by zfGIP (10nM and 1μM). The in vitro insulinotropic activity of zfGIP was decreased after incubating BRIN-BD11 cells with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin-4(9-39) (p<0...
November 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133203/expression-and-functional-characterization-of-tachykinin-related-peptides-in-the-blood-feeding-bug-rhodnius-prolixus
#2
A N S Haddad, M S Defferrari, S Hana, S G Szeto, A B Lange
Tachykinins (tachykinin-related peptides, TRPs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that have widespread distribution in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the gastrointestinal tract of many insects, and most have been shown to stimulate contractions of visceral muscles. Invertebrate TRPs carry a characteristic conserved C-terminal pentapeptide (FXGXR-amide) and most of them share some amino acid sequence similarities (approx. 45%) with the vertebrate and mammalian tachykinin family. We have functionally characterized the tachykinins in R...
November 10, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126993/trophic-effect-of-pacap-on-human-corneal-endothelium
#3
Grazia Maugeri, Antonio Longo, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Daniela Maria Rasà, Michele Reibaldi, Andrea Russo, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Teresio Avitabile, Velia D'Agata
Cornea's posterior surface includes endothelium maintaining stromal hydration and clarity. Due to their limited proliferative capability, the loss of endothelial cells can outcome in permanent opacity. In the last years, different studies have demonstrated the protective effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in different ocular diseases. However, its role on human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) has not been investigated, yet. Here, we have developed a culture protocol to differentiate HCECs from donor's cornea...
November 8, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122669/osteoanabolic-activity-of-whey-derived-anti-oxidative-mhirl-and-yveel-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-yllf-alpmhir-ipa-and-wlahk-bioactive-peptides
#4
Masum Pandey, Rajeev Kapila, Suman Kapila
Exploring bone rebuilding anabolic agents has been gaining much attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in treating several bone disorders including osteoporosis. Whey protein has been reported to affect bone health osteoanabolically, in terms of proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblast cells. This study investigates whether whey derived anti-oxidative (AO) (P1- MHIRL, P2- YVEEL) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE inhibitory) (P3- YLLF, P4-ALPMHIR, P5-IPA, P6- WLAHK) bioactive peptides affect the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblast cells isolated from rat calvaria...
November 6, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113826/ghrelin-suppresses-cardiac-fibrosis-of-post-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure-rats-by-adjusting-the-activin-a-follistatin-imbalance
#5
Chunyan Yang, Jinsha Liu, Kai Liu, Beibei Du, Kaiyao Shi, Mei Ding, Bing Li, Ping Yang
Ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide, potentially improves cardiac function, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the study, the rat heart failure (HF) model was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and treated with ghrelin (100μg/kg, subcutaneous injection, bid); neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were cultured and stimulated with Ang II (0.1μM) and ghrelin(0.1μM) to explore the underlying mechanism of ghrelin in myocardial remodeling. Hemodynamic changes and serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations were measured to assess cardiac function...
November 4, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108811/the-antimicrobial-effect-of-cen1hc-br-against-propionibacterium-acnes-and-its-therapeutic-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-acne-vulgaris
#6
Rui Han, Hans-Matti Blencke, Hao Cheng, Chun Li
Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal bacterium, which is involved in acne inflammation. An antimicrobial peptide named CEN1HC-Br, which was isolated and characterized form the green sea urchin, has been shown to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Little is known concerning the potential effects of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against P. acnes. To examine the potency of CEN1HC-Br in acne treatment, we conducted experiments to analyze the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of CEN1HC-Br both in vitro and in vivo...
November 3, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108810/sub-cellular-organization-of-the-melanin-concentrating-hormone-neurons-in-the-hypothalamus
#7
Veronika Jancsik, Roland Bene, Péter Sótonyi, Gergely Zachar
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a potent orexigenic and sleep-promoting neuropeptide in mammals produced predominately by hypothalamic neurons which project to a wide variety of brain areas. Several MCH producing neurons contain MCH as the only neuropeptide, while others comprise cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) as well. The intrahypothalamic localization and the projection pattern of these two subpopulations are distinct. To provide structural grounding to understand the mechanism of action of MCH neurons we show here the subcellular localization of the neuropeptides in the two subpopulations within the hypothalamus of healthy young male mice by applying single and double immunofluorescence labelling...
November 3, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103918/functional-characterization-of-the-dual-allatostatin-a-receptors-in-mosquitoes
#8
Peter Christ, Sharon R Hill, Joachim Schachtner, Frank Hauser, Rickard Ignell
The neuropeptide allatostatin-A (AstA) and its cognate receptors (AstARs) are involved in the modulation of feeding behavior, which in hematophagous insects includes the regulation of the disease vector-related behaviors, host seeking and blood feeding. In mosquitoes and other dipterans, there are two copies of AstAR, contrasting with the single copy found in other insects. In this study, we identified and cloned the dual AstAR system of two important disease vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, and compared them with those previously described, including those in Anopheles coluzzii and Drosophila melanogaster...
November 2, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097254/interleukin-15-derived-from-guanylin-gc-c-expressing-macrophages-inhibits-fatty-acid-synthase-in-adipocytes
#9
Sayaka Akieda-Asai, Takanori Ida, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa, Yukari Date
Recently we found that guanylin (Gn) and its receptor, guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), are uniquely expressed in the mesenteric macrophages of some diet-resistant rats and that double-transgenic (dTg) rats overexpressing Gn and GC-C in macrophages demonstrate reduced fatty acid synthase and fat accumulation in fat tissue even when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Lipid accumulation and fatty acid synthase mRNA levels in cocultured dTg rat adipocytes and macrophages were reduced compared with those in adipocytes cultured with WT rat macrophages...
October 31, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107653/effect-of-controlled-cortical-impact-on-the-passage-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-across-the-blood-brain-barrier
#10
Elizabeth M Rhea, Kristin M Bullock, William A Banks
Injuries to the central nervous system can affect the blood-brain barrier (BBB), including disruption and influencing peptide transport across the BBB. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38) is a potent neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide currently being investigated for its therapeutic role following injury to the central nervous system and can cross the BBB in a saturable manner. The goal of the current study was to investigate for the first time PACAP38 uptake by the brain following traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
October 28, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107089/orexins-hypocretins-and-sex
#11
EDITORIAL
Olaf Jöhren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079533/intranasal-administration-of-neuromedin-u-derivatives-containing-cell-penetrating-peptides-and-a-penetration-accelerating-sequence-induced-memory-improvements-in-mice
#12
Sachie Sasaki-Hamada, Taichi Funane, Yusuke Nakao, Rie Sasaki, Mio Nagai, Yudai Ueta, Kazumi Yoshizawa, Michiko Horiguchi, Chikamasa Yamashita, Jun-Ichiro Oka
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide that is expressed and secreted in the brain and gut. We previously demonstrated that the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of NMU inhibited inflammation-mediated memory impairment in mice. In order to utilize NMU as a clinical treatment tool for inflammation-mediated amnesia, we herein focused on non-invasive intranasal delivery because the i.c.v. administration route is invasive and impractical. In the present study, we prepared two NMU derivatives containing cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), octaarginine (R8), and each penetration-accelerating sequence, namely FFLIPKG (PASR8-NMU) and FFFFG (F4R8-NMU), for intranasal (i...
October 24, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061318/the-neuropeptides-and-protein-hormones-of-the-agricultural-pest-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-what-do-we-learn-from-the-genome-sequencing-and-tissue-specific-transcriptomes
#13
Shun-Hua Gui, Hong-Bo Jiang, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Neuropeptides and protein hormones are very important signaling molecules, and are involved in the regulation and coordination of various physiological processes in invertebrates and vertebrates. Using a bioinformatics approach, we screened the recently sequenced genome and six tissue-specific transcriptome databases (central nervous system, fat body, ovary, testes, male accessory glands, antennae) of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) that is economically one of the most important pest insects of tropical and subtropical fruit...
October 20, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056567/molecular-forms-of-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-plasma-reflect-differential-processing-in-brain-and-pituitary-tissues
#14
Michele O Wilson, Graham K Barrell, Timothy C R Prickett, Eric A Espiner
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a paracrine growth factor widely expressed within tissues of the central nervous system. Consistent with this is the high concentration of CNP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), exceeding levels in the systemic circulation. CNP abundance is high in hypothalamus and especially enriched in pituitary tissue where - in contrast to hypothalamus - processing to CNP-22 is minimal. Recently we have shown that dexamethasone acutely raises CNP peptides throughout the brain as well as in CSF and plasma...
October 19, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054501/transcriptomic-discovery-and-comparative-analysis-of-neuropeptide-precursors-in-sea-cucumbers-holothuroidea
#15
Saowaros Suwansa-Ard, Arada Chaiyamoon, Alzbeta Talarovicova, Ruchanok Tinikul, Yotsawan Tinikul, Tanes Poomtong, Maurice R Elphick, Scott F Cummins, Prasert Sobhon
Neuropeptides synthesized and released by neuronal cells play important roles in the regulation of many processes, e.g. growth, feeding, reproduction, and behavior. In the past decade, next-generation sequencing technologies have helped to facilitate the identification of multiple neuropeptide genes in a variety of taxa, including arthropods, molluscs and echinoderms. In this study, we extend these studies to Holothuria scabra, a sea cucumber species that is widely cultured for human consumption. In silico analysis of H...
October 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042271/blockade-of-the-orexin-receptors-in-the-ca1-region-of-hippocampus-decreased-the-lateral-hypothalamic-induced-antinociceptive-responses-in-the-model-of-orofacial-formalin-test-in-the-rats
#16
Amir Haghparast, Iman Shafiei, Amir-Mohammad Alizadeh, Somayeh Ezzatpanah, Abbas Haghparast
The role of hippocampus and lateral hypothalamus (LH) in modulation of formalin-induced nociception has been established. The present study aims to examine the role of orexin receptors in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) region of hippocampus in modulation of the LH-induced antinociception in the orofacial formalin test. Male Wistar rats were unilaterally implanted with two cannulae into the LH and CA1. Intra-LH microinjection of carbachol was done 5min after intra-CA1 administration of SB-334867 (OX1R antagonist) or TCS OX2 29 (OX2R antagonist)...
October 14, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038035/biochemical-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-three-opioid-nociceptin-hybrid-peptide-ligands-reveals-substantially-differing-modes-of-their-actions
#17
Anna I Erdei, Adina Borbély, Anna Magyar, Nóra Taricska, András Perczel, Ottó Zsíros, Győző Garab, Edina Szűcs, Ferenc Ötvös, Ferenc Zádor, Mihály Balogh, Mahmoud Al-Khrasani, Sándor Benyhe
In an attempt to design opioid-nociceptin hybrid peptides, three novel bivalent ligands, H-YGGFGGGRYYRIK-NH2, H-YGGFRYYRIK-NH2 and Ac-RYYRIKGGGYGGFL-OH were synthesized and studied by biochemical, pharmacological, biophysical and molecular modelling tools. These chimeric molecules consist of YGGF sequence, a crucial motif in the N-terminus of natural opioid peptides, and Ac-RYYRIK-NH2, which was isolated from a combinatorial peptide library as an antagonist or partial agonist that inhibits the biological activity of the endogenously occurring heptadecapeptide nociceptin...
October 13, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031796/peptide-welding-technology-a-simple-strategy-for-generating-innovative-ligands-for-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#18
REVIEW
Girolamo Calo, Anna Rizzi, Chiara Ruzza, Federica Ferrari, Salvatore Pacifico, Elaine C Gavioli, Severo Salvadori, Remo Guerrini
Based on their high selectivity of action and low toxicity, naturally occurring peptides have great potential in terms of drug development. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, in particular their half life, are poor. Among different strategies developed for reducing susceptibility to peptidases, and thus increasing the duration of action of peptides, the generation of branched peptides has been described. However, the synthesis and purification of branched peptides is extremely complicated thus limiting their druggability...
October 12, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024714/antibacterial-effect-and-bond-strength-of-a-modified-dental-adhesive-containing-the-peptide-nisin
#19
Meixuan Su, Shunyi Yao, Lisha Gu, Zihua Huang, Sui Mai
This study attempted to incorporate the antibacterial peptide nisin into an etch-and-rinse dental adhesive to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the modified adhesive against Streptococcus mutans and the bond strength. Single Bond 2 was used as a negative control, and nisin was incorporated at 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v). The antibacterial activity against S. mutans was evaluated using the film contact test, the agar diffusion test, XTT assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of the modified dental adhesive was also evaluated...
October 9, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017855/role-of-neuromedin-u-in-accelerating-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#20
Hitoshi Teranishi, Masafumi Hayashi, Ryoko Higa, Kenji Mori, Takashi Miyazawa, Jun Hino, Yuichiro Amano, Ryuichi Tozawa, Takanori Ida, Toshikatsu Hanada, Mikiya Miyazato, Reiko Hanada, Kenji Kangawa, Kazuwa Nakao
Neuromedin U (NMU), a neuropeptide originally isolated from porcine spinal cord, has multiple physiological functions and is involved in obesity and inflammation. Excessive fat accumulation in the liver leads to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is closely associated with obesity. NAFLD and NASH develop and progress via complex pathophysiological processes, and it remains unclear to what extend the NMU system contributes to the risk of obesity-related disorders such as NAFLD and NASH...
October 7, 2017: Peptides
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