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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641988/wavy-multistratified-amacrine-cells-in-the-monkey-retina-contain-immunoreactive-secretoneurin
#1
Andrea S Bordt, Ye Long, Nobuo Kouyama, Elizabeth S Yamada, Jens Hannibal, David W Marshak
The goals of this study were to describe the morphology, neurotransmitter content and synaptic connections of neurons in primate retinas that contain the neuropeptide secretoneurin. Amacrine cells were labeled with antibodies to secretoneurin in macaque and baboon retinas. Their processes formed three distinct plexuses in the inner plexiform layer: one in the outermost stratum, one in the center and one in the innermost stratum. In light microscopic double immunolabeling experiments, GABA was colocalized with secretoneurin in these cells, but glycine transporter 1 and Substance P were not...
June 19, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634054/effect-of-endothelin-1-on-proliferation-migration-and-fibrogenic-gene-expression-in-human-rpe-cells
#2
Dong Qin, Li Zhang, Xuemin Jin, Zhaoxia Zhao, Yanrong Jiang, Zijun Meng
The pathology of the fibrotic proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) membrane represents an excessive wound healing response characterised by cells' proliferation, migration and secretion of extracellular matrix molecules (ECMs). Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are a major cellular component of the fibrotic membrane. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been reported to be involved in the development of PVR in vivo research. However, little is known about the role of ET-1 in RPE cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the role of ET-1 in the proliferation, migration and secretion of ECMs (such as type I collagen and fibronectin) in RPE cells in vitro...
June 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627372/regulatory-role-of-melatonin-and-bmp-4-in-prolactin-production-by-rat-pituitary-lactotrope-gh3-cells
#3
Kanako Ogura-Ochi, Satoshi Fujisawa, Nahoko Iwata, Motoshi Komatsubara, Yuki Nishiyama, Naoko Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Kenichi Inagaki, Jun Wada, Fumio Otsuka
The effects of melatonin on prolactin production and its regulatory mechanism remain uncertain. We investigated the regulatory role of melatonin in prolactin production using rat pituitary lactotrope GH3 cells by focusing on the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system. Melatonin receptor activation, induced by melatonin and its receptor agonist ramelteon, significantly suppressed basal and forskolin-induced prolactin secretion and prolactin mRNA expression in GH3 cells. The melatonin MT2 receptor was predominantly expressed in GH3 cells, and the inhibitory effects of melatonin on prolactin production were reversed by treatment with the receptor antagonist luzindole, suggesting functional involvement of MT2 action in the suppression of prolactin release...
June 13, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627371/structure-activity-relationship-study-of-tetrapeptide-inhibitors-of-the-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-binding-to-neuropilin-1
#4
Dagmara Tymecka, Piotr F J Lipiński, Bartłomiej Fedorczyk, Anna Puszko, Beata Wileńska, Gerard Y Perret, Aleksandra Misicka
Neuropilin-1 is considered as one of the key receptors responsible for signaling pathways involved in pathological angiogenesis necessary for tumor progression, therefore targeting of VEGF165 binding to NRP-1 could be a relevant strategy for antiangiogenic treatment. It was shown before that the VEGF165/NRP-1 interaction can be inhibited by short tetrapeptides with K/RXXR sequence. Here, we present a structure-activity relationship study of the systematic optimization of amino acid residues in positions 1-3 in the above tetrapeptides...
June 13, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610952/structural-diversity-of-marine-cyclic-peptides-and-their-molecular-mechanisms-for-anticancer-antibacterial-antifungal-and-other-clinical-applications
#5
REVIEW
Yeji Lee, Chanvorleak Phat, Soon-Cheol Hong
Many cyclic peptides and analogues derived from marine sources are known to possess biological properties, including anticancer, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammation, anti-proliferative, anti-hypertensive, cytotoxic, and antibiotic properties. These compounds demonstrate different activities and modes of action according to their structure such as cyclic oligopeptide, cyclic lipopeptide, cyclic glycopeptide and cyclic depsipeptide. The recent advances in application of the above-mentioned cyclic peptides were reported in dolastatins, soblidotin, didemnin B, aplidine, salinosporamide A, kahalalide F and bryostatin 1 and they are currently in clinical trials...
June 10, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587836/functional-characterization-of-aedes-aegypti-alkaline-phosphatase-alp1-involved-in-the-toxicity-of-cry-toxins-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-and-jegathesan
#6
Jianwu Chen, Karly Aimanova, Sarjeet S Gill
Presently three major groups of proteins from Aedes aegypti, cadherin, alkaline phosphatases (ALP) and aminopeptidases N (APN), have been identified as Cry11Aa toxin receptors. To further characterize their role on toxicity, transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression were previously generated and the role of cadherin in mediating the toxicity of four different mosquitocidal toxins (Cry11Aa, Cry11Ba, Cry4Aa and Cry4Ba) was demonstrated. Here, we investigated the role of another reported Cry11Aa receptor, ALP1...
June 3, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587835/effect-of-physicochemical-properties-of-peptides-from-soy-protein-on-their-antimicrobial-activity
#7
Ning Xiang, Yuan Lyu, Xiao Zhu, Arun K Bhunia, Ganesan Narsimhan
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) kill microbial cells through insertion and damage/permeabilization of the cytoplasmic cell membranes and has applications in food safety and antibiotic replacement. Soy protein is an attractive, abundant natural source for commercial production of AMPs. In this research, explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was employed to investigate the effects of (i) number of total and net charges, (ii) hydrophobicity (iii) hydrophobic moment and (iv) helicity of peptides from soy protein on their ability to bind to lipid bilayer and their transmembrane aggregates to form pores...
June 3, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552408/structure-and-in-vitro-activities-of-a-copper-ii-chelating-anionic-peptide-from-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-tityus-stigmurus
#8
Menilla M A Melo, Alessandra D Silva, Diego G Teixeira, Andréia B Estrela, Karolline R T Melo, Verônica S Oliveira, Hugo A O Rocha, Leandro de Santis Ferreira, Daniel L Pontes, João P M S Lima, Arnóbio A Silva-Júnior, Euzebio G Barbosa, Eneas Carvalho, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa
Anionic Peptides are molecules rich in aspartic acid (Asp) and/or glutamic acid (Glu) residues in the primary structure. This work presents, for the first time, structural characterization and biological activity assays of an anionic peptide from the venom of the scorpion Tityus stigmurus, named TanP. The three-dimensional structure of TanP was obtained by computational modeling and refined by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. Furthermore, we have performed circular dichroism (CD) analysis to predict TanP secondary structure, and UV-visible spectroscopy to evaluate its chelating activity...
May 25, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529125/the-evidence-of-apelin-has-the-bidirectional-effects-on-feeding-regulation-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#9
Jin Hao, Qing Liu, Xin Zhang, Yuanbing Wu, Jieyao Zhu, Jinwen Qi, Ni Tang, Shuyao Wang, Hong Wang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Apelin is a peptide, mainly produced in the brain, which participates in several physiologic effects. However, knowledge about the mechanism of appetite regulation in teleosts, including the role of apelin is not well understood. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of feeding status on the expression of apelin mRNA in the whole brain and the effects of injection of apelin on food intake in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). In this study, we first cloned the apelin cDNA sequence of the Siberian sturgeon...
May 19, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526556/circulating-levels-of-cortistatin-are-correlated-with-metabolic-parameters-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Wenjia Chen, Yu Fu, Xinhua Yin, Yue Liu
Cortistatin (CST) is a recently discovered cyclic neuropeptide with multiple bioactive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma CST and various metabolic markers in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). For this study, 60 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and 38 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and a blood lipid profile were obtained with commercially available diagnostic reagents...
May 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526557/the-frog-skin-host-defense-peptide-frenatin-2-1s-enhances-recruitment-activation-and-tumoricidal-capacity-of-nk-cells
#11
Jelena M Pantic, Ivan P Jovanovic, Gordana D Radosavljevic, Nevena M Gajovic, Nebojsa N Arsenijevic, J Michael Conlon, Miodrag L Lukic
Frog skin is a source of peptides with various biological properties. Frenatin 2.1S, derived from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the Orinoco lime tree frog Sphaenorhynchus lacteus, exhibits immunostimulatory effects as demonstrated by the promotion of proinflammatory phenotypes of mononuclear cells in mouse peritoneal cavity and spleen. The aim of this study was to identify the populations of host cells sensitive to the action of frenatin 2.1S in vivo and to study its effects on their functional antitumor capacity...
May 16, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502716/neuropeptides-predicted-from-the-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-gray-garden-slug-deroceras-reticulatum
#12
Seung-Joon Ahn, Ruth Martin, Sujaya Rao, Man-Yeon Choi
The gray garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata), is one of the most common terrestrial molluscs. Research for this slug has focused mainly on its ecology, biology, and management due to the severe damage it causes on a wide range of vegetables and field crops. However, little is known about neuropeptides and hormonal signalings. This study, therefore, aimed to establish the transcriptome of D. reticulatum and to identify a comprehensive repertoire of neuropeptides in this slug. Illumina high-throughput sequencing of the whole body transcriptome of D...
May 11, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502715/identification-of-mature-peptides-from-pban-and-capa-genes-of-the-moths-heliothis-peltigera-and-spodoptera-littoralis
#13
Lapo Ragionieri, Burak Özbagci, Susanne Neupert, Yuval Salts, Michael Davidovitch, Miriam Altstein, Reinhard Predel
By transcriptome analysis, we identified PBAN and CAPA precursors in the moths Spodoptera littoralis and Heliothis peltigera which are among the most damaging pests of agriculture in tropical and subtropical Africa as well as in Mediterranean countries. A combination of mass spectrometry and immunocytochemistry was used to identify mature peptides processed from these precursors and to reveal their spatial distribution in the CNS. We found that the sites of expression of pban genes, the structure of PBAN precursors and the processed neuropeptides are very similar in noctuid moths...
May 11, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499840/antimicrobial-peptide-ksl-w-promotes-gingival-fibroblast-healing-properties-in-vitro
#14
Hyun-Jin Park, Mabrouka Salem, Abdelhabib Semlali, Kai P Leung, Mahmoud Rouabhia
We investigated the effect of synthetic antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W (KKVVFWVKFK) on normal human gingival fibroblast growth, migration, collagen gel contraction, and α-smooth muscle actin protein expression. Results show that in addition to promoting fibroblast adhesion by increasing F-actin production, peptide KSL-W promoted cell growth by increasing the S and G2/M cell cycle phases, and enhanced the secretion of metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-2 by upregulating MMP inhibitors, such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in fibroblasts...
May 10, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495595/low-plasma-leptin-level-at-admission-predicts-delirium-in-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Guicheng Li, Xiaobao Lei, Chenmu Ai, Tao Li, Zhongqing Chen
The pathophysiology of delirium remains poorly understood. Low leptin level has been associated with features leading to delirium such as dysregulated immune functions and loss of neuroprotective effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between plasma leptin level at intensive care unit (ICU) entry and subsequent occurrence of delirium in critically ill patients. This single-center prospective cohort study in China allocated 336 critically ill patients admitted to ICU between 05/2015 and 05/2016 into a delirium group (n=102) and non-delirium group (n=234) based on whether delirium occurred during their stay at the ICU...
May 8, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487141/a-randomized-cross-over-study-of-the-effects-of-macronutrient-composition-and-meal-frequency-on-glp-1-ghrelin-and-energy-expenditure-in-humans
#16
Simon Ingves, Nathalie Vilhelmsson, Edvin Ström, Mats Fredrikson, Hans Guldbrand, Fredrik H Nystrom
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about human postprandial increase of energy expenditure and satiety-associated hormones in relation to both meal frequency and macronutrient composition. DESIGN: Randomized cross-over study with four conditions for each participant. METHODS: Seven men and seven women (mean age 23±1.5years) were randomly assigned to the order of intake of a 750kcal drink with the same protein content while having either 20 energy-percent (E%) or 55 E% from carbohydrates and the remaining energy from fat...
May 6, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483480/neuromedin-peptides-potential-for-anti-obesity-drug-candidates
#17
EDITORIAL
Miia Kovalainen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465077/spinal-activation-of-the-npy-y1-receptor-reduces-mechanical-and-cold-allodynia-in-rats-with-chronic-constriction-injury
#18
Mariana Malet, Candelaria Leiguarda, Guillermo Gastón, Carly McCarthy, Pablo Brumovsky
Neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and its associated receptors Y1R and Y2R have been previously implicated in the spinal modulation of neuropathic pain induced by total or partial sectioning of the sciatic nerve. However, their role in chronic constrictive injuries of the sciatic nerve has not yet been described. In the present study, we analyzed the consequences of pharmacological activation of spinal Y1R, by using the specific Y1R agonist Leu(31)Pro(34)-NPY, in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI and sham-injury rats were implanted with a permanent intrathecal catheter (at day 7 after injury), and their response to the administration of different doses (2...
April 29, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460895/lack-of-effect-of-prolonged-treatment-with-liraglutide-on-cardiac-remodeling-in-rats-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#19
Kasper Kyhl, Jacob Lønborg, Bolette Hartmann, Hannelouise Kissow, Steen Seier Poulsen, Henrik El Ali, Andreas Kjær, Flemming Dela, Thomas Engstrøm, Marek Treiman
Following the acute phase of a myocardial infarction, a set of structural and functional changes evolves in the myocardium, collectively referred to as cardiac remodeling. This complex set of processes, including interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, myocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis may progress to heart failure. Analogs of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) have shown some promise as cardioprotective agents. We hypothesized that a long-acting GLP-1 analog liraglutide would ameliorate cardiac remodeling over the course of 4 weeks in a rat model of non-reperfused myocardial infarction...
April 28, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460894/intravenous-administration-of-oxytocin-in-rats-acutely-decreases-deprivation-induced-chow-intake-but-it-fails-to-affect-consumption-of-palatable-solutions
#20
Anica Klockars, Chloe Brunton, Lu Li, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Despite its limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, peripherally administered oxytocin (OT) acutely decreases food intake, most likely via the brainstem and hypothalamic mechanisms. Studies performed to date have focused mainly on the effects of subcutaneous or intraperitoneal OT on the consumption of only solid calorie-dense diets (either standard or high-fat), whereas it is unknown whether, similarly to central OT, peripherally administered peptide reduces intake of calorie-dilute and non-caloric palatable solutions...
April 28, 2017: Peptides
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