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Peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894924/antidepressant-like-effects-exerted-by-the-intranasal-administration-of-a-glucagon-like-peptide-2-derivative-containing-cell-penetrating-peptides-and-a-penetration-accelerating-sequence-in-mice
#1
Sachie Sasaki-Hamada, Ryuji Nakamura, Yusuke Nakao, Toshiki Akimoto, Emi Sanai, Mio Nagai, Michiko Horiguchi, Chikamasa Yamashita, Jun-Ichiro Oka
The intracerebroventicular (i.c.v.) administration of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) to rodents was shown to have antidepressant-like effects in imipramine-resistant depression-model mice. In order to utilize GLP-2 as a clinical treatment tool for depression, we herein focused on the intranasal delivery that is non-invasive approach, because the i.c.v. administration is invasive and impractical. In the present study, we prepared a GLP-2 derivative containing cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) and a penetration accelerating sequence (PAS) (PAS-CPPs-GLP-2) for the intranasal (i...
November 25, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887988/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-delivery-of-therapeutic-proteins-using-cell-penetrating-peptides
#2
REVIEW
Azam Bolhassani, Behnaz Sadat Jafarzade, Golnaz Mardani
The failure of proteins to penetrate mammalian cells or target tumor cells restricts their value as therapeutic tools in a variety of diseases such as cancers. Recently, protein transduction domains (PTDs) or cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been shown to promote the delivery of therapeutic proteins or peptides into live cells. The successful delivery of proteins mainly depends on their physicochemical properties. Although, linear cell penetrating peptides are one of the most effective delivery vehicles; but currently, cyclic CPPs has been developed to potently transport bioactive full-length proteins into cells...
November 22, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884622/exercise-modulates-the-aortic-renin-angiotensin-system-independently-of-estrogen-therapy-in-ovariectomized-hypertensive-rats
#3
Patrick W Endlich, Erick R G Claudio, Leandro C F Lima, Rogério F Ribeiro Júnior, Antonio A B Peluso, Ivanita Stefanon, Nazaré S Bissoli, Virginia S Lemos, Robson A S Dos Santos, Glaucia R de Abreu
The renin-angiotensin-system is an important component of cardiovascular control and is up-regulated under various conditions, including hypertension and menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of swimming training and estrogen therapy (ET) on angiotensin-II (ANG II)-induced vasoconstriction and angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)]-induced vasorelaxation in aortic rings from ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Animals were divided into Sham (SH), Ovariectomized (OVX), Ovariectomized treated with E2 (OE2), Ovariectomized plus swimming (OSW) and Ovariectomized treated with E2 plus swimming (OE2+SW) groups...
November 21, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871874/functional-and-immuno-reactive-characterization-of-a-previously-undescribed-peptide-from-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-centruroides-limpidus
#4
Timoteo Olamendi-Portugal, Rita Restano-Cassulini, Lidia Riaño-Umbarila, Baltazar Becerril, Lourival D Possani
A previously undescribed toxic peptide named Cl13 was purified from the venom of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides limpidus. It contains 66 amino acid residues, including four disulfide bonds. The physiological effects assayed in 7 different subtypes of voltage gated Na(+)-channels, showed that it belongs to the β-scorpion toxin type. The most notorious effects were observed in subtypes Nav1.4, Nav1.5 and Nav1.6. Although having important sequence similarities with two other lethal toxins from this scorpion species (Cll1m and Cll2), the recently developed single chain antibody fragments (scFv) of human origin were not capable of protecting against Cl13...
November 18, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845162/neuropeptide-glutamic-acid-isoleucine-nei-induced-paradoxical-sleep-in-rats
#5
Moe Fujimoto, Satoru Fukuda, Hidetoshi Sakamoto, Junko Takata, Shigehito Sawamura
Neuropeptideglutamic acid-isoleucine (NEI) as well as melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is cleaved from the 165 amino acid protein, prepro-melanin concentrating hormone (prepro-MCH). Among many physiological roles of MCH, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of MCH induced increases in REM sleep episodes as well as in non REM sleep episodes. However, there are no studies on the effect of NEI on the sleep-wake cycle. As for the sites of action of MCH for induction of REM sleep, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) has been reported to be one of its site of action...
November 11, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840228/region-specific-bioconversion-of-dynorphin-neuropeptide-detected-by-in-situ-histochemistry-and-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#6
Erik Bivehed, Robert Strömvall, Jonas Bergquist, Georgy Bakalkin, Malin Andersson
Brain region-specific expression of proteolytic enzymes can control the biological activity of endogenous neuropeptides and has recently been targeted for the development of novel drugs, for neuropathic pain, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Rapid and sensitive analytical methods to profile modulators of enzymatic activity are important for finding effective inhibitors with high therapeutic value. Combination of in situ enzyme histochemistry with MALDI imaging mass spectrometry allowed developing a highly sensitive method for analysis of brain-area specific neuropeptide conversion of synthetic and endogenous neuropeptides, and for selection of peptidase inhibitors that differentially target conversion enzymes at specific anatomical sites...
November 10, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829122/opposite-effects-of-central-oxytocin-and-arginine-vasopressin-on-changes-in-gastric-motor-function-induced-by-chronic-stress
#7
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Burcu Gemici, V Nimet İzgüt-Uysal
Hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are known to act oppositely on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress response and gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In rodents, exposure to restraint stress (RS) delays gastric emptying (GE), however, repeated exposure to the same stressor (chronic homotypic stress (CHS)), the delayed GE is restored to basal level, while hypothalamic OXT is upregulated. In contrast, when rats are exposed to chronic heterotypic stress (CHeS), these adaptive changes are not observed...
November 6, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825986/intracerebroventricular-injection-of-ghrelin-decreases-wheel-running-activity-in-rats
#8
Yumiko Miyatake, Tetsuya Shiuchi, Kazuaki Mawatari, Satomi Toda, Yasuko Taniguchi, Akari Futami, Fukiko Sato, Masashi Kuroda, Mayu Sebe, Rie Tsutsumi, Nagakatsu Harada, Yasuhiko Minokoshi, Tadahiro Kitamura, Koro Gotoh, Masaki Ueno, Yutaka Nakaya, Hiroshi Sakaue
There is an increasing interest in elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which voluntary exercise is regulated. In this study, we examined how the central nervous system regulates exercise. We used SPORTS rats, which were established in our laboratory as a highly voluntary murine exercise model. SPORTS rats showed lower levels of serum ghrelin compared with those of the parental line of Wistar rats. Intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin decreased wheel-running activity in SPORTS rats...
November 5, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732900/ts14-from-tityus-serrulatus-boosts-angiogenesis-and-attenuates-inflammation-and-collagen-deposition-in-sponge-induced-granulation-tissue-in-mice
#9
Puebla Cassini-Vieira, Mariane Felipetto, Leandro Barbosa Prado, Thiago Verano-Braga, Silvia Passos Andrade, Robson A S Santos, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Maria Elena de Lima, Adriano M C Pimenta, Luciola Silva Barcelos
We have previously described a 25mer anti-hypertensive peptide, previously named TsHpt-I (Tityus serrulatus Hypotensin-I), now Ts14, as an agonist of B2 kinin receptor. Bradykinin is known to play physiological roles in angiogenic, inflammatory, and fibrogenic processes, mostly mediated by B2 receptor. Therefore, we investigated whether Ts14 could modulate key events (neovascularization, inflammatory cell recruitment, and extracellular matrix deposition) of the fibrovascular tissue, induced by polyether-polyurethane sponge implants in mice...
October 11, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667703/intraperitoneal-injection-urocortin-3-reduces-the-food-intake-of-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#10
Xin Zhang, Yuanbing Wu, Jin Hao, Jieyao Zhu, Ni Tang, Jinwen Qi, Shuyao Wang, Hong Wang, Shuang Peng, Ju Liu, Yundi Gao, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Urocortin-3 (UCN3), one of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family peptides, which was discovered in 2001, has a variety of biological functions. However, the researches of UCN3 in fish were scarce. In order to understand whether UCN3 play a role in regulating food intake in fish, we first cloned the ucn3 cDNAs sequence of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt), and investigated the ucn3 mRNA levels in 11 tissues. The Siberian sturgeon ucn3 cDNA sequence was 1044bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 447bp that encoded 148 amino acids with a mature peptide of 40 amino acids, a 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 162bp and a 3'-terminal untranslated region (3'-UTR) of 435bp...
September 22, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650372/phage-display-screening-identifies-lmp1-binding-peptides-targeting-the-c-terminus-region-of-the-ebv-oncoprotein
#11
Nihel Ammous-Boukhris, Amor Mosbah, Emna Sahli, Wajdi Ayadi, Boutheina Hadhri-Guiga, Ameur Chérif, Ali Gargouri, Raja Mokdad-Gargouri
Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), a major oncoprotein of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is responsible for transforming B lymphocytes in vitro. LMP1 is overexpressed in several EBV-associated malignancies, and different approaches have been developed to reduce its level and accordingly its oncogenic function in tumor tissues. This study aimed to use phage display peptide library to obtain peptides which could specifically bind to the cytoplasmic region of LMP1 to prevent its interaction with signaling proteins. The LMP1 C-terminus region was produced in bacterial E...
September 17, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639324/lunasin-is-a-redox-sensitive-intrinsically-disordered-peptide-with-two-transiently-populated-%C3%AE-helical-regions
#12
Rihards Aleksis, Kristaps Jaudzems, Ruta Muceniece, Edvards Liepinsh
Lunasin is a 43 amino acid peptide with anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-lowering properties. Although the mechanism of action of lunasin has been characterized to some extent, its exact three-dimensional structure as well as the function of the N-terminal sequence remains unknown. We established a novel method for the production of recombinant lunasin that allows efficient isotope labeling for NMR studies. Initial studies showed that lunasin can exist in a reduced or oxidized state with an intramolecular disulfide bond depending on solution conditions...
September 14, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637621/acute-central-effects-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-on-energy-balance-effects-of-age-and-gender
#13
Judit Tenk, Ildikó Rostás, Nóra Füredi, Alexandra Mikó, Szilvia Soós, Margit Solymár, Balázs Gaszner, Miklós Székely, Erika Pétervári, Márta Balaskó
Previously demonstrated age-related changes in the catabolic melanocortin system that may contribute to middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia, raise the question of the potential involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in these phenomena, as this catabolic hypothalamic mediator acts downstream to melanocortins. Catabolic effects of CRF were shown to be mediated by both CRF1 (hypermetabolism) and CRF2 (anorexia) receptors. To test the potential role of CRF in age-related obesity and aging anorexia, we investigated acute central effects of the peptide on energy balance in male and female rats during the course of aging...
September 13, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628189/bradykinin-induced-vasodilatation-role-of-age-ace1-inhibitory-peptide-mas-and-bradykinin-receptors
#14
A Siltari, R Korpela, H Vapaatalo
Bradykinin exerts its vascular actions via two types of receptors, the non-constitutively expressed bradykinin receptor type 1 (BR1) and the constitutive type 2 receptor (BR2). Bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation is age-dependent, a phenomenon related to the varying amounts of BR1 and BR2 in the vasculature. Isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro), a bioactive tripeptide, lowers elevated blood pressure and improves impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in hypertensive rats. It inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE1)...
September 11, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818235/high-sucrose-intake-during-gestation-increases-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-mediated-vascular-contractility-associated-with-epigenetic-alterations-in-aged-offspring-rats
#15
Lei Wu, Aiping Shi, Di Zhu, Le Bo, Yuan Zhong, Juan Wang, Zhice Xu, Caiping Mao
Accruing evidence have confirmed that the fetal programming in response to adverse environmental in utero factors plays essential roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension in later life. High sugar intake has been accepted worldwide in everyday life diet and becomes the critical public health issue. Our previous studies indicated that intake of high sucrose (HS) during pregnancy could change the vascular reactivity and dipsogenic behavior closely associated with abnormal renin-angiotensin system (RAS), to increase the risk of hypertension in adult offspring...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816752/reduced-intake-of-carbohydrate-prevents-the-development-of-obesity-and-impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-ghrelin-o-acyltransferase-knockout-mice
#16
Tetsuya Kouno, Nobuteru Akiyama, Kumiko Fujieda, Isamu Nanchi, Tomohiko Okuda, Takanori Iwasaki, Shogo Oka, Hideo Yukioka
A close relationship between acylated-ghrelin and sucrose intake has been reported. However, little has been examined about the physiological action of ghrelin on preference for different types of carbohydrate such as glucose, fructose, and starch. The current study was aimed to investigate the role of acylated-ghrelin in the determinants of the choice of carbohydrates, and pathogenesis of chronic disorders, including obesity and insulin resistance. In a two-bottle-drinking test, ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) knockout (KO) mice consumed a less amount of glucose and maltodextrin, and almost the same amount of fructose and saccharin solution compared to WT littermates...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816751/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-induced-transactivation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-human-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#17
Eva Vacas, Laura Muñoz-Moreno, Pedro L Valenzuela, Juan C Prieto, Andrew V Schally, María J Carmena, Ana M Bajo
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subset of breast cancers which is negative for expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Chemotherapy is currently the only form of treatment for women with TNBC. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are autocrine/paracrine growth factors in breast cancer and a substantial proportion of TNBC expresses receptors for GHRH and EGF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interrelationship between both these signaling pathways in MDA-MB-468 human TNBC cells...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780736/add-on-therapy-with-anagliptin-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treated-with-metformin-and-miglitol-can-maintain-higher-concentrations-of-biologically-active-glp-1-total-gip-and-a-lower-concentration-of-leptin
#18
Takeshi Osonoi, Miyoko Saito, Natsuyo Hariya, Moritaka Goto, Kazuki Mochizuki
Metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) reduce hyperglycemia without excessive insulin secretion, and enhance postprandial plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We assessed add-on therapeutic effects of DPP-4I anagliptin in Japanese T2DM patients treated with metformin, an α-GI miglitol, or both drugs on postprandial responses of GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and on plasma concentration of the appetite-suppressing hormone leptin...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780735/regional-specificity-of-the-gut-incretin-response-to-small-intestinal-glucose-infusion-in-healthy-older-subjects
#19
Rachael S Rigda, Laurence G Trahair, Tanya J Little, Tongzhi Wu, Scott Standfield, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Christopher K Rayner, Michael Horowitz, Karen L Jones
The importance of the region, as opposed to the length, of small intestine exposed to glucose in determining the secretion of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) remains unclear. We sought to compare the glycemic, insulinemic and incretin responses to glucose administered to the proximal (12-60cm beyond the pylorus), or more distal (>70cm beyond the pylorus) small intestine, or both. 10 healthy subjects (9M,1F; aged 70.3±1.4years) underwent infusion of glucose via a catheter into the proximal (glucose proximally; GP), or distal (glucose distally; GD) small intestine, or both (GPD), on three separate days in a randomised fashion...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777064/carnosine-ameliorates-cognitive-deficits-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-possible-involved-mechanisms
#20
Siamak Ahshin-Majd, Samira Zamani, Taktom Kiamari, Zahra Kiasalari, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
Diabetic patients are at increased risk to develop cognitive deficit and senile dementia. This study was planned to assess the benefits of chronic carnosine administration on prevention of learning and memory deterioration in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats and to explore some of the involved mechanisms. Rats were divided into 5 groups: i.e., control, carnosine100-treated control, diabetic, and carnosine-treated diabetics (50 and 100mg/kg). Carnosine was injected i.p. at doses of 50 or 100mg/kg for 7 weeks, started 1 week after induction of diabetes using streptozotocin...
December 2016: Peptides
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