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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791869/ghrelin-and-the-heart
#1
Takeshi Tokudome, Kentaro Otani, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
Ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide that was first discovered in the stomach of rats in 1999, is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin exerts its potent growth hormone-releasing and orexigenic activities by binding to specific receptors in the brain. Subsequent studies showed that ghrelin participates in the regulation of diverse processes, including energy balance, body weight maintenance, and glucose and fat metabolism, and demonstrated that ghrelin is beneficial for treatment of cardiac diseases...
May 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751050/effects-of-hypergravity-on-the-gene-expression-of-the-hypothalamic-feeding-related-neuropeptides-in-mice-via-vestibular-inputs
#2
Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yoichi Ueta
The effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in sham-operated (Sham) and vestibular-lesioned (VL) mice were examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus was increased significantly in Sham but not in VL mice after 3 days of exposure to a 2 g environment compared with a 1 g environment. Significant decreases in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and significant increases in neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein in the arcuate nucleus and orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area were observed in both Sham and VL mice...
May 8, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746877/liraglutide-attenuates-the-migration-of-retinal-pericytes-induced-by-advanced-glycation-end-products
#3
Wen-Jian Lin, Xue-Fei Ma, Ming Hao, Huan-Ran Zhou, Xin-Yang Yu, Ning Shao, Xin-Yuan Gao, Hong-Yu Kuang
Retinal pericyte migration represents a novel mechanism of pericyte loss in diabetic retinopathy (DR), which plays a crucial role in the early impairment of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to protect the diabetic retina in the early stage of DR; however, the relationship between GLP-1 and retinal pericytes has not been discussed. In this study, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) significantly increased the migration of primary bovine retinal pericytes without influencing cell viability...
May 7, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730242/potentiation-of-capsaicin-induced-neurogenic-inflammation-by-5-ht7-receptors-in-the-rat-hind-paw-involvement-of-calcitonin-gen-related-peptide
#4
Luis D Arreola-Peralta, Frida Altamirano-Reyna, Deni M Galindo-González, Jessica G Solis-Anguiano, Enza Lacivita, Marcello Leopoldo, José A Terrón
A decrease in the activation threshold of primary sensory neurons to transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) stimulation by serotonin 5-HT7 receptors has been reported but no confirmation if this might translate into facilitation of neurogenic inflammation has been provided. We analysed the modulation of capsaicin (CAP)-induced neurogenic inflammation in the rat hind paw by the selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-44, and the involvement of calcitonin gen-related peptide (CGRP) in this effect. Animals received intra-plantar injections (30 μl) of vehicle, CAP (0...
May 3, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730241/galanin-and-its-n-terminal-fragments-reduce-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-rats
#5
Larisa Serebryakova, Marina Pal'keeva, Irina Studneva, Alexander Molokoedov, Oksana Veselova, Michael Ovchinnikov, Radik Gataulin, Maria Sidorova, Oleg Pisarenko
Agonists and antagonists for galanin receptor subtypes GalR1-3 can be used as putative therapeutics targets for the treatment of various human diseases. However, effects of galanin and its N-terminal fragments on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury remain unclear. This study was designed to assess the ability of the full-length galanin (GWTLNSAGYLLGPHAIDNHRSFSDKHGLT-NH2, G1), the natural fragments WTLNSAGYLL-NH2 (G2) and WTLNSAGYLLGPHA (G3), and their modified analogs WTLNAAGYLL (G4) and WTLNSAGYLLGPβAH (G5) to limit acute myocardial infarction in rats in vivo...
May 3, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709624/the-antimicrobial-and-anti-endotoxic-peptide-amyi-1-18-from-rice-%C3%AE-amylase-and-its-n3l-analog-promote-angiogenesis-and-cell-migration
#6
Masayuki Taniguchi, Akihito Ochiai, Toshiki Namae, Kazuki Saito, Tetsuo Kato, Eiichi Saitoh, Takaaki Tanaka
In our previous studies, we showed that AmyI-1-18 and its single amino acid-substituted analogs have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-endotoxic activities and cause little or no hemolysis or cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the potential of these peptides to promote proliferation, angiogenesis (tube formation), and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Among five single amino acid-substituted analogs, [N3L]AmyI-1-18 induced cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner with similar efficacy to AmyI-1-18...
April 27, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709623/kisspeptin-modulates-pain-sensitivity-of-cflp-mice
#7
Krisztina Csabafi, Zsolt Bagosi, Éva Dobó, Júlia Szakács, Gyula Telegdy, Gyula Szabó
Kisspeptin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide, is a member of the RF-amide family, which have been known to modify pain sensitivity in rodents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of kisspeptin-13 (KP-13), an endogenous derivative of kisspeptin, on nociception in adult male and female CFLP mice and the possible interaction of KP-13 with morphine on nociception. Mice were injected with different doses of KP-13, 30, 60 and 120 min after of which the nociceptive sensitivity were assessed via the tail-flick test...
April 27, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684594/new-apetx-like-peptides-from-sea-anemone-heteractis-crispa-modulate-asic1a-channels
#8
Rimma Kalina, Irina Gladkikh, Pavel Dmitrenok, Oleg Chernikov, Sergey Koshelev, Aleksandra Kvetkina, Sergey Kozlov, Emma Kozlovskaya, Margarita Monastyrnaya
Sea anemones are an abundant source of various biologically active peptides. The hydrophobic 20% ethanol fraction of tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa was shown to contain at least 159 peptide compounds including neurotoxins, proteinase and α-amylase inhibitors, as well as modulators of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). The three new peptides, π-AnmTX Hcr 1b-2, -3, and -4 (41 aa) (short names Hcr 1b-2, -3, -4), identified by a combination of reversed-phase liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were found to belong to the class 1b sea anemone neurotoxins...
April 22, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689347/regulation-of-cardiovascular-development-and-homeostasis-by-the-adrenomedullin-ramp-system
#9
Takayuki Shindo, Megumu Tanaka, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Akihiro Yamauchi, Takayuki Sakurai
Adrenomedullin (AM), a member of the calcitonin peptide superfamily, is a peptide involved in both the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and circulatory homeostasis. Its receptor, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), associates with an accessory protein, receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP). Depending upon which the three RAMP isoforms (RAMP1-3) it interacts with, CLR functions as a receptor for AM or other calcitonin family peptides. AM knockout mice (-/-) died mid-gestation due to abnormalities in vascular development...
April 21, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689346/b-type-natriuretic-peptide-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-h9c2-cardiomyocytes-underwent-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-under-high-glucose-high-fat-conditions
#10
Pan Chang, Mingyang Zhang, Xiaomeng Zhang, Guohua Li, Haiyan Hu, Juan Wu, Xihui Wang, Zihua Yang, Jing Zhang, Weiguo Chen, Minggang Ren, Xin Li, Miaozhang Zhu, Baoying Chen, Jun Yu
Exogenously administered B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been shown to provide cardioprotection against various heart diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. This study explores whether BNP exerts its cardioprotection against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury under high glucose/high fat (HG/HF) conditions in cardiac H9c2 cells and uncovers the underlying mechanisms. Our data revealed that BNP significantly increased the cell viability and decreased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK), with a maximal effect at the BNP concentration of 10-7  mol/L...
April 21, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684595/apelin-and-elabela-toddler-double-ligands-for-apj-apelin-receptor-in-heart-development-physiology-and-pathology
#11
Keiji Kuba, Teruki Sato, Yumiko Imai, Tomokazu Yamaguchi
Apelin is an endogenous peptide ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor APJ/AGTRL1/APLNR and is widely expressed throughout human body. In adult hearts Apelin-APJ/Apelin receptor axis is potently inotropic, vasodilatory, and pro-angiogenic and thereby contributes to maintaining homeostasis in normal and pathological hearts. Apelin-APJ/Apelin receptor is also involved in heart development including endoderm differentiation, heart morphogenesis, and coronary vascular formation. APJ/Apelin receptor had been originally identified as an orphan receptor for its sequence similarity to Angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and it was later deorphanized by identification of Apelin in 1998...
April 21, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684593/renal-function-n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-propeptide-big-endothelin-and-patients-with-heart-failure-and-preserved-ejection-fraction
#12
Ingrid Gergei, Bernhard K Krämer, Hubert Scharnagl, Tatjana Stojakovic, Winfried März
Renal dysfunction may limit the clinical application of NT-proBNP in the diagnosis of heart failure. In general practice, where echocardiography is not readily available, a biomarker for the diagnosis of a heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) would be useful. Since cardiac diseases frequently coincide with renal disease, there is a high need of valid risk stratification methods in patients affected with both. We therefore examined NT-proBNP and another biomarker, Big-Endothelin-1, as a marker of HFpEF in patients with CKD...
April 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684592/cell-penetrating-peptides-for-sirna-delivery-to-glioblastomas
#13
Artita Srimanee, Maria Arvanitidou, Kumjee Kim, Mattias Hällbrink, Ülo Langel
Delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to suppress glioblastoma growth is a hurdle due to the critical obstacles of the blood-brain barrier and the siRNA properties of such as high negative charges and instability in serum. Therefore, the passage of siRNA to targeted cells is limited. Several siRNA carriers have been constructed using cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) since the CPPs have shown a high potential for oligonucleotide delivery into the cells. In this study, two CPPs, PepFect 14 (PF14) and the amphipathic peptide PepFect 28 (PF28), were modified with targeting peptides by covalent conjugation and non-covalent complex formation to improve glioma-targeted specificity and gene-silencing efficiency...
April 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684591/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-opioid-cyclopeptide-with-mu-delta-agonist-profile-biased-toward-%C3%AE-arrestin
#14
Katarzyna Gach-Janczak, Justyna Piekielna-Ciesielska, Anna Adamska-Bartłomiejczyk, Karol Wtorek, Federica Ferrari, Girolamo Calo, Agata Szymaszkiewicz, Joanna Piasecka-Zelga, Anna Janecka
Replacement of the tyrosine residue in the mu-selective opioid ligand Tyr-c[D-Lys-Phe-Asp]NH2 with 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine (Dmt) produced a cyclopeptide Dmt-c[D-Lys-Phe-Asp]NH2 with mu/delta opioid receptor agonist profile. This new analog showed improved antinociception in the hot-plate test as compared to the parent but also significantly inhibited the gastrointestinal transit. Using the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assay it was shown that this analog was biased toward β-arrestin.
April 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684590/a-synthetic-snake-venom-based-tripeptide-glu-val-trp-protects-pc12-cells-from-mpp-toxicity-by-activating-the-ngf-signaling-pathway
#15
Carolina P Bernardes, Neife A G Santos, Flavia M Sisti, Rafaela Scalco Ferreira, Norival A Santos-Filho, Adélia C O Cintra, Eduardo M Cilli, Suely V Sampaio, Antonio C Santos
Venom small peptides that target neurotrophin receptors might be beneficial in neurodegeneration, including Parkinsońs disease (PD). Their small size, ease of synthesis, structural stability and target selectivity make them important tools to overcome the limitations of endogenous neurotrophins as therapeutic agents. Additionally, they might be optimized to improve resistance to enzymatic degradation, bioavailability, potency and, mainly, lipophilicity, important to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of the synthetic snake-venom-based peptide p-BTX-I (Glu-Val-Trp) in PC12 cells treated with MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium), a dopaminergic neurotoxin that induces Parkinsonism in vivo...
April 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684589/hydrogen-sulfide-donor-nahs-stimulates-anp-secretion-via-the-k-atp-channel-and-the-nos-sgc-pathway-in-rat-atria
#16
Lamei Yu, Byung Mun Park, Yong Jin Ahn, Gi-Ja Lee, Suhn Hee Kim
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is normally produced from L-cysteine in mammalian tissues and related to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of H2 S donor on atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion and define its mechanism using normal and isoproterenol (ISP)-treated rats. Several H2 S donors were perfused into isolated beating rat atria, and atrial pressure (AP) and ANP secretion were measured. NaHS augmented high stretch-induced ANP secretion and decreased AP in a dose-dependent manner...
April 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680268/distribution-of-mch-containing-fibers-in-the-feline-brainstem-relevance-for-rem-sleep-regulation
#17
Alicia Costa, Santiago Castro-Zaballa, Patricia Lagos, Michael H Chase, Pablo Torterolo
Neurons that utilize melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) as a neuromodulator are localized in the postero-lateral hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic area. These neurons project diffusely throughout the central nervous system and have been implicated in critical physiological processes, such as sleep. Unlike rodents, in the order carnivora as well as in humans, MCH exerts its biological functions through two receptors: MCHR-1 and MCHR-2. Hence, the cat is an optimal animal to model MCHergic functions in humans...
April 19, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680267/oxyntomodulin-analogue-increases-energy-expenditure-via-the-glucagon-receptor
#18
R Scott, J Minnion, T Tan, S R Bloom
The gut hormone oxyntomodulin (OXM) causes weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Several analogues are being developed to treat obesity. Exactly how oxyntomodulin works, however, remains controversial. OXM can activate both glucagon and GLP-1 receptors but no specific receptor has been identified. It is thought that the anorectic effect occurs predominantly through GLP-1 receptor activation but, to date, it has not been formally confirmed which receptor is responsible for the increased energy expenditure...
April 19, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673718/corrigendum-to-short-hybrid-peptides-incorporating-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-amino-acids-as-antimicrobial-agents-peptides-97-2017-46-53
#19
Naiem Ahmad Wani, Gurpreet Singh, Sudha Shankar, Arushi Sharma, Meenu Katoch, Rajkishor Rai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660382/elevated-plasma-soluble-pro-renin-receptor-levels-are-associated-with-left-ventricular-remodeling-and-renal-function-in-chronic-heart-faiure-patients-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#20
Linghui Gong, Shenglin Zhang, Linrui Li, Xin Gao, Dongxia Wang, Dachang Wu, Ke Wang, Yan Liu
Soluble (pro)renin receptor [s(P)RR], which is generated from cleavage of (P)RR, can be detected in plasma and urine. s(P)RR levels can reflect the severity of some diseases, such as renal lesions, gestational diabetes mellitus or hypertension, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, the relationship between s(P)RR levels and the severity of chronic heart failure remains undetermined. We studied s(P)RR levels in 118 patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), including 86 without renal dysfunction (HF) and 32 with renal dysfunction (HF + RF), and 28 healthy subjects (HS) to reveal the relationship between s(P)RR levels and other HFrEF parameters...
April 13, 2018: Peptides
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