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Peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227157/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-action-in-the-vasculature
#1
Malak Almutairi, Rami Al Batran, John R Ussher
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists augment insulin secretion and are thus used clinically to improve glycemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). As recent data reveals marked improvement in cardiovascular outcomes in T2D subjects treated with the GLP-1R agonists liraglutide and semaglutide in the LEADER and SUSTAIN-6 clinical trials respectively, there is growing interest in delineating the mechanism(s) of action for GLP-1R agonist-induced cardioprotection. Of importance, negligible GLP-1R expression in ventricular cardiac myocytes suggests that cardiac-independent actions of GLP-1R agonists may account for the reduced death rates from cardiovascular causes in T2D subjects enrolled in the LEADER trial...
September 15, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218693/ghrelin-attenuates-myocardial-fibrosis-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-via-inhibiting-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-rat-model
#2
Hainan Chen, Yijian Liu, Qingjun Gui, Xiao Zhu, Lin Zeng, Jun Meng, Jina Qing, Ling Gao, Ampadu O Jackson, Juling Feng, Yi Li, Jing He, Kai Yin
Ghrelin, a peptide hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract, has recently been found to be associated with the onset of myocardial fibrosis (MF). The exact mechanism, however, remains elusive. This study sought to identify the function and mechanism of ghrelin on MF after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). AMI was established in Spraque-Dawley rats by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD). Ghrelin or saline was intraperitoneally injected two times per day for 8 weeks after ligation. The weight of heart (mg) and the weight ratio of heart to body (mg/g) as well as the fibrotic area was increased, while serum level of ghrelin was decreased after AMI...
September 12, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196126/validation-of-antibody-based-tools-for-galanin-research
#3
Susanne M Brunner, Andreas Koller, Julia Stockinger, Felix Locker, Stefan Leis, Florian Ernst, Peter Strasser, Bernhard Brodowicz, Sabine Ebner, Barbara S Holub, Isabella Rauch, Kerstin Graf, Roland Lang, Barbara Kofler
Antibodies are an integral biomedical tool, not only for research but also as therapeutic agents. However, progress can only be made with sensitive and specific antibodies. The regulatory (neuro)peptide galanin and its three endogenous receptors (GAL1-3 -R) are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and in peripheral non-neuronal tissues. The galanin system has multiple biological functions, including feeding behavior, pain processing, nerve regeneration and inflammation, to name only a few...
September 6, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176261/structure-activity-relationship-study-of-the-antimicrobial-cramp-derived-peptide-cramp20-33
#4
Sofie Winderickx, Katrijn De Brucker, Matthew J Bird, Petra Windmolders, Els Meert, Bruno P A Cammue, Karin Thevissen
We report here on the structure-activity relationship study of a 14 amino acid fragment of the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), CRAMP20-33 (KKIGQKIKNFFQKL). It showed activity against Escherichia coli and filamentous fungi with IC50 values below 30 µM and 10 µM, respectively. CRAMP20-33 variants with glycine at position 23 substituted by phenylalanine, leucine or tryptophan showed 2- to 4-fold improved activity against E. coli but not against filamentous fungi. Furthermore, the most active single-substituted peptide, CRAMP20-33 G23 W (IC50  = 2...
August 31, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165089/diagnostic-value-of-chemerin-in-lower-gastrointestinal-diseases-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Marcin Sochal, Paula Mosińska, Jakub Fichna
Chemerin is a protein secreted among others by adipose tissue and liver, with a dual pro- and anti-inflammatory role in the body. These molecules exert systemic effects by modulating tissue-specific immune response and metabolism. Chemerin isoforms correlate with the turnover of fatty acids and lipoproteins that could affect intestinal inflammation. Although chemerin may interact with three types of receptors, CMKLR1 is the best studied. In this paper we reviewed current knowledge about the relationship between chemerin and lower gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC)...
August 27, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142367/apelin-13-reverses-memory-impairment-and-depression-like-behavior-in-chronic-social-defeat-stressed-rats
#6
Shao-Wen Tian, Fang Xu, Shu-Jia Gui
The apelin/APJ signaling is composed of the short peptide apelin usually including apelin-13, apelin-17 and apelin-36, and its receptor APJ. This signaling is abundantly expressed in limbic structures such as the hippocampus, suggesting a potential role in stress response and learning and memory. We recently reported that apelin-13 reverses acute stress-induced memory impairment and depression-like behavior in rats. Here, we further investigate whether apelin-13 reverses memory impairment and depression-like behavior in chronic stressed rats...
August 22, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121363/pharmacological-characterization-of-human-beta-defensins-3-and-4-on-potassium-channels-evidence-of-diversity-in-beta-defensin-potassium-channel-interactions
#7
Yonghui Zhao, Zili Xie, Jing Feng, Wenxin Li, Zhijian Cao, Yingliang Wu
Recent reports have identified defensins as a new type of potassium channel inhibitors; differential binding mechanisms of human β-defensins hBD1 and hBD2 point to complex interactions between human β-defensins and potassium channels. We investigated the inhibitory effects of human defensins hBD3 and hBD4 on potassium channels. The data indicate that hBD3 is a voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 3 (Kv1.3) inhibitor with an IC50 value of 187.6 ± 25.7 nM; 1 μM hBD4 inhibited 34.0 ± 0.2% of Kv1...
August 16, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121362/cardiac-procholecystokinin-expression-during-haemodynamic-changes-in-the-mammalian-heart
#8
Jens P Goetze, Ingrid Hunter, Nora E Zois, Dijana Terzic, Nana Valeur, L H Olsen, Julie Smith, Peter Plomgaard, Lasse H Hansen, Jens F Rehfeld, L Balling, Finn Gustafsson
Cardiac myocytes express the cholecystokinin gene (CCK) at propeptide level. We recently reported that cardiac CCK expression is acutely regulated by isoprenaline in a porcine model. The regulation of CCK expression after myocardial infarction, in exercise, and in severe heart failure is, however, unknown. Cardiac tissue was obtained from healthy new-born and adolescent farm pigs. Myocardial infarction was induced by coronary artery occlusion in adult minipigs. Healthy male subjects performed a 3-hour exercise test, and patients with severe heart failure referred for right heart catheterization were included...
August 16, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120963/natriuretic-peptides-in-human-heart-novel-insight-into-their-molecular-forms-functions-and-diagnostic-use
#9
Ayaka Matsuo, Chiaki Nagai-Okatani, Mitsuhiro Nishigori, Kenji Kangawa, Naoto Minamino
Among the three natriuretic peptides, atrial/A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain/B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are primarily produced by, and secreted from, heart tissue. They maintain cardiovascular homeostasis by binding to natriuretic peptide receptor-A. Since plasma ANP and BNP concentrations, as well as expression, are elevated in response to increased body fluid volume and pressure load on the heart wall, these peptides are widely utilized as diagnostic biomarkers for evaluating heart failure...
August 16, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969648/oxytocin-modulates-the-expression-of-norepinephrine-transporter-%C3%AE-3-adrenoceptors-and-muscarinic-m-2-receptors-in-the-hearts-of-socially-isolated-rats
#10
Predrag Jovanovic, Natasa Spasojevic, Nela Puskas, Bojana Stefanovic, Sladjana Dronjak
Social stress produces behavioral alterations, and autonomic and cardiac dysfunction in animals. In addition to the well-known roles of oxytocin on birth and maternal bonding, recent evidence shows that this neuropeptide possesses cardio-protective properties. However less is known about its role in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. The direct influence of oxytocin on the cardiac catecholamine synthesizing enzyme, transport beta-adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors in animals exposed to chronic social isolation stress has not yet been studied...
June 30, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179653/novel-peptide-inhibitor-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-tyr-pro-d-ala-nh-2-with-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-the-mouse-models-of-colitis
#11
M Salaga, A Binienda, P Draczkowski, P Kosson, R Kordek, K Jozwiak, J Fichna
Protease inhibition has become a new possible approach in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy. A serine exopeptidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is responsible for inactivation of incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), a potent stimulator of intestinal epithelium regeneration and growth. Recently we showed that the novel peptide analog of endomorphin-2, EMDB-1 (Tyr-Pro-D-ClPhe-Phe-NH2 ) is a potent blocker of DPP IV and exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to design, synthesize and characterize the therapeutic activity and mechanism of action of a series of novel EMDB-1 analogs...
October 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179652/effects-of-angiotensin-1-7-and-angiotensin-ii-on-vascular-tone-in-human-cirrhotic-splanchnic-vessels
#12
Stephen Casey, Chandana Herath, Indu Rajapaksha, Robert Jones, Peter Angus
Evidence suggests that the renin angiotensin system (RAS) may play a role in the pathological splanchnic vasodilatation that leads to a hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. An impaired contractile response to the angiotensin II peptide of the classical RAS system has been described in animal models of cirrhosis and in vivo in cirrhotic subjects. Furthermore, in experimental cirrhosis, the so-called alternate arm of the RAS was found to be upregulated and its effector peptide, angiotensin-(1-7) was shown to attenuate splanchnic vascular tone...
October 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121361/genetic-deletion-of-the-angiotensin-1-7-receptor-mas-leads-to-a-reduced-ovulatory-rate
#13
Kinulpe Honorato-Sampaio, Renato Ferreira Andrade, Michael Bader, Almir de Souza Martins, Robson Augusto Souza Santos, Adelina Martha Reis
Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] is a component of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) that acts through activation of the G-protein-coupled receptor Mas. Recent studies highlight Ang-(1-7) as an intermediate of gonadotropin in ovarian physiology. Genetically Mas-deficient mice allow the investigation of Ang-(1-7) in the ovulatory process. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the effects of Mas gene deletion on ovulation to confirm our hypothesis that Mas Knockout (Mas-KO) mice exhibit impairment in the ovulatory outcome...
September 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102941/triintsin-a-human-pathogenic-fungus-derived-defensin-with-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-activity
#14
Bingzheng Shen, Jinchun Song, Yonghui Zhao, Yaoyun Zhang, Gaomin Liu, Xueke Li, Xingchen Guo, Wenxin Li, Zhijian Cao, Yingliang Wu
Since there is a symbiotic and competitive relationship between microorganisms in the same ecological niche, fungal defensins have been found to be important resources for antimicrobial peptides. Here, a fungal defensin, triintsin, was characterized in a clinical isolate of Trichophyton interdigitale from a patient with onychomycosis. The comparison of its genomic and mRNA sequences showed the gene organization and structure of three coding exons separated by two introns. The precursor peptide of triintsin contained 85 amino acid residues, which were composed of three parts including an N-terminal signal domain of 21 residues, a pro-peptide of 47 residues that ended at lysine-arginine and a mature peptide of 38 residues at the C-terminus...
September 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081043/rfamide-related-peptide-3-promotes-alpha-tc1-clone-6-cell-survival-likely-via-gpr147
#15
Wencheng Zhang, Li Wang, Xinwen Yu, Aihua Jia, Jie Ming, Qiuhe Ji
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is closely related to islet alpha cell mass and viability. Several types of RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs) are involved in regulating proliferation and function of islet cells. However, current understanding of the role of RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) in pancreatic alpha cells is limited. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the RFRP-3 receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147), in mouse islets and alpha TC1 clone 6 cells, and evaluated the function of RFRP-3 on alpha cells...
September 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081042/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-action-in-the-mouse-area-postrema-neurons
#16
Masahiro Kawatani, Yuichiro Yamada, Masahito Kawatani
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a peptide hormone and member of the incretin family. GLP-1 related drugs, such as liraglutide, are widely used to treat diabetic patients and work by stimulating pancreatic β cells to increase glucose-dependent insulin secretion. However, extrapancreatic effects, such as appetite suppression or emesis, are observed in response to GLP-1 receptor agonists. In this study we used the in vitro patch-clamp method in acute brainstem preparations of mice and demonstrated that GLP-1 acts directly on area postrema neurons...
September 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077718/anti-hyperuricemic-peptides-derived-from-bonito-hydrolysates-based-on-in-vivo-hyperuricemic-model-and-in-vitro-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitory-activity
#17
Yujuan Li, Xiaoyan Kang, Qingyong Li, Chuanchao Shi, Yingyi Lian, Erdong Yuan, Mao Zhou, Jiaoyan Ren
Traditional drugs used to treat hyperuricemia have adverse effects. In this study, to identify safer anti-hyperuricemic bioactive peptides isolated from food-derived protein hydrolysates, a hyperuricemia rat model induced by potassium oxonate (PO) was used to evaluate the activity of bonito hydrolysates (BH), dephenolised walnut hydrolysates (DWH), and soybean hydrolysates (SH). The serum uric acid level of rats in the BH group (95.4 ± 27.4 μM, p < 0.01) was significantly reduced compared to that in the model group (212...
September 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077717/cyanobacteria-derived-peptide-antibiotics-discovered-since-2000
#18
REVIEW
Yun Xue, Pengchao Zhao, Chunshan Quan, Zhanqin Zhao, Weina Gao, Jinghua Li, Xiangyang Zu, Dongliao Fu, Shuxiao Feng, Xuefei Bai, Yanjun Zuo, Ping Li
Members of cyanobacteria, including Moorea spp., Okeania spp., Lyngbya spp., Schizothrix spp., Leptolyngbya spp., Microcystis spp., Symploca spp., Hassallia sp., Anabaena spp., Planktothrix sp., Tychonema spp., Oscillatoria spp., Tolypothrix sp., Nostoc sp., and Hapalosiphon sp. produce an enormously diverse range of peptide antibiotics with huge potential as pharmaceutical drugs and biocontrol agents following screening of structural analogues and analysis of structure-activity relationships (SAR). The need for novel antibiotic lead compounds is urgent, and this review summarizes 78 cyanobacteria-derived compounds reported since 2000, including 32 depsipeptides, 18 cyclic lipopeptides, 13 linear lipopeptides, 14 cyclamides, and one typical cyclic peptide...
September 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076862/oxytocin-effects-on-the-inhibition-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mir195-pathway-in-mice-breast-cancer
#19
Vahid Khori, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Solmaz Khalighfard, Yassaman Heidarian, Hamid Khodayari
Oxytocin (OT) has the suppressive effects on breast tumor formation and development. We hypothesized that OT through the NF-κB inhibition can induce the miR-195 up-regulation which it can promote the cell apoptosis and inhibit the cell proliferation. Thirty-two BALB/c female mice were equally divided into four groups to study the effects of OT and atosiban (ATO) (an oxytocin receptor antagonist) on the mammary tumor growth. The animal weight, OT plasma concentration, and the tumor weight and volume were measured...
September 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076861/sex-differences-in-body-fat-distribution-are-related-to-sex-differences-in-serum-leptin-and-adiponectin
#20
Tim Christen, Stella Trompet, Raymond Noordam, Jan B van Klinken, Ko Willems van Dijk, Hildo J Lamb, Christa M Cobbaert, Martin den Heijer, Ingrid M Jazet, J Wouter Jukema, Frits R Rosendaal, Renée de Mutsert
It is debated whether sex differences in adiponectin and leptin are due to sex differences in body fat distribution. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, associations of measures of body fat and sex with serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations were examined using linear regression analysis (n = 6494, VAT: n = 2516). Sex differences were additionally adjusted for the measure of body fat that was most strongly associated with adiponectin or leptin concentrations...
September 2018: Peptides
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