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Zsolt Bagosi, Krisztina Csabafi, Gergely Karasz, Miklós Jászberényi, Imre Földesi, Andrea Siska, Gyula Szabó, Gyula Telegdy
The urocortins (Ucn I, Ucn II and Ucn III) are structural analogues of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). The aim of our present experiments was to compare the effects of the urocortins on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in rats and mice, including the hypothalamic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretagogues, such as CRF and arginine vasopressin (AVP). Therefore, male CFLP mice and male Wistar rats were injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) with 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 μg/2 μl of Ucn I, Ucn II or Ucn III...
November 8, 2018: Peptides
Jun-Yu Guo, Mo-Han Zhang, Jing-Zhi Jiang, Li-Hua Piao, Xue-Sen Fang, Zheng Jin, Ying-Lan Cai
Our previous work demonstrated that the C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway in gastric antrum smooth muscle of rats with diabetes was upregulated and played an important role in the development of diabetic gastric dysmotility. Our goal for this study was to explore the downstream signaling pathways of CNP. We found that the expressions of protein kinase G (PKG) and protein kinase A (PKA) in gastric smooth muscle tissue of rats with diabetes were significantly upregulated...
November 1, 2018: Peptides
Galyna V Graham, J Michael Conlon, Yasser H Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt
The insulinotropic and antihyperglycaemic properties of glucagons from the sea lamprey (Petromyzontiformes), paddlefish (Acipenseriformes) and trout (Teleostei) and oxyntomodulin from dogfish (Elasmobranchii) and ratfish (Holocephali) were compared with those of human glucagon and GLP-1 in mammalian test systems. All fish peptides produced concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat and 1.1 B4 human clonal β-cells and isolated mouse islets. Paddlefish glucagon was the most potent and effective peptide...
November 1, 2018: Peptides
Mirmohammadali Mirramezani Alizamini, Mohadeseh Kavianpour, Saeideh Karimi-Haghighi, Zahra Fatahi, Abbas Haghparast
It has been shown that the hippocampus plays an essential role in the regulation of reward and memory as indicated by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Morphine-induced CPP is a common method to consider motivational properties of morphine in animals. Recently, this model has been used in many laboratories to investigate neuronal mechanisms underlying reinstatement of morphine seeking induced by drug re-exposure. Our previous studies indicate that the hippocampus especially CA1 region is involved in reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors...
November 1, 2018: Peptides
Hamid Ahmadian-Moghadam, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Over the last 35 years, the continuous discovery of novel neuropeptides has been the key to the better understanding of how the central nervous system has integrated with neuronal signals and behavioral responses. Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was discovered in 1995 in the rat striatum but later was found to be highly expressed in the hypothalamus. The widespread distribution of CART peptide in the brain complicated the understanding of the role played by this neurotransmitter. The main objective of the current compact review is to piece together the fragments of available information about origin, expression, distribution, projection, and function of CART peptides...
October 31, 2018: Peptides
S Stevens Negus, Megan J Moerke
Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is one procedure that can be used for preclinical abuse potential assessment. In ICSS procedures, subjects with microelectrodes implanted into a brain-reward region are trained to press an operant response lever for pulses of electrical brain stimulation, and drugs are evaluated for their effectiveness to increase or "facilitate" ICSS responding (an abuse-related effect) or to depress ICSS responding (an abuse-limiting effect). ICSS has been used for decades to evaluate determinants of opioid abuse potential, and this article reviews pharmacological and biological determinants of opioid abuse potential as revealed by ICSS studies in rodents...
October 31, 2018: Peptides
Ting Zhang, Weidong Zhao, Mengna Zhang, Biao Xu, Xuerui Shi, Qinqin Zhang, Yuanyuan Guo, Jian Xiao, Dan Chen, Ting Zheng, Quan Fang
Orofacial pain is one of the most common pain conditions and compromises the quality of life of the sufferer. Several studies have shown that opioid agonists produced significant analgesia in the orofacial pain, and combination of opioids with drugs belonging to other classes induced synergism in the orofacial pain. However, combination therapy of different analgesic drugs improves the risk of drug-drug interactions. Against this background, we sought to investigate the analgesic effects of the multi-functional opioid peptide DN-9, a mixed opioid and NPFF receptors agonist that produced robust analgesia in acute and inflammatory pain models, on formalin-induced orofacial pain...
October 31, 2018: Peptides
Kalpana Das, Satoshi Ogawa, Takashi Kitahashi, Ishwar S Parhar
A cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is a maternal mouthbrooder, which exhibits minimum energy expenditure and slower ovarian cycles. The objective of this study was to observe changes in the gene expression of key neuropeptides involved in the control of appetite and reproduction, including neuropeptide Y a (NPYa), reproductive neuropeptides: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH1, GnRH2 and GnRH3) and kisspeptin (Kiss2) during mouthbrooding (4 and 12-days), 12-days of food restriction, 12 days of food restriction followed by refeeding...
October 30, 2018: Peptides
Teng Liu, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Megumu Tanaka, Shiho Iida, Takayuki Sakurai, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Kun Dai, Nanqi Cui, Masaaki Tanaka, Yangxuan Wei, Keisei Nakamura, Shuhei Matsui, Akihiro Yamauchi, Takayuki Shindo
There is a marked increase in the incidence of visceral adiposity and insulin resistance among women following menopause. Adrenomedullin (AM) is an endogenous peptide first identified as a vasodilator, but now known to exert a variety of physiological effects. RAMP3 is a receptor activity-modifying protein that binds to the AM receptor (calcitonin receptor-like receptor). As expression of both AM and RAMP3 is reportedly activated by estrogen, we hypothesized that RAMP3 is crucially involved in the pathophysiology of postmenopausal obesity...
October 29, 2018: Peptides
A D C Nunes, P H Alves, E P Mendes, D Ianzer, C H Castro
Bj-PRO-7a and Bj-PRO-10c belong to a family of proline-rich oligopeptides (PROs) identified in Bothrops jararaca (Bj) crude venom. Previous studies have shown an antihypertensive effect evoked by theses peptides. However, the mechanisms underlying the direct effects on vessels and heart remain to be unraveled. Thus, we investigated the effect of the Bj-PRO-7a and Bj-PRO-10c in the aorta and coronary arteries and in cardiac contractility in normotensive (Wistar) and hypertensive (SHR) rats. Pre-constricted aortic rings were exposed to increasing concentrations of Bj-PROs in presence or absence of muscarinic type 1 receptor antagonist (Pirenzepine), nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist (Atropine), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (ODQ), adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (MDL), or argininosuccinate synthetase inhibitor (MDLA)...
October 21, 2018: Peptides
Takashi Miyauchi, Satoshi Sakai
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a 21-amino acid peptide, was initially identified in 1988 as a potent vasoconstrictor and pressor substance isolated from the culture supernatant of porcine aortic endothelial cells. From human genomic DNA analysis, two other family peptides, ET-2 and ET-3, were found. They showed different effects and distribution, suggesting that each peptide may play separate roles in different organs. In the heart, ET-1 also causes positive inotropic and chronotropic responses and hypertrophic activity of the cardiomyocytes...
October 20, 2018: Peptides
Ran Ke, Xin Ma, Leo T O Lee
It is widely acknowledged that kisspeptin and its receptor Kiss1R play central regulatory roles in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and reproduction. Mutations of KISS1 and KISS1R lead to disorders associated with pubertal development, such as central precocious puberty (CPP) and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). This review focuses on KISS1 and KISS1R mutations found in CPP and IHH and its purposes are twofold: Firstly, based on the mutations found in KISS1 and KISS1R, this review provides insights into the precise mechanism of kisspeptin and the kisspeptin/Kiss1R pathway in the reproductive axis and in puberty...
October 16, 2018: Peptides
Kazuhiro Takahashi, Karl-Heinz Herzig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2018: Peptides
Sara Dahl, Emma Anders, Olof Gidlöf, Daniel Svensson, Bengt-Olof Nilsson
The human host defense peptide LL-37 possesses antimicrobial activity but also affects host cell function and viability. Mast cells are involved in innate immunity but no data have been presented on effects of LL-37 on human mast cell viability and export of nucleic acids. Here, we demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy that synthesized LL-37 was internalized by human LAD2 mast cells and detected both in cytoplasm and nucleus. Treatment with high (4 and 10 μM) but not low (1 μM) concentrations of LL-37 for 4 h reduced cell viability assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
October 9, 2018: Peptides
Jessie N Zurita-Cruz, Patricia Medina-Bravo, Leticia Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia Damasio-Santana, Guillermo Wakida-Kusunoki, Michel Padilla-Rojas, Cesar Maldonado-Rivera, Alejandro Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Elisa Nishimura-Meguro, Eulalia Garrido-Magaña, Aleida de J Rivera-Hernández, Miguel A Villasís-Keever
OBJECTIVE: To compare serum resistin concentrations between prepubertal girls with a BMI > 85th percentile and girls with precocious puberty (CPP) who have and have not undergone GnRH analog treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in girls with a BMI > 85th percentile and a median age of 8 years. We included 31 girls with CPP who did not receive treatment (CPPoT), 23 girls with CPP who were treated with leuprolide (CPPT), 22 prepubertal girls and 24 pubertal girls...
September 29, 2018: Peptides
Terry W Moody, Lingaku Lee, Tatiana Iordanskaia, Irene Ramos-Alvarez, Paola Moreno, Howard E Boudreau, Thomas L Leto, Robert T Jensen
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a growth factor for lung cancer cells. PACAP-27 or PACAP-38 binds with high affinity to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, causing elevated cytosolic Ca2+ , increased proliferation and increased phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in these processes. Addition of PACAP-38 to NCI-H838 or A549 cells increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR, HER2 and ERK significantly by 4-, 3-, and 2-fold, respectively...
September 28, 2018: Peptides
Yixian Zhang, Yonggang Wang, Yan Lou, Manyu Luo, Yue Lu, Zhuo Li, Yangwei Wang, Lining Miao
The Apelin/APJ system is involved in a wide range of biological functions. For a long time, Apelin was thought to be the only ligand for APJ. Recently, a new peptide that acts via APJ and has similar functions, called Elabela, was identified. Elabela has beneficial effects on body fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular health, and renal insufficiency, as well as potential benefits for metabolism and diabetes. In this review, the properties and biological functions of this new peptide are discussed in comparison with those of Apelin...
September 26, 2018: Peptides
Ferdinand Althammer, Gustav Jirikowski, Valery Grinevich
Nonapeptides and their respective receptors have been conserved throughout evolution and display astonishing similarities among the animal kingdom. They can be found in worms, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals, including rodents, non-human primates and humans. In particular, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has attracted the attention of scientists due to its profound effects on social behavior. However, although both the neuropeptide and its receptor are identical in rodents and primates, the effects of OT vary greatly in the two species...
September 24, 2018: Peptides
Xin Zhang, Jinwen Qi, Ni Tang, Shuyao Wang, Yuanbing Wu, Hu Chen, Zhengzhi Tian, Bin Wang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Nesfatin-1 is an 82-amino acid protein derived from nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), which could inhibit food intake in fish and mammals. However, the neuroendocrine mechanism of nesfatin-1 in animal appetite regulation is unclear. To explore the feeding mechanism of nesfatin-1 in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), intraperitoneal injections of nesfatin-1 and sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8), Lorglumide (CCK1R selective antagonist), or LY 225,910 (CCK2R selective antagonist) were performed. Co-injection of nesfatin-1 and CCK8 synergistically significantly decreased the food intake in 1 h...
September 24, 2018: Peptides
Flavia Anna Mercurio, Andrea Scaloni, Simonetta Caira, Marilisa Leone
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent crucial components of the natural immune defense machinery of different organisms. Generally, they are short and positively charged, and bind to and destabilize bacterial cytoplasmic membranes, ultimately leading to cell death. Natural proteolytic cleavage of αs2 -casein in bovine milk generates the antimicrobial peptides casocidin I and II. In the current study, we report for the first time on a detailed structure characterization of casocidins in solution by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR)...
September 19, 2018: Peptides
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