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Cancer Treatment and Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206386/gastrointestinal-malignancy-genetic-implications-to-clinical-applications
#1
Nicole E Lopez, Jen Jen Yeh
Alterations in the DNA sequences of genes, or mutations, have traditionally been viewed as the primary factors driving tumor progression, however, epigenetic evidence would suggest that some heritable traits are mediated by changes in DNA expression that are not dependent upon alterations in the primary DNA sequence. Advances in the genetic understanding of cancer have, in some instances, allowed for more precise administration of anti-neoplastic therapy. Targeted therapies, the aim of which are to target specific cellular proteins or processes used by the cancer cells, have been advocated to avoid the adverse side effects attributable to a lack of cell specificity associated with traditional chemotherapy...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206384/cost-effectiveness-analysis-in-cancer-care
#2
Alex Chang, Daniel E Abbott
With the increasing complexity of modern medical therapies, it is becoming imperative to recognize the marginal cost and gains of increasingly sophisticated (and expensive) interventions. By understanding the incremental cost of a given intervention, investigators must help answer questions about healthcare resource utilization that are not answered by randomized clinical trials. The continued funding of biomedical research and pharmaceuticals will require more objective study of the return on investment for any given treatment modality, and cost-effectiveness analyses will be instrumental in providing solutions to the inequalities in healthcare delivery...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206383/circulating-tumor-cells-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-current-practices-and-future-directions
#3
Colin M Court, Jacob S Ankeny, Shonan Sho, James S Tomlinson
GI cancers are the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide primarily due to a combination of late presentation and aggressive biology. The lack of adequate biomarkers for screening, diagnosis, staging, and prognosis confounds clinical decision-making and delays potentially effective therapies. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a new biomarker with particular promise in GI cancers, potentially offering clinicians and researchers real-time access to tumor tissue in a reliable, safe, and cost-effective manner...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206381/importance-of-adequate-lymphadenectomy-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Andrew Benjamin, Ryan P Merkow
One of the most important factors influencing cancer-specific survival in the field GI oncology is the presence of positive lymph nodes. Although it remains controversial, adequate lymph node examination is required for accurate staging such that patients can receive correct adjuvant treatments and for stratification in clinical trials. Nevertheless, wide variation in the quality of lymph node examination exists in the US and many centers are not meeting guideline treatment recommendations.
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206380/pathologic-features-of-primary-colon-rectal-and-anal-malignancies
#5
REVIEW
Kaitlin E Sundling, Ranran Zhang, Kristina A Matkowskyj
In the United States, colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women, as well as the third leading cause of cancer deaths (Colorectal cancer facts & figures 2014–2016, 2014 [2]). Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death and causes almost 700,000 deaths each year (Cancer: fact sheet No. 297, 2015 [55]). This chapter discusses the clinical and pathologic features of the spectrum of epithelial, hematolymphoid, and mesenchymal malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, appendix, and anus...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206378/robotic-rectal-cancer-surgery
#6
Kurt Melstrom
There are an estimated 39,000 new cases of rectal cancer in the United States per year which makes it the third most prevalent cancer when paired with colon cancer. Given its complexity, there are now multiple modalities available for its successful treatment. This includes innovative chemotherapy, radiation, transanal resection techniques, and minimally invasive surgery. Robotic surgery for the treatment of rectal cancer represents the current pinnacle of minimally invasive technology for this disease process...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206377/pathologic-features-of-primary-and-metastatic-hepatic-malignancies
#7
Kristina A Matkowskyj, M Sambasiva Rao, Guang-Yu Yang
In the mammalian liver, 60 % of the cellular components are hepatocytes while the remainder (35 %) includes biliary epithelium, Kupffer cells, endothelial cells, fat storing cells and connective tissue cells. Although neoplasms of hepatocytes are the most common, a significant number of both benign and malignant primary liver neoplasms arising from other cell types can develop, such as tumors of bile duct epithelium (Table 1). In addition, the liver is one of the most susceptible sites for metastatic tumors arising from other organs of the body...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206376/locoregional-therapies-for-primary-and-secondary-hepatic-malignancies
#8
Ahsun Riaz, Robert J Lewandowski, Riad Salem
Management of hepatic malignancies is a multidisciplinary task with the involvement of hepatologists, medical/surgical oncologists, transplant surgeons, and interventional radiologists. The patients should be selected for a specific targeted therapy after multidisciplinary consensus. Interventional oncology has established its role in the management of hepatic malignancies. Image-guided locoregional therapies decrease the rate of systemic toxicity without compromising tumoricidal effect.
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206375/minimally-invasive-surgery-of-the-liver
#9
Michael White, Yuman Fong, Laleh Melstrom
Operations on the liver have been undertaken for centuries for numerous indications including trauma, infections, and even for malignancy, but it was not until the past few decades that rates dramatically increased. This expanse in liver operations is due to a multitude of factors, including broader indications as well as improved safety. Our understanding of metastatic disease to the liver, especially colorectal cancer metastases, has vastly amplified the number of patients who would be candidates for hepatic resections and liver-directed therapies...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206374/repeat-hepatectomy-for-colorectal-liver-metastases
#10
REVIEW
Vikrom Dhar, Ryan M Thomas, Syed A Ahmad
Surgical resection of hepatic metastatic disease from colorectal cancer offers the best survival advantage when compared to other treatment modalities as survival from unresected disease is rare. Even after adequate surgical excision of colorectal cancer, 20–40 % of patients will develop recurrent disease to the liver. This chapter discusses the management of patients with recurrent colorectal metastases to the liver after initial resection and offers strategies to optimize and guide their treatment with a multimodality approach...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206370/clinical-features-of-metastatic-hepatic-malignancies
#11
Ramiro Fernandez, Sam G Pappas, David J Bentrem
The liver is a common site for gastrointestinal tumor metastases as it is the first major organ reached by blood draining the portal venous system. With the development of more effective chemotherapeutic agents which may eradicate residual microscopic disease in the liver and help reduce known tumor burden, partial hepatectomy to remove gross metastatic disease will likely become increasingly utilized in the future. This chapter discusses the presentation and clinical factors in liver directed surgical resection...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206369/hepatocellular-carcinoma-surgical-management-and-evolving-therapies
#12
REVIEW
Olga Kantor, Marshall S Baker
HCC is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The majority of cases arise within the background of liver cirrhosis and are most commonly related to chronic hepatitis B and C viral infection. Surgical resection, liver transplantation, and tumour ablation are potentially curative modalities in cases of localized, non-metastatic, hepatocellular carcinoma. Systemic sorafenib has been shown to be marginally effective in slow disease progression in patients whose cirrhosis is so severe that they are not candidates for liver directed therapy and in those with metastatic disease...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206368/diagnosis-and-management-of-intrahepatic-and-extrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#13
Jason Ho, Steven A Curley
Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) are rare tumors which usually present late and are often difficult to diagnose and treat. CCs are categorized as intrahepatic, hilar, or extrahepatic. Epidemiologic studies suggest that the incidence of intrahepatic CCs may be increasing worldwide. In this chapter, we review the risk factors, clinical presentation, and management of cholangiocarcinoma.
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206367/gall-bladder-cancer
#14
Audrey E Ertel, David Bentrem, Daniel E Abbott
Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the most common biliary epithelial malignancy, with an estimated 10,910 new cases and 3700 deaths per year (Siegel et al. in CA Cancer J Clin 65:5–29, 2015 [1]). This disease’s insidious nature and typically late presentation place it among the most lethal of invasive neoplasms. Gallbladder cancer spreads early by lymphatic or hematogenous metastasis and by direct invasion into the liver. While surgery may well be curative at early stages, both surgical and nonsurgical treatments remain largely unsuccessful in patients with more advanced disease...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206022/pathologic-features-of-primary-pancreatic-malignancies
#15
Ashley M Cunningham,, Patrick S Rush, Kristina A Matkowskyj
This chapter explores the pathologic features of benign and malignant lesions of the pancreas. As pathologic classifications evolve, particularly for cystic lesions and neuroendocrine tumors, it is important for physicians who treat patients with pancreatic neoplasms to fully evaluate these pathologic classifications.
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206020/management-controversies-and-treatment-strategies-for-borderline-resectable-pancreatic-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Mark S Talamonti
The management of borderline resectable cancer requires multi-disciplinary care including state-of-the-art radiographic imaging, combination treatment planning with medical oncology and radiation oncology, and technical surgical expertise combining gastrointestinal and vascular surgery.
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206019/pathologic-features-of-miscellaneous-foregut-malignancies
#17
Eduard Matkovic, Michael Schwalbe, Kristina A Matkowskyj
In addition to tumors arising from the primary mucosal epithelium, the foregut is host to a variety of non-epithelial precursor cells which may give rise to neoplasms of neuroendocrine, mesenchymal, and hematolymphoid lineages. Many of these lesions also occur outside of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the extranodal lymphomas and many of the sarcomas, and in many cases share the features of their non-alimentary counterparts. This heterogeneous collection of malignancies features a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, morphologic and histopathologic features, genetic underpinnings, and treatment considerations...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206017/pathologic-features-of-esophageal-and-gastric-malignancies
#18
Eduard Matkovic, Michael Schwalbe, Kristina A Matkowskyj
Esophageal and gastric carcinomas affect millions of individuals worldwide, placing a considerable burden on society. Unfortunately, preventative medicine falls short as screening methods for the upper gastrointestinal tract lack the ability to detect early onset disease. The overwhelming majority of cases present after symptoms appear when individuals have advanced disease with a poor prognosis. Further complicating matters, the anatomic location of these neoplasms engenders rapid tumor progression, which repeatedly thwarts successful surgical treatment...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206015/gastric-and-small-bowel-tumors
#19
REVIEW
L Mark Knab, Anthony Yang
The incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma has decreased in the United States over the past 70 years although it continues to have a poor prognosis. While radical resection was initially the primary treatment for adenocarcinoma of the stomach, systemic chemotherapy and radiation have been shown to play a role in prolonging survival in most patient populations. This chapter explores the evidence that guides treatment for gastric cancer today. It also discusses the treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), and small bowel tumors...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696269/waldenstrom-macroglobulinemia-genomic-aberrations-and-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Prashant Kapoor, Stephen M Ansell, Esteban Braggio
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare, indolent, and monoclonal immunoglobulin M-associated lymphoplasmacytic disorder with unique clinicopathologic characteristics. Over the past decade, remarkable progress has occurred on both the diagnostic and therapeutic fronts in WM. A deeper understanding of the disease biology emanates from the seminal discoveries of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) L265P somatic mutation in the vast majority of cases and C-X-C chemokine receptor, type 4, mutations in about a third of patients...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
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