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Cancer Treatment and Research

Jian Chen, Siamak Daneshmand
Testicular cancer is a rare urological malignancy with high cure rate. The development of highly effective systemic treatment regimens along with advances in surgical treatment of advanced disease has led to continued improvement in outcomes. Patients with testicular cancer who are treated following the treatment guideline mostly achieved high quality of life and long-term survival. However, patients who were identified as having non-guideline directed care were at significantly higher risk of relapse. In this book chapter, we introduce in depth the modern management of testicular cancer, including diagnosis, staging and risk stratification, treatment strategies of seminoma and non-seminoma germ cell tumors, follow-up protocols, and salvage treatment for disease relapse...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Alejo Rodriguez-Vida, Seth P Lerner, Joaquim Bellmunt
Bladder cancer (BC) remains an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis, especially for patients with metastatic disease who have a limited median overall survival of 14 months. Urothelial carcinomas harbor frequent molecular dysregulations including recurrent mutations and copy number alteration, some of which could be potential therapeutic targets. However, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved to date for the treatment of advanced BC. Gaining new insights into the molecular landscape of BC will be critical to tailor future targeted agents for the treatment of advanced disease...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Kyrollis Attalla, John P Sfakianos, Matthew D Galsky
Harnessing the host immune system to combat genitourinary cancers has key theoretical advantages over other anticancer strategies including specificity and memory which should translate to favorable tolerability and response durability in the clinic. Indeed, key examples of the potential for immunotherapeutic treatment of solid tumors are derived from data in genitourinary cancers including Bacillus Calmette-Guerin for urothelial cancer, sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer, and interleukin-2 for renal cancer. Despite these successes, developing effective immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer has largely been hampered by an incomplete understanding of tumor immunobiology and mechanisms of immune resistance...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Avinash Chenam, Kevin G Chan
Even with advances in perioperative medical care, anesthetic management, and surgical techniques, radical cystectomy (RC) continues to be associated with a high morbidity rate as well as a prolonged length of hospital stay. In recent years, there has been great interest in identifying multimodal and interdisciplinary strategies that help accelerate postoperative convalescence by reducing variation in perioperative care of patients undergoing complex surgeries. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) attempts to evaluate and incorporate scientific evidence for modifying as many of the factors contributing to the morbidity of RC as possible, and optimize how patients are cared for before and after surgery...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Daniel J Lee, Sam S Chang
Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer accounts for the majority of incident bladder cancers but is a heterogeneous disease with variation in clinical presentation, course, and outcomes. Risk stratification techniques have attempted to identify those at highest risk of cancer recurrence and progression to help personalize and individualize treatment options. Radical cystectomy during the optimal window of curability could improve cancer outcomes; however, identifying the disease and patient characteristics as well as the correct timing to intervene remains difficult...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Anirban P Mitra, Siamak Daneshmand
Clinical outcomes for patients with bladder cancer have largely remained unchanged over the last three decades despite improvements in surgical techniques, perioperative therapies, and postoperative management. Current management still heavily relies on pathologic staging that does not always reflect an individual patient's risk. The genesis and progression of bladder cancer is now increasingly recognized as being a result of alterations in several pathways that affect the cell cycle, apoptosis, cellular signaling, gene regulation, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Bernhard Kiss, Gautier Marcq, Joseph C Liao
Optical and cross-sectional imaging plays critical roles in bladder cancer diagnostics. White light cystoscopy remains the cornerstone for the management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. In the last decade, significant technological improvements have been introduced for optical imaging to address the known shortcomings of white light cystoscopy. Enhanced cystoscopy modalities such as blue light cystoscopy and narrowband imaging survey a large area of the urothelium and provide contrast enhancement to detect additional lesions and decrease cancer recurrence...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Paulo Bergerot, Kathy Burns, Dhruv Prajapati, Rachel Fox, Meghan Salgia, Sumanta K Pal
The treatment landscape for metastatic renal cell carcinoma has constantly been in flux. In 2005, with the advent of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, the standard of care shifted to agents such as sunitinib and pazopanib. However, more recently there have been datasets, suggesting that next-generation TKIs such as cabozantinib may play an important role in therapy. Furthermore, immunotherapy has had resurgence with the FDA approval of nivolumab with ipilimumab...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Avinash Chenam, Clayton Lau
With the ubiquitous use of cross-sectional abdominal imaging in recent years, the incidence of small renal masses (SRMs) has increased, and the evaluation and management of SRMs have become important clinical issues. Diagnosing a mass in the early stages theoretically allows for high rates of cure but simultaneously risks overtreatment. In the past 20 years, surgical treatment of SRMs has transitioned from radical nephrectomy for all renal tumors, regardless of size, to elective partial nephrectomy whenever technically feasible...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Daniel Zainfeld, Amir Goldkorn
Prostate cancer is a common malignancy impacting countless men without curative options in the advanced state. Numerous therapies have been introduced in recent years improving survival and symptom control, yet optimal methods for predicting or monitoring response have not been developed. In the era of precision medicine, characterization of individual cancers is necessary to inform treatment decisions. Liquid biopsies, through evaluation of various blood-based analytes, provide a method of patient evaluation with potential applications in virtually all disease states...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Adam J Gadzinski, Matthew R Cooperberg
Diagnostic biomarkers derived from blood, urine, or prostate tissue provide additional information beyond clinical calculators to determine the risk of detecting high-grade prostate cancer. Once diagnosed, multiple markers leverage prostate cancer biopsy tissue to prognosticate clinical outcomes, including adverse pathology at radical prostatectomy, disease recurrence, and prostate cancer mortality; however the clinical utility of some outcomes to patient decision making is unclear. Markers using tissue from radical prostatectomy specimens provide additional information about the risk of biochemical recurrence, development of metastatic disease, and subsequent mortality beyond existing multivariable clinical calculators (the use of a marker to simply sub-stratify risk groups such as the NCCN groups is of minimal value)...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Jared S Winoker, Harry Anastos, Ardeshir R Rastinehad
Men diagnosed with low- to intermediate-risk, clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) often face a daunting and difficult decision with respect to treatment: active surveillance (AS) or radical therapy. This decision is further confounded by the fact that many of these men diagnosed, by an elevated PSA, will have indolent disease and never require intervention. Radical treatments, including radical prostatectomy and whole-gland radiation, offer greater certainty for cancer control, but at the risk of significant urinary and/or sexual morbidity...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Karim Marzouk, Behfar Ehdaie
Rapid advances in diagnostic imaging have been developed in parallel with the changes in the contemporary management of prostate cancer. Increasingly, clinical management and decision making in prostate cancer are influenced by technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging-targeted prostate biopsies for men with elevated PSA, imaging for active surveillance, and nuclear medicine studies for men with advanced or recurrent prostate cancer. Furthermore, novel imaging techniques have been developed such as hyperpolarized MRI, choline and prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography that exploit features like the unique metabolism in prostate cancer tissues, as well as altered glycoprotein conformation...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Denice Economou, Virginia Sun
Roughly 436,000 survivors are living with a history of head and neck cancer (HNC), accounting for approximately 3% of all cancer survivors in the United States [1, 2]. With advances in treatment, long-term survival is increasingly common in HNC populations. Despite increasing awareness of survivorship issues, many challenges remain. These include lack of knowledge on late and long-term effects of treatment, and poor integration of survivorship care guidelines into oncology practice. Survivorship care plans (SCPs) are increasingly important for HNC survivors to improve quality of long-term survival...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Sorin Buga, Chandana Banerjee, Jaroslava Salman, Marissa Cangin, Finly Zachariah, Bonnie Freeman
Patients with head and neck cancers (HNC) face multiple psychosocial and physical challenges that require multidisciplinary attention and care throughout their disease process. The psychoemotional symptoms may be triggered by cosmetic disfigurement and/or functional deficits related to the cancer itself or cancer-directed treatments. These physical and emotional symptoms can be demoralizing and require acute and long-term professional assistance throughout a patient's lifespan. HNC remains one of the most challenging cancers to treat due to disfigurement, emotional suffering, social isolation, and loss of self-esteem...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Natalie Thome, Nellie Garcia, Karen Clark
In this chapter, we examine the demographics and risk factors in the population diagnosed with head and neck cancer (HNC), what challenges these patients face post-treatment and what the role of psychosocial support through clinical social work is in managing these stressors. While many forms of head and neck cancer found in the early stages have a high cure rate, the side effects of treatment for these cancers have major life-altering effects. Previously, the majority of those diagnosed with head and neck cancers were those who used excessive alcohol and tobacco, but the numbers are changing to include the human papillomavirus (HPV) as a major risk factor...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Priscilla Park, Mahjabeen Hashmi
Occupational therapy is a health profession concerned with promoting health and well-being through occupation. A diagnosis of head and neck cancer (HNC) often invokes fear and anxiety because of the potential negative impact of the diagnosis and/or treatment on lifestyle and well-being. Occupational therapists perform a unique and important role in addressing quality of life concerns for HNC patients through applied expertise in lifestyle management, facilitating the use of positive coping strategies and daily routine management...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Dwight Baldoman, Ron Vandenbrink
Treatment sequelae such as trismus, shoulder dysfunction syndrome resulting from spinal accessory nerve palsy, and radiotherapy-induced neck fibrosis are often overlooked when in the management of head and neck cancer patients. This chapter examines these underappreciated issues and their corresponding physical therapy intervention based on current evidence. Head and neck cancer survivors must contend with these disabilities for years after treatment has been concluded. A few quit their jobs which puts a tremendous burden on them and their families with a diminished quality of life...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Denise Ackerman, Meghan Laszlo, Arlene Provisor, Adern Yu
Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients often face multiple nutritional challenges before, during, and after treatment due to the close proximity of the cancer to organs that are vital for normal eating function. Common treatment-related side effects, such as dysphagia, odynophagia, dysgeusia, xerostomia, thick saliva, mucositis, nausea, and vomiting, all further impair the patient's ability to maintain adequate oral intake. Malnutrition and unintentional weight loss in HNC patients during and after treatment are associated with poorer treatment outcomes, increased morbidity and mortality, and poor quality of life, even in overweight and obese patients whose Body Mass Index (BMI) is not suggestive of malnutrition...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
Idoroenyi Amanam, Rohan Gupta, Alain Mita, Kevin Scher, Erminia Massarelli
The modern treatment of locoregionally advanced disease often requires a multimodality combination approach. A number of chemotherapeutic agents can be combined with radiation, but the platinum agent cisplatin, a potent radiation sensitizer, is best studied in head and neck cancer. Newer agents such as cetuximab can be used in combination with radiation therapy for those patients who cannot tolerate cisplatin. For chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic head and neck cancer who demonstrate a good performance status, platinum doublet regimens are commonly used...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
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