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Carcinogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927233/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-mediated-fgfr-erk-signaling-supports-maintenance-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Osamu Maehara, Goki Suda, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Yoshito Komatsu, Fumiyuki Sato, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Kenichi Morikawa, Koji Ogawa, Tomoe Shimazaki, Megumi Kimura, Ayaka Asano, Yoshiyuki Fujimoto, Shinya Ohashi, Shingo Kagawa, Hideaki Kinugasa, Seiji Naganuma, Kelly A Whelan, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Koji Nakagawa, Hiroshi Takeda, Naoya Sakamoto
In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), a subset of cells defined by high expression of CD44 and low expression of CD24 has been reported to possess characteristics of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Novel therapies directly targeting CSCs have the potential to improve prognosis of ESCC patients. Although fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression correlates with recurrence and poor survival in ESCC patients, the role of FGF-2 in regulation of ESCC CSCs has yet to be elucidated. We report that FGF-2 is significantly upregulated in CSCs and significantly increases CSC content in ESCC cell lines by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
September 13, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911005/ociad2-suppressed-tumor-growth-and-invasion-via-akt-pathway-in-hepatocelluar-carcinoma
#2
Dan Wu, Xufang Yang, Huiming Peng, Dongmin Guo, Weiling Zhao, Chen Zhao, Xiaobo Zhou
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive tumor and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Ovarian carcinoma immunoreactive antigen-like protein 2 (OCIAD2) has been found frequently methylated in various cancers, including HCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of OCIAD2 in HCC progression. We analyzed liver hepatocellular carcinoma patients' data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), including data extracted from 371 HCC tissues and 50 adjacent normal liver tissues...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911004/inherent-aerobic-capacity-dependent-differences-in-breast-carcinogenesis
#3
Henry J Thompson, Lee W Jones, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Elizabeth S Neil, John N McGinley
Although regular physical activity is associated with improvement in aerobic capacity and lower breast cancer risk, there are heritable sets of traits that affect improvement in aerobic capacity in response to physical activity. Although aerobic capacity segregates risk for a number of chronic diseases, the effect of the heritable component on cancer risk has not been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated breast carcinogenesis in rodent models of heritable fitness in the absence of induced physical activity...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911003/personal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-and-benzo-a-pyrene-from-indoor-air-pollution-and-leukocyte-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-rural-china
#4
Jason Y Y Wong, Wei Hu, George S Downward, Wei Jie Seow, Bryan A Bassig, Bu-Tian Ji, Fusheng Wei, Guoping Wu, Jihua Li, Jun He, Chin-San Liu, Wen-Ling Cheng, Yunchao Huang, Kaiyun Yang, Ying Chen, Nathaniel Rothman, Roel C Vermeulen, Qing Lan
Households in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, possess hazardous levels of fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal combustion. Previous studies found that increased exposure to PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP; a PAH) were associated with decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), a marker of oxidative stress. We further evaluated these associations in a cross-sectional study of 148 healthy non-smoking women from Xuanwei and Fuyuan...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911002/intratumor-heterogeneity-predicts-metastasis-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#5
Fang Yang, Yucai Wang, Quan Li, Lulu Cao, Zijia Sun, Juan Jin, Hehui Fang, Aiyu Zhu, Yan Li, Wenwen Zhang, Yanru Wang, Hui Xie, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Shui Wang, Xiaoxiang Guan
Even with the identical clinicopathological features, the ability for metastasis is vastly different among triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH), which is common in breast cancer, may be a key mechanism leading to the tumor progression. In this study, we studied whether a quantitative genetic definition of ITH can predict clinical outcomes in patients with TNBC. We quantified ITH by calculating Shannon index, a measure of diversity in a population, based on Myc, epidermal growth factor receptor/centromeric probe 7 (EGFR/CEP7) and cyclin D1/centromeric probe 11 (CCND1/CEP11) copy number variations (CNVs) in 300 cells at three different locations of a tumor...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911001/whole-exome-analysis-of-a-li-fraumeni-family-trio-with-a-novel-tp53-prd-mutation-and-anticipation-profile
#6
Sara Franceschi, Laura Spugnesi, Paolo Aretini, Francesca Lessi, Rosa Scarpitta, Alvaro Galli, Caterina Congregati, Maria Adelaide Caligo, Chiara Maria Mazzanti
Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a clinically heterogeneous familial cancer predisposition syndrome with autosomal-dominant inheritance caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the TP53 gene. We here analyze the genetic background of a family with a 4-year-proband presented with a Li-Fraumeni tumor. The mother developed breast cancer at age 37 and the proband died at age 8. We performed Sanger sequencing and whole-exome sequencing on peripheral blood DNA from proband and relatives. Data analysis selected only high-quality score and depth reads, rare variants and protein impact involving missense, non-sense, frameshift and splice disrupt mutations...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911000/dicer-regulates-non-homologous-end-joining-and-is-associated-with-chemosensitivity-in-colon-cancer-patients
#7
Xiao Chen, Wen-Feng Li, Xiaoli Wu, Heng-Chao Zhang, Li Chen, Pei-Ying Zhang, Li-Yuan Liu, Di Ma, Tongke Chen, Lingli Zhou, Yunsheng Xu, Meng-Tao Zhou, Kai-Fu Tang
DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is an important mechanism underlying chemotherapy resistance in human cancers. Dicer participates in DSB repair by facilitating homologous recombination. However, whether Dicer is involved in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) remains unknown. Here, we addressed whether Dicer regulates NHEJ and chemosensitivity in colon cancer cells. Using our recently developed NHEJ assay, we found that DSB introduction by I-SceI cleavage leads to Dicer upregulation. Dicer knockdown increased SIRT7 binding and decreased the level of H3K18Ac (acetylated lysine 18 of histone H3) at DSB sites, thereby repressing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to DSB sites and inhibiting NHEJ...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910999/infection-with-opisthorchis-felineus-induces-intraepithelial-neoplasia-of-the-biliary-tract-in-a-rodent-model
#8
Maria João Gouveia, Maria Y Pakharukova, Thewarach Laha, Banchob Sripa, Galina A Maksimova, Gabriel Rinaldi, Paul J Brindley, Viatcheslav A Mordvinov, Teresina Amaro, Lucio Lara Santos, José Manuel Correia da Costa, Nuno Vale
The liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus is a member of the triad of epidemiologically relevant species of the trematode family Opisthorchiidae, and the causative agent of opisthorchiasis felinea over an extensive range that spans regions of Eurasia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies the infection with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis as group 1 agents and a major risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma. However, the carcinogenic potential of the infection with O...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645180/alcohol-metabolism-and-oesophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#9
Marco Matejcic, Marc J Gunter, Pietro Ferrari
Alcohol is a major risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most prevalent histological subtype of oesophageal cancer (OC) worldwide. The metabolism of alcohol is regulated by specific enzymes whose activity and expression is influenced by genetic polymorphisms. We conducted a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence of the relationship between alcohol intake and OC risk, including the role of tobacco smoking and functional polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs)...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605409/hair-product-use-and-breast-cancer-risk-among-african-american-and-white-women
#10
Adana A M Llanos, Anna Rabkin, Elisa V Bandera, Gary Zirpoli, Brian D Gonzalez, Cathleen Y Xing, Bo Qin, Yong Lin, Chi-Chen Hong, Kitaw Demissie, Christine B Ambrosone
Exposures to carcinogens in hair products have been explored as breast cancer risk factors, yielding equivocal findings. We examined hair product use (hair dyes, chemical relaxers and cholesterol or placenta-containing conditioners) among African American (AA) and White women, and explored associations with breast cancer. Multivariable-adjusted models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to describe the associations of interest among 2280 cases (1508 AA and 772 White) and 2005 controls (1290 AA and 715 White)...
September 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854563/integrin-alpha-10-cd44-pten-cadherin-11-and-lactoferrin-expressions-are-potential-biomarkers-for-selecting-patients-in-need-of-central-nervous-system-prophylaxis-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#11
Siria A Lemma, Milla Kuusisto, Kirsi-Maria Haapasaari, Raija Sormunen, Tuula Lehtinen, Tuula Klaavuniemi, Mine Eray, Esa Jantunen, Ylermi Soini, Kaija Vasala, Jan Böhm, Niina Salokorpi, Petri Koivunen, Peeter Karihtala, Jussi Vuoristo, Taina Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Outi Kuittinen
Central nervous system (CNS) relapse is a devastating complication that occurs in about 5% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Currently, there are no predictive biological markers. We wanted to study potential biomarkers of CNS tropism that play a role in adhesion, migration and/or in the regulation of inflammatory responses. The expression levels of ITGA10, CD44, PTEN, cadherin-11, CDH12, N-cadherin, P-cadherin, lactoferrin and E-cadherin were studied with IHC and IEM. GEP was performed to see whether found expressional changes are regulated at DNA/RNA level...
August 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854562/methylation-of-subtelomeric-repeat-d4z4-in-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-is-associated-with-biochemical-recurrence-in-localized-prostate-cancer-patients
#12
Yuyan Han, Junfeng Xu, Jeri Kim, Xifeng Wu, Jian Gu
Global DNA methylation may affect chromosome structure and genomic stability and is involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether methylation of pericentromeric repeat NBL2 and subtelomeric repeat D4Z4 in peripheral blood was associated with the aggressiveness of prostate cancer (PCa). We measured the methylation status of different CpG sites of NBL2 and D4Z4 in 795 PCa patients and compared their methylation levels among patients with different Gleason Score at diagnosis. We then analyzed the association of the NBL2 and D4Z4 methylation with the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients receiving radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model...
August 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854561/sulforaphane-suppresses-prmt5-mep50-function-in-epidermal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-leading-to-reduced-tumor-formation
#13
Kamalika Saha, Matthew L Fisher, Gautam Adhikary, Daniel Grun, Richard L Eckert
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) cooperates with methylosome protein 50 (MEP50) to arginine methylate histone H3 and H4 to silence gene expression, and increased PRMT5 activity is associated with enhanced cancer cell survival. We have studied the role of PRMT5 and MEP50 in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma. We show that knockdown of PRMT5 or MEP50 results in reduced H4R3me2s formation, and reduced cell proliferation, invasion, migration and tumor formation. We further show that treatment with sulforaphane (SFN), a cancer preventive agent derived from cruciferous vegetables, reduces PRMT5 and MEP50 level and H4R3me2s formation, and this is associated with reduced cell proliferation, invasion and migration...
August 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637319/matrix-metalloproteinases-their-functional-role-in-lung-cancer
#14
Neha Merchant, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju, Balney Rajitha, Saipriya Lammata, Kishore Kumar Jella, Zachary S Buchwald, Sajani S Lakka, Arif N Ali
Lung malignancy is the foremost cause of cancer-related deaths globally and is frequently related to long-term tobacco smoking. Recent studies reveal that the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is extremely high in lung tumors compared with non-malignant lung tissue. MMPs are zinc-dependent proteases and are involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Several investigations have shown that MMPs manipulate the activity of non-ECM molecules, including cytokines, growth factors and receptors that control the tumor microenvironment...
August 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637314/dna-methylation-signatures-and-coagulation-factors-in-the-peripheral-blood-leucocytes-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#15
Lian Li, Hong Zheng, Yubei Huang, Caiyun Huang, Shuang Zhang, Jing Tian, Pei Li, Anil K Sood, Wei Zhang, Kexin Chen
Solid tumors are increasingly recognized as a systemic disease that is manifested by changes in DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites in the blood. Whereas many studies have reported gene mutation events in the circulation, few studies have focused on epigenetic DNA methylation markers. To identify DNA methylation biomarkers in peripheral blood for ovarian cancer, we performed a two-stage epigenome-wide association study. In the discovery stage, we measured genome wide DNA methylation for 485 000 CpG sites in peripheral blood in 24 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cases and 24 age-matched healthy controls...
August 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595267/cholesterol-uptake-and-regulation-in-high-grade-and-lethal-prostate-cancers
#16
Konrad H Stopsack, Travis A Gerke, Ove Andrén, Swen-Olof Andersson, Edward L Giovannucci, Lorelei A Mucci, Jennifer R Rider
Lethal prostate cancers have higher expression of squalene monooxygenase (SQLE), the second rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Preclinical studies suggested that aberrant cholesterol regulators, receptors and transporters contribute to cholesterol accumulation uniformly. We assessed their association with features of aggressive cancers. In the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professional Follow-up Study, the Physicians' Health Study and the Swedish Watchful Waiting Study, tumor mRNA expression profiling was performed...
August 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582508/association-of-breast-cancer-risk-and-the-mtor-pathway-in-women-of-african-ancestry-in-the-root-consortium
#17
Shengfeng Wang, Dezheng Huo, Temidayo O Ogundiran, Oladosu Ojengbede, Wei Zheng, Katherine L Nathanson, Barbara Nemesure, Stefan Ambs, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Yonglan Zheng
Functional studies have elucidated the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in breast carcinogenesis, but to date, there is a paucity of data on its contribution to breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. We examined 47628 SNPs in 61 mTOR pathway genes in the genome wide association study of breast cancer in the African Diaspora study (The Root consortium), which included 3686 participants (1657 cases). Pathway- and gene-level analyses were conducted using the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) test for 10994 SNPs that were not highly correlated (r2 < 0...
August 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582482/fusobacterium-and-colorectal-cancer-causal-factor-or-passenger-results-from-a-large-colorectal-cancer-screening-study
#18
Efrat L Amitay, Simone Werner, Marius Vital, Dietmar H Pieper, Daniela Höfler, Indra-Jasmin Gierse, Julia Butt, Yesilda Balavarca, Katarina Cuk, Hermann Brenner
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in both men and women. The gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as having an important role in human health and disease. Fusobacterium has been identified in former studies as a leading gut bacterium associated with colorectal cancer, but it is still not clear if it plays an oncogenic role. In the current study, fecal samples were collected prior to bowel preparation from participants of screening colonoscopy in the German BliTz study...
August 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535183/time-caloric-restriction-inhibits-the-neoplastic-transformation-of-cirrhotic-liver-in-rats-treated-with-diethylnitrosamine
#19
Christian Molina-Aguilar, María de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre, Sitlali Olguin-Reyes, Thania Castro-Belio, Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Julieta Berenice Rivera-Zavala, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Hepatocellular cancer is the most common type of primary liver cancer. Cirrhosis is the main risk factor that generates this malady. It has been proven that caloric restriction protocols and restricted feeding schedules are protective in experimental carcinogenic models. We tested the influence of a time-caloric restriction protocol (2 h of food access during the daytime for 18 weeks) in an experimental model of cirrhosis-hepatocarcinoma produced by weekly administration of diethylnitrosamine. Our results indicate that time-caloric restriction reduced hepatomegaly and prevented the increase in blood leukocytes promoted by diethylnitrosamine...
August 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531253/gender-related-prognostic-value-and-genomic-pattern-of-intra-tumor-heterogeneity-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
Jieyun Zhang, Shican Yan, Xiyu Liu, Lu Gan, Zhenhua Wu, Yiwei Gong, Mingzhu Huang, Xiaowei Zhang, Weijian Guo
Intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH) is crucial in tumorigenesis and resistance to target therapy. Here, we used mutant-allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH) to measure ITH based on next-generation sequencing data and high MATH was proven as an independent risk prognostic factor in male CRC patients in both a training set of 284 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and a validating set of 187 CRC patients from International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC). Further, the genomic pattern according to MATH demonstrated that mutation rates of TP53, IRF5 and KRAS were independently associated with MATH, and the latter two were only significant in male patients...
August 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
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