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Carcinogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069693/dna-fragile-site-breakage-as-a-measure-of-chemical-exposure-and-predictor-of-individual-susceptibility-to-form-oncogenic-rearrangements
#1
Christine E Lehman, Laura W Dillon, Yuri E Nikiforov, Yuh-Hwa Wang
Chromosomal rearrangements induced by non-radiation causes contribute to the majority of oncogenic fusions found in cancer. Treatment of human thyroid cells with fragile site-inducing laboratory chemicals can cause preferential DNA breakage at the RET gene and generate the RET/PTC1 rearrangement, a common driver mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). Here, we demonstrate that treatment with non-cytotoxic levels of environmental chemicals (benzene and diethylnitrosamine) or chemotherapeutic agents (etoposide and doxorubicin) generates significant DNA breakage within RET at levels similar to those generated by fragile site-inducing laboratory chemicals...
January 9, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069692/genes-involved-in-development-and-differentiation-are-commonly-methylated-in-cancers-derived-from-multiple-organs-a-single-institutional-methylome-analysis-using-1007-tissue-specimens
#2
Kentaro Ohara, Eri Arai, Yoriko Takahashi, Nanako Ito, Ayako Shibuya, Koji Tsuta, Ryoji Kushima, Hitoshi Tsuda, Hidenori Ojima, Hiroyuki Fujimoto, Shun-Ichi Watanabe, Hitoshi Katai, Takayuki Kinoshita, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Takashi Kohno, Yae Kanai
The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations shared by cancers derived from multiple organs. We analyzed single-institutional methylome data by single-CpG-resolution Infinium assay for 1,007 samples of non-cancerous tissue (N) and corresponding cancerous tissue (T) obtained from lung, stomach, kidney, breast and liver. Principal component analysis revealed that N samples of each organ showed distinct DNA methylation profiles, DNA methylation profiles of N samples of each organ being inherited by the corresponding T samples and DNA methylation profiles of T samples being more similar to those of N samples in the same organ than those of T samples in other organs...
January 9, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062409/d-mannose-a-novel-prognostic-biomarker-for-patients-with-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#3
Jianchun Gu, Dong Liang, Jeanne A Pierzynski, Leizhen Zheng, Yuanqing Ye, Jinhua Zhang, Jaffer A Ajani, Xifeng Wu
Metabolomic profiling isa promising approach to identify new biomarkers for cancer prognosis.However, the role of circulating metabolites as prognostic indicators in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has not been well-explored. In this study, we aimed to evaluatethe prognostic value of three serum metabolites, D-mannose, L-proline (LP), and 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), which were significantly different between EAC patients and controls,identified through a global and targeted metabolite profiling.We measured the levels ofD-mannose, LP, and BHBA in pretreatment serum from 159 EAC patients, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods...
January 6, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049629/integrated-metabolomics-and-proteomics-highlight-altered-nicotinamide-and-polyamine-pathways-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Johannes F Fahrmann, Dmitry D Grapov, Kwanjeera Wanichthanarak, Brian C DeFelice, Michelle R Salemi, William N Rom, David R Gandara, Brett S Phinney, Oliver Fiehn, Harvey Pass, Suzanne Miyamoto
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) adenocarcinoma being the most common histological type. Early perturbations in cellular metabolism are a hallmark of cancer, but the extent of these changes in early stage lung adenocarcinoma remains largely unknown. In the current study, an integrated metabolomics and proteomics approach was utilized to characterize the biochemical and molecular alterations between malignant and matched control tissue from 27 subjects diagnosed with early stage lung adenocarcinoma...
January 3, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039327/a-functional-polymorphism-located-at-transcription-factor-binding-sites-rs6695837-near-lamc1-gene-confers-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-chinese-populations
#5
Jiao Lou, Jing Gong, Juntao Ke, Jianbo Tian, Yi Zhang, Jiaoyuan Li, Yang Yang, Ying Zhu, Yajie Gong, Lu Li, Jiang Chang, Rong Zhong, Xiaoping Miao
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. However, the elucidation of causal SNPs and the biological mechanisms behind are still limited. In this study, we initially performed systematic bioinformatics analyses on CRC GWAS-identified loci to seek for potential functional SNPs located at transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), and then a two-stage case-control study comprised of 1353 cases and 1448 controls of Chinese populations and functional analyses were conducted...
December 29, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034876/an-indel-polymorphism-within-pre-mir3131-confers-risk-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Chaoqun Wang, Lijuan Li, Zhixia Yin, Qing Zhang, Hua Zhao, Ruiyang Tao, Shouyu Wang, Shuxiang Hu, Yan He, Dayong Wang, Chengtao Li, Suhua Zhang, Jiejie Xu, Xinghong Jiang, Shaohua Zhu, Yuzhen Gao
Polymorphisms in pre-miRNAs may affect its expression, then have effect on its target mRNAs and be associated with cancer susceptibility. In this study, we evaluated the association of an indel polymorphism rs57408770 in pre-miR-3131 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility in a Chinese population. The contribution of rs57408770 to HCC risk was investigated in two independent case-control sets (1051 HCC and 1058 controls). Logistic regression analysis showed that the insertion allele of rs57408770 was significantly associated with an increased risk for HCC occurrence in both case-control studies...
December 29, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025390/prevalence-of-hpv-infection-in-racial-ethnic-subgroups-of-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#7
Camille Ragin, Jeffrey C Liu, Gieira Jones, Olubunmi Shoyele, Bukola Sowunmi, Rachel Kennett, Harry J M Groen, Denise Gibbs, Elizabeth Blackman, Michael Esan, Margaret S Brandwein, Karthik Devarajan, Francesco Bussu, Rebecca Chernock, Chih-Yen Chien, Marc A Cohen, El-Mofty Samir, Suzuki Mikio, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Pauline Funchain, Charis Eng, Susanne M Gollin, Angela Hong, Yuh-S Jung, Maximilian Krüger, James Lewis, Patrizia Morbini, Santo Landolfo, Massimo Rittà, Jos Straetmans, Krisztina Szarka, Ruth Tachezy, Francis P Worden, Deborah Nelson, Samuel Gathere, Emanuela Taioli
The landscape of HPV infection in racial/ethnic subgroups of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients has not been evaluated carefully. In this study, a meta-analysis examined the prevalence of HPV in HNC patients of African ancestry. Additionally, a pooled analysis of subject-level data was also performed to investigate HPV prevalence and patterns of p16 (CDNK2A) expression amongst different racial groups. Eighteen publications (N = 798 Black HNC patients) were examined in the meta-analysis, and the pooled analysis included 29 datasets comprised of 3,129 HNC patients of diverse racial/ethnic background...
December 26, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007956/upregulation-of-rpa2-promotes-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-breast-cancer-by-relieving-the-antagonistic-function-of-menin-on-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-regulated-transcription
#8
Chao-Chung Chen, Chi-Wen Juan, Kuan-Yu Chen, Yi-Chien Chang, Janq-Chang Lee, Ming-Chung Chang
RPA2, a subunit of the heterotrimeric replication protein A (RPA) complex, is overexpressed in various cancers. In this study, we showed a significant RPA2 upregulation in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Ectopic expression of RPA2 in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells promoted cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion, and induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of MCF7 cells. Ablation of RPA2 in MDA-MB-231 cells induced apoptosis and suppressed colony formation, EMT and invasion. Binding assays indicated that menin, the MEN1 (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1) tumor suppressor gene product, interacted with RPA2...
December 22, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993896/reexamining-cancer-metabolism-lactate-production-for-carcinogenesis-could-be-the-purpose-and-explanation-of-the-warburg-effect
#9
REVIEW
Iñigo San-Millán, George A Brooks
Herein, we use lessons learned in exercise physiology and metabolism to propose that augmented lactate production ('lactagenesis'), initiated by gene mutations, is the reason and purpose of the Warburg Effect and that dysregulated lactate metabolism and signaling are the key elements in carcinogenesis. Lactate-producing ('lactagenic') cancer cells are characterized by increased aerobic glycolysis and excessive lactate formation, a phenomenon described by Otto Warburg 93 years ago, which still remains unexplained...
December 17, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993895/mutation-patterns-in-small-cell-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-suggest-a-different-level-of-heterogeneity-between-primary-and-metastatic-tumors
#10
Ali Saber, T Jeroen N Hiltermann, Klaas Kok, M Martijn Terpstra, Kim de Lange, Wim Timens, Harry J M Groen, Anke van den Berg
Several studies have shown heterogeneity in lung cancer, with parallel existence of multiple subclones characterized by their own specific mutational landscape. The extent to which minor clones become dominant in distinct metastasis is not clear. The aim of our study was to gain insight in the evolution pattern of lung cancer by investigating genomic heterogeneity between primary tumor and its distant metastases. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on 24 tumor and five normal samples of two small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and three non-SCLC (NSCLC) patients...
December 17, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993894/downregulation-of-azgp1-by-ikaros-and-histone-deacetylase-promotes-tumor-progression-through-the-pten-akt-and-cd44s-pathways-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Hua Tian, Chao Ge, Fangyu Zhao, Miaoxin Zhu, Lin Zhang, Qi Huo, Hong Li, Taoyang Chen, Haiyang Xie, Ying Cui, Ming Yao, Jinjun Li
Increasing evidence has shown that zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (AZGP1) is associated with the progression and prognosis of several tumor types. However, little is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of AZGP1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we report that transcription factor Ikaros bound to the AZGP1 promoter and increased its expression in HCC cells. The downregulation of AZGP1 was associated with histone deacetylation in HCC. In addition, the positive feedback regulation via acetylation of histone H4-mediated transactivation of the Ikaros promoter and the Ikaros-mediated transactivation of the acetylation of histone H4 were crucial for regulating AZGP1 expression in HCC cells...
December 17, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993893/genome-wide-chip-seq-analysis-of-ezh2-mediated-h3k27me3-target-gene-profile-highlights-differences-between-low-and-high-grade-astrocytic-tumors
#12
Vikas Sharma, Prit Benny Malgulwar, Suvendu Purkait, Vikas Patil, Pankaj Pathak, Rahul Agarwal, Ritu Kulshreshtha, Supriya Mallick, Pramod Kumar Julka, Ashish Suri, Bhawani Shankar Sharma, Vaishali Suri, Mehar Chand Sharma, Chitra Sarkar
Enhancer of Zeste Homologue-2(EZH2) is a key epigenetic regulator that functions as oncogene and also known for inducing altered H3K27me3 mark in various tumors. However, H3K27me3 targets and their precise relationship with gene expression are largely unknown in astrocytic tumors. In this study, we checked EZH2 mRNA and protein expression in 90 astrocytic tumors of different grades using qPCR and IHC,respectively. Further, genome wide ChIP-seq analysis for H3K27me3 modification was also performed on 11 Glioblastomas(GBMs) and 2 Diffuse astrocytoma(DAs) samples...
December 17, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881463/sestrin-3-modulation-is-essential-for-therapeutic-efficacy-of-cucurbitacin-b-in-lung-cancer-cells
#13
Naghma Khan, Farah Jajeh, Mohammad Imran Khan, Eiman Mukhtar, Sameh M Shabana, Hasan Mukhtar
Many purified compounds from dietary sources have been investigated for their anticancer activities. The main issue with most agents is their effectiveness at high doses which generally could not be delivered to humans through dietary consumption. Here, we observed that cucurbitacin B, a tetracyclic triterpenoid present in pumpkins, gourds and squashes, exhibits antiproliferative effects on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells at nanomolar concentrations. Treatment with cucurbitacin B (0.2-0.6 μM; 24 h) was found to result in decrease in the viability of EGFR-wild type (A549 and H1792) and EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells (H1650 and H1975) and reduction in cell-colonies but had only minimal effect on normal human bronchial epithelial cells...
November 23, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866156/hide-and-seek-the-interplay-between-cancer-stem-cells-and-the-immune-system
#14
REVIEW
Mohammad Sultan, Krysta Mila Coyle, Dejan Vidovic, Margaret Lois Thomas, Shashi Gujar, Paola Marcato
The enhanced ability of cancer stem cells (CSCs) to give rise to new tumors suggests that these cells may also have an advantage in evading immune detection and elimination. This tumor-forming ability, combined with the known plasticity of the immune system, which can play both protumorigenic and antitumorigenic roles, has motivated investigations into the interaction between CSCs and the immune system. Herein, we review the interplay between host immunity and CSCs by examining the immune-related mechanisms that favor CSCs and the CSC-mediated expansion of protumorigenic immune cells...
November 19, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838635/genetic-variants-of-mucins-unexplored-conundrum
#15
REVIEW
Sushil Kumar, Eric Cruz, Suhasini Joshi, Asish Patel, Rahat Jahan, Surinder K Batra, Maneesh Jain
Alternative gene splicing, occurring ubiquitously in multicellular organisms can produce several protein isoforms with putatively different functions. The enormously extended genomic structure of mucin genes characterized by the presence of multiple exons encoding various domains may result in functionally diverse repertoire of mucin proteins due to alternative splicing. Splice variants (Svs) and mutations in mucin genes have been observed in various cancers and shown to participate in cancer progression and metastasis...
November 12, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064186/table_of_contents
#16
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January 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064185/subscriptions
#17
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January 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064184/instructions_to_authors
#18
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January 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064183/front_cover
#19
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January 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064182/editorial_board
#20
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January 2017: Carcinogenesis
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