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Carcinogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219864/smad7-in-keratinocytes-promotes-skin-carcinogenesis-by-activating-atm-dependent-dna-repair-and-an-egfr-mediated-cell-proliferation-pathway
#1
Huyen Trang Ha Thi, Hye-Youn Kim, Young-Jae Lee, Seong-Jin Kim, Suntaek Hong
SMAD7 is a general inhibitor of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling that acts through interaction and degradation of TGF-β receptors. SMAD7 has been demonstrated to be transcriptionally upregulated in chemical-induced skin tumors and TGF-β-treated normal keratinocytes. To evaluate the function of SMAD7 in skin carcinogenesis in vivo, Smad7 transgenic mice that specifically express either wild-type SMAD7 (TG-Smad7-WT) or mutant SMAD7 (TG-Smad7-MT) in keratinocytes, as well as Smad7 keratinocyte-specific knockout (Smad72f/2f-K14Cre) mice were subjected to chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis...
September 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204842/matricellular-protein-periostin-promotes-colitis-associated-colon-tumorigenesis-in-mice
#2
Seong-Joon Koh, Ji Won Kim, Byeong Gwan Kim, Kook Lae Lee, Dae Woo Kim, Joo Sung Kim
Periostin is expressed in inflamed colonic mucosa and colon cancer tissue; however, its role in the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) remains unclear. Wild type and periostin-deficient (Postn-/-) mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM) at 12.5 mg/kg on Day 0. Seven days later, 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was administered via drinking water for 5 days, followed by free water consumption for 16 days. This cycle was repeated 3 times. In vitro assays were performed using COLO205 and HCT116 cells...
September 11, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202955/immediate-and-substantial-evolution-of-t-cell-repertoire-in-peripheral-blood-and-tumor-microenvironment-of-patients-with-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-treated-with-preoperative-chemotherapy
#3
Chaoting Zhang, Palashati Heyilimu, Qin Tan, Wenjing Ku, Yu Miao, Hongchao Xiong, Zheming Lu
Preoperative chemotherapy could decrease tumor size and improve overall survival for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and moreover rational combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy could increase likelihood of inducing an effective anti-tumor immune response. However, the immunologic impact of chemotherapeutic drugs originally chose for cancer treatment due to the direct toxicity is poorly understood. We assess the effect of a combination of clinically approved chemotherapeutic drugs (Paclitaxel-nedaplatin [PTX-NDP]) on TCR repertoires of peripheral T cells and TILs from five patients with primary ESCC...
September 7, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202894/prognostic-modeling-of-the-immune-centric-transcriptome-reveals-interleukin-signaling-candidates-contributing-to-differential-patient-outcomes
#4
Donovan Watza, Christine M Lusk, Gregory Dyson, Kristen S Purrington, Kang Chen, Angela S Wenzlaff, Valerie Ratliff, Christine Neslund-Dudas, Gerold Bepler, Ann G Schwartz
Immunotherapy is a promising advancement in the treatment of NSCLC, although much of how lung tumors interact with the immune system in the natural course of disease remains unknown. We investigated the impact of the expression of immune-centric genes and pathways in tumors on patient survival to reveal novel candidates for immunotherapeutic research. Tumor transcriptomes and detailed clinical characteristics were obtained from NSCLC patients who were participants of either the INHALE (Discovery, N=280) or TCGA Lung (Replication, N=1026) studies...
September 7, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184109/an-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-derivative-18-hepe-protects-against-cxcr4-associated-melanoma-metastasis
#5
Jieping Li, Chih-Yu Chen, Makoto Arita, Kuijin Kim, Xiangyong Li, Hongmang Zhang, Jing X Kang
Melanoma has a high propensity to metastasize and exhibits a poor response to classical therapies. Dysregulation of the chemokine receptor gene CXCR4 is associated with melanoma progression, and although n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to be beneficial for melanoma prevention, the underlying mechanism of this effect is unclear. Here, we used the n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1) transgenic mouse model of endogenous n-3 PUFA synthesis to investigate the influence of elevated n-3 PUFA levels in a mouse model of metastatic melanoma...
September 4, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184100/colorectal-cancer-derived-small-extracellular-vesicles-establish-an-inflammatory-pre-metastatic-niche-in-liver-metastasis
#6
Yingkuan Shao, Ting Chen, Xi Zheng, Sheng Yang, Kailun Xu, Xuewen Chen, Fei Xu, Lantian Wang, Yanwei Shen, Tingyang Wang, Mengwen Zhang, Wangxiong Hu, Chenyang Ye, XiaoFang Yu, Jimin Shao, Shu Zheng
Liver metastases develop in more than half of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and are associated with a poor prognosis. The factors influencing liver metastasis of CRC are poorly characterized, but this information is urgently needed. We have now discovered that small extracellular vesicles (sEVs, exosomes) derived from CRC can be specifically targeted to liver tissue and induce liver macrophage polarization toward an interleukin-6 (IL-6)-secreting pro-inflammatory phenotype. More importantly, we found that microRNA-21-5p (miR-21) was highly enriched in CRC-derived sEVs and was essential for creating a liver pro-inflammatory phenotype and liver metastasis of CRC...
September 4, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30169594/long-non-coding-rna00607-as-a-tumor-suppressor-by-modulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-p53-signaling-axis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Qi-Man Sun, Bo Hu, Pei-Yao Fu, Wei-Guo Tang, Xin Zhang, Hao Zhan, Chao Sun, Yi-Feng He, Kang Song, Yong-Sheng Xiao, Jian Sun, Yang Xu, Jian Zhou, Jia Fan
Accumulating evidence suggests that long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA) play important roles in some malignant tumors. However, the mechanism underlying how lncRNA regulate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) process remains largely unknown. In this study, we explored the potential role of LNCRNA 00607 as a novel tumor suppressor in HCC. In the present study, we examined the regulation of LNCRNA 00607 by the important inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-6. We also determined the expression of LINC000607 in 159 HCC tumors and paired adjacent tissues...
August 29, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165468/aberrant-expression-of-pdz-binding-kinase-t-lak-cell-originated-protein-kinase-modulates-the-invasive-ability-of-human-pancreatic-cancer-cells-via-the-stabilization-of-oncoprotein-c-myc
#8
Charles P Hinzman, Leala Aljehane, Joshua D Brown-Clay, Bhaskar Kallakury, Fuminori Sonahara, Ajay Goel, Jose Trevino, Partha P Banerjee
High frequency of mortality in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is vastly associated with the invasive and metastatic nature of these cancer cells. Little is known about the factors involved in this invasive/metastatic process. The current challenge in the treatment of these patients is the lack of viable options besides gemcitabine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of PDZ-Binding Kinase (PBK)/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) in invasive PDAC cells, and to determine if PBK/TOPK expression drives invasiveness in PDAC...
August 25, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165429/expression-of-igf-insulin-receptor-in-prostate-cancer-tissue-and-progression-to-lethal-disease
#9
Thomas U Ahearn, Sam Peisch, Andreas Pettersson, Ericka M Ebot, Ke Zhou, Rebecca E Graff, Jennifer A Sinnott, Ladan Fazli, Gregory L Judson, Tarek A Bismar, Jennifer R Rider, Travis Gerke, June M Chan, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Richard Flavin, Howard D Sesso, Stephen Finn, Edward L Giovannucci, Martin Gleave, Massimo Loda, Zhe Li, Michael Pollak, Lorelei A Mucci
Circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is consistently associated with prostate cancer risk. IGF-1 binds to IGF-1 (IGF1R) and insulin (IR) receptors, activating cancer hallmark pathways. Experimental evidence suggests that TMPRSS2:ERG may interact with IGF/insulin signaling to influence progression. We investigated IGF1R and IR expression and its association with lethal prostate cancer among 769 men. Protein expression of IGF1R, IR, and ERG (i.e., a surrogate of ERG fusion genes) were assayed by immunohistochemistry...
August 24, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137211/letter-to-the-editor-re-dragani-et-al-2018-malignant-mesothelioma-diagnosed-at-a-younger-age-is-associated-with-heavier-asbestos-exposure
#10
Andrea Farioli, Stefano Mattioli, Stefania Curti, Giovanna Spatari, Francesco Saverio Violante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137206/klk6-protease-accelerates-skin-tumor-formation-and-progression
#11
Nikolas Khoury, Eleni Zingkou, Georgios Pampalakis, Michail Sofopoulos, Vassilis Zoumpourlis, Georgia Sotiropoulou
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is a serine protease that is aberrantly altered in various types of cancer but its role in non-melanoma skin cancer has not been investigated. KLK6 is active in epidermis and has been linked to normal skin differentiation. Thus, we investigated whether it could be implicated in skin tumorigenesis in vivo. Carcinogenesis was induced in Klk6-/- mice by epidermal application of DMBA/TPA and multistage skin tumor development and progression was monitored closely until squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and invasive tumors formed...
August 23, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124785/the-chemopreventive-effect-of-withaferin-a-on-spontaneous-and-inflammation-associated-colon-carcinogenesis-models
#12
Balaji Chandrasekaran, Deeksha Pal, Venkatesh Kolluru, Ashish Tyagi, Becca Baby, Nisha R Dahiya, Youssef Khafateh, Alatassi Houda, Murali K Ankem, Arun K Sharma, Chendil Damodaran
Chemopreventive effects and associated mechanisms of Withaferin A (WA) against intestinal and colon carcinogenesis remain unknown. We investigated the chemopreventive effect of WA on transgenic mouse APCMin/+ and chemically induced azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) models of intestinal and colon carcinogenesis. Oral WA administration (4 mg/kg and 3mg/kg) inhibited tumor initiation and progression of intestinal polyp formation in APCMin/+ mice and colon carcinogenesis in the AOM/DSS mouse model. WA-administered mice showed a significant reduction in both number (duodenum, 33% (p>0...
August 16, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107476/caloric-restriction-inhibits-mammary-tumorigenesis-in-mmtv-erbb2-transgenic-mice-through-the-suppression-of-er-and-erbb2-pathways-and-inhibition-of-epithelial-cell-stemness-in-premalignant-mammary-tissues
#13
Zhikun Ma, Amanda B Parris, Erin W Howard, Yujie Shi, Shihe Yang, Yunbo Jiang, Lingfei Kong, Xiaohe Yang
Caloric intake influences the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In particular, caloric restriction (CR) has been reported to suppress mammary tumorigenesis in various models. However, the underlying cancer preventive mechanisms have not been fully explored. To this end, we aimed to characterize the anticancer mechanisms of CR using MMTV-ErbB2 transgenic mice, a well-established spontaneous ErbB2-overexpressing mammary tumor model, by focusing on cellular and molecular changes in premalignant tissues...
August 9, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102338/identification-of-genomic-alterations-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-and-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-derived-epstein-barr-virus-by-whole-genome-sequencing
#14
Chaofeng Tu, Zhaoyang Zeng, Peng Qi, Xiayu Li, Can Guo, Fang Xiong, Bo Xiang, Ming Zhou, Qianjin Liao, Jianjun Yu, Yong Li, Xiaoling Li, Guiyuan Li, Wei Xiong
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common tumor in Southern China with marked ethnic and geographic distributions and concomitant EBV infection. However, the molecular basis of NPC remains largely unknown and the role of EBV genomic variations in the pathogenesis of NPC is unclear. Whole-genome sequencing of a collection of 12 EBV-positive paired NPC tumor/peripheral blood samples from Hunan province was performed, and the FBXO11 gene was subjected to further functional analyses. We identified 69 missense mutations in signaling pathways typically altered in cancer, including NF-κB and Wnt/Hedgehog/Notch...
August 9, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102337/fat1-somatic-mutations-in-head-and-neck-carcinoma-are-associated-with-tumor-progression-and-survival
#15
Shu-Chun Lin, Li-Han Lin, Ssu-Yu Yu, Shou-Yen Kao, Kuo-Wei Chang, Hui-Wen Cheng, Chung-Ji Liu
In recent years, the incidence and mortality rates of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have increased worldwide. Therefore, understanding genomic alterations in HNSCC carcinogenesis is crucial for appropriate diagnosis and therapy. Procadherin FAT1, which encodes 4588 amino acid residues, regulates complex mechanisms to promote oncogenesis or suppression of malignancies. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed FAT1 somatic mutations. The clinicopathologic implications of FAT1 in HNSCC were investigated using expression assays, and the functional role of FAT1 in HNSCC pathogenesis was determined using ectopic expression and knockdown experiments...
August 9, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102336/semaphorin-3a-inhibits-multiple-myeloma-progression-in-a-mouse-model
#16
Noa Lavi, Ofra Kessler, Keren Ziv, Inbal Nir-Zvi, Yelena Mumblat, Nasrene Eiza, Yael Paran, Benjamin Brenner, Zahava Vadasz, Gera Neufeld
Previous studies revealed that progression of multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with down regulation of semaphorin-3A (sema3A) expression in bone marrow endothelial cells. We therefore determined if serum sema3A concentrations are correlated with MM progression and if sema3A can affect MM progression. We find that the concentration of sema3A in sera of MM patients is strongly reduced and that the decrease is correlated with disease progression. A similar depletion is found in AML and ALL leukemia patients but not in cancer forms that do not involve the bone marrow such as in colon cancer...
August 9, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084990/chemoprevention-of-inflammation-related-colorectal-cancer-by-silymarin-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic-acid-curcumin-and-maltodestrin-enriched-dietetic-formulation-in-animal-model
#17
Bruna Girardi, Mariabeatrice Principi, Maria Pricci, Floriana Giorgio, Andrea Iannone, Giuseppe Losurdo, Enzo Ierardi, Alfredo Di Leo, Michele Barone
Based on preliminary "in vitro" experience, we assessed whether an enriched nutritional formulation with estrogen receptor (ER)-beta agonist and anti-inflammatory properties may prevent inflammation-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) in an animal model.Study sample enclosed 110 C57BL/6J male mice. Forty underwent dietary supplement safety assessment (20 standard and 20 enriched formulation). Seventy were treated with azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran-sulfate-sodium (DSS) and divided into two groups: 35 received standard and 35 the enriched formulation (curcumin, boswellic acids, silymarin and maltodextrins)...
August 6, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084985/amplification-of-hsa-mir-191-425-locus-promotes-breast-cancer-proliferation-and-metastasis-by-targeting-dicer1
#18
Xiao Zhang, Mingming Wu, Qing-Yun Chong, Weijie Zhang, Pengxu Qian, Hong Yan, Wenchang Qian, Min Zhang, Peter E Lobie, Tao Zhu
The dysregulation of miRNAs is a crucial characteristic of human cancers. Herein, we observed frequent amplification of the MIR191/425 locus in breast cancer, which is correlated with poor survival outcome. We demonstrated that the miR-191/425 cluster binds the 3'UTR of the DICER1 transcript and post-transcriptionally represses DICER1 expression, thereby impairing global microRNAs biogenesis. Functionally, the forced expression of miR-191 or miR-425 stimulated the proliferation, survival, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, while the inhibition of miR-191 or miR-425 suppressed these oncogenic behaviors of breast cancer cells, in a manner dependent on miR-191/425-mediated downregulation of DICER1...
August 6, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084959/plasma-selenoprotein-p-concentration-and-lung-cancer-risk-results-from-a-case-control-study-nested-within-the-shanghai-men-s-health-study
#19
Yumie Takata, Yong-Bing Xiang, Raymond F Burk, Honglan Li, Kristina E Hill, Hui Cai, Jing Gao, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu, Qiuyin Cai
Selenoprotein P (SELENOP) is a major selenoenzyme in plasma and linked to antioxidant properties and possibly to lung cancer; however, supporting evidence is limited. We investigated the association between pre-diagnostic plasma SELENOP concentration and lung cancer risk in a case-control study of 403 cases and 403 individually-matched controls nested within the Shanghai Men's Health Study. SELENOP concentration in pre-diagnostic plasma samples was measured by sandwich ELISA. Cases were diagnosed with lung cancer between 2003 and 2010...
August 4, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060078/glyphosate-based-herbicides-and-cancer-risk-a-post-iarc-decision-review-of-potential-mechanisms-policy-and-avenues-of-research
#20
Michael J Davoren, Robert H Schiestl
Since its initial sales in the 1970s, the herbicide glyphosate attained widespread use in modern agriculture, becoming the most commercially successful and widely used herbicide of all time as of 2016. Despite a primary mechanism that targets a pathway absent from animal cells and regulatory studies showing safety margins orders of magnitude better than many other, more directly toxic herbicides, the safety status of glyphosate, has recently been brought into question by a slow accumulation of studies evincing more insidious health risks, especially when considered in combination with the surfactants it is usually applied with...
July 28, 2018: Carcinogenesis
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