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International Journal of Primatology

Christin Minge, Andreas Berghänel, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
Male care for offspring is unexpected in polygynandrous mammals. Evidence from nonhuman primates, however, indicates not only the existence of stable male-immature associations in multimale-multifemale groups, but also male care in the form of protection from infanticidal attacks and conspecific harassment. Here, we investigate the relationship characteristics, dynamics, and consequences of male-immature associations in wild Assamese macaques, Macaca assamensis, at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, to inform hypotheses of their evolutionary origins...
2016: International Journal of Primatology
Charlie J Gardner
Despite an increasing recognition of the ecosystem services provided by mangroves, we know little about their role in maintaining terrestrial biodiversity, including primates. Madagascar's lemurs are a top global conservation priority, with 94 % of species threatened with extinction, but records of their occurrence in mangroves are scarce. I used a mixed-methods approach to collect published and unpublished observations of lemurs in mangroves: I carried out a systematic literature search and supplemented this with a targeted information request to 1243 researchers, conservation and tourism professionals, and others who may have visited mangroves in Madagascar...
2016: International Journal of Primatology
Samina H Farooqi, Nicola F Koyama
Conflict management strategies can reduce costs of aggressive competition in group-living animals. Postconflict behaviors such as reconciliation and third-party postconflict affiliation are widely accepted as social skills in primates and have been demonstrated in many species. Although immature primates possess a repertoire of species-specific behaviors, it is thought that they gradually develop appropriate social skills throughout prolonged juvenility to establish and maintain complex social relationships within their group...
2016: International Journal of Primatology
Margaret A Stanton, Matthew R Heintz, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Rachel M Santymire, Iddi Lipende, Carson M Murray
Individual differences in maternal behavior toward, and investment in, offspring can have lasting consequences, particularly among primate taxa characterized by prolonged periods of development over which mothers can exert substantial influence. Given the role of the neuroendocrine system in the expression of behavior, researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the hormonal correlates of maternal behavior. Here, we examined the relationship between maternal behavior and physiological stress levels, as quantified by fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations, in lactating chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, at Gombe National Park, Tanzania...
June 2015: International Journal of Primatology
Lars Kulik, Federica Amici, Doreen Langos, Anja Widdig
Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes...
April 1, 2015: International Journal of Primatology
Lauren J N Brent, Amanda D Melin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2014: International Journal of Primatology
G L Fawcett, A M Dettmer, D Kay, M Raveendran, J D Higley, N D Ryan, J L Cameron, J Rogers
Primate behavior is influenced by both heritable factors and environmental experience during development. Previous studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) examined the effects of genetic variation on expressed behavior and related neurobiological traits (heritability and/or genetic association) using a variety of study designs. Most of these prior studies examined genetic effects on the behavior of adults or adolescent rhesus macaques, not in young macaques early in development. To assess environmental and additive genetic variation in behavioral reactivity and response to novelty among infants, we investigated a range of behavioral traits in a large number (N = 428) of pedigreed infants born and housed in large outdoor corrals at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC)...
February 1, 2014: International Journal of Primatology
Lauren J N Brent, Stuart Semple, Ann Maclarnon, Angelina Ruiz-Lambides, Janis Gonzalez-Martinez, Michael L Platt
There is growing evidence that behavioral tendencies, or "personalities," in animals are an important aspect of their biology, yet their evolutionary basis is poorly understood. Specifically, how individual variation in personality arises and is subsequently maintained by selection remains unclear. To address this gap, studies of personality require explicit incorporation of genetic information. Here, we explored the genetic basis of personality in rhesus macaques by determining the heritability of personality components and by examining the fitness consequences of those components...
February 1, 2014: International Journal of Primatology
Gregory E Blomquist, Lauren J N Brent
Increasingly, behavioral ecologists have applied quantitative genetic methods to investigate the evolution of behaviors in wild animal populations. The promise of quantitative genetics in unmanaged populations opens the door for simultaneous analysis of inheritance, phenotypic plasticity, and patterns of selection on behavioral phenotypes all within the same study. In this article, we describe how quantitative genetic techniques provide studies of the evolution of behavior with information that is unique and valuable...
February 1, 2014: International Journal of Primatology
Cédric Girard-Buttoz, Michael Heistermann, Erdiansyah Rahmi, Muhammad Agil, Panji Ahmad Fauzan, Antje Engelhardt
Male primates living in multimale groups tend to direct mate and mate-guarding choices toward females of high reproductive value, i.e., high-ranking, parous females, or females with which they share strong bonds. Little is known, however, about the constraints that may limit male mate-guarding choices (the costs of this behavior) and the influence of the females' quality on male investment in mate-guarding. We aimed to study the effects of female rank, parity status, and male-female social bond strength on the costs of and investment in mate-guarding by males...
2014: International Journal of Primatology
Livia Schäffler, Peter M Kappeler
The distribution of most recently discovered or described lemur species remains poorly known, but many appear to have small geographical ranges, making them vulnerable to extinction. Research can contribute to future conservation actions on behalf of these species by providing accurate information on local distribution and abundance. The distribution of the world's smallest primate, the endangered Madame Berthe's mouse lemur (Microcebus berthae), is limited to the Menabe Central region of western Madagascar...
2014: International Journal of Primatology
G H Kopp, M J Ferreira da Silva, J Fischer, J C Brito, S Regnaut, C Roos, D Zinner
Behavior is influenced by genes but can also shape the genetic structure of natural populations. Investigating this link is of great importance because behavioral processes can alter the genetic diversity on which selection acts. Gene flow is one of the main determinants of the genetic structure of a population and dispersal is the behavior that mediates gene flow. Baboons (genus Papio) are among the most intensely studied primate species and serve as a model system to investigate the evolution of social systems using a comparative approach...
2014: International Journal of Primatology
Yuka Matsushita, Hiroki Oota, Barbara J Welker, Mary S Pavelka, Shoji Kawamura
Platyrrhine (New World) monkeys possess highly polymorphic color vision owing to allelic variation of the single-locus L/M opsin gene on the X chromosome. Most species consist of female trichromats and female and male dichromats. Howlers (genus Alouatta) are an exception; they are considered to be routinely trichromatic with L and M opsin genes juxtaposed on the X chromosome, as seen in catarrhine primates (Old World monkeys, apes, and humans). Yet it is not known whether trichromacy is invariable in howlers...
2014: International Journal of Primatology
Eckhard W Heymann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2013: International Journal of Primatology
Monika Albers, Anja Widdig
In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males...
February 2013: International Journal of Primatology
Andrea Höing, Marcel C Quinten, Yohana Maria Indrawati, Susan M Cheyne, Matthias Waltert
Estimating population densities of key species is crucial for many conservation programs. Density estimates provide baseline data and enable monitoring of population size. Several different survey methods are available, and the choice of method depends on the species and study aims. Few studies have compared the accuracy and efficiency of different survey methods for large mammals, particularly for primates. Here we compare estimates of density and abundance of Kloss' gibbons (Hylobates klossii) using two of the most common survey methods: line transect distance sampling and triangulation...
February 2013: International Journal of Primatology
Iris Dröscher, Peter M Kappeler
Whereas other species of sportive lemurs (genus Lepilemur) have been described as living in dispersed pairs, which are characterized by spatial overlap but a lack of affinity or affiliation between one adult male and female, existing reports on the social organization of the white-footed sportive lemur (Lepilemur leucopus) are conflicting, describing them as either living in dispersed one-male multifemale systems or pairs. We conducted this study in the spiny forest of Berenty Reserve, southern Madagascar, to clarify the social organization and to characterize the level of social complexity of this species...
2013: International Journal of Primatology
Tanja Haus, Christian Roos, Dietmar Zinner
Introgressive hybridization may cause substantial discordances among phylogenies based on different genetic markers. Such discordances have been found in diverse mammal species including primates. A recent study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) revealed several poly- and paraphyletic relationships in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus), suggesting contemporary and/or ancient introgressive hybridization among almost all parapatric species of the genus. However, mtDNA analyses alone do not allow us to draw conclusions concerning introgression events...
2013: International Journal of Primatology
Brandon C Wheeler, Barbara Tiddi, Urs Kalbitzer, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Michael Heistermann
Analysis of fecal glucocorticoid (GC) metabolites has recently become the standard method to monitor adrenocortical activity in primates noninvasively. However, given variation in the production, metabolism, and excretion of GCs across species and even between sexes, there are no standard methods that are universally applicable. In particular, it is important to validate assays intended to measure GC production, test extraction and storage procedures, and consider the time course of GC metabolite excretion relative to the production and circulation of the native hormones...
2013: International Journal of Primatology
Mark Bowler, Christoph Knogge, Eckhard W Heymann, Dietmar Zinner
Researchers have described multilevel societies with one-male, multifemale units (OMUs) forming within a larger group in several catarrhine species, but not in platyrhines. OMUs in multilevel societies are associated with extremely large group sizes, often with >100 individuals, and the only platyrhine genus that forms groups of this size is Cacajao. We review available evidence for multilevel organization and the formation of OMUs in groups of Cacajao, and test predictions for the frequency distribution patterns of male-male and male-female interindividual distances within groups of red-faced uakaris (Cacajao calvus ucayalii), comparing year-round data with those collected at the peak of the breeding season, when group cohesion may be more pronounced...
October 2012: International Journal of Primatology
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