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Lasers in Surgery and Medicine

Imran Rizvi, Girgis Obaid, Shazia Bano, Tayyaba Hasan, David Kessel
OBJECTIVE: A relatively low level of lysosomal photodamage has been shown capable of promoting the efficacy of photodamage simultaneously or subsequently directed to mitochondrial/ER sites. The procedure has hitherto involved the use of two photosensitizing agents that require irradiation at two different wavelengths and different formulation techniques. This, together with different pharmacokinetic profiles of the photosensitizers, adds a layer of complexity to a protocol that we have sought to circumvent...
March 11, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Mladen Korbelik
The insult delivered by photodynamic therapy (PDT) in treated cells is oxidative stress. The main burden threatening survival of PDT-treated cells is proteotoxic damage that jeopardizes proteostasis in these cells. For dealing with this type of proteostasis impairment, cells have developed protection mechanisms operating by signaling networks. This review will outline various components of signaling networks that can be engaged in stressed cells with highlighting the emerging aspects relevant to response to PDT...
March 7, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Albert W Girotti
One of the advantages of PDT is that it can often circumvent tumor resistance to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin and doxorubicin. However, pre-existing and acquired resistance to PDT has also been demonstrated. One type of resistance, which involves nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2) in tumor cells, was discovered in the author's laboratory. When subjected to a 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic challenge, several cancer lines, including breast, prostate, and glioma, underwent intrinsic apoptosis that could be substantially enhanced by iNOS enzymatic inhibitors or a NO scavenger, implying iNOS/NO-mediated resistance...
March 5, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Toril Holien, Odrun Arna Gederaas, Sagar Ramesh Darvekar, Eidi Christensen, Qian Peng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), an established modality for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and graft-versus-host disease, involves ex vivo treatment of isolated leukocytes of a patient with the photosensitizing drug 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) exposure before reinfusion back to the patient. However, 8-MOP binds to both diseased and normal cells and thus kills both types of the cells after UV-A illumination with little selectivity...
February 20, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Arisa E Ortiz, R Rox Anderson, Catherine DiGiorgio, Shang I Brian Jiang, Faiza Shafiq, Mathew M Avram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an indolent form of skin cancer that is rarely life threatening, but can cause significant cosmetic and functional morbidity. Surgical treatments often result in disfiguring scars, while topical therapies frequently result in recurrence. The need for a more effective nonsurgical alternative has led to the investigation of laser treatment of BCC. We have previously conducted a pilot study which showed 100% histologic clearance at high fluences...
February 13, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Jolien Robijns, Sandrine Censabella, Stefan Claes, Luc Pannekoeke, Lore Bussé, Dora Colson, Iris Kaminski, Paul Bulens, Annelies Maes, Leen Noé, Marc Brosens, An Timmermans, Ivo Lambrichts, Veerle Somers, Jeroen Mebis
OBJECTIVE: Acute radiodermatitis (RD) is a distressing and painful skin reaction that occurs in 95% of the patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in the prevention of acute RD in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing RT. METHODS: This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial including 120 BC patients that underwent an identical RT regimen post-lumpectomy. Patients were randomly assigned to the laser therapy (LT) or placebo group, with 60 patients in each group...
February 10, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Giovanni Ferrando
OBJECTIVE: To assess the short- and long-term thermal impact of subclinical and clinical regimens of a single, non-invasive uniform ultrasound treatment session on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, open-label, single-arm, split-side study. METHODS: Patients (n = 17) were subjected to uniform ultrasound treatment, delivered in a single session with the SlimME device. The device was set to one of four treatment regimens, which differed in their durations and energy fluences during the raise and maintenance phases...
February 7, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Hidemi Gunji, Ryo Kunimatsu, Yuji Tsuka, Yuki Yoshimi, Keisuke Sumi, Tetsuya Awada, Kengo Nakajima, Aya Kimura, Tomoka Hiraki, Naoto Hirose, Makoto Yanoshita, Kotaro Tanimoto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tooth movement during orthodontic treatment is associated with bone neoplasticity and bone resorption on the tension and pressure sides. Previous clinical studies have suggested that low-power laser irradiation can accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatment, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we used a high-frequency near-infrared diode laser that generates less heat and examined the histologic changes in periodontal tissue during experimental tooth movement with laser irradiation...
February 5, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Seiji Hosokawa, Satoru Takebayashi, Goro Takahashi, Jun Okamura, Hiroyuki Mineta
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive treatment for malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of PDT in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Thirty-three patients with HNSCC were treated with porfimer sodium-mediated PDT followed by intraoperative light activation at 630 nm via fiber optic microlens delivered after 48 hours of injection. RESULTS: The complete response (CR) rate was 72...
February 5, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Lucas Andreo, Raquel A Mesquita-Ferrari, Beatriz G Ribeiro, Adriana Benitte, Tatiane de Fátima Nogueira, Cristiane M França, Daniela de Fátima Teixeira da Silva, Sandra K Bussadori, Kristianne P S Fernandes, Fernanda I Corrêa, João C F Corrêa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of myoblast inoculation in combination with photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on skeletal muscle tissue following injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Control-animals not submitted to any procedure; Injury-cryoinjury of the tibialis anterior muscle; HBSS-animals submitted to cryoinjury and intramuscular Hank's Balanced Salt Solution; Injury + Cells-animals submitted to cryoinjury, followed by myogenic precursor cells (C2C12) transplantation; Injury + Cells + LLLT-animals submitted to cryoinjury, followed by myogenic precursor cells (C2C12) transplantation and PBMT (780 nm, 40 mW, 3...
February 5, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Yutong Chen, Zhi Yang, Fan Xia, Hong Ning, Rui Hua
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the blood flow characteristics of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to analyse photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects on choroidal remodelling in PCV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diagnostic indocyanine green angiography and OCTA were performed. All patients underwent PDT with full-dose verteporfin and were followed up with enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: At baseline, a branching vascular network (BVN) was clearly demonstrated in all patients with PCV who underwent OCTA examinations as opposed to polyps...
February 5, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Evan Austin, Amy Huang, Tony Adar, Erica Wang, Jared Jagdeo
OBJECTIVES: Our skin is constantly exposed to light from solar radiation and electronic devices, which impact skin physiology and aging. The biological altering properties of ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation on skin have been well established. There is significant scientific and public interest on the effects of electronic device generated light (EDGL) on skin. Currently, the effects of EDGL on skin are largely unknown. EDGL includes UV, visible, and infrared light from consumer electronics such as smartphones, computers, and televisions...
February 5, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Ali I Musani, Julia K Veir, Zheng Huang, Tim Lei, Steve Groshong, Deanna Worley
OBJECTIVE: In the setting of lung cancer, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is typically used to treat centrally located endobronchial tumors. The development of navigational bronchoscopy has opened the potential for using PDT to treat peripheral lung tumors. However, there is limited information about the feasibility of this approach for treating peripheral lung cancers, and about its effects on surrounding healthy lung tissue. We studied the use of PDT delivered by electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy to treat peripheral lung cancer in dogs...
February 5, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Catherine M DiGiorgio, Mathew M Avram
The laws and regulations governing laser operation in the United States are vague, complex, and vary state-to-state. The objective of this study is to present an overview of the laws and regulations of laser operation in each of the 50 states. We performed an extensive online search of the law in each of the 50 states by examining multiple state cosmetology boards, state legislative boards, state nursing boards, and state medical boards. Laser regulations are best divided into three categories: delegation, supervision, and operation...
February 5, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Nicholas J Prindeze, Yvette V L Mann, Tony G Feric, Timothy R Currie, Bonnie C Carney, Lauren T Moffatt, Murray H Loew, Jeffrey W Shupp
OBJECTIVES: Active dynamic thermography (ADT) is a non-contact imaging technique that characterizes non-homogeneities in thermal conductance through objects as a response to applied energy stimulus. The aim of this study was to (i) develop a heat transfer model to define the relationship between thermal stimulation and resolution and (ii) empirically quantify the resolution an ADT imaging system can detect through a range of depths of human skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A heat transfer model was developed to describe a thermally non-conductive object below a sheet of skin...
January 25, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Ivan Fistonić, Nikola Fistonić
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A growing body of evidence indicates that a non-invasive erbium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser may be an effective and highly tolerable treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. The primary objective was to identify pre-intervention predictors of short-term Er:YAG outcomes. The secondary objective was to identify patient segments with the best Er:YAG laser treatment short-term outcomes. METHODS: A prospective cohort study performed in 2016 at Ob/Gyn Clinic, Zagreb, Croatia, recruited 85 female patients who suffered from SUI...
January 23, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Anthony J Deegan, Faezeh Talebi-Liasi, Shaozhen Song, Yuandong Li, Jingjiang Xu, Shaojie Men, Michi M Shinohara, Mary E Flowers, Stephanie J Lee, Ruikang K Wang
BACKGROUND: In clinical dermatology, the identification of subsurface vascular and structural features known to be associated with numerous cutaneous pathologies remains challenging without the use of invasive diagnostic tools. OBJECTIVE: To present an advanced optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) method to directly visualize capillary-level vascular and structural features within skin in vivo. METHODS: An advanced OCTA system with a 1310 nm wavelength was used to image the microvascular and structural features of various skin conditions...
January 22, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Linzhuang Xing, Bin Chen, Dong Li, Wenjuan Wu, Zhaoxia Ying
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Efficient photothermal conversion of gold nanoparticles with strong light absorption suggests their wide use as selective photothermal agents in biomedical fields. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of gold nanospheres (GNPs) as exogenous visible light absorbers to improve laser treatment of port-wine stains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thiol-terminated methoxypolyethylene glycol modified GNPs (PEG-GNPs) with peak extinction matching the visible light wavelength of the laser being used were synthesized...
January 22, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Jared Jagdeo, Evan Austin, Andrew Mamalis, Christopher Wong, Derek Ho, Daniel Siegel
OBJECTIVE: In dermatology, patient and physician adoption of light-emitting diode (LED) medical technology continues to grow as research indicates that LEDs may be used to treat skin conditions. The goal of this systematic review is to critically analyze published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and provide evidence-based recommendations on the therapeutic uses of LEDs in dermatology based on published efficacy and safety data. METHODS: A systematic review of the published literature on the use of LED treatments for skin conditions was performed on September 13th 2017...
January 22, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Nourhan Shalaby, Alia Al-Ebraheem, Du Le, Sylvie Cornacchi, Qiyin Fang, Thomas Farrell, Peter Lovrics, Gabriela Gohla, Susan Reid, Nicole Hodgson, Michael Farquharson
PURPOSE: One of the major problems in breast cancer surgery is defining surgical margins and establishing complete tumor excision within a single surgical procedure. The goal of this work is to establish instrumentation that can differentiate between tumor and normal breast tissue with the potential to be implemented in vivo during a surgical procedure. METHODS: A time-resolved fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy (tr-FRS) system is used to measure fluorescence intensity and lifetime as well as collect diffuse reflectance (DR) of breast tissue, which can subsequently be used to extract optical properties (absorption and reduced scatter coefficient) of the tissue...
January 22, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
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