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Lasers in Surgery and Medicine

David M Harris, Lou Reinisch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Selective killing of pathogens by laser is possible due to the difference in absorption of photon energy by pathogens and host tissues. The optical properties of pathogenic microorganisms are used along with the known optical properties of soft tissues in calculations of the laser-induced thermal response of pathogen colonies embedded in a tissue model. The objective is to define the laser parameters that optimize pathogen destruction and depth of the bactericidal effect...
October 10, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Tae-Rin Kwon, Eun Ja Choi, Chang Taek Oh, Dong-Ho Bak, Song-I Im, Eun Jung Ko, Hyuck Ki Hong, Yeon Shik Choi, Joon Seok, Sun Young Choi, Gun Young Ahn, Beom Joon Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated the application of micro-insulated needles with radio frequency (RF) to treat acne in humans; however, the use of a micro-insulated needle RF applicator has not yet been studied in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a micro-insulated needle RF applicator in a rabbit ear acne (REA) model. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of selectively destroying the sebaceous glands using a micro-insulated needle RF applicator on the formation of comedones induced by application of 50% oleic acid and intradermal injection of P...
September 29, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Robert A Weiss, David H McDaniel, Margaret A Weiss, Anne Marie Mahoney, Karen L Beasley, Christian R Halvorson
INTRODUCTION: Picosecond lasers have been reported to be effective for removal of tattoo pigment. This prospective study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the treatment of peri-oral and -ocular wrinkles using a novel diffractive lens array coupled with a picosecond 755 nm alexandrite laser. METHODS: Forty female subjects presenting with wrinkles from photodamage were enrolled in an IRB approved study. Subjects received four picosecond diffractive lens array treatments to the full face at 1 month intervals...
September 29, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Muhsin A Al-Dhalimi, Murtadha H Al-Janabi
BACKGROUND: Lasers have been the treatment of choice for Port-wine stain (PWS). However, only one type of laser is not a panacea for all PWS malformations. This is may be due to the great heterogeneity of phenotypic presentation of this congenital anomaly as color, depth, and the site of the lesion. For the treatment of PWS, flash lamp-pumped pulsed dye laser, carbon dioxide, argon, krypton, copper bromide, frequency-doubled neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG), and also intense pulsed light sources can be used...
September 26, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Dongkyun Kang, Simon C Schlachter, Robert W Carruth, Minkyu Kim, Tao Wu, Nima Tabatabaei, Amna R Soomro, Catriona N Grant, Mireille Rosenberg, Norman S Nishioka, Guillermo J Tearney
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of esophageal diseases is often hampered by sampling errors that are inherent in endoscopic biopsy, the standard of care. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal endomicroscopy technology that has the potential to visualize cellular features from large regions of the esophagus, greatly decreasing the likelihood of sampling error. In this paper, we report results from a pilot clinical study imaging the human esophagus in vivo with a prototype SECM endoscopic probe...
September 16, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Sneha S Kelkar, Eleanor McCabe-Lankford, Richard Albright, Phil Harrington, Nicole H Levi-Polyachenko
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Photothermal therapy (PTT) has several applications in the areas of wound healing, pain management, bacterial infection control, and cancer treatment dependent on the temperature that is generated. PTT is often used exclusively with near infrared (NIR) light and most nanoparticles (NP) used for PTT are designed to absorb within one narrow range of wavelengths. We have developed a dual-wavelength photothermal therapy by capitalizing on the dual absorption of nanoparticles in the blue and NIR range...
September 16, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Kei Negishi, Shiho Tanaka, Saori Tobita
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hyperpigmentation is a common concern in Asian patients. Few published studies address overall skin rejuvenation in this group using long-pulse (LP) laser to target pigmentation and stimulate dermal remodeling. The LP KTP 532-nm laser (LP 532-nm) is used primarily to remove epidermal lesions, while the LP Nd: YAG 1064-nm laser (LP 1064-nm) is used to stimulate dermal remodeling in Asian patients with varying efficacy. The LP 532-nm used alone and in combination with LP 1064-nm to reduce pigmentation and rejuvenate skin was previously evaluated in lighter skin, but not in Asian skin...
September 8, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Erik Tanis, Danny J Evers, Jarich W Spliethoff, Vishnu V Pully, Koert Kuhlmann, Frits van Coevorden, Benno H W Hendriks, Joyce Sanders, Warner Prevoo, Theo J M Ruers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Over the last decade, an increasing effort has been put towards the implementation of optical guidance techniques to aid surgeons during cancer surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) are two of these new techniques. The objective of this study is to investigate whether in vivo optical spectroscopy is able to accurately discriminate colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) from normal liver tissue in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DRS and FS were incorporated at the tip of a needle and were used for in vivo tissue differentiation during resection of CRLM...
September 8, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Douglas C Wu, Jwala Karnik, Tara Margarella, Vivien L Nguyen, Antoanella Calame, Mitchel P Goldman
BACKGROUND: Bellafill® is a soft tissue dermal filler composed of non-resorbable polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microspheres, suspended in a water-based carrier gel composed of 3.5% bovine collagen. It has been approved by the FDA for the correction of nasolabial folds and atrophic facial acne scars. Energy-based therapies are used for facial rejuvenation and treatment of acne scarring. However, little has been published about the effects of energy devices on previously placed PMMA. This prospective, in vivo clinical study evaluated the safety and histopathological effects of a number of different laser, light, and ultrasound treatment modalities on PMMA-collagen filler previously injected into human tissue...
September 8, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Heidi Wat, Douglas C Wu, Henry Hin Lee Chan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fractionated photothermolysis (FP) has revolutionized modern laser technology. By creating selective columns of microthermal damage, fractionated devices allows for greater treatment depths to be achieved without the prolonged downtime and risk of complications seen in traditional fully ablative laser resurfacing. Fractional resurfacing is a proven method to treat a variety of cutaneous conditions. In the Caucasian patient, a wide range of devices and treatment settings can be utilized safely and effectively...
September 8, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Jon A Wolfshohl, Elizabeth R C Geddes, Ashlyn B Stout, Paul M Friedman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP) is a cosmetically distressing, acquired pigmentary disorder of unknown etiology for which few successful therapies exist. Herein, we present the successful use of non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with topical tacrolimus ointment. STUDY DESIGN/PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 35-year-old female with biopsy-confirmed EDP underwent a series of fractionated non-ablative treatment sessions utilizing the 1,550 nm erbium-doped fiber laser in combination with topical tacrolimus ointment over a period of 5 months...
August 23, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Heun Joo Lee, Mi-Hye Lee, Su Gun Lee, Un-Cheol Yeo, Sung Eun Chang
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive devices for fat reduction involving high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are attracting attention. HIFU can deliver energy to the desired depth and can ablate subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), but purpura and pain may still limit its use. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel HIFU device for fat destruction with a contact cooling system compared to HIFU without contact cooling. METHODS: A group of three pigs were administered a series of four HIFU treatments with or without contact cooling over a period of 12 weeks...
August 23, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Alan M Robinson, Stuart R Stock, Carmen Soriano, Xianghui Xiao, Claus-Peter Richter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if X-ray micro-computed tomography could be used to locate and characterize tissue damage caused by laser irradiation and to describe its advantages over classical histology for this application. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A surgical CO2 laser, operated in single pulse mode (100 milliseconds) at different power settings, was used to ablate different types of cadaveric animal tissues. Tissue samples were then harvested and imaged with synchrotron X-ray phase-contrast and micro-computed tomography to generate stacks of virtual sections of the tissues...
August 23, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Weston A Welge, Jennifer K Barton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second deadliest cancer in the United States. Several screening methods exist; however, detection of small polyps remains a challenge. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated to be capable of detecting lesions as small as 1 mm in the mouse colon, but detection is based on measuring a doubling of the mucosa thickness. The colon microvasculature may be an attractive biomarker of early tumor development because tumor vessels are characterized by irregular structure and dysfunction...
August 22, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Yulia M Soshnikova, Mariya M Keselman, Olga I Baum, Elvira V Shults, Mariya V Obrezkova, Valery V Lunin, Emil N Sobol
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Laser reshaping of cartilage is a prospective technique which can be applied for manufacturing the natural implants for otolaryngology and reconstructive surgery. Optical properties and optimal laser settings for laser reshaping of costal cartilage depend on its thickness, water content, and structural anisotropy of the tissue, in particular, the distinct orientation of collagen packing. The aim of the work is to study the effect of different collagen orientation, thickness, and drying of costal cartilage on its interaction with laser radiation...
August 22, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Adrian Gaspar, Hugo Brandi, Valentin Gomez, Daniel Luque
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this prospective comparative cohort study was to establish the effectiveness and safety of Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser treatment for genitourinary syndrome of menopause and to compare it with an established topical estriol treatment. METHODS: Fifty patients with genitourinary syndrome of menopause were divided into two groups. The estriol group received a treatment of 0.5 mg estriol ovules for 8 weeks and the laser group was first treated for 2 weeks with 0...
August 22, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Kanwarpal Singh, Daisuke Yamada, Guillermo Tearney
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) catheters for intraluminal imaging are subject to various artifacts due to reference-sample arm dispersion imbalances and sample arm beam astigmatism. The goal of this work was to develop a probe that minimizes such artifacts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our probe was fabricated using a single mode fiber at the tip of which a glass spacer and graded index objective lens were spliced to achieve the desired focal distance...
August 4, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Bo Fan, Victor A Neel, Anna N Yaroslavsky
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer worldwide. The most effective form of treating this cancer is its surgical removal. As NMSC rarely metastasize, its complete excision is often curative. We investigated the potential of combining Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) with polarization enhanced reflectance optical imaging for the accurate intraoperative delineation of NMSC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh thick samples with residual cancer were obtained from surgeries...
August 4, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Daniel Thaysen-Petersen, Andres M Erlendsson, J F Nash, Frank Beerwerth, Peter A Philipsen, Hans C Wulf, Uwe Paasch, Merete Haedersdal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a mainstream treatment for hair removal. Side effects after IPL are known, but risk factors remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of skin pigmentation, fluence level, and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on IPL-induced side effects. METHODS: The study was a blinded, randomized intra-individual controlled trial including 16 healthy subjects with Fitzpatrick Skin Types (FST) II-V...
July 30, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Ji Chen, Yong Zhao, Sijun Wang, Xunbo Jin, Peng Sun, Longyang Zhang, Muwen Wang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of LBO laser en bloc resection compared with transurethral electroresection (TURBT) for the treatment of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors. METHODS: From September 2010 to February 2012, a prospective, nonrandomized two-center trial was performed. A total of 158 patients (83 underwent laser resection and 75 TURBT) were included in the present study. The preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative clinical characteristics were recorded and compared in the two groups...
July 25, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
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