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Lasers in Surgery and Medicine

Paolo Cassano, Christina Dording, Garrett Thomas, Simmie Foster, Albert Yeung, Mai Uchida, Michael R Hamblin, Eric Bui, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Dan V Iosifescu
OBJECTIVES: Transcranial photobiomodulation (t-PBM) consists of the delivery of near-infrared (NIR) or red light to the scalp designed to penetrate to subjacent cortical areas of the brain. NIR t-PBM has recently emerged as a potential therapy for brain disorders. This study assessed the efficacy of repeated sessions of NIR t-PBM on sexual dysfunction. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a double-blind clinical trial on t-PBM for major depressive disorder (MDD)...
September 17, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Hui Liu, Liam Daly, Grant Rudd, Amjad P Khan, Srivalleesha Mallidi, Yiran Liu, Filip Cuckov, Tayyaba Hasan, Jonathan P Celli
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photosensitization has shown promise in clinical studies for the treatment of early-stage oral malignancies with fewer potential side effects than traditional therapies. Light delivery to oral lesions can also carried out with limited medical infrastructure suggesting the potential for implementation of PDT in global health settings. OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop a cost-effective, battery-powered, fiber-coupled PDT system suitable for intraoral light delivery enabled by smartphone interface and embedded electronics for ease of operation...
August 31, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Irene Castellano-Pellicena, Natallia E Uzunbajakava, Charles Mignon, Bianca Raafs, Vladimir A Botchkarev, M Julie Thornton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Visible light has beneficial effects on cutaneous wound healing, but the role of potential photoreceptors in human skin is unknown. In addition, inconsistency in the parameters of blue and red light-based therapies for skin conditions makes interpretation difficult. Red light can activate cytochrome c oxidase and has been proposed as a wound healing therapy. UV-blue light can activate Opsin 1-SW, Opsin 2, Opsin 3, Opsin 4, and Opsin 5 receptors, triggering biological responses, but their role in human skin physiology is unclear...
August 31, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Heidi Wat, Samantha Yee-Nam Shek, Chi Keung Yeung, Henry Hin-Lee Chan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The picosecond alexandrite laser with diffractive lens array (DLA) offers the dual advantages of a picosecond pulse duration and the fractionated delivery of laser energy. This study explores the efficacy and safety of the DLA for treatment of multiple aesthetic concerns associated with photoaging of the face including skin texture irregularities, dyspigmentation, enlarged pore size, rhytides, and skin laxity. METHODS: This prospective, evaluator-blinded trial enrolled Fitzpatrick skin type III-IV patients with mild to moderate signs of facial photoaging...
August 28, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Uffe H Olesen, Gael Clergeaud, Catharina M Lerche, Thomas L Andresen, Merete Haedersdal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hedgehog inhibitors such as vismodegib are targeted drugs widely used for the treatment of basal cell carcinomas; however, their use is significantly limited by frequent systemic side effects due to oral administration route. We aim to use ablative fractional laser (AFL) to enable the topical delivery of vismodegib to relevant dermal depths. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pig skin was treated in vitro with a fractional 10,600 nm CO2 laser at 0 or 80 mJ/microbeam and exposed to vismodegib (6...
August 28, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
William Yao, Edward C Kuan, Young Hun Chung, Nathan C Francis, Maie A St John, Zachary D Taylor, Warren S Grundfest
Background and Objectives Laser generated shockwave (LGS) is a novel modality for minimally invasive disruption of bacterial biofilms. The objectives of this study are to determine the mechanisms behind LGS treatment and non-biofilm effects on bacterial disruption, including (1) comparing bacterial load with and without LGS in its planktonic form and (2) estimating bacterial cell permeability following LGS. Study Design/Materials and Methods For the first study, planktonic S. epidermidis were treated with gentamicin (0, 8, 16, 32, 64 μg/ml) with and without LGS (1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, 110...
August 28, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Yuxin Feng, Yuhui Zhang, Hongzuo Guo, Zheng Lin, Hongqiang Chen, Yan Wu, Xing-Hua Gao, Hong-Duo Chen
BACKGROUND: Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp (DCS) is difficult to be treated and 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is considered to be a potential treatment for inflammatory skin diseases. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy and safety of ALA-PDT on DCS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment areas of DCS patients were incubated with freshly prepared 10% ALA for 3 hours. The 633 ± 10 nm light with the intensity of 80-100 mw/cm2 was used as the irradiation source of ALA-PDT, and the irradiation time was 20-30 minutes...
August 23, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Chhavi Goenka, William Lewis, Lee Roger Chevres-Fernández, Antonio Ortega-Martínez, Esmeralda Ibarra-Silva, Maura Williams, Walfre Franco
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dermatophytes are fungi that cause infections in hair, skin, and nails. Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) microscopy is the most frequently used method for identifying dermatophytes. KOH helps in the visualization of the hyphae as it clears the debris present in the specimen but needs a trained eye for final diagnosis of the infection. Fluorescence microscopy using staining agents, such as calcofluor white (CFW) or blankophor, is a better method for identification of dermatophytes but is not used in clinics due to the cost and complexity of fluorescence microscopes...
August 16, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Tugce Borekci, Suleyman Emre Meseli, Ulku Noyan, Bahar Eren Kuru, Leyla Kuru
OBJECTIVES: Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) is a distinct type of periodontal disease characterized by rapid loss of attachment and alveolar bone occurring in young individuals. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was introduced in periodontology as an adjunctive approach to non-surgical periodontal treatment (NPT) in periodontitis patients. In this trial, the aim was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of adjunctive PDT to NPT in patients with GAgP. METHODS: In this prospective controlled clinical study, 24 systemically healthy, non-smoking subjects with GAgP were enrolled...
August 10, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
J Matthew Knight, Gerd Kautz
BACKGROUND: While skin aging is triggered by multiple factors and typically presents with multiple manifestations, conventional treatment regimens deploy a single treatment modality. Typical approaches exploit ablative techniques, which involve considerable patient discomfort and downtime and can induce adverse events. Non-ablative fractionated laser (NAFL) resurfacing promotes neocollagenesis, with significantly fewer complications and discomfort. At the same time, intense pulsed light (IPL) therapies have a marked impact on skin tone, with an effect on collagen deposition...
August 8, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Christine S K Fuchs, Amanda J B Andersen, Marco Ardigo, Peter A Philipsen, Merete Haedersdal, Mette Mogensen
INTRODUCTION: Acne is an inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit, which can be investigated in vivo using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). OBJECTIVES: By means of RCM and OCT to identify morphological characteristics of acne that may be associated with clinical acne severity. METHODS: Patients with mild to moderate facial acne (n = 14, Investigators Global Assessment scale, IGA 1-3), and healthy participants (n = 7, IGA 0) were included in this explorative study...
August 2, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Yan Li, Neha T Sudol, Yusi Miao, Joseph C Jing, Jiang Zhu, Felicia Lane, Zhongping Chen
OBJECTIVES: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can noninvasively visualize in vivo tissue microstructure with high spatial resolution that approaches the histologic level. Currently, OCT studies in gynecology are few and limited to a conventional 1.3 μm center wavelength swept light source which provides high spatial resolution but limited penetration depth. Here, we present a novel endoscopic OCT system with improved penetration depth and high resolution. METHODS: A novel endoscopic OCT system was developed based on a 1...
July 30, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Julia S Kimbell, Saikat Basu, Guilherme J M Garcia, Dennis O Frank-Ito, Frances Lazarow, Erica Su, Dimitry Protsenko, Zhongping Chen, John S Rhee, Brian J Wong
OBJECTIVES: Adenotonsillectomy (AT) is commonly used to treat upper airway obstruction in children, but selection of patients who will benefit most from AT is challenging. The need for diagnostic evaluation tools without sedation, radiation, or high costs has motivated the development of long-range optical coherence tomography (LR-OCT), providing real-time cross-sectional airway imaging during endoscopy. Since the endoscope channel location is not tracked in conventional LR-OCT, airway curvature must be estimated and may affect predicted airway resistance...
July 26, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Alla B Bucharskaya, Galina N Maslyakova, Marina L Chekhonatskaya, Georgy S Terentyuk, Nikita A Navolokin, Boris N Khlebtsov, Nikolai G Khlebtsov, Alexey N Bashkatov, Elina A Genina, Valery V Tuchin
BACKGROUND: The analysis of recent studies on plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPT) after intravenous administration of gold nanorods (GNRs) has demonstrated that the effectiveness of nanoparticle-assisted laser hyperthermia depends on a correct dosage strategy of nanoparticle administration. Accumulation of GNRs in tumor tissue dramatically increases the local heating of the tumor without damage to healthy tissues. However, the optimal doses of GNR intravenous injections (IVIs) for effective accumulation in tumors, and optimal protocols of PPT are not designed yet...
July 19, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Cheng Wang, Shangdong Lv, Aidong Wang, Fabiao Zhang, Binfeng Wang, Yongfu Xu, Yu Zhu, Zheping Fang
OBJECTIVES: Multiple intrahepatic calculi, especially calculi in both sides of the liver, cannot be completely resolved by traditional surgery. In addition, morbidity after liver resection remains high. ERAS programs have been suggested that could relieve surgical stress and accelerate postoperative recovery. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of choledocholithotomy combined with holmium laser lithotripsy in the treatment of multiple intrahepatic calculi within ERAS programs...
July 19, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Kenneth H Chan, Daniel Fried
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of image-guided laser ablation of demineralization from tooth occlusal surfaces using coaxial near-infrared (NIR) and CO2 lasers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3-μm was combined with a thulium-doped fiber laser operating at 1880-nm for the selective removal of simulated occlusal caries lesions from 10 tooth samples. Serial NIR reflectance images at 1880-nm were used to guide the CO2 laser for image-guided laser ablation...
July 19, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Weston A Ross, Westin M Hill, Kimberly B Hoang, Avra S Laarakker, Brian P Mann, Patrick J Codd
OBJECTIVE: Current surgical instruments for soft tissue resection including neurosurgical procedures rely on the accuracy and precision of the human operator and are fundamentally constrained by the human hand. Automated surgical action with the integration of intraoperative data sources can enable highly accurate and fast tissue manipulation using laser ablation. This study presents the first experiments with a prototype designed for automated tumor resection via laser ablation. We demonstrate targeted soft tissue resection in porcine brain with an integrated device that combines 3D scanning capabilities with a steerable surgical laser and discuss implications for future automated robotic neurosurgical procedures...
July 9, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Philipp Soergel, Johanna Kirschke, Rüdiger Klapdor, Thorsten Derlin, Peter Hillemanns, Hermann Hertel
OBJECTIVE: Sentinel diagnostic in cervical cancer is performed using Technetium-99m-nanocolloid as a radioactive marker with or without patent blue. In the last years, indocyanine green has been evaluated for sentinel diagnostic in different tumor entities. Indocyanine green is a fluorescent molecule which emits a light signal in the near infrared band after excitation. Our study aims to evaluate indocyanine green compared to the gold standard Tc-99m-nanocolloid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included patients with early cervical cancer up to FIGO stage IIA with clinically node-negative pelvic sites and the indication for nodal staging in this prospective trial...
July 3, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Colin S Tan, Louis W Lim, Dominic S Ting
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Eleanor E McCabe-Lankford, Theodore L Brown, Nicole H Levi-Polyachenko
OBJECTIVE: Photothermal therapy (PTT) uses light absorbing materials to generate heat for treatment of diseases, like cancer. The advantages of using PTT components that absorb in the near-infrared (NIR) include reduced tissue auto-fluorescence and higher penetration depths. However, NIR laser light can still be scattered and absorbed by biological tissues, thus decreasing the amount of the energy reaching the PTT agents. We have developed two distinct formulations of NIR-absorbing nanoparticles, one which can be utilized for PTT only, and another for both PTT and fluorescence imaging of colorectal cancer...
June 28, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
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