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Journal of Hospital Infection

Katie Prescott, Nikunj Mahida, Tim Boswell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Philip Zachariah, Daniel E Freedberg
The optimal duration of contact precautions for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) colonized patients is uncertain and individual patient characteristics alone may not predict risk of prolonged colonization. Using a cohort of adult patients who underwent testing for VRE at intensive care unit (ICU) admission we tested the association between local (unit-level) vancomycin use and persistent colonization with VRE. Higher unit-level vancomycin use significantly prolonged VRE colonization (p=0.03) independent of patient-level vancomycin use and unit VRE density...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Daiga Jermacane, Caroline M Coope, Dean Ironmonger, Paul Cleary, Berit Muller-Pebody, Russell Hope, Susan Hopkins, Richard Puleston, Rachel Freeman, Katie L Hopkins, Alan P Johnson, Neil Woodford, Isabel Oliver
BACKGROUND: An electronic reporting system (ERS) for the enhanced surveillance of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria (CPGNB) was launched by Public Health England in May 2015. AIM: This evaluation aimed to assess uptake, timeliness and completeness of data provided and explore potential barriers and facilitators to adopting the system. METHODS: The evaluation comprised a retrospective analysis of surveillance data and semi-structured interviews with ERS users...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
B Cherian, E Price
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
E de Jonge, M G J de Boer, E H R van Essen, H C M Dogterom-Ballering, K E Veldkamp
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sink drains in intensive care units are frequently colonized with bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We studied the influence of installing disinfecting devices on sink drains on colonization of sinks and patients in an ICU during a prolonged outbreak of multiresistant P. aeruginosa. METHODS: From 2010, there was a clonal outbreak of a multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa, (MDR-PA). In April 2013, in ICU subunit A, the siphons draining these sinks were replaced by devices applying heat and electromechanical vibration to disinfect the draining fluid...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
McDermott Jennifer, Parisi Saverio Giuseppe, Martini Isabella, Boldrin Caterina, Franchin Elisa, Dal Bello Federico, Castiglione Gianelli Andrea, Boeri Enzo, Sampaolo Michela, Basso Monica, Menegazzi Paola, Tagliaferro Luigi, Palù Giorgio, E Varnier Oliviero
BACKGROUND: Medico-legal conflicts arise when it is difficult to prove the cause of nosocomial infections. AIM: To report an outbreak of patient-to-patient transmission of HCV through the repeated use of a multi-dose saline flask during the rinsing of central venous catheters. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from each patient for the comparative analysis of their HCV RNA strains. No samples were available for one patient, who died before the investigation started, and in spite of the known lability of HCV RNA, the body was exhumed 4 months after burial and post-mortem samples were collected...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
A Noël, C Vastrade, S Dupont, M de Barsy, T D Huang, T Van Maerken, I Leroux-Roels, B Delaere, L Melly, B Rondelet, C Dransart, A S Dincq, I Michaux, P Bogaerts, Y Glupczynski
BACKGROUND: Enterobacteriaceae are recognized as leading pathogens of healthcare-associated infections. This is a report describing an investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing Enterobacter cloacae affecting cardio-thoracic surgery patients in a Belgian academic hospital. METHODS: Cases were defined based on epidemiological and microbiological investigations, including molecular typing using repetitive element-based polymerase chain reaction and multilocus sequence typing...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Junji Seto, Yoshiko Otani, Takayuki Wada, Yu Suzuki, Tatsuya Ikeda, Kyoko Araki, Katsumi Mizuta, Tadayuki Ahiko
We report a case of nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by brief casual contact. Through routine variable-number tandem-repeat typing in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, we found that M. tuberculosis clinical isolates from two patients showed indistinguishable genotypes. The patients had an epidemiological relationship of sharing a waiting room in a hospital on the same day. Since comparative genomics detected only two single-nucleotide variants between the isolates, we concluded that recent tuberculosis transmission occurred in the waiting room...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Alida Fe Talento, Margaret Fitzgerald, Brendan Redington, Niamh O'Sullivan, Lynda Fenelon, Thomas R Rogers
The association between healthcare associated invasive aspergillosis and hospital construction/building works is well recognized. This infection can cause significant morbidity and mortality and imposes a substantial burden on the healthcare system. The population of patients at-risk for this opportunistic infection has expanded and multi-triazole drug resistance has emerged globally. Therefore there is a need for a multi-faceted approach to prevent acquisition of invasive aspergillosis in acute care settings...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Martin Biggs, Tariq Iqbal, Elisabeth Holden, Victoria Clewer, Mark I Garvey
Fidaxomicin is a macrocyclic antibiotic licensed for treating Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). In the UK, fidaxomicin is often reserved for severe CDI or recurrences. At Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, all courses of fidaxomicin during 2017/18 were reviewed. Thirty-eight patients received fidaxomicin, of which 64% patients responded to treatment when fidaxomicin was given during the first episode of a mild CDI. Conversely, all patients with recurrent CDI (rCDI) failed treatment with fidaxomicin. There were mixed results with using fidaxomicin for severe CDI, with only 42% of patients responding...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Amy T Hummel, Karen Vleck, William B Greenough
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Breda L Lynch, Kirsten Schaffer
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative organisms (MDRGNO) are an emerging global threat, reflected in the increasing incidence of infections in Ireland and elsewhere. The response to this threat has been the development of Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) guidelines. AIM: A survey of IPC teams was undertaken to assess compliance with national guidelines. To place these survey results in context, IPC guidelines from the Irish Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC) are compared with guidelines from Healthcare Infection Society (HIS), European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and Centre for Disease Control (CDC)...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
L Arnoldo, C Smaniotto, D Celotto, L Brunelli, R Cocconi, D Tignonsini, A Faruzzo, S Brusaferro
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) surveillance is an essential part of any infection prevention and control programme. Repeated point prevalence surveys (PPS) according to ECDC protocol have been implemented in all Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) region (Italy) acute hospitals to reduce and control HAIs. AIM: Using the repeated PPS within a regional healthcare system (RHS) to promote and evaluate infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes. METHODS: The standard versions of the ECDC PPS protocols were used in all four surveys (2011, 2013, 2015, 2017)...
December 28, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Stephanie J Dancer, Axel Kramer
BACKGROUND: Now that cleaning and decontamination are recognised as integral to infection control, it is timely to examine the process in more detail. This is because cleaning practices vary widely within healthcare districts and it is likely that both time and energy are needlessly wasted with ill-defined duties. Furthermore, inadequate cleaning will not reduce the infection risk but may even enhance it. The process would benefit from a systematic appraisal, with each component placed within an evidence-based and ordered protocol...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Jeffrey D Smith, Kimberly M Corace, Tara K MacDonald, Leandre R Fabrigar, Arezou Saedi, Andrea Chaplin, Sam MacFarlane, Debbie Valickis, Gary E Garber
BACKGROUND: Healthcare Worker (HCW) hand hygiene compliance is key to patient safety; however, compliance is suboptimal. Despite this hand hygiene compliance is not well studied in the long-term care setting. AIM: To address the gap in long-term care literature, we applied a behaviour change framework, the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), to identify modifiable facilitators and barriers for HCW hand hygiene compliance in long-term care settings. METHODS: We examined HCW hand hygiene compliance facilitators and barriers using a questionnaire in HCWs from long-term care homes in Ontario, Canada...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Louise Teare, Niall Martin, Wael Elamin, Kerry Pilgrim, Teresa Tredoux, John Swanson, Peter Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Five cases of multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii OXA-23, OXA-51 (MRA) occurred on our Burns Intensive Care Unit. Three were repatriated from other parts of the world (Dubai and Mumbai) and colonised on admission. In spite of optimal precautions, two patients acquired MRA. Both had been nursed in the same room. METHODS: Multi-disciplinary outbreak investigation of MRA on a regional burn intensive care unit. FINDINGS: The mechanism of transfer for our first case is thought to have been contaminated air from theatre activity releasing MRA bacteria into the communal corridor...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Natasha Rafter, Ronan Finn, Karen Burn, Sarah Condell, Ronan Conroy, Anne Hickey, Paul O'Connor, David Vaughan, Gillian Walsh, David Williams
BACKGROUND: Point prevalence surveys (PPSs) collect data on hospital acquired infections (HAIs) at one point in time but do not provide information on incidence over the entire admission or impact on patients or healthcare resources. Retrospective record review examines the entire admission to determine adverse event prevalence, incidence, preventability, physical impairment and additional length of stay. AIM: To establish whether European HAI surveillance definitions can be applied to the Irish National Adverse Events Study (INAES) retrospective record review data to determine HAI burden...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
F Fitzpatrick, M Skally, C O'Hanlon, M Foley, J Houlihan, L Gaughan, O Smith, B Moore, S Cunneen, E Sweeney, B Dinesh, K O'Connell, E Smyth, H Humphreys, K Burns
BACKGROUND: Infection and malnutrition are interconnected. UK and Irish guidelines recommend the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) for nutritional risk screening. Patients with a MUST score of ≥2 are considered at high risk of malnutrition and referral for nutritional assessment is recommended. AIM: To explore the association between healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and the MUST score categories of patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in May 2017 on ten representative wards in our institution...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
C L F Battersby, N J Battersby, D A J Slade, M Soop, C J Walsh
Association of mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics and anastomotic leak following left sided; colorectal resection: an international, multi-centre, prospective audit. BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that combined mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation reduces the infectious complications of colorectal surgery. Anecdotal evidence suggests the combination is rarely used in the UK & Europe. AIM: To establish colorectal surgeons' current use, and awareness of the benefits of such bowel preparation amongst, and to identify decision-making influences surrounding preoperative bowel preparation...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
D Smolders, B Hendriks, P Rogiers, M Mul, B Gordts
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are emerging pathogens in the last decade. In Belgium, the OXA-48 carbapenemase resistance gene is most frequently identified. Sink drains in ICU's are known to be colonized by Gram-negative bacilli. A correlation between environmental contamination and CPE infections at ICUs has been established. A long-term CPE epidemic in one of our ICU wards proved difficult to control. METHODS AND RESULTS: A variety of CPE strains, all of them carrying the OXA-48 resistance gene, were isolated from almost all sinks in patient rooms in the ICU...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
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