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Journal of Hospital Infection

P Kokhanenko, G Papotti, J E Cater, A C Lynch, J A van der Linden, C J T Spence
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections remain a significant burden on healthcare systems and may benefit from new countermeasures. AIM: To assess the merits of open surgical wound CO2 insufflation via a gas diffuser to reduce airborne contamination, and to determine the distribution of CO2 in and over a wound. METHODS: An experimental approach with engineers and clinical researchers was employed to measure the gas flow pattern and motion of airborne particles in a model of an open surgical wound in a simulated theatre setting...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
C E Adams, J Smith, V Watson, C Robertson, S J Dancer
BACKGROUND: Critical care patients are at increased risk of infection. Near-patient surfaces act as reservoirs of microbial soil, which may contain pathogens. AIM: To correlate soil levels with hand-touch frequency of near-patient sites in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Five sites around each bed in a 10-bed ICU were screened for total microbial soil (cfu/cm(2)) and Staphylococcus aureus every month for 10 months. Selected sites were infusion pump and cardiac monitor, left and right bedrails, and bed table...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
G Kampf, A Kramer, M Suchomel
The World Health Organization recommends the use of hand rubs with 'sustained activity' for surgical hand preparation. This review aims to verify whether any of the alcohol-based hand rubs containing non-volatile 'active ingredients' such as chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG), mecetronium ethylsulphate (MES), or ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) provides such sustained efficacy for surgical hand disinfection. Literature was searched to find studies according to EN 12791. Published data sets were analysed to verify whether any of the formulations has a superior efficacy (P<0...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
A Haque, S A Ahmed, Z Rafique, Q Abbas, H Jurair, S A Ali
This study assessed the effect of implementation of active infection control and surveillance on the occurrence of device-associated infections (DAIs) in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) from 2012 to 2015. There were 1378 patients, equating to 4632 patient-days, on the PICU, and 29 DAI episodes, giving an incidence rate of 2.1% and an incidence density rate of 6.26 per 1000 patient-days. The rates of central-line-associated bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia and catheter-related urinary tract infections were 7/1000 central-line-days, 1...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
R Pierce, J Lessler, V O Popoola, A M Milstone
BACKGROUND: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of healthcare-associated infection in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Decolonization may eliminate bacterial reservoirs that drive MRSA transmission. AIM: To measure the association between colonization pressure from decolonized and non-decolonized neonates and MRSA acquisition to inform use of this strategy for control of endemic MRSA. METHODS: An eight-year retrospective cohort study was conducted in a level-4 NICU that used active surveillance cultures and decolonization for MRSA control...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
G A Katsevman, J A Braca, C L Sedney, L Hatchett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
W Wetzker, K Bunte-Schönberger, J Walter, C Schröder, P Gastmeier, C Reichardt
BACKGROUND: Germany has established a nationwide surveillance system of alcohol-based hand-rub consumption (AHC) per patient-day in hospital settings as a surrogate parameter for hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Analysis of AHC data in intensive care units (ICUs) shows not only a wide range of consumption between units of different specialties, but also within units of one specialty. This seems to reflect variation in the number of HH opportunities per patient-day between ICUs due to variation in complexity of care...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
M N Quraishi, J Segal, B Mullish, V L McCune, P Hawkey, A Colville, H Williams, A Hart, T H Iqbal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
A Joseph, G White, V Weston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
K Hughes, K A Lalikian, J Schwartz, R B Turner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
L Boix-Palop, C Nicolás, M Xercavins, M Riera, N Prim, N Freixas, J Pérez, E Calbo
We describe the investigation and management of a pseudo-outbreak of Bacillus spp. bacteraemia associated with construction work in an emergency department (ED). During the pseudo-outbreak period 59 out of 3469 (1.7%) blood cultures yielded Bacillus spp. versus 24 out of 7628 (0.31%) in 2012. Material, surfaces, and air samples showed environmental contamination. Cases rapidly declined following the implementation of infection control measures and the end of construction. Construction works at the ED caused environmental contamination that most probably led to the pseudo-outbreak of Bacillus bacteraemia...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
S Chusri, V Chongsuvivatwong, J I Rivera, K Silpapojakul, K Singkhamanan, E McNeil, Y Doi
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is a major hospital-acquired pathogen in Thailand that has a negative effect on patient survival. The nature of its transmission is poorly understood. AIM: To investigate the genotypic and spatiotemporal pattern of A. baumannii infection at a hospital in Thailand. METHODS: The medical records of patients infected with A. baumannii at an 800-bed tertiary care hospital in southern Thailand between January 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
A Stiller, C Schröder, A Gropmann, F Schwab, M Behnke, C Geffers, W Sunder, J Holzhausen, P Gastmeier
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the effects of hospital and ward design on multi-faceted infection control. Definitive evidence is rare and the state of knowledge about current ward design is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To collect data on the current status of ward design for intensive care units (ICUs) and to analyse associations between particular design factors and nosocomial infection rates. METHODS: In 2015, operational infrastructure data were collected via an online questionnaire from ICUs participating voluntarily in the German nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
M Rizwan, A Ikram, G Zaman, L Satti, P Ahmed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
O O'Connor, R P D Cooke, N A Cunliffe, B Pizer
Diarrhoea is a frequently occurring symptom in paediatric oncology patients. The role of routine testing for enteric bacteria in hospitalized patients with diarrhoea is considered limited, but the diagnostic value of testing in children with oncological conditions has not been reported. Therefore, we conducted a five-year retrospective service evaluation in our tertiary paediatric oncology unit together with a national survey of 21 centres to estimate the utility of stool cultures in oncology patients with diarrhoea and the national approach to testing...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
C E French, C Coope, L Conway, J P T Higgins, J McCulloch, G Okoli, B C Patel, I Oliver
BACKGROUND: In recent years, infections with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have been increasing globally and present a major public health challenge. AIM: To review the international literature: (i) to describe CPE outbreaks in acute hospital settings globally; and (ii) to identify the control measures used during these outbreaks and report on their effectiveness. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, abstract lists for key conferences and reference lists of key reviews was undertaken, and information on unpublished outbreaks was sought for 2000-2015...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
A J Forster, N Daneman, C van Walraven
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the association between antibiotic exposure and risk of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated infection (CDI) have not fully accounted for patient severity of illness, and competing risks. AIM: To determine the potential effects of interventions on hospital-acquired CDI risk. METHODS: All adults admitted to a teaching hospital between 2004 and 2014 for more than two days were included. Exposures to all antibiotics and cases of CDI were determined...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
A Kirby, C Berry, R West
Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly antibiotic resistant, and skin colonization may contribute to their spread in hospitals. This study screened 100 hospitalized adults for Enterobacteriaceae skin colonization, and assessed potential risk factors, including antibiotic consumption. Multi-variable analysis found that antibiotic consumption whilst an inpatient [odds ratio (OR) 3.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-8.4] and male sex (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.06-8.4) were risk factors for Enterobacteriaceae skin colonization...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
B Rump, M De Boer, R Reis, M Wassenberg, J Van Steenbergen
BACKGROUND: Many countries have implemented guidelines to prevent transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Important contextual factors of stigma can be identified in the context of MRSA. Over the past decade, concerns have been raised over a possible stigmatizing effect of these actions. AIM: To identify and quantify the occurrence of MRSA-associated stigma, and to explore its association with mental health in a country with an MRSA 'search and destroy' policy...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
M Muzslay, G Moore, N Alhussaini, A P R Wilson
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the healthcare setting and in the community despite established infection control guidelines indicates that these microorganisms may possess survival strategies that allow them to persist in the environment. AIMS: To determine the extent and variation in endemic ESBL-carrying species in different ward environments, and to investigate the potential for cephalosporin resistance to be transferred from environmental isolates to human pathogens...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
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