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Journal of Hospital Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919336/staphylococcus-aureus-dry-surface-biofilms-are-more-resistant-to-heat-treatment-than-traditional-hydrated-biofilms
#1
A Almatroudi, S Tahir, H Hu, D Chowdhury, I B Gosbell, S O Jensen, G S Whiteley, A K Deva, T Glasbey, K Vickery
BACKGROUND: The importance of biofilms to clinical practice is being increasingly realised. Biofilm tolerance to antibiotics is well described but limited work has been conducted on the efficacy of heat disinfection and sterilization against biofilms. AIM: To test the susceptibility of planktonic, hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm forms of Staphylococcus aureus, to dry heat and wet heat treatments. METHODS: S. aureus was grown as both hydrated biofilm and dry-surface biofilm in the CDC biofilm generator...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919318/corrigendum-to-assessment-of-a-multi-modal-intervention-for-the-prevention-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-j-hosp-infect-2016-oct-94-2-175-81
#2
H G Ternavasio-de la Vega, A Barbosa Ventura, F Castaño-Romero, F D Sauchelli, A Prolo Acosta, F J Rodríguez Alcázar, A Vicente Sánchez, E Ruiz Antúnez, M Marcos, J Laso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917570/detection-of-viable-but-nonculturable-legionella-in-hospital-water-network-following-monochloramine-disinfection
#3
Beatrice Casini, Angelo Baggiani, Michele Totaro, Antonella Mansi, Anna Laura Costa, Francesco Aquino, Mario Miccoli, Paola Valentini, Fabrizio Bruschi, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Gaetano Privitera
BACKGROUND: Prevention of legionellosis still remains a critical issue in healthcare settings where monochloramine (MC) disinfection was recently introduced as a good alternative to chlorine dioxide in controlling Legionella spp. contamination of the hospital water network. Continuous treatments with low MC doses in some instances have induced a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of Legionella spp. AIM: We investigated the occurrence of such dormant cells during a long period of continuous MC treatment...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917569/strain-types-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-isolates-from-persons-undergoing-joint-replacement-surgery
#4
LETTER
Fred C Tenover, Kebert Eloi, Isabella A Tickler, Susan Cohen, Gary B Schneider, Steven C Vlad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903057/failure-of-non-vacuum-steam-sterilization-processes-for-dental-handpieces
#5
S Winter, Andrew Smith, David Lappin, George McDonagh, Brian Kirk
BACKGROUND: Dental handpieces are used in critical and semi-critical operative interventions. Although a number of dental professional bodies recommend that dental handpieces are sterilized between patient use there is a lack of clarity and understanding of the effectiveness of different steam sterilization processes. The internal mechanisms of dental handpieces contain narrow lumens (0·8-2·3mm) which can impede the removal of air and ingress of saturated steam required to achieve sterilization conditions...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893615/molecular-epidemiology-and-environmental-contamination-during-an-outbreak-of-parainfluenza-virus-3-in-a-hematology-ward
#6
Taeeun Kim, Choong Eun Jin, Heungsup Sung, Bonhan Koo, Joungha Park, Sun-Mi Kim, Ji Yeun Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Jung-Hee Lee, Je-Hwan Lee, Kyoo-Hyung Lee, Yong Shin, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: Although fomites or contaminated surfaces have been considered as transmission routes, the role of environmental contamination by human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV-3) in healthcare settings is not established. AIM: To describe an hPIV-3 nosocomial outbreak and the results of environmental sampling to elucidate the source of nosocomial transmission and the role of environmental contamination. METHODS: During an hPIV-3 outbreak between May and June 2016, we swabbed environmental surfaces in contact with clustered patients and used respiratory specimens from infected patients and epidemiologically unlinked controls...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893614/the-impact-of-electronic-healthcare-associated-infection-surveillance-software-on-infection-prevention-resources-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#7
Philip L Russo, Ramon Z Shaban, Deborough MacBeth, Abigail Carter, Brett G Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. AIM: This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890287/assessing-the-burden-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-for-hospitals
#8
Elise Hebbinckuys, Jean-Pierre Marissal, Cristian Preda, Valérie Leclercq
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on the healthcare system. However, quantifying the burden raises many questions, ranging from the way to accurately estimate the extra length of stay at hospital to defining and costing the preventative methods among the different care providers. METHOD: We used multi state modeling based on Markov processes and bootstraping to derive individual estimates of the prolongation of stay at hospital associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890286/processes-of-care-in-surgical-patients-who-died-with-hospital-acquired-infections-in-australian-hospitals
#9
Jennifer Allen, Therese Rey-Conde, John B North, Peter Kruger, Wendy J Babidge, Arkadiusz P Wysocki, Robert S Ware, J Lennert Veerman, Guy J Maddern
BACKGROUND: Infection may complicate surgical patients' hospital admission. The effect of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) on processes of care among surgical patients who died is unknown. AIM: We investigated the effect of HAIs on processes of care in surgical patients who died in-hospital. METHODS: Surgeon-recorded infection data extracted from a national Australian surgical mortality audit (2012-2016) were grouped into HAIs and no infection...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890285/the-rate-of-legionella-pneumophila-colonization-in-hospital-hot-water-network-after-time-flow-taps-installation
#10
M Totaro, P Valentini B, A L Costa, S Giorgi, B Casini, A Baggiani
In hospital water systems legionellae may be resistant to disinfectants in pipework, which is a problem particularly in areas where there is low flo or stagnation of water. We evaluated legionella colonization of a water network of an Italian hospital after time flow taps (TFTs) installation in proximity to dead legs. The water volume flushed was 64 L/day from May 2016, and 192 L/day from December 2016. Before TFTs installation, Legionella pneumophila sg2-14 was detected in all points (4x10(4)±3.1x10(4)CFU/L)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882643/efficacy-of-ethanol-against-viruses-in-hand-disinfection
#11
REVIEW
Günter Kampf
Ethanol is used worldwide in healthcare facilities for hand rubbing. It has been described to have a stronger and broader virucidal activity compared to propanols. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of virucidal activity of ethanol in solution or as commercially available products. A systematic search was conducted. Studies were selected when they contained original data on reduction of viral infectivity from suspension tests (49 studies) and contaminated hands (17 studies). Ethanol at 80% was highly effective against all tested 21 enveloped viruses within 30s...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882642/risk-factors-for-acquisition-of-producing-oxa-48-klebsiella-pneumonia-among-contact-patients-a-multicenter-study
#12
D Hilliquin, R Le Guern, V Thepot Seegers, C Neulier, A Lomont, V Marie, C Legeay, J Merrer, D Lepelletier, A M Rogues, B Grandbastien, J C Lucet, J R Zahar
Cohorting carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) carriers during hospitalisation limits the in hospital spreading. Our objective was to identify risk factors for CPE acquisition among contacts of an index patient in non-cohorted populations. A multicentre retrospective matched case-control study was conducted in five hospitals. Each contact patient (case) who acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae OXA-48 from an index patient was compared to three contact (controls) with the same index patients matched with hospitalization in the same unit and similar exposure-times...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882641/clinical-factors-influencing-mortality-risk-in-hospital-acquired-sepsis
#13
Cristina López-Mestanza, David Andaluz-Ojeda, Juan Ramón Gómez-López, Jesús F Bermejo Martín
BACKGROUND: Identification of factors that confer an increased risk of mortality in hospital acquired sepsis (HAS) is necessary to help prevent, and improve the outcome of, this condition. AIM: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in patients with HAS. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with HAS in a major Spanish Hospital from 2011 to 2015. Data from adults receiving any of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes associated with sepsis were collected...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873336/characteristics-of-respiratory-outbreaks-in-care-homes-over-four-influenza-seasons-2011-2015
#14
Naomh Gallagher, Jillian Johnston, Hilda Crookshanks, Chris Nugent, Neil Irvine
BACKGROUND: Influenza and other respiratory infections can spread rapidly and cause severe morbidity and mortality in care home settings. AIM: This study describes the characteristics of respiratory outbreaks in care homes in Northern Ireland over a four year period, and aims to identify factors that predict which respiratory outbreaks are more likely to be positively identified as influenza. METHODS: Epidemiological, virological and clinical characteristics of outbreaks during the study period were described...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865738/the-yeasticidal-activity-of-chemical-disinfectants-and-antiseptics-against-candida-auris
#15
Ginny Moore, Silke Schelenz, Andrew M Borman, Elizabeth M Johnson, Colin S Brown
Candida auris appears to be readily transmitted between patients, yet, information regarding the efficacy of environmental disinfection and skin decolonisation is lacking. A quantitative suspension test (EN 13624:2013) was used to evaluate the yeasticidal activity of different chemical disinfectants and antiseptics against C. auris and C. albicans. When tested in suspension, both a chlorine-based disinfectant and iodine-based skin antiseptic were effective against C. auris suggesting that, if applied appropriately, their use could reduce environmental contamination and skin colonisation respectively...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842262/blossoming-vre-infections
#16
LETTER
Mark I Garvey, Craig Bradley, Elisabeth Holden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842261/an-updated-meta-analysis-of-controlled-observational-studies-proton-pump-inhibitors-and-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
REVIEW
Fei Cao, Chunxiang Chen, Min Wang, Hairong Liao, Meixiang Wang, Shuizhen Hua, Bin Huang, Yan Xiong, Jieyu Zhang, Yanliang Xu
BACKGROUND: Attention has recently been directed toward a plausible link between Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, the results of studies on the association between CDI and PPI remain controversial. METHODS: We searched the literature from their inception to December 2016 without restriction of language. We included all controlled observational studies examining the association between acid suppressive therapy and CDI...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838800/using-a-vana-polymerase-chain-reaction-to-detect-environmental-contamination-during-a-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-outbreak
#18
LETTER
M I Garvey, C W Bradley, A Casey, V Clewer, E Holden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838799/the-potential-contribution-of-16s-ribosomal-rna-pcr-to-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-culture-negative-infection
#19
S O'Donnell, L Gaughan, M Skally, Z Baker, K O'Connell, E Smyth, F Fitzpatrick, H Humphreys
Empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy often results in culture-negative specimens making rationalisation of therapy difficult. We retrospectively reviewed 16S rRNA PCR results from 78 specimens in 60 patients. 16S rRNA was detected in 28 (47%) of patients with de-escalation of therapy in five (21%). Microbial DNA was not detected in 32 (53%) patients with antimicrobials discontinued in two (8%). Neurosurgical patients had a higher proportion of positive results (53% vs 34%) and treatment rationalisations (17% vs 12%)...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826688/carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-patients-admitted-to-the-emergency-department-new-risk-factors-and-occurrence-in-patients-coming-directly-from-the-community
#20
Matias Chiarastelli Salomão, Thais Guimarães, Daniel Fernandes Duailibi, Maria Beatriz Moliterno Perondi, Leila Suemi Harima Letaif, Amanda Cardoso Montal, Flavia Rossi, Ana Paula Cury, Alberto José da Silva Duarte, Anna S Levin, Icaro Boszczowski
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been reported worldwide and are associated with high mortality rates. Intestinal colonization acts as a reservoir and fosters resistance mechanisms exchange. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of patients harboring CRE on hospital admission, risk factors associated and the acquisition rate within the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional with 676 patients consecutively admitted to the ED study during the months of May to July 2016...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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