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Personality and Individual Differences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527082/parental-educational-attainment-and-offspring-subjective-well-being-and-self-beliefs-in-older-adulthood
#1
Angelina R Sutin, Yannick Stephan, Antonio Terracciano
This research examines whether parental educational attainment and subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with adult offspring well-being and self-beliefs (broadly defined). Participants from the Health and Retirement Study were included if they completed the leave-behind questionnaire in 2006 or 2008 ( N =10,827; M age =68.38; SD =9.81; range=50-101). Participants reported on their own and both parents educational attainment, subjective childhood financial situation, and financial difficulties in childhood at study entry and on well-being in 2006/2008...
July 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725146/events-associated-with-stability-and-change-in-adult-locus-of-control-orientation-over-a-six-year-period
#2
Stephen Nowicki, Genette Ellis, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Steven Gregory, Jean Golding
Although locus of control (LOC) has been the focus of thousands of studies we know little about how or if it changes over time and what is associated with change. Our lack of knowledge stems in part from the past use of cross-sectional and not longitudinal methodologies to study small numbers of participants from non-representative populations. The purpose of the present study was to use a longitudinal design with a large representative population to provide relevant information concerning the stability and change of adult LOC...
May 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628542/examination-of-the-heterogeneity-in-ptsd-and-impulsivity-facets-a-latent-profile-analysis
#3
Ateka A Contractor, Stephanie Caldas, Nicole H Weiss, Cherie Armour
The experience of traumatizing events and resulting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology relates to a range of impulsive behaviors. While both PTSD and impulsivity are heterogeneous and multidimensional constructs, no research has used person-centered approaches to examine subgroups of individuals based on these response endorsements. Hence, our study examined PTSD-impulsivity typologies and their construct validity in two samples: university students ( n = 412) and community participants recruited through Amazon's MTurk ( n = 346)...
April 15, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551848/unmasking-the-association-between-psychopathic-traits-and-adaptive-functioning-in-children
#4
Joshua Isen, Laura Baker, Melissa Kern, Adrian Raine, Serena Bezdjian
The appearance of positive adjustment is a theoretically relevant element of psychopathy, and is valuable for demonstrating its incremental validity over a broader antisocial orientation. We examined associations between psychopathic-like features and two measures of adaptive functioning: psychometric intelligence and (immunity to) internalizing problems. Ratings of psychopathy and behavioral problems were obtained in a community sample of children ( N =1210). A bifactor model was fit to the psychopathic personality items to capture the underlying variance common to all traits (i...
April 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610545/neuroticism-rumination-negative-affect-and-sleep-examining-between-and-within-person-associations
#5
Danica C Slavish, Martin J Sliwinski, Joshua M Smyth, David M Almeida, Richard B Lipton, Mindy J Katz, Jennifer E Graham-Engeland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311753/shame-is-bad-and-guilt-is-good-an-examination-of-the-impaired-control-over-drinking-pathway-to-alcohol-use-and-related-problems
#6
Julie A Patock-Peckham, Jessica R Canning, Robert F Leeman
Tension Reduction Theory (Kushner et al., 1994) suggests alcohol is used as a means to alleviate negative affect (NA) such as shame and guilt. Shame is an internalized response in which blame is placed on the self, while guilt is not internalized and the blame is placed on the situation (Dearing et al., 2005). This study aims to investigate relationships of shame and guilt to alcohol use and problems through the mechanisms of multiple facets of impulsivity (i.e. UPPS) and impaired control over drinking (IC), which reflect behavioral control processes...
January 15, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861519/associations-between-personality-and-distress-tolerance-among-trauma-exposed-young-adults
#7
Nadia Chowdhury, Salpi Kevorkian, Sage E Hawn, Ananda B Amstadter, Danielle Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Erin C Berenz
Low distress tolerance (DT) is related to negative mental health outcomes, particularly among trauma-exposed populations, who are at greater risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about potential etiological factors underlying the development of perceived (i.e., self-report) or behaviorally assessed DT. The present study examined associations between Big Five personality factors (i.e., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, & neuroticism) and multiple measures of DT...
January 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176918/the-influence-of-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-tacs-on-fluid-intelligence-an-fmri-study
#8
A C Neubauer, M Wammerl, M Benedek, E Jauk, N Jaušovec
The past decades have witnessed a huge interest in uncovering the neural bases of intelligence (e.g., Stelmack, & Houlihan, 1995; Stelmack, Knott, & Beauchamp, 2003). This study investigated the influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence performance and corresponding brain activation. Previous findings showed that left parietal theta tACS leads to a transient increase in fluid reasoning performance. In an attempt to extend and replicate these findings, we combined theta tACS with fMRI...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479128/association-of-personality-profiles-with-depressive-anxiety-and-cancer-related-symptoms-in-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy
#9
Stefana Morgan, Bruce Cooper, Steven Paul, Marilyn J Hammer, Yvette P Conley, Jon D Levine, Christine Miaskowski, Laura B Dunn
Background: This study identified latent classes of cancer patients based on Big Five personality dimensions and evaluated for differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, depression, anxiety, and cancer-related symptoms. Methods: Patients (n=1248) with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventories, NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS)...
October 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200545/self-interest-may-not-be-entirely-in-the-interest-of-the-self-association-between-selflessness-dispositional-mindfulness-and-psychological-well-being
#10
Adam W Hanley, Anne K Baker, Eric L Garland
The association between mindfulness and selflessness is firmly grounded in classical Indo-Sino-Tibetan contemplative traditions, but has received limited empirical attention from Western researchers. In Buddhism, the relationship between mindfulness and the self is of central concern to the cultivation of well-being. Mindfulness is believed to encourage insight into the truly insubstantial nature of the self, an understanding that is thought to encourage well-being. The present study explores these relationships, attending to dispositional mindfulness, the self as it exists on a continuum from self-centered to selfless, and psychological well-being...
October 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781400/neuroticism-is-associated-with-challenging-experiences-with-psilocybin-mushrooms
#11
Frederick S Barrett, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
OBJECTIVES: Classic hallucinogens (e.g. psilocybin and LSD) have substantial effects on perception, cognition, and emotion that can often be psychologically challenging, however we know very little regarding the source of significant individual variability that has been observed in the frequency and intensity of challenging experiences (i.e. "bad trips") with psychedelics. Previous clinical and observational literature suggests that there may be an association between neuroticism and challenging psychedelic experiences...
October 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379221/act-frequency-signatures-of-the-big-five
#12
Benjamin P Chapman, Lewis R Goldberg
The traditional focus of work on personality and behavior has tended toward "major outcomes" such as health or antisocial behavior, or small sets of behaviors observable over short periods in laboratories or in convenience samples. In a community sample, we examined a wide set (400) of mundane, incidental or "every day" behavioral acts, the frequencies of which were reported over the past year. Using an exploratory methodology similar to genomic approaches (relying on the False Discovery Rate) revealed 26 prototypical acts for Intellect, 24 acts for Extraversion, 13 for Emotional Stability, nine for Conscientiousness, and six for Agreeableness...
October 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974825/creature-of-habit-a-self-report-measure-of-habitual-routines-and-automatic-tendencies-in-everyday-life
#13
Karen D Ersche, Tsen-Vei Lim, Laetitia H E Ward, Trevor W Robbins, Jan Stochl
Our daily lives involve high levels of repetition of activities within similar contexts. We buy the same foods from the same grocery store, cook with the same spices, and typically sit at the same place at the dinner table. However, when questioned about these routine activities, most of us barely remember the details of our actions. Habits are automatically triggered behaviours in which we engage without conscious awareness or deliberate control. Although habits help us to operate efficiently, breaking them requires great effort...
October 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038610/unique-and-interactive-effects-of-impulsivity-facets-on-reckless-driving-and-driving-under-the-influence-in-a-high-risk-young-adult-sample
#14
Jeremy W Luk, Ryan S Trim, Kenny A Karyadi, Inga Curry, Christian J Hopfer, John K Hewitt, Michael C Stallings, Sandra A Brown, Tamara L Wall
Risky driving behaviors are disproportionately high among young adults and impulsivity is a robust risk factor. Recent conceptualizations have proposed multidimensional facets of impulsivity comprised of negative urgency, premeditation, perseverance, sensation seeking, and positive urgency (UPPS-P model). Prior studies have found these facets are associated with risky driving behaviors in college student samples, but no prior studies have examined these facets in clinical samples. This study examined the unique and interactive effects of UPPS-P impulsivity facets on past-year risky driving behaviors in a sample of high-risk young adults (ages 18-30 years) with a history of substance use and antisocial behavior and their siblings ( n =1,100)...
August 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970646/religiosity-and-the-motivation-for-social-affiliation
#15
Patty Van Cappellen, Barbara L Fredrickson, Vassilis Saroglou, Olivier Corneille
Although universal, the motivation to affiliate can vary as a function of individual differences and of the characteristics of the target. Three studies explored the extent to which religious beliefs and identity are related to social affiliation motivation. Because most religions advocate affiliation and provide opportunities for frequent experiences of affiliation, we reasoned that religious people might show greater affiliation motivation in everyday attitudes and behaviors. We found that religiosity was positively related to implicit and behavioral measures of general social affiliation (Studies 1 and 2)...
July 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970645/longitudinal-and-reciprocal-relations-between-delay-discounting-and-crime
#16
Christine A Lee, Karen J Derefinko, Richard Milich, Donald R Lynam, C Nathan DeWall
Theorists argue that self-control failure is the underlying cause of criminal behavior, with previous research linking poor self-control to delinquency and drug use. The path from self-control to crime is well-established, but less is known about whether criminal behavior contributes to self-control deficits over time. We investigated bi-directional relations between self-control assessed via a delay discounting task and self-reported crime over a three-year period. During their first, second (73.38% retention rate), and third (63...
June 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056805/the-conditional-indirect-effects-of-suicide-attempt-history-and-psychiatric-symptoms-on-the-association-between-intimate-partner-violence-and-suicide-ideation
#17
Caitlin Wolford-Clevenger, Phillip N Smith
BACKGROUND: Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence (IPV) experience heightened risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to abused and non-abused women in the general population. However, few theory-guided studies have examined what cognitive-emotional symptoms might underlie this increased risk. METHODS: Guided by fluid vulnerability theory, this cross-sectional, survey study tested whether depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and hopelessness mediate the association between IPV (coercive control and physical violence) and suicide ideation and whether suicide attempt history facilitated these mediated relations in 134 women seeking shelter from IPV...
February 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584390/clarity-of-mind-structural-equation-modeling-of-associations-between-dispositional-mindfulness-self-concept-clarity-and-psychological-well-being
#18
Adam W Hanley, Eric L Garland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824215/sensation-seeking-and-impulsive-traits-as-personality-endophenotypes-for-antisocial-behavior-evidence-from-two-independent-samples
#19
Frank D Mann, Laura Engelhardt, Daniel A Briley, Andrew D Grotzinger, Megan W Patterson, Jennifer L Tackett, Dixie B Strathan, Andrew Heath, Michael Lynskey, Wendy Slutske, Nicholas G Martin, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project...
January 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740321/beliefs-about-savoring-in-older-adulthood-aging-and-perceived-health-affect-temporal-components-of-perceived-savoring-ability
#20
Paul J Geiger, Jennifer N Morey, Suzanne C Segerstrom
The ability to savor positive life events is associated with higher emotional well-being; however, few studies have examined savoring ability in older adults. The present study used a longitudinal design to examine changes in perceived savoring abilities and associations with perceived health in older adulthood. Older adults ( N =131) reported on beliefs about savoring and perceived health at baseline and 2½ years later. Perceived anticipation (savoring the future) and reminiscing (savoring the past) abilities declined from baseline to follow-up...
January 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
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