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Personality and Individual Differences

Julie A Patock-Peckham, Jessica R Canning, Robert F Leeman
Tension Reduction Theory (Kushner et al., 1994) suggests alcohol is used as a means to alleviate negative affect (NA) such as shame and guilt. Shame is an internalized response in which blame is placed on the self, while guilt is not internalized and the blame is placed on the situation (Dearing et al., 2005). This study aims to investigate relationships of shame and guilt to alcohol use and problems through the mechanisms of multiple facets of impulsivity (i.e. UPPS) and impaired control over drinking (IC), which reflect behavioral control processes...
January 15, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
A C Neubauer, M Wammerl, M Benedek, E Jauk, N Jaušovec
The past decades have witnessed a huge interest in uncovering the neural bases of intelligence (e.g., Stelmack, & Houlihan, 1995; Stelmack, Knott, & Beauchamp, 2003). This study investigated the influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence performance and corresponding brain activation. Previous findings showed that left parietal theta tACS leads to a transient increase in fluid reasoning performance. In an attempt to extend and replicate these findings, we combined theta tACS with fMRI...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Adam W Hanley, Anne K Baker, Eric L Garland
The association between mindfulness and selflessness is firmly grounded in classical Indo-Sino-Tibetan contemplative traditions, but has received limited empirical attention from Western researchers. In Buddhism, the relationship between mindfulness and the self is of central concern to the cultivation of well-being. Mindfulness is believed to encourage insight into the truly insubstantial nature of the self, an understanding that is thought to encourage well-being. The present study explores these relationships, attending to dispositional mindfulness, the self as it exists on a continuum from self-centered to selfless, and psychological well-being...
October 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Frederick S Barrett, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
OBJECTIVES: Classic hallucinogens (e.g. psilocybin and LSD) have substantial effects on perception, cognition, and emotion that can often be psychologically challenging, however we know very little regarding the source of significant individual variability that has been observed in the frequency and intensity of challenging experiences (i.e. "bad trips") with psychedelics. Previous clinical and observational literature suggests that there may be an association between neuroticism and challenging psychedelic experiences...
October 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Karen D Ersche, Tsen-Vei Lim, Laetitia H E Ward, Trevor W Robbins, Jan Stochl
Our daily lives involve high levels of repetition of activities within similar contexts. We buy the same foods from the same grocery store, cook with the same spices, and typically sit at the same place at the dinner table. However, when questioned about these routine activities, most of us barely remember the details of our actions. Habits are automatically triggered behaviours in which we engage without conscious awareness or deliberate control. Although habits help us to operate efficiently, breaking them requires great effort...
October 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Jeremy W Luk, Ryan S Trim, Kenny A Karyadi, Inga Curry, Christian J Hopfer, John K Hewitt, Michael C Stallings, Sandra A Brown, Tamara L Wall
Risky driving behaviors are disproportionately high among young adults and impulsivity is a robust risk factor. Recent conceptualizations have proposed multidimensional facets of impulsivity comprised of negative urgency, premeditation, perseverance, sensation seeking, and positive urgency (UPPS-P model). Prior studies have found these facets are associated with risky driving behaviors in college student samples, but no prior studies have examined these facets in clinical samples. This study examined the unique and interactive effects of UPPS-P impulsivity facets on past-year risky driving behaviors in a sample of high-risk young adults (ages 18-30 years) with a history of substance use and antisocial behavior and their siblings (n=1,100)...
August 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Patty Van Cappellen, Barbara L Fredrickson, Vassilis Saroglou, Olivier Corneille
Although universal, the motivation to affiliate can vary as a function of individual differences and of the characteristics of the target. Three studies explored the extent to which religious beliefs and identity are related to social affiliation motivation. Because most religions advocate affiliation and provide opportunities for frequent experiences of affiliation, we reasoned that religious people might show greater affiliation motivation in everyday attitudes and behaviors. We found that religiosity was positively related to implicit and behavioral measures of general social affiliation (Studies 1 and 2)...
July 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Christine A Lee, Karen J Derefinko, Richard Milich, Donald R Lynam, C Nathan DeWall
Theorists argue that self-control failure is the underlying cause of criminal behavior, with previous research linking poor self-control to delinquency and drug use. The path from self-control to crime is well-established, but less is known about whether criminal behavior contributes to self-control deficits over time. We investigated bi-directional relations between self-control assessed via a delay discounting task and self-reported crime over a three-year period. During their first, second (73.38% retention rate), and third (63...
June 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Caitlin Wolford-Clevenger, Phillip N Smith
BACKGROUND: Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence (IPV) experience heightened risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to abused and non-abused women in the general population. However, few theory-guided studies have examined what cognitive-emotional symptoms might underlie this increased risk. METHODS: Guided by fluid vulnerability theory, this cross-sectional, survey study tested whether depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and hopelessness mediate the association between IPV (coercive control and physical violence) and suicide ideation and whether suicide attempt history facilitated these mediated relations in 134 women seeking shelter from IPV...
February 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Adam W Hanley, Eric L Garland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Frank D Mann, Laura Engelhardt, Daniel A Briley, Andrew D Grotzinger, Megan W Patterson, Jennifer L Tackett, Dixie B Strathan, Andrew Heath, Michael Lynskey, Wendy Slutske, Nicholas G Martin, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project...
January 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Paul J Geiger, Jennifer N Morey, Suzanne C Segerstrom
The ability to savor positive life events is associated with higher emotional well-being; however, few studies have examined savoring ability in older adults. The present study used a longitudinal design to examine changes in perceived savoring abilities and associations with perceived health in older adulthood. Older adults (N=131) reported on beliefs about savoring and perceived health at baseline and 2½ years later. Perceived anticipation (savoring the future) and reminiscing (savoring the past) abilities declined from baseline to follow-up...
January 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
B Bullock, G Murray, J L Anderson, T Cooper-O'Neill, J J Gooley, S W Cain, S W Lockley
Associations among personality, diurnal preference, and circadian phase were investigated using a constant routine laboratory protocol. One hundred and sixty-eight healthy participants aged 18-30 years (Women n = 68) completed either a 30- or 50-hour constant routine under dim-light conditions (<3 lux), during which circadian phase was measured from core body temperature and melatonin. Prior to laboratory admission, self-report measures of personality and diurnal preference were also obtained. The personality trait of Constraint correlated positively with morning diurnal preference and earlier circadian phase, with circadian phase partially mediating the relationship between Constraint and diurnal preference...
January 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Jennifer R Wenner, Brandy A Randall
Generativity, contributing to the next generation, is important for well-being throughout middle and late life. Therefore, it is crucial to understand what contributes to generativity during these life stages. Parenting and work are common, but not the only, ways people engage generatively; prosocial behavior is another. A community connection may encourage generative contributions in adults. However, older adults may face obstacles to being generative, and may need an additional drive to engage in these behaviors...
October 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Dawn M Eichen, Eunice Y Chen, Mark F Schmitz, Jean Arlt, Michael S McCloskey
Almost 40% of individuals with eating disorders have a comorbid addiction. The current study examined weight/shape concerns as a potential moderator of the relation between the hypothesized latent factor "addiction vulnerability" (i.e., impairments in reward sensitivity, affect regulation and impulsivity) and binge eating. Undergraduate women (n=272) with either high or low weight/shape concerns completed self-report measures examining reward sensitivity, emotion regulation, impulsivity and disordered (binge) eating...
October 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Adrienne L Romer, Valerie F Reyna, Seth T Pardo
Adolescents and young adults are characterized as prone to risky behavior with a wide range of traits identified as predictors of individual differences in this behavior. Here we test a crucial difference between traits that reflect rash impulsivity, the tendency to engage in risky behavior without consideration of consequences, versus reward sensitivity, the tendency to be attracted to novel and rewarding experience. To test the validity of this distinction, we examined the factorial structure of eight risk-related traits in a sample of 899 18 to 22 year-olds...
September 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Yuliya Kotelnikova, Joelle LeMoult, Sarah V M Mackrell, Haroon I Sheikh, Shiva M Singh, Jutta Joormann, Ian H Gotlib, Elizabeth P Hayden
Although evidence suggests that 5-HTTLPR variants may shape risk for depression, the influence is likely complex, and involves effects on endophenotypes. We examined associations between 5-HTTLPR and biases in attention to affective stimuli in a sample of girls and a sample of both boys and girls. Children with at least one short (S) variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism had lower positive attentional bias scores in both samples. This association was qualified by an interaction with stress in one sample, such that links between the S allele and decreased positive attentional bias was significant only when life stress was elevated...
September 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Wendy Kliewer, Tennisha Riley, Nikola Zaharakis, Alicia Borre, Tess K Drazdowski, Lena Jäggi
Anticipatory cortisol is associated with risk for substance use in adolescents. The present study extended prior literature by testing a model linking family emotional climate, emotion dysregulation, anticipatory cortisol, and substance use. Participants were 229 adolescents (M = 11.94 years, SD = 1.55; 41% male; 92% African American) enrolled in a 4-wave study of stressors, physiological stress responses, and substance use. Caregivers completed measures of family emotional climate at baseline and adolescents' emotion dysregulation one and two years later; adolescents reported on their substance use at baseline and three years later at Wave 4...
September 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Nathan A Kimbrel, Eric C Meyer, Bryann B DeBeer, John T Mitchell, Azure D Kimbrel, Rosemery O Nelson-Gray, Sandra B Morissette
OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the hypothesis that low behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity is associated with social anxiety in combat veterans. METHOD: Self-report measures of reinforcement sensitivity, combat exposure, social interaction anxiety, and social observation anxiety were administered to 197 Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans. RESULTS: As expected, combat exposure, behavioral inhibition system (BIS) sensitivity, and fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) sensitivity were positively associated with both social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety...
August 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Tiffany L Berzins, Antonio F Garcia, Melina Acosta, Augustine Osman
Two instrument validation studies broadened the research literature exploring the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity of scores on the Social Anxiety and Depression Life Interference-24 Inventory (SADLI-24; Osman, Bagge, Freedenthal, Guiterrez, & Emmerich, 2011). Study 1 (N = 1065) was undertaken to concurrently appraise three competing factor models for the instrument: a unidimensional model, a two-factor oblique model and a bifactor model. The bifactor model provided the best fit to the study sample data...
August 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
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