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Personality and Individual Differences

B Bullock, G Murray, J L Anderson, T Cooper-O'Neill, J J Gooley, S W Cain, S W Lockley
Associations among personality, diurnal preference, and circadian phase were investigated using a constant routine laboratory protocol. One hundred and sixty-eight healthy participants aged 18-30 years (Women n = 68) completed either a 30- or 50-hour constant routine under dim-light conditions (<3 lux), during which circadian phase was measured from core body temperature and melatonin. Prior to laboratory admission, self-report measures of personality and diurnal preference were also obtained. The personality trait of Constraint correlated positively with morning diurnal preference and earlier circadian phase, with circadian phase partially mediating the relationship between Constraint and diurnal preference...
January 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Jennifer R Wenner, Brandy A Randall
Generativity, contributing to the next generation, is important for well-being throughout middle and late life. Therefore, it is crucial to understand what contributes to generativity during these life stages. Parenting and work are common, but not the only, ways people engage generatively; prosocial behavior is another. A community connection may encourage generative contributions in adults. However, older adults may face obstacles to being generative, and may need an additional drive to engage in these behaviors...
October 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Dawn M Eichen, Eunice Y Chen, Mark F Schmitz, Jean Arlt, Michael S McCloskey
Almost 40% of individuals with eating disorders have a comorbid addiction. The current study examined weight/shape concerns as a potential moderator of the relation between the hypothesized latent factor "addiction vulnerability" (i.e., impairments in reward sensitivity, affect regulation and impulsivity) and binge eating. Undergraduate women (n=272) with either high or low weight/shape concerns completed self-report measures examining reward sensitivity, emotion regulation, impulsivity and disordered (binge) eating...
October 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Yuliya Kotelnikova, Joelle LeMoult, Sarah V M Mackrell, Haroon I Sheikh, Shiva M Singh, Jutta Joormann, Ian H Gotlib, Elizabeth P Hayden
Although evidence suggests that 5-HTTLPR variants may shape risk for depression, the influence is likely complex, and involves effects on endophenotypes. We examined associations between 5-HTTLPR and biases in attention to affective stimuli in a sample of girls and a sample of both boys and girls. Children with at least one short (S) variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism had lower positive attentional bias scores in both samples. This association was qualified by an interaction with stress in one sample, such that links between the S allele and decreased positive attentional bias was significant only when life stress was elevated...
September 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Wendy Kliewer, Tennisha Riley, Nikola Zaharakis, Alicia Borre, Tess K Drazdowski, Lena Jäggi
Anticipatory cortisol is associated with risk for substance use in adolescents. The present study extended prior literature by testing a model linking family emotional climate, emotion dysregulation, anticipatory cortisol, and substance use. Participants were 229 adolescents (M = 11.94 years, SD = 1.55; 41% male; 92% African American) enrolled in a 4-wave study of stressors, physiological stress responses, and substance use. Caregivers completed measures of family emotional climate at baseline and adolescents' emotion dysregulation one and two years later; adolescents reported on their substance use at baseline and three years later at Wave 4...
September 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Emily E E Meissel, Timothy A Salthouse
Although effects of anxiety on cognitive performance have been extensively examined, anxiety-cognition relationships are often defined by between-person relationships. The current research investigated the effects of within-person variations in state anxiety on cognitive performance based on measures from three separate sessions in a sample of 1,769 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 99 years of age. Some of the adults in the sample exhibited a wide range of state anxiety across the three sessions, whereas others were fairly stable...
August 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Brett Marroquín, Chloe C Boyle, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Annette L Stanton
Predictions about the future are susceptible to mood-congruent influences of emotional state. However, recent work suggests individuals also differ in the degree to which they incorporate emotion into cognition. This study examined the role of such individual differences in the context of state negative emotion. We examined whether trait tendencies to use negative or positive emotion as information affect individuals' predictions of what will happen in the future (likelihood estimation) and how events will feel (affective forecasting), and whether trait influences depend on emotional state...
June 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Rhiana Wegner, Antonia Abbey
Men are more likely than women to misperceive a cross-sex companion's degree of sexual interest. The current study extends previous research by using the confluence model (Malamuth et al., 1991) to examine how narcissism and impulsive sensation-seeking are directly and indirectly associated with men's misperception of women's sexual interest. A community sample of young, single men (N = 470) completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Using path analyses, hostile masculinity and impersonal sexual orientation were proximal predictors of men's misperception of women's sexual intent...
May 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Jessica R Peters, Tory A Eisenlohr-Moul, Laura M Smart
The pain of rejection is a crucial component of normal social functioning; however, heightened sensitivity to rejection can be impairing in numerous ways. Mindfulness-based interventions have been effective with several populations characterized by elevated sensitivity to rejection; however, the relationship between mindfulness and rejection sensitivity has been largely unstudied. The present study examines associations between rejection sensitivity and multiple dimensions of dispositional mindfulness, with the hypothesis that a nonjudgmental orientation to inner experiences would be both associated with decreased rejection sensitivity and attenuate the impact of sensitivity to rejection on general negative affect...
April 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Michael J Li, David S Black, Eric L Garland
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) include the application of meditation and mind-body practices used to promote mindful awareness in daily life. Operationalizing the construct of mindfulness is important in order to determine mechanisms of therapeutic change elicited by mindfulness practice. In addition to existing state and trait measures of mindfulness, process measures are needed to assess the ways in which individuals apply mindfulness in the context of their practice...
April 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Andrew K Littlefield, Angela K Stevens, Jarrod M Ellingson, Kevin M King, Kristina M Jackson
The development and potential co-development of traits related to impulsivity and sensation seeking across adolescence has garnered substantial attention within the extant literature. Some prior research suggests that facets show distinct patterns of change across adolescence and that intraindividual changes in these traits may be unrelated. However, the extant literature is somewhat hampered by measurement issues and inconsistent findings. Using an accelerated longitudinal design in a sample of adolescents (n = 1018; ages 11-16), changes in negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking were examined...
February 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Angela E Lee-Winn, Lisa Townsend, Shauna P Reinblatt, Tamar Mendelson
Binge eating behavior is a public health concern with serious physical and mental health consequences. Certain personality traits have been found to contribute to the development of eating disorders in clinical samples of youth, but little is known about associations between personality traits and binge eating in the general adolescent population. We examined the associations of neuroticism and impulsivity-both independently and in combination-with lifetime prevalence of binge eating, using nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement (n=437)...
February 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Anthony L Burrow, R Nathan Spreng
Purpose in life contributes to health and wellbeing. We examine the link between purpose and behavioral impulsivity that may account for these benefits. In a community sample of 503 adults, we found a small yet reliable positive association between purpose and valuing future rewards on a delayed discounting task, a behavioral index of impulsivity. This bootstrapped correlation remained after accounting for Big-5 personality traits, positive affect, and demographic characteristics, suggesting a unique and robust link between purpose and impulsivity (r = ...
February 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Matthew T Keough, Ghislaine Badawi, Danit Nitka, Roisin M O'Connor, Sherry H Stewart
According to theory, those high in social anxiety (SA) are at risk for drinking alcohol for coping and conformity motives, which in turn lead to alcohol use and related problems. Empirical tests of this risk pathway in non-clinical samples have produced mixed results. Although those high on SA may drink to cope with anxiety and to reduce the likelihood of social rejection, they may also avoid drinking for fear of embarrassing themselves when intoxicated. Central to alcohol use by those high in SA is a temporary disregard of alcohol's potentially negative consequences...
January 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Annette M Mankus, Matthew Tyler Boden, Renee J Thompson
The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses-controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate-demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect...
January 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Sarah E Hampson, Judy A Andrews, Maureen Barckley, Meg Gerrard, Frederick X Gibbons
We modeled the effects of harsh environments in childhood on adjustment in early emerging adulthood, through parenting style and the development of fast Life History Strategies (LHS; risky beliefs and behaviors) in adolescence. Participants were from the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project (N = 988; 85.7% White). Five cohorts of children in Grades 1-5 at recruitment were assessed through one-year post high school. Greater environmental harshness (neighborhood quality and family poverty) in Grades 1-6 predicted less parental investment at Grade 8...
January 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Charlotte Booth, Helen Standage, Elaine Fox
There are few studies testing the differential susceptibility hypothesis (DSH: hypothesizing that some individuals are more responsive to both positive and negative experiences) with adult personality traits. The current study examined the DSH by investigating the moderating effect of sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) on childhood experiences and life satisfaction. A total of 185 adults completed measures of SPS, positive/negative childhood experiences and life satisfaction. SPS did moderate the association between childhood experiences and life satisfaction...
December 1, 2015: Personality and Individual Differences
(no author information available yet)
Higher-order mentalising is the ability to represent the beliefs and desires of other people at multiple, iterated levels - a capacity that sets humans apart from other species. However, there has not yet been a systematic attempt to determine what cognitive processes underlie this ability. Here we present three correlational studies assessing the extent to which performance on higher-order mentalising tasks relates to emotion recognition, self-reported empathy and self-inhibition. In Study 1a and 1b, examining emotion recognition and empathy, a relationship was identified between individual differences in the ability to mentalise and an emotion recognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task), but no correlation was found with the Empathy Quotient, a self-report scale of empathy...
November 1, 2015: Personality and Individual Differences
Amori Yee Mikami, Megan M Schad, Bethany A Teachman, Joanna M Chango, Joseph P Allen
We investigated associations between implicit and explicit self-perceptions of rejection with interpersonal functioning in close relationships. Adolescents (N=124) reported their explicit rejection self-perceptions on a questionnaire and completed the Implicit Association Test to assess their implicit rejection self-perceptions. After controlling for implicit self-perceptions, adolescents' explicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with the adolescents self-reporting more negative relationship quality with close friends and self-reporting more negative behaviors with romantic partners...
November 1, 2015: Personality and Individual Differences
J T Moskowitz, L G Duncan, P J Moran, M Acree, E S Epel, M E Kemeny, F M Hecht, S Folkman
We used a Stress and Coping model to examine the association of dispositional mindfulness, defined as the tendency to intentionally bring nonjudgmental attention and awareness to one's experience in the present moment, with psychological and physical health in adults with HIV. Data were collected at baseline of a randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). Four facets of mindfulness (acting with attention/awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, observing, and describing) were examined as correlates of appraisal, positive and negative affect, coping, and indicators of psychological well-being and physical health...
November 1, 2015: Personality and Individual Differences
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