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Personality and Individual Differences

Frederick S Barrett, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
OBJECTIVES: Classic hallucinogens (e.g. psilocybin and LSD) have substantial effects on perception, cognition, and emotion that can often be psychologically challenging, however we know very little regarding the source of significant individual variability that has been observed in the frequency and intensity of challenging experiences (i.e. "bad trips") with psychedelics. Previous clinical and observational literature suggests that there may be an association between neuroticism and challenging psychedelic experiences...
October 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Adam W Hanley, Eric L Garland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Frank D Mann, Laura Engelhardt, Daniel A Briley, Andrew D Grotzinger, Megan W Patterson, Jennifer L Tackett, Dixie B Strathan, Andrew Heath, Michael Lynskey, Wendy Slutske, Nicholas G Martin, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project...
January 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Paul J Geiger, Jennifer N Morey, Suzanne C Segerstrom
The ability to savor positive life events is associated with higher emotional well-being; however, few studies have examined savoring ability in older adults. The present study used a longitudinal design to examine changes in perceived savoring abilities and associations with perceived health in older adulthood. Older adults (N=131) reported on beliefs about savoring and perceived health at baseline and 2½ years later. Perceived anticipation (savoring the future) and reminiscing (savoring the past) abilities declined from baseline to follow-up...
January 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
B Bullock, G Murray, J L Anderson, T Cooper-O'Neill, J J Gooley, S W Cain, S W Lockley
Associations among personality, diurnal preference, and circadian phase were investigated using a constant routine laboratory protocol. One hundred and sixty-eight healthy participants aged 18-30 years (Women n = 68) completed either a 30- or 50-hour constant routine under dim-light conditions (<3 lux), during which circadian phase was measured from core body temperature and melatonin. Prior to laboratory admission, self-report measures of personality and diurnal preference were also obtained. The personality trait of Constraint correlated positively with morning diurnal preference and earlier circadian phase, with circadian phase partially mediating the relationship between Constraint and diurnal preference...
January 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Jennifer R Wenner, Brandy A Randall
Generativity, contributing to the next generation, is important for well-being throughout middle and late life. Therefore, it is crucial to understand what contributes to generativity during these life stages. Parenting and work are common, but not the only, ways people engage generatively; prosocial behavior is another. A community connection may encourage generative contributions in adults. However, older adults may face obstacles to being generative, and may need an additional drive to engage in these behaviors...
October 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Dawn M Eichen, Eunice Y Chen, Mark F Schmitz, Jean Arlt, Michael S McCloskey
Almost 40% of individuals with eating disorders have a comorbid addiction. The current study examined weight/shape concerns as a potential moderator of the relation between the hypothesized latent factor "addiction vulnerability" (i.e., impairments in reward sensitivity, affect regulation and impulsivity) and binge eating. Undergraduate women (n=272) with either high or low weight/shape concerns completed self-report measures examining reward sensitivity, emotion regulation, impulsivity and disordered (binge) eating...
October 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Adrienne L Romer, Valerie F Reyna, Seth T Pardo
Adolescents and young adults are characterized as prone to risky behavior with a wide range of traits identified as predictors of individual differences in this behavior. Here we test a crucial difference between traits that reflect rash impulsivity, the tendency to engage in risky behavior without consideration of consequences, versus reward sensitivity, the tendency to be attracted to novel and rewarding experience. To test the validity of this distinction, we examined the factorial structure of eight risk-related traits in a sample of 899 18 to 22 year-olds...
September 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Yuliya Kotelnikova, Joelle LeMoult, Sarah V M Mackrell, Haroon I Sheikh, Shiva M Singh, Jutta Joormann, Ian H Gotlib, Elizabeth P Hayden
Although evidence suggests that 5-HTTLPR variants may shape risk for depression, the influence is likely complex, and involves effects on endophenotypes. We examined associations between 5-HTTLPR and biases in attention to affective stimuli in a sample of girls and a sample of both boys and girls. Children with at least one short (S) variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism had lower positive attentional bias scores in both samples. This association was qualified by an interaction with stress in one sample, such that links between the S allele and decreased positive attentional bias was significant only when life stress was elevated...
September 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Wendy Kliewer, Tennisha Riley, Nikola Zaharakis, Alicia Borre, Tess K Drazdowski, Lena Jäggi
Anticipatory cortisol is associated with risk for substance use in adolescents. The present study extended prior literature by testing a model linking family emotional climate, emotion dysregulation, anticipatory cortisol, and substance use. Participants were 229 adolescents (M = 11.94 years, SD = 1.55; 41% male; 92% African American) enrolled in a 4-wave study of stressors, physiological stress responses, and substance use. Caregivers completed measures of family emotional climate at baseline and adolescents' emotion dysregulation one and two years later; adolescents reported on their substance use at baseline and three years later at Wave 4...
September 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Tiffany L Berzins, Antonio F Garcia, Melina Acosta, Augustine Osman
Two instrument validation studies broadened the research literature exploring the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity of scores on the Social Anxiety and Depression Life Interference-24 Inventory (SADLI-24; Osman, Bagge, Freedenthal, Guiterrez, & Emmerich, 2011). Study 1 (N = 1065) was undertaken to concurrently appraise three competing factor models for the instrument: a unidimensional model, a two-factor oblique model and a bifactor model. The bifactor model provided the best fit to the study sample data...
August 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Emily E E Meissel, Timothy A Salthouse
Although effects of anxiety on cognitive performance have been extensively examined, anxiety-cognition relationships are often defined by between-person relationships. The current research investigated the effects of within-person variations in state anxiety on cognitive performance based on measures from three separate sessions in a sample of 1,769 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 99 years of age. Some of the adults in the sample exhibited a wide range of state anxiety across the three sessions, whereas others were fairly stable...
August 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Brett Marroquín, Chloe C Boyle, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Annette L Stanton
Predictions about the future are susceptible to mood-congruent influences of emotional state. However, recent work suggests individuals also differ in the degree to which they incorporate emotion into cognition. This study examined the role of such individual differences in the context of state negative emotion. We examined whether trait tendencies to use negative or positive emotion as information affect individuals' predictions of what will happen in the future (likelihood estimation) and how events will feel (affective forecasting), and whether trait influences depend on emotional state...
June 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Rhiana Wegner, Antonia Abbey
Men are more likely than women to misperceive a cross-sex companion's degree of sexual interest. The current study extends previous research by using the confluence model (Malamuth et al., 1991) to examine how narcissism and impulsive sensation-seeking are directly and indirectly associated with men's misperception of women's sexual interest. A community sample of young, single men (N = 470) completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Using path analyses, hostile masculinity and impersonal sexual orientation were proximal predictors of men's misperception of women's sexual intent...
May 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Jessica R Peters, Tory A Eisenlohr-Moul, Laura M Smart
The pain of rejection is a crucial component of normal social functioning; however, heightened sensitivity to rejection can be impairing in numerous ways. Mindfulness-based interventions have been effective with several populations characterized by elevated sensitivity to rejection; however, the relationship between mindfulness and rejection sensitivity has been largely unstudied. The present study examines associations between rejection sensitivity and multiple dimensions of dispositional mindfulness, with the hypothesis that a nonjudgmental orientation to inner experiences would be both associated with decreased rejection sensitivity and attenuate the impact of sensitivity to rejection on general negative affect...
April 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Michael J Li, David S Black, Eric L Garland
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) include the application of meditation and mind-body practices used to promote mindful awareness in daily life. Operationalizing the construct of mindfulness is important in order to determine mechanisms of therapeutic change elicited by mindfulness practice. In addition to existing state and trait measures of mindfulness, process measures are needed to assess the ways in which individuals apply mindfulness in the context of their practice...
April 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Andrew K Littlefield, Angela K Stevens, Jarrod M Ellingson, Kevin M King, Kristina M Jackson
The development and potential co-development of traits related to impulsivity and sensation seeking across adolescence has garnered substantial attention within the extant literature. Some prior research suggests that facets show distinct patterns of change across adolescence and that intraindividual changes in these traits may be unrelated. However, the extant literature is somewhat hampered by measurement issues and inconsistent findings. Using an accelerated longitudinal design in a sample of adolescents (n = 1018; ages 11-16), changes in negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking were examined...
February 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Angela E Lee-Winn, Lisa Townsend, Shauna P Reinblatt, Tamar Mendelson
Binge eating behavior is a public health concern with serious physical and mental health consequences. Certain personality traits have been found to contribute to the development of eating disorders in clinical samples of youth, but little is known about associations between personality traits and binge eating in the general adolescent population. We examined the associations of neuroticism and impulsivity-both independently and in combination-with lifetime prevalence of binge eating, using nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement (n=437)...
February 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Anthony L Burrow, R Nathan Spreng
Purpose in life contributes to health and wellbeing. We examine the link between purpose and behavioral impulsivity that may account for these benefits. In a community sample of 503 adults, we found a small yet reliable positive association between purpose and valuing future rewards on a delayed discounting task, a behavioral index of impulsivity. This bootstrapped correlation remained after accounting for Big-5 personality traits, positive affect, and demographic characteristics, suggesting a unique and robust link between purpose and impulsivity (r = ...
February 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
Matthew T Keough, Ghislaine Badawi, Danit Nitka, Roisin M O'Connor, Sherry H Stewart
According to theory, those high in social anxiety (SA) are at risk for drinking alcohol for coping and conformity motives, which in turn lead to alcohol use and related problems. Empirical tests of this risk pathway in non-clinical samples have produced mixed results. Although those high on SA may drink to cope with anxiety and to reduce the likelihood of social rejection, they may also avoid drinking for fear of embarrassing themselves when intoxicated. Central to alcohol use by those high in SA is a temporary disregard of alcohol's potentially negative consequences...
January 1, 2016: Personality and Individual Differences
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