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Neurochemistry International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088349/stroke-biomarkers-in-clinical-practice-a-critical-appraisal
#1
REVIEW
Geelyn J L Ng, Amy M L Quek, Christine Cheung, Thiruma V Arumugam, Raymond C S Seet
Biomarkers provide critical mechanistic insights to key biologic processes that occur during cerebral ischemia which, when carefully applied, can improve clinical decision-making in acute stroke management. The translation of a blood-based biomarker in ischemic stroke to clinical practice is challenging, in part, due to the complexity of ischemic stroke pathogenesis and the presence of a blood-brain barrier that restricts the release of brain-specific markers into the circulation. The pathologic and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke are described in this review, where a non-exhaustive list of biomarkers that interrogate different aspects of ischemic stroke such as oxidative damage, inflammation, thrombus formation, cardiac function and brain injury are described...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088348/neuroprotective-effects-of-kukoamine-a-against-cerebral-ischemia-via-antioxidant-and-inactivation-of-apoptosis-pathway
#2
Jia Liu, Xiaowen Jiang, Qiao Zhang, Sen Lin, Jun Zhu, Yajun Zhang, Jiabao Du, Xiaolong Hu, Weihong Meng, Qingchun Zhao
Kukoamine A (KuA) is a bioactive compound, which is known for a hypotensive effect. Recent studies have shown that KuA has anti-oxidative effect and anti-apoptosis stress in vitro. However, its neuroprotective effect in rats with cerebral ischemia is still unclear. In the study, we investigated whether KuA could attenuate cerebral ischemia induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats. Results revealed that KuA could significantly reduce infarct volume both pre-treatment and post-treatment, and increase corresponding Garcia neurological scores...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087295/postconditioning-induced-neuroprotection-mechanisms-and-applications-in-cerebral-ischemia
#3
REVIEW
Yan-Ying Fan, Wei-Wei Hu, Fang Nan, Zhong Chen
Ischemic postconditioning (PostC) is defined as a series of rapid intermittent interruptions of blood flow at the phase of reperfusion, which produces neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via mobilizing the brain's own endogenous adaptive mechanisms. Now the concept of conventional ischemic PostC has been extended to limb remote ischemic PostC and chemical PostC with hypoxia, volatile anesthetic, CO2, etc. According to the different temporal profile of PostC, it is divided into rapid and delayed PostC...
January 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082232/ferroptosis-and-cell-death-mechanisms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Stephanie J Guiney, Paul A Adlard, Ashley I Bush, David I Finkelstein, Scott Ayton
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease arise due to neuronal loss in multiple brain regions, especially dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Current therapies aim to restore dopamine levels in the brain, but while these provide symptomatic benefit, they do not prevent ongoing neurodegeneration. Preventing neuronal death is a major strategy for disease-modifying therapies; however, while many pathogenic factors have been identified, it is currently unknown how neurons die in the disease. Ferroptosis, a recently identified iron-dependent cell death pathway, involves several molecular events that have previously been implicated in PD...
January 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069421/optogenetic-control-of-cell-differentiation-in-channelrhodopsin-2-expressing-os3-a-bipotential-glial-progenitor-cell-line
#5
Kenji Ono, Hiromi Suzuki, Ryusei Yamamoto, Hideki Sahashi, Yuhei Takido, Makoto Sawada
Alterations in the intracellular ion environment have been identified as one of the signals playing a critical role in the control of cellular proliferation and differentiation; however, the mechanisms responsible for signal transduction remain unclear. Recent studies have reported that channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a rapidly gated blue light (BL)-sensitive cation channel suitable for the non-invasive control of ion influx. We herein examined the expression of differentiation-associated markers by photo-activation and its signal transduction in ChR2-expressing OS3 (OS3ChR2) cells, which are clonal bipotential glial progenitor cells...
January 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065797/characterising-the-developmental-profile-of-hesc-derived-medium-spiny-neuron-progenitors-and-assessing-mature-neuron-function-using-a-crispr-generated-human-darpp-32-wt-egfp-amp-reporter-line
#6
C P J Hunt, C W Pouton, J M Haynes
In the developing ventral telencephalon, cells of the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) give rise to all medium spiny neurons (MSNs). This development occurs in response to a highly orchestrated series of morphogenetic stimuli that pattern the resultant neurons as they develop. Striatal MSNs are characterised by expression of dopamine receptors, dopamine-and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP32) and the neurotransmitter GABA. In this study, we demonstrate that fine tuning WNT and SHH signaling early in human embryonic stem cell differentiation can induce a subpallial progenitor molecular profile...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065796/ischaemia-and-excitotoxicity-induced-camkii-mediated-neuronal-cell-death-the-relative-roles-of-camkii-autophosphorylation-at-t286-and-t253
#7
John A P Rostas, Alexander Hoffman, Lucy A Murtha, Debbie Pepperall, Damian D McLeod, Phillip W Dickson, Neil J Spratt, Kathryn A Skelding
Ischaemia/excitotoxicity produces persistent activation of CaMKII (Ca(2+)-calmodulin stimulated protein kinase II) that initiates cell death. This study investigated the involvement of CaMKII phosphorylation at T286 and T253 in producing this persistent activation. In T286A-αCaMKII transgenic mice that lack the ability to phosphorylate αCaMKII at T286, transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 90 min resulted in no significant difference in infarct size compared to normal littermate controls...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065795/rational-identification-of-a-novel-soy-derived-anxiolytic-like-undecapeptide-acting-via-gut-brain-axis-after-oral-administration
#8
Ami Ota, Akane Yamamoto, Saeko Kimura, Yukiha Mori, Takafumi Mizushige, Yoshiki Nagashima, Masaru Sato, Hideyuki Suzuki, Saori Odagiri, Daisuke Yamada, Masayuki Sekiguchi, Keiji Wada, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Kousaku Ohinata
Here we found that the chymotryptic digest of soy β-conglycinin, a major storage protein, exhibited anxiolytic-like effects in mice. We then searched for anxiolytic-like peptides in the digest. Based on a comprehensive peptide analysis of the chymotryptic digest by high performance liquid chromatograph connected to an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer and the structure-activity relationship of known peptides, we explored anxiolytic-like peptides present in the digest. FLSSTEAQQSY, which corresponds to 323-333 of the β-conglycinin α subunit [βCGα(323-333)] emerged as a candidate...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065794/adjuvant-quercetin-therapy-for-combined-treatment-of-epilepsy-and-comorbid-depression
#9
Tanveer Singh, Taranjot Kaur, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Epilepsy is one of the major neurological disorders frequently associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression. The predisposition of tryptophan metabolism towards kynurenine pathway has been reported as one of the plausible reasons for association of depression in epilepsy. Hence, this study was envisaged to evaluate the dose dependent inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme employing quercetin (screened employing in vitro method) with levetiracetam for combined management of epilepsy and comorbid depression...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065793/polyglutamine-expansion-of-ataxin-3-alters-its-degree-of-ubiquitination-and-phosphorylation-at-specific-sites
#10
Line V Kristensen, Felix S Oppermann, Matthias J Rauen, Rasmus Hartmann-Petersen, Kenneth Thirstrup
Ubiquitination and phosphorylation of proteins represent post translational modifications (PTMs) capable of regulating a variety of cellular processes. In the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), the disease causing protein ataxin-3 carries an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch causing it to aggregate in nuclear inclusions. These inclusions are decorated with ubiquitin suggestive of a malfunction in the clearance of the mutant protein. Differences in ubiquitin chain topology between normal and polyQ expanded ataxin-3 could be involved in the differential clearance of the two proteins and play a role in SCA3 pathogenesis...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065792/the-analgesic-effects-of-oxytocin-in-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system
#11
Qing Xin, Bo Bai, Wenyan Liu
Pain is a ubiquitously unpleasant feeling among humans as well as many animal species often caused by actual and potential tissue damage. However, it is absolutely crucial for our survival in many ways. Acute pain can signal the presence of danger or life-threatenting events, which help escape noxious stimuli. By contrast, when pain becomes chronic or persistent, it becomes an encumbrance and exerts deleterious effects to the body and mind, often co-occured with anxiety and depression. Additionaly, chronic pain is more or less an economic burden for the patients because it requires immediate medical treatments and seriously hinders pepople in their work...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062223/oxidative-metabolism-and-ca-2-handling-in-striatal-mitochondria-from-yac128-mice-a-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#12
James Hamilton, Tatiana Brustovetsky, Nickolay Brustovetsky
The mechanisms implicated in the pathology of Huntington's disease (HD) remain not completely understood, although dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and Ca(2+) handling have been suggested as contributing factors. However, in our previous studies with mitochondria isolated from the whole brains of HD mice, we found no evidence for defects in mitochondrial respiration and Ca2+ handling. In the present study, we used the YAC128 mouse model of HD to evaluate the effect of mHtt on respiratory activity and Ca2+ uptake capacity of mitochondria isolated from the striatum, the most vulnerable brain region in HD...
January 3, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057557/anesthetics-inhibit-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase1-2-phosphorylation-via-nmda-receptor-phospholipase-c-and-protein-kinase-c-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#13
Gao Haiying, Han Mingjie, Zhang Lingyu, Wang Qingxiang, Wang Haisong, Zhang Bingxi
BACKGROUND: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) has been implicated in learning and memory; however, whether intravenous anesthetics modulate ERK1/2 remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of several intravenous anesthetics on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus of adult mice. METHODS: Western blotting was used to examine cellular levels of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated ERK1/2 in mouse hippocampus slices, which were incubated with or without anesthetics including propofol, etomidate, ketamine and midazolam, a protein kinase C (PKC) activator or inhibitor, or phospholipase C (PLC) activator or inhibitor...
January 3, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057556/brain-mitochondrial-calcium-transport-origins-of-the-set-point-concept-and-its-application-to-physiology-and-pathology
#14
David G Nicholls
The transport of calcium across the inner mitochondrial membrane plays a key role in neuronal physiology and pathology. The kinetic responses of the uniporter and efflux pathways are such that a cytosolic free calcium 'set-point' can be established - above which there is net calcium accumulation into the matrix that is reversed when plasma membrane transport lowers cytosolic calcium. Pathological activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor mediated sodium and calcium entry into the neuron, as occurs in stroke and spreading depression, places severe demands on both the ATP-generating and calcium loading capacities of the neuronal mitochondria as the set-point is exceeded...
January 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057555/reactive-astrogliosis-in-stroke-contributions-of-astrocytes-to-recovery-of-neurological-function
#15
REVIEW
Neil R Sims, Wai Ping Yew
Alterations in neuronal connectivity, particularly in the "peri-infarct" tissue adjacent to the region of ischemic damage, are important contributors to the spontaneous recovery of function that commonly follows stroke. Peri-infarct astrocytes undergo reactive astrogliosis and play key roles in modulating the adaptive responses in neurons. This reactive astrogliosis shares many features with that induced by other forms of damage to the central nervous system but also differs in details that potentially influence neurological recovery...
January 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049027/an-integrated-shotgun-proteomics-and-bioinformatics-approach-for-analysis-of-brain-proteins-from-mcao-model-using-serial-affinity-chromatograph-with-four-active-ingredients-from-shengmai-preparations-as-ligands
#16
Xiao-Xue Fan, Fang Li, Yan-Ni Lv, Yu Zhang, Jun-Ping Kou, Bo-Yang Yu
Identification and validation of disease-relevant target proteins for natural products is an essential component of modern pharmaceutical research. In the present study, an integrated shotgun proteomics and bioinformatics approach was established to profile the interaction of active small molecules derived from ShengMai preparations (SMXZF) with hundreds of endogenously expressed proteins from middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Affinity-based proteomic strategies for isolation and identification of targets for the bioactive components is a classic, but still powerful approach...
January 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043837/targeting-antioxidant-enzyme-expression-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-ischemic-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Stephanie M Davis, Keith R Pennypacker
During ischemic stroke, neurons and glia are subjected to damage during the acute and neuroinflammatory phases of injury. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from calcium dysregulation in neural cells and the invasion of activated immune cells are responsible for stroke-induced neurodegeneration. Scientists have failed thus far to identify antioxidant-based drugs that can enhance neural cell survival and improve recovery after stroke. However, several groups have demonstrated success in protecting against stroke by increasing expression of antioxidant enzymes in neural cells...
December 30, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034725/mechanisms-of-acupuncture-on-vascular-dementia-a-review-of-animal-studies
#18
Yang Ye, Wen Zhu, Xue-Rui Wang, Jing-Wen Yang, Ling-Yong Xiao, Yi Liu, Xin Zhang, Cun-Zhi Liu
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second leading type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease plaguing the aging population. Acupuncture has served as alternative and complementary medicine in the world for a long time and its use for VaD is based on a large body of preclinical and clinical researches. The mechanisms that underlie the protective effects of acupuncture are slowly beginning to be understood. Acupuncture influences multiple aspects of the pathological process of VaD. It improves cognitive function through protecting cerebral neurons from oxidative stress, apoptosis, and neuroinflammation, regulating glucose metabolism and neurotransmitters...
December 26, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034724/disruption-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-superfamily-signaling-a-shared-mechanism-underlying-hereditary-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Yumi Yamamoto, Masafumi Ihara
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is not only one of the leading causes of cognitive impairment but also an important contributory factor in Alzheimer's disease. SVD and related white matter changes are common in the elderly, but the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. The end-stage pathology of SVD often involves replacement of vascular smooth muscle cells with collagenous or other nontensile fibrillary material. Recent studies on hereditary SVD have revealed a close relationship between small vessel pathology and disruption of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily signaling...
December 26, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027922/the-protective-effect-of-resveratrol-in-the-transmission-of-neuropathic-pain-mediated-by-the-p2x7-receptor-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglia
#20
Jinyan Xie, Shuangmei Liu, Bing Wu, Guilin Li, Shenqiang Rao, Lifang Zou, Zhihua Yi, Chunping Zhang, Tianyu Jia, Shanhong Zhao, Günther Schmalzing, Ralf Hausmann, Hong Nie, Guodong Li, Shangdong Liang
The P2X7 receptor mediates afferent nerve activation and is related to chronic neuropathic pain. Resveratrol (RES) has also been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of RES on the transmission of neuropathic pain mediated by the P2X7 receptor. The P2X7 mRNA and protein expression levels in L4-L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG)s of the chronic constriction injury (CCI) group were significantly higher than those observed in the Ctrl + NS, Sham + RES and Sham groups...
December 24, 2016: Neurochemistry International
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