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Neurochemistry International

Navneet Ammal Kaidery, Bobby Thomas
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of Lewy bodies containing α-synuclein. Although the cause of PD remains elusive, remarkable advances have been made in understanding the possible causative mechanisms of PD pathogenesis. An explosion of discoveries during the past two decades has led to the identification of several autosomal dominant and recessive genes that cause familial forms of PD...
March 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Chao Dong, Ji-Chun Zhang, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Youge Qu, Kai Zhang, Wei Yao, Tamaki Ishima, Hisashi Mori, Kenji Hashimoto
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. Serine racemase (SRR, encoded by Srr) converts L-serine to D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist at the glycine site of the NMDAR. Knock-out (KO) of Srr did not alter behavioral signs of depression compared with wild-type (WT) mice as evaluated by locomotion, tail suspension, forced swimming, and 1% sucrose preference tests. However, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS: 10 days) caused a depression-like phenotype as measured by these same tests in WT mice but not in Srr KO mice, suggesting that decreased D-serine co-agonist activity confers resilience against CSDS...
March 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Yukari Yoshida, Yukihiko Sejimo, Masashi Kurachi, Yasuki Ishizaki, Takashi Nakano, Akihisa Takahashi
X-ray irradiation (X-irradiation) induces disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the mechanisms underlying the permeability changes are unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the cellular and molecular changes produced by X-irradiation of the brain. Male ICR mice were irradiated locally on their head, posterior to the bregma, except for the eyes, with a single dose of 60 Gy. BBB permeability was assessed using Evans blue dye. We also examined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, microglial morphology, and the expression of the tight junction protein claudin-5 from 0...
March 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Juan Zhang, Lorelei Donovan Tucker, DongYan, Yujiao Lu, Luodan Yang, Chongyun Wu, Yong Li, Quanguang Zhang
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy is a leading cause of dire mortality and morbidity in neonates. Unfortunately, no effective therapies have been developed as of yet. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in pathogenesis and progression of neonatal HI. Previously, as a Nrf2 activator, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotection on brain trauma and ischemic stroke models, as well as oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. It is, however, still unknown whether TBHQ administration can protect against oxidative stress in neonatal HI brain injury...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Priscila A C Valadão, Matheus P S M Gomes, Bárbara C Aragão, Hermann A Rodrigues, Jéssica N Andrade, Rubens Garcias, Julliane V Joviano-Santos, Murilo A Luiz, Wallace L Camargo, Lígia A Naves, Christopher Kushmerick, Walter L G Cavalcante, Márcia Gallacci, Itamar C G de Jesus, Silvia Guatimosim, Cristina Guatimosim
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by chorea, incoordination, and psychiatric and behavioral symptoms. The leading cause of death in HD patients is aspiration pneumonia, associated with respiratory dysfunction, decreased respiratory muscle strength and dysphagia. Although most of the motor symptoms are derived from alterations in the central nervous system, some might be associated with changes in the components of motor units (MU). To explore this hypothesis, we evaluated morphofunctional aspects of the diaphragm muscle in a mouse model of HD (BACHD)...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Yun Zhou, Bjørnar Hassel, Tore Eid, Niels Christian Danbolt
The excitatory amino acid transporter type 2 (EAAT2) represents the major mechanism for removal of extracellular glutamate. In the hippocampus, there is some EAAT2 in axon-terminals, whereas most of the protein is found in astroglia. The functional importance of the neuronal EAAT2 is unknown, and it is debated whether EAAT2 expressing nerve terminals are present in other parts of the brain. Here we selectively deleted the EAAT2 gene in neurons (by crossing EAAT2-flox mice with synapsin 1-Cre mice in the C57B6 background)...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
J D Neves, A Vizuete, F Nicola, C Da Ré, A F Rodrigues, F Schmitz, R G Mestriner, D Aristimunha, A T Wyse, C A Netto
Glial glutamate transporters (EAAT1 and EAAT2), glutamate uptake, and oxidative stress are important players in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury. However, the changes in EAAT1 and EAAT2 expression, glutamate uptake and the oxidative profile during intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) development have not been described. The present study sought to investigate the changes of the above-mentioned variables, as well as the Na+ /K+ - ATPase and glutamine synthetase activities (as important contributors of glutamate homeostasis) and the percentage of neuronal cells after 6 h, 24 h, 72 h and 7 days of ICH...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Chi-Hyeon Yoo, Song-I Lim, Kyu-Ho Song, Dong-Cheol Woo, Bo-Young Choe
Although recent investigations of major depressive disorder (MDD) have focused on the monoaminergic system, accumulating evidences suggest that alternative pathophysiological models of MDD and treatment options for patients with MDD are needed. Animals subjected to chronic forced swim stress (CFSS) develop behavioral despair. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of CFSS on systems other than the monoamine system in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) with 7T and short-echo-time (16.3 ms) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS)...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Sunaina Sharma, Puneet Kumar, Rahul Deshmukh
Parkinson's disease is a leading hypokinetic disorder characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of mid-brain. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is considered to be due to oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, disturbed calcium homeostasis and glutamate excitotoxicity etc. Spermidine is a polyamine which counteracts age associated cell death by scavenging free radical formation, activates authophagic machinery by enhancing formation of autophagosome, and antagonizes NMDA receptor...
February 28, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Hailiang Wang, Zhiyong He, Yijue Zhang, Jun Zhang
Background OBJECTIVE: The cerebral ischemia/reperfusion greatly influences brain metabolism. Remote ischemia preconditioning (RIPC) is reported to confer neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia in animal models and human. This study aims to investigate the metabolomic profiles of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients treated with repetitive lower limb RIPC and provides an insight into possible mechanism underlying RIPC-induced neuroprotection. METHOD: Fifty healthy patients undergoing minor surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to 2 groups: control group (Group C, n = 25) and RIPC treatment group (Group T,n = 25)...
February 22, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Yi Chang, Cheng Wei Lu, Yi Jing Chen, Tzu Yu Lin, Shu Kuei Huang, Su Jane Wang
Excitotoxic damage caused by increased glutamate levels is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Astaxanthin, a natural carotenoid with multiple health benefits, inhibits glutamate release from the brain tissue; however, whether it possesses the ability to affect glutamate-induced brain injury is unknown. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin on kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity in rats and the possible underlying intracellular signaling pathway...
February 20, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Daniel Koehler, Zahoor A Shah, Kenneth Hensley, Frederick E Williams
Okadaic acid (OKA) is a protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor that is used to induce neurodegeneration and study disease states such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lanthionine ketimine-5-ethyl ester (LKE) is a bioavailable derivative of the naturally occurring brain sulfur metabolite, lanthionine ketimine (LK). In previously conducted studies, LKE exhibited neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties in murine models but its mechanism of action remains to be clarified. In this study, a recently established zebrafish OKA-induced AD model was utilized to further elucidate the neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties of LKE in the context of an AD-like condition...
February 20, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Liya Lin, Hefeng Lin, Shi Bai, Lianshun Zheng, Xiaoming Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the spinal cord and results in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. The treatment of SCI became a challenge because the injured neurons fail to axon regenerate and repair after injury. Promoting axonal regeneration plays a key role in the treatment strategies for SCI. It would meet the goal of reconstruction the injured spinal cord and improving the functional recovery. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are attractive therapeutic potential cell sources for SCI, and it could rebuild the injured spinal cord through neuroprotection, neural regeneration and remyelinating...
February 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Nádia Weber Dimer, Bruna Klippel Ferreira, Jotele Fontana Agostini, Maria Luiza Gomes, Luiza Wilges Kist, Fernanda Malgarin, Milena Carvalho-Silva, Lara Mezari Gomes, Joyce Rebelo, Marisa Jádna Silva Frederico, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva, Eduardo Pacheco Rico, Mauricio Reis Bogo, Emilio Luiz Streck, Gustavo Costa Ferreira, Patrícia Fernanda Schuck
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disorder of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism caused by deficient phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The deficiency results in increased levels of Phe and its metabolites in fluids and tissues of patients. PKU patients present neurological signals and symptoms including hypomyelination and intellectual deficit. This study assessed brain bioenergetics at 1 h after acute Phe administration to induce hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) in rats. Wistar rats were randomized in two groups: HPA animals received a single subcutaneous administration of Phe (5...
February 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Changzheng Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Peiling Zhou, Junjie Zhang, Wuming He, Ti-Fei Yuan
The ventral tegmental area (VTA), a pivotal brain region of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, is substantially innervated and modulated by cholinergic projections from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. In this review, we focus mainly on the current findings on VTA cholinergic compositions and functions, including VTA cholinergic innervations and synaptic connectivity, acetylcholine receptor expression and functional characteristics, cholinergic modulation of neuronal activity and dopamine efflux, cholinergic modulation of VTA-mediated behaviors such as reward and addiction, stress and depression, locomotion, etc...
February 10, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Wei Hu, Xing-Bo Dang, Gang Wang, Shuai Li, Yue-Lin Zhang
Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are a highly conserved family of thiol peroxidases that scavenge peroxides in cells. PRDX3 is one member of PRDXs localized in the mitochondria, and has been shown to be involved in antioxidant defense and redox signaling. In this study, we investigated the role of PRDX3 in neuronal trauma using a traumatic neuronal injury (TNI) model in primary cultured cortical neurons. We found that TNI significantly decreased the expression of PRDX3 at both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of PRDX3 by lentivirus (LV-PRDX3) transfection attenuated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and neuronal apoptosis after TNI...
February 7, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Jie Hua Xu, Hui Wang, Wen Zhang, Feng Ru Tang
Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) have been shown to regulate neuronal excitability and their antagonists have been used clinically for the control of seizures. While functional studies of VDCC in epileptogenesis in the CA1 area of hippocampus or the dentate gyrus have been done, few studies were carried out in the CA3 area. Given the bursting characteristics of the CA3 neurons, we speculated that VDCC in the CA3 area might play an important role in the epileptogenesis. In the present study in the mouse pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy, we investigated the alterations of alpha 1 subunits of L-type VDCC in the CA3 area of the hippocampus at different stages of epileptogenesis, i...
February 7, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Zhihui Zhu, Georg Reiser
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a group of proteins with molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa. Currently, 11 members of this family have been classified, namely HspB1 to HspB11. HspB1, HspB2, HspB5, HspB6, HspB7, and HspB8, which are expressed in brain have been observed to be related to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Alexander's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Specifically, sHsps interact with misfolding and damaging protein aggregates, like Glial fibrillary acidic protein in AxD, β-amyloid peptides aggregates in Alzheimer's disease, Superoxide dismutase 1 in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cytosine-adenine-guanine/polyglutamine (CAG/PolyQ) in Huntington's disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, Spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy, to reduce the toxicity or increase the clearance of these protein aggregates...
February 6, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Sedigheh Behrouzifar, Abedin Vakili, Ahmad Reza Bandegi, Parviz Kokhaei
New evidence suggests that resistin may have a therapeutic potential effect in management of neurodegenerative disease; but its role in the pathophysiology of stroke-induced injuries is not understood. However, further investigations are required to elucidate the effect of resistin and explore its possible molecular mechanisms on the ischemic reperfusion injury. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice. Animal treated with resistin at doses of 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ng/mouse, on the MCAO commencement...
February 2, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Corinne Y Ostock, Nirmal Bhide, Adam A Goldenberg, Jessica A George, Christopher Bishop
l-DOPA remains the primary treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Unfortunately, its therapeutic benefits are compromised by the development of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). The norepinephrine (NE) system originating in the locus coeruleus is profoundly affected in PD and known to influence dopamine (DA) signaling. However, the effect of noradrenergic loss on l-DOPA-induced striatal monoamine efflux and Parkinsonian motor behavior remains controversial and is frequently overlooked in traditional animal models of LID...
January 22, 2018: Neurochemistry International
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