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Neurochemistry International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202285/decreased-mir-146a-expression-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-directly-targets-the-fbxl10-mrna-and-is-involved-in-modulating-apoptosis
#1
Sheng-Hua Li, Lan Chen, Xiao-Min Pang, Sheng-You Su, Xia Zhou, Chun-Yong Chen, Li-Gang Huang, Jing-Pin Li, Jing-Li Liu
BACKGROUND: miR-146a, a strong pro-apoptotic factor in some pathophysiological processes, is reported to be involved in ischemic stroke (IS), though its role remains unclear. Fbxl10 is an active anti-apoptotic factor and a predicted target of miR-146a. We hypothesized that dysregulation of miR-146a contributes to ischemic injury by targeting Fbxl10. METHODS: Circulating miRNAs were detected by miRNA microarray and qRT-PCR. miR-146a targets were predicted using bioinformatics and confirmed with a dual luciferase reporter assay...
February 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202284/post-stroke-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Tomotaka Tanaka, Masafumi Ihara
Post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) is a common complication after stroke, yet treatment options remain limited. While many physicians prescribe antiepileptic drugs (AED) for secondary prevention of PSE, it is unclear which treatments are most effective in the prevention of recurrence of symptoms, or whether such therapy is needed for primary prevention. This review discusses the current understanding of epidemiology, diagnoses, mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments of PSE.
February 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192150/effect-of-artemisinin-on-neuropathic-pain-mediated-by-p2x4-receptor-in-dorsal-root-ganglia
#3
Mofeng Ying, Hui Liu, Tengling Zhang, Chenxu Jiang, Yingxin Gong, Bing Wu, Lifang Zou, Zhihua Yi, Shenqiang Rao, Guilin Li, Chunping Zhang, Tianyu Jia, Shanhong Zhao, Huilong Yua, Liran Shi, Lin Li, Shangdong Liang, Shuangmei Liu
Neuropathic pain is a type of chronic pain caused by nervous system damage and dysfunction. The pathogenesis of chronic pain is complicated, and there are no effective therapies for neuropathic pain. Studies show that the P2X4 receptor expressed in the satellite glial cells (SGCs) of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is related to neuropathic pain. Artemisinin is a monomeric component extracted from traditional Chinese medicine and has a variety of important pharmacological effects and potential applications. This study observed the effect of artemisinin on neuropathic pain and delineated its possible mechanism...
February 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192149/serum-uric-acid-and-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#4
Yaqing Shu, Yuge Wang, Tingting Lu, Rui Li, Xiaobo Sun, Jing Li, Yanyu Chang, Xueqiang Hu, Zhengqi Lu, Wei Qiu
BACKGROUND: Uric acid (UA) levels are associated with autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders, but their relationship with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is unknown. METHODS: UA levels were evaluated in 58 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and 58 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (CTLs). Follow-up evaluations of 30 out of the 58 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were conducted 3 months after admission. Modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores and clinical and cerebrospinal fluid parameters were evaluated in all anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients...
February 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188803/activation-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-by-haloperidol-metabolites-facilitates-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-secretion-from-human-astroglia
#5
Dhwanil A Dalwadi, Seongcheol Kim, John A Schetz
Glial cells play a critical role in neuronal support which includes the production and release of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Activation of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been shown to attenuate inflammatory stress-mediated brain injuries, and there is emerging evidence that this may involve a BDNF-dependent mechanism. In this report we studied S1R-mediated BDNF release from human astrocytic glial cells. Astrocytes express the S1R, which mediates BDNF release when stimulated with the prototypical S1R agonists 4-PPBP and (+)-SKF10047...
February 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188802/crosstalk-of-metabolic-factors-and-neurogenic-signaling-in-adult-neurogenesis-implication-of-metabolic-regulation-for-mental-and-neurological-diseases
#6
Chong Gao, Qi Wang, Sookja K Chung, Jiangang Shen
Metabolic disorders like diabetes and obesity are commonly companied with neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidences indicated that cellular metabolic factors affect adult neurogenesis and have modulating effects on neurodegenerative disorders and psychiatric diseases. Adult neurogenesis contains multiple steps including proliferation of neural stem cells, lineage commitments of neural progenitor cells, maturation into functional neurons, and integration into neuronal network. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors produced from neural stem/progenitor cells and their microenvironment or neurogenic niche take roles in modulating neurogenesis and contribute to the brain repair and functional recoveries in many neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders...
February 7, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174023/hydrogen-sulfide-in-stroke-protective-or-deleterious
#7
REVIEW
Su Jing Chan, Peter T-H Wong
Hydrogen sulfide is believed to be a signalling molecule in the central nervous system. It is known to increase rapidly following an ischemic insult in experimental stroke. Is it protective or deleterious? This review surveys the relevant information available in the literature. It appears that there is no definitive answer to this question at present. Current evidence seems to suggest that the presence of H2S in the ischemic brain may either be deleterious or protective depending on its concentration, deleterious when high and protective when low...
February 4, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167224/hypercholesterolemia-causes-psychomotor-abnormalities-in-mice-and-alterations-in-cortico-striatal-biogenic-amine-neurotransmitters-relevance-to-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Rajib Paul, Amarendranath Choudhury, Dulal Chandra Boruah, Rajlakshmi Devi, Pallab Bhattacharya, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury, Anupom Borah
The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) include motor behavioral abnormalities, which appear as a result of the extensive loss of the striatal biogenic amine, dopamine. Various endogenous molecules, including cholesterol, have been put forward as putative contributors in the pathogenesis of PD. Earlier reports have provided a strong link between the elevated level of plasma cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) and onset of PD. However, the role of hypercholesterolemia on brain functions in terms of neurotransmitter metabolism and associated behavioral manifestations remain elusive...
February 3, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163061/importins-in-the-maintenance-and-lineage-commitment-of-es-cells
#9
REVIEW
Noriko Yasuhara, Yoshihiro Yoneda
The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope, and nuclear pores within the envelope facilitate nucleocytoplasmic transport and the exchange of information. Gene regulation is a key component of biological activity regulation in the cell. Transcription factors control the expression levels of various genes that are necessary for the maintenance or conversion of cellular states during animal development. Because transcription factor activities determine the extent of transcription of target genes, the number of active transcription factors must be tightly regulated...
February 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163060/an-insight-into-the-vision-impairment-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
REVIEW
Nilkantha Sen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality and it affects more than 1.7 million Americans each year. Depending on its location and severity, TBI leads to structural and functional damage in several parts of the brain such as cranial nerves, optic nerve tract or other circuitry involved in vision, and occipital lobe. As a result, the function associated with vision processing and perception are significantly affected and cause blurred vision, double vision, decreased peripheral vision and blindness...
February 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161467/neuroprotective-diets-for-stroke
#11
María Irene Ayuso, Rafael Gonzalo-Gobernado, Joan Montaner
Stroke is one of the main causes of death and disability in the elderly. In the last few years, there has been increasing evidence that suggests the influence of the diet on the decrease of stroke risk. Probably, because of the presence of bioactive components with beneficial effects such as antioxidant or anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews several dietary bioactive compounds from studies in models of cerebral ischemia that have obtained promising results decreasing cerebral damage. We propose that many of these compounds present in diet could be good candidates to test new neuroprotection approaches focused on reducing the damage and protecting the brain before stroke occurs...
February 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161468/capillarisin-augments-anti-oxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-responses-by-activating-nrf2-ho-1-signaling
#12
Jinhee Kim, Juhee Lim, Bok Yun Kang, Kiwon Jung, Hyun Jin Choi
Capillarisin is a naturally isolated chromone, which is one of the major bioactive constituents of Artemisia capillaries. Capillarisin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor potential, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is activated by capillarisin in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and microglial BV2 cells. Capillarisin leads to Nrf2 phosphorylation, subsequent activation of antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated transcription, and up-regulation of downstream molecules, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1...
February 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159626/nickel-oxide-nanoparticles-are-highly-toxic-to-sh-sy5y-neuronal-cells
#13
Abudayyak Mahmoud, Guzel Elif, Özhan Gül
Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) are used in many industrial sectors including printing inks, ceramics and catalysts, and electrical and electronics industry because of their magnetic and optical properties. However, there has been still a serious lack of information about their toxicity at the cellular and molecular levels on nervous system. For that, we aimed to investigate the in vitro toxic potentials of NiO-NPs in neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells. The particle characterisation, cellular uptake and morphological changes were determined using Transmission Electron Microscopy, dynamic light scattering and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry...
January 31, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153786/the-role-of-ca-2-calmodulin-stimulated-protein-kinase-ii-in-ischaemic-stroke-a-potential-target-for-neuroprotective-therapies
#14
REVIEW
John A P Rostas, Neil J Spratt, Phillip W Dickson, Kathryn A Skelding
Studies in multiple experimental systems show that Ca(2+)-calmodulin stimulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major mediator of ischaemia-induced cell death and suggest that CaMKII would be a good target for neuroprotective therapies in acute treatment of stroke. However, as CaMKII regulates many cellular processes in many tissues any clinical treatment involving the inhibition of CaMKII would need to be able to specifically target the functions of ischaemia-activated CaMKII. In this review we summarise new developments in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in ischaemia-induced CaMKII-mediated cell death that have identified ways in which such specificity of CaMKII inhibition after stroke could be achieved...
January 30, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137534/is-there-a-place-for-human-fetal-derived-stem-cells-for-cell-replacement-therapy-in-huntington-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Sophie V Precious, Rike Zietlow, Stephen B Dunnett, Claire M Kelly, Anne E Rosser
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease that offers an excellent paradigm for cell replacement therapy because of the associated relatively focal cell loss in the striatum. The predominant cells lost in this condition are striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Transplantation of developing MSNs taken from the fetal brain has provided proof of concept that donor MSNs can survive, integrate and bring about a degree of functional recovery in both pre-clinical studies and in a limited number of clinical trials...
January 27, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131900/non-coding-rnas-and-neuroprotection-after-acute-cns-injuries
#16
Raghavendar Chandran, Suresh L Mehta, Raghu Vemuganti
Accumulating evidence indicates that various classes of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including microRNAs (miRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in normal state as well as the diseases of the CNS. Interestingly, ncRNAs have been shown to interact with messenger RNA, DNA and proteins, and these interactions could induce epigenetic modifications and control transcription and translation, thereby adding a new layer of genomic regulation. The ncRNA expression profiles are known to be altered after acute CNS injuries including stroke, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury that are major contributors of morbidity and mortality worldwide...
January 26, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131899/blockade-of-intracellular-zn-2-signaling-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-affects-object-recognition-memory-via-attenuation-of-dentate-gyrus-ltp
#17
Yuki Fujise, Mitsuyasu Kubota, Miki Suzuki, Haruna Tamano, Atsushi Takeda
Hippocampus-dependent memory is modulated by the amygdala. However, it is unknown whether intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the amygdala is involved in hippocampus-dependent memory. On the basis of the evidence that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells (DGC) is necessary for object recognition memory via LTP at medial perforant pathway (PP)-DGC synapses, the present study examined whether intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the amygdala influences object recognition memory via modulation of LTP at medial PP-DGC synapses...
January 25, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131898/sex-differences-in-stroke-across-the-lifespan-the-role-of-t-lymphocytes
#18
REVIEW
Javiera Bravo-Alegria, Louise D McCullough, Fudong Liu
Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Ischemic sensitivity changes throughout the lifespan and outcomes depend largely on variables like age, sex, hormonal status, inflammation, and other existing risk factors. Immune responses after stroke play a central role in how these factors interact. Although the post-stroke immune response has been extensively studied, the contribution of lymphocytes to stroke is still not well understood. T cells participate in both innate and adaptive immune responses at both acute and chronic stages of stroke...
January 25, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126466/coconut-oil-protects-cortical-neurons-from-amyloid-beta-toxicity-by-enhancing-signaling-of-cell-survival-pathways
#19
F Nafar, J P Clarke, K M Mearow
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods...
January 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122248/mdma-induced-neurotoxicity-of-serotonin-neurons-involves-autophagy-and-rilmenidine-is-protective-against-its-pathobiology
#20
Linda D Mercer, Gavin C Higgins, Chew L Lau, Andrew J Lawrence, Philip M Beart
Toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) towards biogenic amine neurons is well documented and in primate brain predominantly affects serotonin (5-HT) neurons. MDMA induces damage of 5-HT axons and nerve fibres and intracytoplasmic inclusions. Whilst its pathobiology involves mitochondrially-mediated oxidative stress, we hypothesised MDMA possessed the capacity to activate autophagy, a proteostatic mechanism for degradation of cellular debris. We established a culture of ventral pons from embryonic murine brain enriched in 5-HT neurons to explore mechanisms of MDMA neurotoxicity and recruitment of autophagy, and evaluated possible neuroprotective actions of the clinically approved agent rilmenidine...
January 22, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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