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Neurochemistry International

Kazuya Miyanishi, Mohammed E Choudhury, Minori Watanabe, Madoka Kubo, Masahiro Nomoto, Hajime Yano, Junya Tanaka
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent neurodegenerative disease causing bradykinesia, tremor, muscle rigidity and postural instability. Although its main pathology is progressive dopaminergic (DArgic) neuron loss in the substantia nigra, motor deficits are thought not to become apparent until most DArgic neurons are lost, probably due to compensatory mechanisms that overcome the decline of DA level in the striatum. Even in animal PD models, it is difficult to detect motor deficits when most DArgic neurons are functional...
November 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Dae Young Yoo, Su Bin Cho, Hyo Young Jung, Woosuk Kim, Kwon Young Lee, Jong Whi Kim, Seung Myung Moon, Moo-Ho Won, Jung Hoon Choi, Yeo Sung Yoon, Dae Won Kim, Soo Young Choi, In Koo Hwang
Ischemia causes oxidative stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), accelerates the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins, and may ultimately lead to neuronal cell apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3), an ER-resident chaperone that catalyzes disulfide-bond formation in a subset of glycoproteins, against oxidative damage in the hypoxic HT22 cell line and against ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampus. We also confirmed the neuroprotective effects of PDIA3 by using PDIA3-knockout HAP1 cells...
November 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Farida Sohrabji, Amutha Selvamani
MicroRNAs, a subset of non-coding RNAs, are present in virtually all tissues including body fluids and are global regulators of the transcriptome. In view of the expanding number of microRNAs and the large number of gene targets that each microRNA can potentially regulate, they have been compared to hormones in the scope of their effects. MicroRNA have been implicated as biomarkers for several diseases including stroke, as well as chronic conditions that are associated with stroke. Recent research has focused on manipulating miRNA to improve stroke outcomes...
November 1, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Daniel Koehler, Zahoor A Shah, Frederick E Williams
Currently, no treatments exist that are able to directly treat against Alzheimer's disease (AD), and we are facing an inevitable increase in the near future of the amount of patients who will suffer from AD. Most animal models of AD are limited by not being able to recapitulate the entire pathology of AD. Recently an AD model in zebrafish was established by using the protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor, okadaic acid (OKA). Administering OKA to zebrafish was able to recapitulate most of the neuropathology associated with AD...
October 28, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Chrislean Jun Botanas, June Bryan de la Peña, Hee Jin Kim, Yong Sup Lee, Jae Hoon Cheong
Methoxetamine (MXE) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is chemically and pharmacologically similar to other dissociative substances, such as ketamine and phencyclidine. There are reports on the misuse of MXE, which sometimes resulted in adverse consequences and death. Studies have also shown that MXE has abuse liability and stimulates dopamine neurotransmission in the mesolimbic reward pathway in the brain. These findings have contributed to the negative impression on MXE. However, recent preclinical studies have identified the antidepressant properties of MXE, which are attributed to its ability to affect the glutamatergic and serotonergic systems...
October 24, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Xuefang Ren, Elizabeth B Engler-Chiurazzi, Ashley E Russell, Saumyendra N Sarkar, Stephanie L Rellick, Sara Lewis, Deborah Corbin, Jared Clapper, James W Simpkins
Aging of the nervous system, and the occurrence of age-related brain diseases such as stroke, are associated with changes to a variety of cellular processes controlled by many distinct genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), short non-coding functional RNAs that can induce translational repression or site-specific cleavage of numerous target mRNAs, have recently emerged as important regulators of cellular senescence, aging, and the response to neurological insult. Here, we focused on the assessment of the role of miR-34a in stroke...
October 23, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Tetsuya Akaishi, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are detected in the serum of some patients with demyelinating diseases. These patients are known to show repeated clinical episodes of inflammatory demyelinating attacks in the central nervous system. Although the associated pathogenicity and mechanism of inflammatory demyelination remains inconclusive, it is known that patients with MOG-IgG antibodies have a different clinical spectrum from those with other demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis...
October 23, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Xiao-Xuan Fan, Yu-Ying Hao, Shi-Wen Guo, Xiao-Ping Zhao, Yi Xiang, Fei-Xue Feng, Ge-Ting Liang, Yu-Wei Dong
Reticulons (RTNs) are a family of membrane-bound proteins that are dominantly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. RTN1-C is one member of RTNs abundantly expressed in the brain and has been shown to mediate neuronal injury in cerebral ischemia models. In the present study, we investigated the role of RTN1-C in an in vitro brain trauma model mimicked by traumatic neuronal injury (TNI) in primary cultured cortical neurons. TNI increased the expression of RTN1-C in cortical neurons but had no effect on RTN1-A and RTN1-B...
October 21, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Norma Serrano-García, Francisca Fernández-Valverde, Erika Rubi Luis-Garcia, Leticia Granados-Rojas, Tarsila Elizabeth Juárez-Zepeda, Sandra Adela Orozco-Suárez, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Marisol Orozco-Ibarra, Anabel Jiménez-Anguiano
Rotenone, a classic mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, leads to dopaminergic neuronal death resulting in a Parkinson's-like-disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has shown neuroprotective effects in other experimental models of Parkinson's disease, but its effect on the rotenone-induced parkinsonism is still unknown. We tested whether DHA in vivo exerts a neuroprotective effect on rotenone-induced parkinsonism and explored the mechanisms involved, including mitochondrial function and ultrastructure as well as the expression of tubulin and synaptophysin...
October 19, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Seiichiro Sakai, Takashi Shichita
Stroke causes neuronal cell death and destruction of neuronal circuits in the brain and spinal cord. Injury to the brain tissue induces sterile inflammation triggered by the extracellular release of endogenous molecules, but cerebral inflammation after stroke is gradually resolved within several days. In this pro-resolving process, inflammatory cells adopt a pro-resolving or repairing phenotype in the injured brain, activating endogenous repairing programs. Although the mechanisms involved in the transition from inflammation to neural repair after stroke remain largely unknown to date, some of the mechanisms for inflammation and neural repair have been clarified in detail...
October 19, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Akiko Nakai, Kazuhiro Suzuki
Since the beginning of the last century, substantial evidence has suggested that various aspects of the immune system are influenced by the activity of the nervous system. However, the cellular and molecular basis for the neural control of immune responses has emerged only in the past decade. Recent studies have shown that adrenergic nerves control trafficking of immune cells through cell-type-specific mechanisms. Activation of the β2 -adrenergic receptor expressed on lymphocytes enhances signals mediated by a particular set of chemokine receptors, and consequently inhibits their exit from lymph nodes...
October 19, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Faisal Hayat Nazir, Bruno Becker, Ann Brinkmalm, Kina Höglund, Åsa Sandelius, Petra Bergström, Tugce Munise Satir, Annika Öhrfelt, Kaj Blennow, Lotta Agholme, Henrik Zetterberg
Synaptic function and neurotransmitter release are regulated by specific proteins. Cortical neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) provides an experimental model to obtain more information about synaptic development and physiology in vitro. In this study, expression and secretion of the synaptic proteins, neurogranin (NRGN), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), synaptosomal-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25) and synaptotagmin-1 (SYT-1) were analyzed during cortical neuronal differentiation...
October 18, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Manabu Araki
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are autoimmune diseases associated with a disease-specific autoantibody directed against the water channel protein aquaporin-4. Standard immunotherapy, immunosuppressive agents, and corticosteroids can prevent acute attacks and maintain remission in most patients with NMOSD. However, there is a strong need for additional options for patients who are refractory to standard treatments. Emerging therapies targeting specific molecules related to the pathogenicity of NMOSD are currently being developed...
October 17, 2018: Neurochemistry International
S Maya, T Prakash, Krishnadas Madhu
Glutamate excitotoxicity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis behind the development and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. The study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective activity of Gallic acid (GA) against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary rat cortex neurons (RCN). Treated the RCNs with GA 25 & 50 μg/ml for 2 h and later treated the cells with 100 μM glutamate (GLU) and incubated for 24 h at 37 °C. The results demonstrated that, the GA improved the antioxidant profile in the cortex neurons and inhibited the production of the proinflammatory cytokine...
October 17, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Xinjian Zhang, Taku Nagai, Rijwan Uddin Ahammad, Keisuke Kuroda, Shinichi Nakamuta, Takashi Nakano, Naoto Yukinawa, Yasuhiro Funahashi, Yukie Yamahashi, Mutsuki Amano, Junichiro Yoshimoto, Kiyofumi Yamada, Kozo Kaibuchi
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) or D2 receptor (D2R) are major components of the striatum. Stimulation of D1R activates protein kinase A (PKA) through Golf to increase neuronal activity, while D2R stimulation inhibits PKA through Gi . Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) coupled to Golf is highly expressed in D2R-MSNs within the striatum. However, how dopamine and adenosine co-operatively regulate PKA activity remains largely unknown. Here, we measured Rap1gap serine 563 phosphorylation to monitor PKA activity and examined dopamine and adenosine signals in MSNs...
October 15, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Péter Hertelendy, Dániel P Varga, Ákos Menyhárt, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas
Secondary injury following acute brain insults significantly contributes to poorer neurological outcome. The spontaneous, recurrent occurrence of spreading depolarization events (SD) has been recognized as a potent secondary injury mechanism in subarachnoid hemorrhage, malignant ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. In addition, SD is the underlying mechanism of the aura symptoms of migraineurs. The susceptibility of the nervous tissue to SD is subject to the metabolic status of the tissue, the ionic composition of the extracellular space, and the functional status of ion pumps, voltage-gated and other cation channels, glutamate receptors and excitatory amino acid transporters...
October 15, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Carla Garza-Lombó, Pavel Petrosyan, Miguel Tapia-Rodríguez, Cesar Valdovinos-Flores, María E Gonsebatt
Glutathione (GSH) is an essential component of intracellular antioxidant systems that plays a primordial role in the protection of cells against oxidative stress, maintaining redox homeostasis and xenobiotic detoxification. GSH synthesis in the brain is limited by the availability of cysteine and glutamate. Cystine, the disulfide form of cysteine is transported into endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and astrocytes via the system xc - , which is composed of xCT and the heavy chain of 4F2 cell surface antigen (4F2hc)...
October 6, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Saurabh Srivastav, Mahino Fatima, Amal Chandra Mondal
Paraquat (PQ) is an organic chemical compound and a member of redox active family of heterocycles. In spite of its high toxicities, it is used as one of the potent herbicide throughout the world. Though its toxic manifestations are observed in different organs, its principal toxic effect is manifested in the brain leading to the development of Parkinsonian symptoms. PQ exposure adversely affects dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neuron-rich region in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC) of brain in the animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), thereby mimicking PD like symptoms...
October 5, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Shi-Xun Ma, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Opioid addiction is a growing problem for public health, and opioids have correspondingly become more heavily regulated over time. We have previously shown that TRPV1 plays a critical role in morphine addiction using a self-administration paradigm in rats, and the current study evaluates the effects of the TRPV1 signaling pathway on morphine self-administration (SA). We found that treatment with a selective TRPV1 antagonist, SB366791, significantly decreased the morphine SA-induced activation of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), Akt and the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
October 4, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Gang Luo, Yinuo Huang, Dapeng Mo, Ning Ma, Feng Gao, Ligang Song, Xuan Sun, Xiaotong Xu, Lian Liu, Xiaochuan Huo, Bo Wang, Xiaoqing Li, Baixue Jia, Yiming Deng, Xuelei Zhang, Alejandro Fernandez-Escobar, Guangge Peng, Zhongrong Miao
Subsequent inflammation in stroke plays an important role in the damage of neurons in the perilesional area. Therapeutic intervention targeting inflammation may be a promising complementary strategy to current treatments of stroke. Here, we explored the possible beneficial effects of tyrosol, a derivative of phenethyl alcohol and natural antioxidant, playing an anti-inflammatory role in astrocyte culture and in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model. MTT, western blot, ELISA and EMSA assays were carried out to investigate cell viability, protein expression level, cytokine expression and NF-κB activity...
October 4, 2018: Neurochemistry International
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