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Neurochemistry International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919254/palmitic-acid-stimulates-energy-metabolism-and-inhibits-insulin-pi3k-akt-signaling-in-differentiated-human-neuroblastoma-cells-the-role-of-mtor-activation-and-mitochondrial-ros-production
#1
Erika Calvo-Ochoa, Karina Sánchez-Alegría, Cecilia Gómez-Inclán, Patricia Ferrera, Clorinda Arias
The high consumption of saturated lipids has been largely associated with the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases. In particular, saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. However, how neurons develop insulin resistance in response to lipid overload is not fully understood. Here, we used cultured rat cortical neurons and differentiated human neuroblastoma cells to demonstrate that PA blocks insulin-induced metabolic activation, inhibits the activation of the insulin/PI3K/Akt pathway and activates mTOR kinase downstream of Akt...
September 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919253/the-influence-of-acidic-media-on-the-effect-of-beta-amyloid-peptide-on-the-function-of-glycine-receptor-in-hippocampal-neurons
#2
J V Bukanova, E I Solntseva, R V Kondratenko, V G Skrebitsky
We have previously shown that application of beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Aβ) at picomolar/nanomolar concentrations caused a decrease in the peak amplitude and acceleration of desensitization of the glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in hippocampal pyramidal neurons (Bukanova et al., 2016). The aim of this work was to study the effect of Aβ on IGly in an acidified medium. The relevance of this work is determined by the fact that the pathogenic effects of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease are usually accompanied by inflammatory processes and acidosis...
September 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917714/mitochondria-in-the-nervous-system-from-health-to-disease-part-i
#3
EDITORIAL
Brian M Polster, Maria Teresa Carrì, Philip M Beart
In Part I of this Special Issue on "Mitochondria in the Nervous System: From Health to Disease", the editors bring together contributions from experts in brain mitochondrial research to provide an up-to-date overview of mitochondrial functioning in physiology and pathology. The issue provides cutting edge reviews on classical areas of mitochondrial biology that include energy substrate utilization, calcium handling, mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum communication, and cell death regulation. Additional reviews and original research articles touch upon key mitochondrial defects seen across multiple neurodegenerative conditions, including fragmentation, loss of respiratory capacity, calcium overload, elevated reactive oxygen species generation, perturbed NAD(+) metabolism, altered protein acetylation, and compromised mitophagy...
September 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899812/the-starving-brain-overfed-meets-undernourished-in-the-pathology-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-and-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#4
REVIEW
Kelly J Gibas
Type II Diabetes affects 400 million people worldwide (IDF, 2013). The pathology is paradoxical: internal starvation activated by overfeeding. Hyperinsulinemic impairments of glucose homeostasis are treated with anti-hyperglycemics exacerbating cell starvation, inducing hypoglycemia and raising respiratory quotient. Reductions in hyperglycemia are achieved at the expense of glucose dependency and metabolic inflexibility (Gibas & Gibas, 2017). The brain is not immune from these cycles of starvation. The bioenergetic model characterizes propagation of late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease as loss of molecular fidelity and compromised energy originating in brain networks with highest metabolic demand...
September 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890319/arctic-a%C3%AE-40-blocks-the-nicotine-induced-neuroprotective-effect-of-chrna7-by-inhibiting-the-erk1-2-pathway-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#5
Ye Ju, Toru Asahi, Naoya Sawamura
Amyloid β protein (Aβ) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Point mutations in the Aβ sequence, which cluster around the central hydrophobic core of the peptide, are associated with familial AD (FAD). Several mutations have been identified, with the Arctic mutation exhibiting a purely cognitive phenotype that is typical of AD. Our previous findings suggest that Arctic Aβ40 binds to and aggregates with CHRNA7, thereby inhibiting the calcium response and signaling pathways downstream of the receptor...
September 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888963/sex-differences-in-the-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-of-astrocytes-but-not-microglia-at-a-physiologically-relevant-brain-oxygen-tension
#6
Sausan M Jaber, Evan A Bordt, Niraj M Bhatt, Daniel M Lewis, Sharon Gerecht, Gary Fiskum, Brian M Polster
Biological sex is thought to influence mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Previous respiration measurements examining brain mitochondrial sex differences were made at atmospheric oxygen using isolated brain mitochondria. Oxygen is 160 mm Hg (21%) in the atmosphere, while the oxygen tension in the brain generally ranges from ∼5 to 45 mm Hg (∼1-6% O2). This study tested the hypothesis that sex and/or brain physiological oxygen tension influence the mitochondrial bioenergetic properties of primary rat cortical astrocytes and microglia...
September 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887094/salvianolic-acids-for-injection-safi-promotes-functional-recovery-and-neurogenesis-via-sonic-hedgehog-pathway-after-stroke-in-mice
#7
Ye Zhang, Xiangjian Zhang, Lili Cui, Rong Chen, Cong Zhang, Yaoru Li, Tingting He, Xingyuan Zhu, Zuyuan Shen, Lipeng Dong, Jingru Zhao, Ya Wen, Xiufen Zheng, Pan Li
There is a pressing need of developing approaches for delayed post-stroke therapy for patients who fail to receive thrombolysis within the narrow time window. Neuroprotection of Salvianolic Acids for Injection (SAFI) for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in acute phase has been well documented. The current study was to determine the influence of SAFI at the subacute phase after stroke in mice, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to permanent occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery (dMCAO), followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of SAFI 24 h after stroke for 14 days...
September 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887093/repeated-restraint-stress-increases-seizure-susceptibility-by-activation-of-hippocampal-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#8
Xinjian Zhu, Jingde Dong, Zhengrong Xia, Aifeng Zhang, Jie Chao, Honghong Yao
A growing body of evidence suggests that stress triggers a variety of pathophysiological responses. Recent studies show that stress produces enduring effects on structure and function of hippocampus, which is one of the most important structures involved in epilepsy. In the present study, we determined the effect of repeated restraint stress exposure on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and the possible mechanisms involved using a rodent model. Our results show that mice subjected to repeated restraint stress exhibited shorter latency to PTZ-induced tonic-clonic seizures and higher seizure severity, suggesting chronic restraint stress increases seizure susceptibility...
September 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851515/alterations-in-the-e3-ligases-parkin-and-chip-result-in-unique-metabolic-signaling-defects-and-mitochondrial-quality-control-issues
#9
REVIEW
Britney N Lizama, Amy M Palubinsky, BethAnn McLaughlin
E3 ligases are essential scaffold proteins, facilitating the transfer of ubiquitin from E2 enzymes to lysine residues of client proteins via isopeptide bonds. The specificity of substrate binding and the expression and localization of E3 ligases can, however, endow these proteins with unique features with variable effects on mitochondrial, metabolic and CNS function. By comparing and contrasting two E3 ligases, Parkin and C-terminus of HSC70-Interacting protein (CHIP) we seek to highlight the biophysical properties that may promote mitochondrial dysfunction, acute stress signaling and critical developmental periods to cease in response to mutations in these genes...
August 26, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844489/analysis-of-lipid-raft-molecules-in-the-living-brain-slices
#10
Norihiro Kotani, Takanari Nakano, Yui Ida, Rina Ito, Miki Hashizume, Arisa Yamaguchi, Makoto Seo, Tomoyuki Araki, Yasushi Hojo, Koichi Honke, Takayuki Murakoshi
Neuronal plasma membrane has been thought to retain a lot of lipid raft components which play important roles in the neural function. Although the biochemical analyses of lipid raft using brain tissues have been extensively carried out in the past 20 years, many of their experimental conditions do not coincide with those of standard neuroscience researches such as neurophysiology and neuropharmacology. Hence, the physiological methods for lipid raft analysis that can be compatible with general neuroscience have been required...
August 24, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827078/p2y12-shrna-treatment-relieved-hiv-gp120-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#11
Liran Shi, Bing Wu, Zhihua Yi, Shanhong Zhao, Lifang Zou, Lin Li, Huilong Yuan, Tianyu Jia, Shuangmei Liu, Hui Liu, Yun Gao, Guilin Li, Hong Xu, Chunping Zhang, Shangdong Liang
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein (glycoprotein 120, gp120) can induce chronic neuropathic pain by directly stimulating primary sensory afferent neurons. Activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) plays an important role in the transmission of neuropathic pain. The P2Y12 receptor is expressed in SGCs of DRG. In this study, we investigated the role of the P2Y12 receptor in HIV gp120-induced neuropathic pain. The results showed that peripheral nerve exposure to HIV gp120 increased mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in gp120-treated model rats...
August 18, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823537/4-hydroperoxy-2-decenoic-acid-ethyl-ester-protects-against-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-cell-death-via-activation-of-nrf2-are-and-eif2%C3%AE-atf4-pathways
#12
Yuki Inoue, Hirokazu Hara, Yukari Mitsugi, Eiji Yamaguchi, Tetsuro Kamiya, Akichika Itoh, Tetsuo Adachi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Oxidative stress has been reported to be closely related to the pathogenesis and worsening of symptoms of PD. One therapeutic strategy is to alleviate neuronal injuries caused by oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated protective effects of royal jelly (RJ) fatty acids and their derivatives on oxidative stress-induced cell death using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
August 16, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821400/alzheimer-s-disease-as-oligomeropathy
#13
REVIEW
Kenjiro Ono
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by pathological aggregates of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and tau protein. On the basis of genetic evidence, biochemical data, and animal models, Aβ has been suggested to be responsible for the pathogenesis of AD (the amyloid hypothesis). Aβ molecules tend to aggregate to form oligomers, protofibrils, and mature fibrils. Although mature fibrils in the final stage have been thought to be the cause of AD pathogenesis, recent studies using synthetic Aβ peptides, a cell culture model, Aβ precursor protein transgenic mice models, and human samples, such as cerebrospinal fluids and postmortem brains of AD patients, suggest that pre-fibrillar forms (oligomers of Aβ) are more deleterious than are extracellular fibril forms...
August 16, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818673/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-induces-brain-proteomic-changes-in-cuprizone-mice-during-remyelination-involving-calcium-proteins
#14
Eystein Oveland, Agnes Nystad, Frode Berven, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Øivind Torkildsen, Stig Wergeland
Dietary supplementation of vitamin D is commonly recommended to patients with multiple sclerosis. We recently found that high-dose of the hormonally active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (1,25D) promotes myelin repair in the cuprizone model for de- and remyelination. In the present study, we quantified 5062 proteins, of which 125 were differentially regulated in brain tissue from 1,25D treated mice during remyelination, compared to placebo. Proteins upregulated in the early remyelination phase were involved in calcium binding, e...
August 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818672/glutathione-monoethyl-ester-prevents-tdp-43-pathology-in-motor-neuronal-nsc-34%C3%A2-cells
#15
Tong Chen, Bradley J Turner, Philip M Beart, Lucy Sheehan-Hennessy, Chinasom Elekwachi, Hakan Muyderman
Oxidative stress is recognised as central in a range of neurological diseases including Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterised by fast progressing death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Cellular pathology includes cytosolic protein aggregates in motor neurons and glia of which potentially cytotoxic hyper-phosphorylated fragments of the Transactive response DNA Binding Protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) constitute a major component. This is closely associated with an additional loss of nuclear TDP-43 expression indicating a "loss of function" mechanism, accelerating motor neuron (MN) loss...
August 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811268/antecedent-adhd-dementia-and-metabolic-dysregulation-a-u-s-based-cohort-analysis
#16
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological and genetic studies have reported a link between antecedent ADHD and dementia. The underpinning mechanisms of these associations are not known and have generated considerable speculation. METHODS: We have extracted hospitalization discharge data on dementia and ADHD (representing a severe phenotype) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUPnet) and utilized a Poisson regression with two-ways fixed effects to investigate this association...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811267/app-a%C3%AE-structural-diversity-and-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Alex E Roher, Tyler A Kokjohn, Steven G Clarke, Michael R Sierks, Chera L Maarouf, Geidy E Serrano, Marwan S Sabbagh, Thomas G Beach
The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposes amyloid- β (Aβ) is a chief pathological element of dementia. AD therapies have targeted monomeric and oligomeric Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. However, alternative APP proteolytic processing produces a complex roster of Aβ species. In addition, Aβ peptides are subject to extensive posttranslational modification (PTM). We propose that amplified production of some APP/Aβ species, perhaps exacerbated by differential gene expression and reduced peptide degradation, creates a diverse spectrum of modified species which disrupt brain homeostasis and accelerate AD neurodegeneration...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797885/mitophagy-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Carlo Rodolfo, Silvia Campello, Francesco Cecconi
Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), are a complex "family" of pathologies, characterised by the progressive loss of neurons and/or neuronal functions, leading to severe physical and cognitive inabilities in affected patients. These syndromes, despite differences in the causative events, the onset, and the progression of the disease, share as common features the presence of aggregate-prone neuro-toxic proteins, in the form of aggresomes and/or inclusion bodies, perturbing cellular homeostasis and neuronal function (Popovic et al...
August 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826718/contrasting-effects-of-selective-magl-and-faah-inhibition-on-dopamine-depletion-and-gdnf-expression-in-a-chronic-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Noemi Pasquarelli, Christoph Porazik, Hanna Bayer, Eva Buck, Stefan Schildknecht, Patrick Weydt, Anke Witting, Boris Ferger
The modulation of the brain endocannabinoid system has been identified as an option to treat neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Especially the elevation of endocannabinoid levels by inhibition of hydrolytic degradation represents a valuable approach. To evaluate whether monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition could be beneficial for PD, we examined in parallel the therapeutic potential of the highly selective MAGL inhibitor KML29 elevating 2-arachidonoylglyerol (2-AG) levels and the highly selective FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 elevating anandamide (AEA) levels in a chronic methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/probenecid) mouse model of PD...
August 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782592/resveratrol-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-attenuate-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-vascular-dementia-by-activating-nrf2-ho1-pathway
#20
Aarti Yadav, Aditya Sunkaria, Nitin Singhal, Rajat Sandhir
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the leading cause of cognitive decline resulting from vascular lesions. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress are involved in cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of resveratrol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (R-SLNs) in permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induced model of VaD. R-SLNs prepared were 286 nm in size and had 91.25% drug encapsulation efficiency with sustained release...
August 4, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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