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Neurochemistry International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919624/metabolic-fate-of-glucose-in-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-pyruvate-or-glucose-treatments-a-nmr-spectroscopy-study
#1
Katsunori Shijo, Richard L Sutton, Sima S Ghavim, Neil G Harris, Brenda L Bartnik-Olson
Administration of sodium pyruvate (SP; 9.08 μmol/kg, i.p.), ethyl pyruvate (EP; 0.34 μmol/kg, i.p.) or glucose (GLC; 11.1 μmol/kg, i.p.) to rats after unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury has been reported to reduce neuronal loss and improve cerebral metabolism. In the present study these doses of each fuel or 8% saline (SAL; 5.47 nmoles/kg) were administered immediately and at 1, 3, 6 and 23 h post-CCI. At 24 h all CCI groups and non-treated Sham injury controls were infused with [1,2 (13)C] glucose for 68 min (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained from cortex + hippocampus tissues from left (injured) and right (contralateral) hemispheres...
December 2, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916542/the-role-of-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-in-the-memory-process
#2
REVIEW
Philomena Z Y Lip, Marilene Demasi, Diego Bonatto
Quite intuitive is the notion that memory formation and consolidation is orchestrated by protein synthesis because of the synaptic plasticity necessary for those processes. Nevertheless, recent advances have begun accumulating evidences of a high requirement for protein degradation on the molecular mechanisms of the memory process in the mammalian brain. Because degradation determines protein half-life, degradation has been increasingly recognized as an important intracellular regulatory mechanism. The proteasome is the main player in the degradation of intracellular proteins...
December 1, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916541/the-orphan-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr139-is-activated-by-the-peptides-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-acth-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh-and-%C3%AE-msh-and-the-conserved-core-motif-hfrw
#3
Anne Cathrine Nøhr, Mohamed A Shehata, Alexander S Hauser, Vignir Isberg, Jacek Mokrosinski, I Sadaf Farooqi, Daniel Sejer Pedersen, David E Gloriam, Hans Bräuner-Osborne
GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that is expressed primarily in the brain. Not much is known regarding the function of GPR139. Recently we have shown that GPR139 is activated by the amino acids l-tryptophan and l-phenylalanine (EC50 values of 220 μM and 320 μM, respectively), as well as di-peptides comprised of aromatic amino acids. This led us to hypothesize that GPR139 may be activated by peptides. Sequence alignment of the binding cavities of all class A GPCRs, revealed that the binding pocket of the melanocortin 4 receptor is similar to that of GPR139...
December 1, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899296/targeting-the-norepinephrinergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-related-disorders-the-locus-coeruleus-story
#4
Yannick Vermeiren, Peter P De Deyn
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are related, progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disorders with hallmark features that include a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms (behavioral, autonomic and cognitive dysfunction). For almost half a century, the motor aspects have been attributed to Lewy pathology (LP) predominantly in the substantia nigra (SN), causing a major loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, the relative success of dopaminergic replacement therapies for alleviation of solely the parkinsonian features has prompted researchers to further explore other monoaminergic strategies which may tackle all PD-related aspects...
November 26, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894844/the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-activity-in-cultured-primary-astrocytes-is-strongly-accelerated-by-the-protein-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-tyrphostin-23
#5
Michaela C Hohnholt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Helle S Waagepetersen, Ralf Dringen
Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, we incubated primary rat astrocyte cultures with [U-(13)C]glucose in the absence or the presence of 100 μM T23 for 2 h and analyzed the (13)C metabolite pattern. These incubation conditions did not compromise cell viability and confirmed that the presence of T23 doubled glycolytic lactate production...
November 25, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890723/global-gene-expression-changes-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-rabbits-with-hypercholesterolemia-and-or-hypertension
#6
Sau-Yeen Loke, Peter Tsun-Hon Wong, Wei-Yi Ong
Although many studies have identified a link between hypercholesterolemia or hypertension and cognitive deficits, till date, comprehensive gene expression analyses of the brain under these conditions is still lacking. The present study was carried out to elucidate differential gene expression changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of New Zealand white rabbits exposed to hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertension with a view of identifying gene networks at risk. Microarray analyses of the PFC of hypercholesterolemic rabbits showed 850 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the cortex of hypercholesterolemic rabbits compared to controls, but only 5 DEGs in hypertensive rabbits compared to controls...
November 24, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884770/neutrophil-granulocytes-in-cerebral-ischemia-evolution-from-killers-to-key-players
#7
REVIEW
Jan-Kolja Strecker, Antje Schmidt, Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz, Jens Minnerup
Neutrophil granulocytes (or polymorphonuclear cells, PMNs) have long been considered as crude killing machines, particularly trained to attack bacterial or fungal pathogens in wounds or infected tissues. That perspective has fundamentally changed over the last decades, as PMNs have been shown to exert a livery exchange between other cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMNs do provide major immunomodulatory contribution during acute inflammation and subsequent clearance. Following sterile inflammation like cerebral ischemia, PMNs are among the first hematogenous cells attracted to the ischemic tissue...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884769/upregulation-of-cd74-and-its-potential-association-with-disease-severity-in-subjects-with-ischemic-stroke
#8
Liu Yang, Ying Kong, Honglei Ren, Minshu Li, Chang-Juan Wei, Elaine Shi, Wei-Na Jin, Junwei Hao, Arthur A Vandenbark, Halina Offner
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key cytokine/chemokine in the activation and recruitment of inflammatory T lymphocytes known to exacerbate experimental stroke severity. MIF effects are mediated through its primary cellular receptor, CD74, the MHC class II invariant chain present on all class II expressing cells, including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). We demonstrated previously that partial MHC class II/peptide constructs (pMHC) can effectively treat mice with experimental stroke, in part through their ability to competitively inhibit MIF/CD74 interactions and downstream signaling...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876634/individual-and-interactive-sex-specific-effects-of-acute-restraint-and-systemic-ifn-%C3%AE-treatment-on-neurochemistry
#9
Darcy Litteljohn, Chris Rudyk, Sara Razmjou, Zach Dwyer, Shuaib Syed, Shawn Hayley
Compelling evidence supports the involvement of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IFN-α and TNF-α in depression and related stress-associated pathologies. A role has also been suggested for the Th1-type cytokine, IFN-γ, with most mechanistic accounts focusing on the cytokine's capacity to induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), leading to diminished tryptophan and the generation of kynurenine metabolites. Beyond these IDO-dependent routes, there is surprisingly little evidence directly linking IFN-γ to alterations of brain regional monoamine activity and HPA axis functioning...
November 19, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836631/low-serum-vitamin-d-levels-and-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-case-control-study
#10
Yaqing Shu, Qingmei Su, Siyuan Liao, Tingting Lu, Rui Li, Xiaobo Sun, Wei Qiu, Yu Yang, Xueqiang Hu, Zhengqi Lu
BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D levels are associated with autoimmunity, but the relationship with anti-N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is unknown. METHODS: 25(OH) D levels and clinical and cerebrospinal fluid parameters were evaluated in 30 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and compared with 90 age-, sex-, and season-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: 25(OH)D levels were lower in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis compared to controls (43...
November 8, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816479/does-acupuncture-ameliorate-motor-impairment-after-stroke-an-assessment-using-the-catwalk-gait-system
#11
Yan Cao, Ning Sun, Jing-Wen Yang, Yang Zheng, Wen Zhu, Zhen-Hua Zhang, Xue-Rui Wang, Guang-Xia Shi, Cun-Zhi Liu
The effect of acupuncture on gait deficits after stroke is uncertain. This animal study was designed to determine whether acupuncture improves gait impairment following experimentally induced ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. After 7 days' of acupuncture treatment, assessment of gait changes using the CatWalk automated gait analysis system was performed. Comparison of the CatWalk gait parameters among the groups showed that gait function was impaired after ischemic stroke and acupuncture treatment was effective in improving a variety of gait parameters including intensity, stance and swing time, swing speed and stride length at postoperative day 8...
November 2, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816478/microglia-derived-from-the-axotomized-adult-rat-facial-nucleus-uptake-glutamate-and-metabolize-it-to-glutamine-in%C3%A2-vitro
#12
Kazuyuki Nakajima, Tomoyuki Kanamatsu, Maasa Koshimoto, Shinichi Kohsaka
Microglia in the axotomized adult rat facial nucleus (axoFN) have been shown to highly express a glutamate transporter (GLT-1). The microglia appear to serve as glutamate (Glu) scavengers in the axoFN. However, there is no evidence that the microglia actually have the ability to uptake Glu and convert it to Gln. In this study, we investigated whether axoFN-derived microglia (axoFN-microglia) can uptake Glu and metabolize it to Gln. Microglia obtained by explant culture of axoFN on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted dishes were non-invasively sub-cultured onto dishes or wells...
November 2, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773790/partial-mhc-class-ii-constructs-as-novel-immunomodulatory-therapy-for-stroke
#13
Gil Benedek, Arthur A Vandenbark, Nabil J Alkayed, Halina Offner
The worldwide prevalence of stroke continues to rise despite recent successes in treating acute ischemic stroke. With limited patient eligibility and associated risk of tPA and mechanical thrombectomy, new preventive and therapeutic modalities are needed to stave the rising wave of stroke. Inflammation plays a key role in brain damage after cerebral ischemia, and novel therapies that target pro-inflammatory cells have demonstrated promise for treatment for stroke. Partial MHC class II constructs have been shown to prevent and/or reverse clinical signs of various inflammatory diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, collagen-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune uveitis, by reducing the number and frequency of activated cells in the damaged CNS...
October 31, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773791/mir363-3p-improves-ischemic-stroke-outcomes-in-female-but-not-male-rats
#14
Amutha Selvamani, Farida Sohrabji
With age, stroke prevalence is higher, and stroke outcome, worse, in women. Thus there is an urgent need to identify stroke neuroprotectants for this population. Using a preclinical stroke model, our studies focused on microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of translational repressors, as neuroprotectants. Analysis of circulating miRNA in the acute phase of stroke indicated potential neuroprotective capacity for miR363. Specifically, mir363 is elevated in serum of adult female rats that typically have small infarct volumes, but is deficient in age-matched males or middle-aged males and females, groups that have greater stroke-associated impairment...
October 20, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744003/neural-organoids-for-disease-phenotyping-drug-screening-and-developmental-biology-studies
#15
Brigham J Hartley, Kristen J Brennand
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can theoretically yield limitless supplies of cells fated to any cell type that comprise the human organism, making them a new tool by which to potentially overcome caveats in current biomedical research. In vitro derivation of central nervous system (CNS) cell types has the potential to provide material for drug discovery and validation, safety and toxicity assays, cell replacement therapy and the elucidation of previously unknown disease mechanisms. However, current two-dimensional (2D) CNS differentiation protocols do not faithfully recapitulate the spatial organization of heterogeneous tissue, nor the cell-cell interactions, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, or specific physiological functions generated within complex tissue such as the brain...
October 12, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742467/electrophysiological-properties-of-neurons-derived-from-human-stem-cells-and-ineurons-in-vitro
#16
Robert F Halliwell
Functional studies of neurons have traditionally used nervous system tissues from a variety of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate species, even when the focus of much of this research has been directed at understanding human brain function. Over the last decade, the identification and isolation of human stem cells from embryonic, tissue (or adult) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the availability of human neurons for experimental studies in vitro. In addition, the direct conversion of terminally differentiated fibroblasts into Induced neurons (iN) has generated great excitement because of the likely value of such human stem cell derived neurons (hSCNs) and iN cells in drug discovery, neuropharmacology, neurotoxicology and regenerative medicine...
October 11, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693453/development-of-a-neuroprotective-potential-algorithm-for-medicinal-plants
#17
Weixi Liu, Hang Ma, Nicholas A DaSilva, Kenneth N Rose, Shelby L Johnson, Lu Zhang, Chunpeng Wan, Joel A Dain, Navindra P Seeram
Medicinal plants are promising candidates for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research but there is lack of systematic algorithms and procedures to guide their selection and evaluation. Herein, we developed a Neuroprotective Potential Algorithm (NPA) by evaluating twenty-three standardized and chemically characterized Ayurvedic medicinal plant extracts in a panel of bioassays targeting oxidative stress, carbonyl stress, protein glycation, amyloid beta (Aβ) fibrillation, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, and neuroinflammation...
September 29, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620812/oxidative-stress-and-glutamate-excitotoxicity-contribute-to-apoptosis-in-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis
#18
Hari Shanker Tiwari, Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita, Akanksha Mishra, Shubha Shukla
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an important cause of stroke in young especially in the developing countries. There is paucity of studies on the mechanism of cell damage in CVST. Aim of this study is to explore the role of glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress; and apoptosis in an experimental model of CVST. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis was induced by putting a strip of filter paper soaked in 40% ferric chloride on superior sagittal sinus. Brain was removed on day 1, 2 and 7 and oxidative stress markers (Mn-SOD, Catalase, GPx, LPO and GSH) were estimated spectrophotometrically...
September 19, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650435/decreased-levels-of-nmda-but-not-ampa-receptors-in-the-lipid-raft-fraction-of-3xtg-ad-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-relation-to-arc-arg3-1-protein-expression
#19
Jean-Pascal Morin, Sofía Díaz-Cintra, Federico Bermúdez-Rattoni, Ilse Delint-Ramírez
It was recently suggested that alteration in lipid raft composition in Alzheimer's disease may lead to perturbations in neurons signalosome, which may help explain the deficits observed in synaptic plasticity mechanisms and long-term memory impairments in AD models. As a first effort to address this issue, we evaluated lipid-raft contents of distinct NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits in the hippocampus of the 3xTg-AD model of Alzheimer's disease. Our results show that compared to controls, 10 months-old 3xTg-AD mice have diminished levels of NMDA receptors in rafts but not in post-synaptic density or total fractions...
September 17, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620814/melatonin-attenuates-the-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-reduction-in-rat-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#20
Prapimpun Wongchitrat, Niyada Lansubsakul, Utcharaporn Kamsrijai, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Sujira Mukda, Piyarat Govitrapong
A deviant level of melatonin in blood circulation has been associated with the development of diabetes and with learning and memory deficiencies. Melatonin might have an important function in diabetes control; however, the mechanism of melatonin in diabetes remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the hyperglycemic condition induced by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and streptozotocin (STZ) injection and to examine the effect of melatonin on adult hippocampal functions. HFD-fed and STZ-treated rats significantly increased blood glucose level...
September 13, 2016: Neurochemistry International
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