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Neurochemistry International

Sheikh F Ahmad, Ahmed Nadeem, Mushtaq A Ansari, Saleh A Bakheet, Musaad A Alshammari, Sabry M Attia
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by repetitive behaviors, and impairments in communication and social interaction. Studies have shown that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPARδ) causes anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of neuroinflammatory diseases. We investigated the possible anti-inflammatory effect of a PPARδ agonist, GW0742 in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of autism. BTBR and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were treated orally with GW0742 (30 mg/kg, p...
September 15, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Ke-Wei Chang, Hang-Fan Zong, Kai-Ge Ma, Wan-Ying Zhai, Wei-Na Yang, Xiao-Dan Hu, Jie-Hua Xu, Xin-Lin Chen, Sheng-Feng Ji, Yi-Hua Qian
Amyloid β peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42 ) could induce cognitive deficits through oxidative stress, inflammation, and neuron death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). MAPK pathways have been thought to mediate Aβ1-42 -induced neuroinflammation responses, neuron death and cognitive decline in AD. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) exerts a neuroprotective effect. However, whether α7nAChR alleviates Aβ1-42 -induced neurotoxicity through MAPKs (p38, ERK, JNK) in vivo remains unclear. In our study, memory was assessed in C57BL/6 mice using a Y-maze test...
September 11, 2018: Neurochemistry International
César Emmanuel Santana-Gómez, María Guadalupe Valle-Dorado, Ana Esmeralda Domínguez-Valentín, Arely Hernández-Moreno, Sandra Orozco-Suárez, Luisa Rocha
Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological condition that frequently induces severe neuronal injury in the hippocampus, subsequent epileptogenesis and pharmacoresistant spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). The repeated administration of LEV (a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug) during the post-SE period does not prevent the subsequent development of SRS. However, this treatment reduces SE-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus. Conversely, propylparaben (PPB) is a widely used antimicrobial that blocks voltage-dependent Na+ channels, induces neuroprotection and reduces epileptiform activity in vitro...
September 10, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Xuan Sheng, Yu Dan, Bo Dai, Jingjing Guo, Huihong Ji, Xinge Zhang, Zhi Xie, Siqi Song, Qiwen Pan, Jiayue Wang, Shangdong Liang, Guilin Li
Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) is a common and serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), is manifested by nerve fiber injury in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve of the autonomic nervous system, and causes hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, silent myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Our previous study observed that P2X3 receptor in superior cervical ganglia in rat was associated with sympathetic neuropathy caused by myocardial ischemia. However, whether the P2X3 receptor is involved in the diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
September 6, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Xiao Cheng, Hui Yao, Yue Xiang, Linbo Chen, Minghe Xiao, Ziling Wang, Hanxianzhi Xiao, Lu Wang, Shunhe Wang, Yaping Wang
The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is severely increasing with the aging. It has been proposed that NSCs (neural stem cells) help to control aging, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Angelica polysaccharide is an active ingredient of Angelica sinensis in traditional Chinese medicine, which possesses versatile pharmacological activities including anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. In this study, D-gal (D-galactose) was used to construct an aging model of Nestin-GFP transgenic mice brain tissues and NSCs...
September 6, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Leticia Ramírez Martínez, Miguel Vargas Mejía, Josep Espadamala, Néstor Gomez, José M Lizcano, Esther López-Bayghen
Brain specific kinases (BRSKs) are serine/threonine kinases, preferentially expressed in the brain after Embryonic Day 12. Although BRSKs are crucial neuronal development factors and regulation of their enzymatic activity has been widely explored, little is known of their transcriptional regulation. In this work, we show that Neuronal Growth Factor (NGF) increased the expression of Brsk1 in PC12 cells. Furthermore, during neuronal differentiation, Brsk1 mRNA increased through a MAPK-dependent Sp1 activation...
September 6, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Jonathan Tam, Angela Hong, Peter M Naranjo, Tai Yin, Koichiro Shinozaki, Joshua W Lampe, Lance B Becker, Junhwan Kim
Ischemic brain damage is the major cause of mortality in cardiac arrest (CA). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for brain damage is not well understood. We previously found that mitochondrial state-3 respiration, which had been decreased following CA, was recovered in the kidney and liver, but not in the brain following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) resuscitation. Examination of mitochondria from these tissues may shed light on why the brain is the most vulnerable. In this study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to asphyxia-induced CA for 30 min or 30 min followed by 60 min CPB resuscitation...
September 1, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Moriah J Hovde, Garret H Larson, Roxanne A Vaughan, James D Foster
The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a critical role in dopamine (DA) homeostasis by clearing transmitter from the extraneuronal space after vesicular release. DAT serves as a site of action for a variety of addictive and therapeutic reuptake inhibitors, and transport dysfunction is associated with transmitter imbalances in disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, bipolar disorder, and Parkinson disease. In this review, we describe some of the model systems that have been used for in vitro analyses of DAT structure, function and regulation, and discuss a potential relationship between transporter kinetic values and membrane cholesterol...
September 1, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Paula Korhonen, Tarja Malm, Anthony R White
Neurodegenerative disorders have an enormous impact on society and healthcare budgets. There has been a high degree of failure in many recent clinical trials for disease-modifying therapeutics. A major factor in this failure is the difficulty of translating findings from animal-based cell models to human patients. The majority of non-animal neurodegenerative disease research has been conducted in 2 dimensional models of rodent neonatal neurons and glia. While these systems have provided valuable insights into neural cell function and dysfunction, they have largely reached the end of their useful life, as human stem cell technologies combined with major advances in microfluidic technologies have opened the door to development of patient-derived 3D brain cell models...
September 1, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Robertta Silva Martins, Isis Grigorio de Freitas, Matheus Figueiredo Sathler, Vladimir Pedro Peralva Borges Martins, Clarissa de Sampaio Schitine, Luzia da Silva Sampaio, Hércules Rezende Freitas, Alex Christian Manhães, Maurício Dos Santos Pereira, Ricardo Augusto de Melo Reis, Regina Célia Cussa Kubrusly
GABA transporters regulate synaptic GABA levels and dysfunctions in this system might result in psychiatric disorders. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is the main circuit breaker in the nervous system and may alter noradrenaline (NA) communication, which in turn modulates the release of GABA. However, a close relationship between these systems has not been recognized. We asked whether NA and ECS might control extracellular GABA levels in slices of frontal cortex (FC) of adolescent Swiss mice with 40 days after birth (PN40)...
August 29, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Ariadne de Almeida Branco Oliveira, Nayara de Freitas Martins Melo, Érica Dos Santos Vieira, Pedro Augusto Silva Nogueira, Andressa Coope, Lício Augusto Velloso, Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Francoise Vasconcelos Botelho, Juliana de Assis Silva Gomes, Renata Graciele Zanon
Excessive fat consumption increases the level of fatty acids (FAs) in the blood, which reach the hypothalamus and damage the circuit related to energy balance. In the present study, we used palmitate in a primary culture of purified astrocytes to mimic the fat-rich environment found in obesity. Our results showed increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) reactivity in hypothalamic astrocytes compared to cortical astrocytes. In addition, palmitate-treated astrocytes showed no significant changes in cytokine expression and an upregulation of glutathione in the culture medium that may serve as an intrinsic neuroprotective property against excess FA...
August 20, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Anna Gójska-Grymajło, Maciej Zieliński, Anna Wardowska, Dariusz Gąsecki, Michał Pikuła, Bartosz Karaszewski
Stroke causes an efflux of various groups of progenitor/stem cells from bone marrow to bloodstream and a rise in neuron specific enolase (NSE) serum concentrations. The aim of this study was to identify activity of chosen stem/progenitor cells during first 7 days after stroke through correlations between these cells levels and NSE values. Additional goal was to confirm the role of NSE as a prognostic marker of ischemic stroke. Venous blood was collected repeatedly from 67 acute ischemic stroke patients and 15 control subjects, in order to assess NSE with ELISA, and CD45- CD34 +  CD271+, CD45- CD34 + CXCR4+, CD45- CD34 + CXCR7+ and CD45- CD34 +  CD133 + stem/progenitor cells by means of flow cytometry...
August 17, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Michael J Tomlinson, Danielle Krout, Akula Bala Pramod, John R Lever, Amy Hauck Newman, L Keith Henry, Roxanne A Vaughan
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a neuronal membrane protein that is responsible for reuptake of dopamine (DA) from the synapse and functions as a major determinant in control of DA neurotransmission. Cocaine and many psychostimulant drugs bind to DAT and block reuptake, inducing DA overflow that forms the neurochemical basis for euphoria and addiction. Paradoxically, however, some ligands such as benztropine (BZT) bind to DAT and inhibit reuptake but do not produce these effects, and it has been hypothesized that differential mechanisms of binding may stabilize specific transporter conformations that affect downstream neurochemical or behavioral outcomes...
August 17, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Khaled F Al-Massri, Lamiaa A Ahmed, Hanan S El-Abhar
Anticonvulsant drugs such as pregabalin (PGB) and lacosamide (LCM), exhibit potent analgesic effects in diabetic neuropathy; however, their possible role/mechanisms in paclitaxel (PTX)-induced peripheral neuropathy have not been elucidated, which is the aim of the present study. Neuropathic pain was induced in rats by injecting PTX (2 mg/kg, i. p) on days 0, 2, 4 and 6. Forty eight hours after the last dose of PTX, rats were treated orally with 30 mg/kg/day of either PGB or LCM for 21 days. Both therapies improved thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia induced by PTX...
August 15, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The number of bacterial cells living within the human body is approximately equal to, or greater than, the total number of human cells. This dynamic population of microorganisms, termed the human microbiota, resides mainly within the gastrointestinal tract. It is widely accepted that highly diverse and stable microbiota promote overall human health. Colonization of the gut with maladaptive and pathogenic microbiota, a state also known as dysbiosis, is associated with a variety of peripheral diseases ranging from type 2 diabetes mellitus to cardiovascular and inflammatory bowel disease...
August 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Fernanda Severo Sabedra Sousa, Paloma Taborda Birmann, Renata Balaguez, Diego Alves, César Augusto Brüning, Lucielli Savegnago
α-(phenylselanyl) acetophenone (PSAP) is an organoselenium compound that presents antidepressive-like and antinociceptive effect in animal models. In this study, we evaluate the potential pharmacological effects of PSAP on acute stress restriction (ARS)-induced depressive and anxiogenic-like behavior associated with hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in male adult Swiss mice (25-35 g). The ARS is an unavoidable stress situation that was applied for a period of 4 h using an individual rodent restraint...
August 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Brahim Gargouri, Nizar M Yousif, Abdelraheim Attaai, Michèle Bouchard, Yassine Chtourou, Bernd L Fiebich, Hamadi Fetoui
Exposure to synthetic pyrethroid (SPs) pesticides such as bifenthrin (BF) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and cognitive impairments, but the underlying neurobiological mechanism is poorly understood so far. The present study has been designed to evaluate changes in behavior and in biomarkers of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of rats subchronically treated with BF. Rats exposed daily to BF at doses of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg b. w. for 60 days exhibited spatial and cognitive impairments as well as memory dysfunction after 60 days...
August 10, 2018: Neurochemistry International
O V Nevzglyadova, E V Mikhailova, A V Artemov, Y E Ozerova, P A Ivanova, I M Golomidov, O I Bolshakova, V V Zenin, E I Kostyleva, T R Soidla, S V Sarantseva
Recently, we identified the yeast red pigment (RP), a polymer of 1-(5'-Phosphoribosyl)-5-aminoimidazole, as a novel potential anti-amyloid agent for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to further validate RP for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to clarify molecular mechanisms involved in the reduction of amyloid cytotoxicity. We investigated RP effects in vivo using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster PD models. Western blot analysis revealed reduction in the levels of insoluble α-synuclein in both models, while soluble α-synuclein decreased only in Drosophila...
August 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Jyothsna Chitturi, Ying Li, Vijayalakshmi Santhakumar, Sridhar S Kannurpatti
Pathophysiology of developmental traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unique due to intrinsic differences in the developing brain. Energy metabolic studies of the brain during early development (P13 to P30) have indicated acute oxidative energy metabolic decreases below 24 h after TBI, which generally recovered by 48 h. However, marked neurodegeneration and altered neural functional connectivity have been observed at later stages into adolescence. As secondary neurodegeneration is most prominent during the first week after TBI in the rat model, we hypothesized that the subacute TBI-metabolome may contain predictive markers of neurodegeneration...
August 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Igri Kolaj, S Imindu Liyanage, Donald F Weaver
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive dementia, neuroinflammation and the accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular plaques. The etiology of AD is unclear, but is generally attributed to four leading hypotheses: (i) abnormal folding and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ)/tau proteins (ii) activation of the innate immune system, (iii) mitochondrial dysfunction, and (iv) oxidative stress. To date, therapeutic strategies have largely focused on Aβ-centric targets; however, the repeated failure of clinical trials and the continued lack of a disease-modifying therapy demand novel, multifaceted approaches...
August 8, 2018: Neurochemistry International
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