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Chang-Han Wu, Chung-Ying Lin, Yi-Ping Hsieh, Carol Strong, Camilla Meshki, Yi-Ching Lin, Meng-Che Tsai
Across many Asian countries, the prevalence of obesity is increasing and is increasingly recognized as an emerging public health issue. Food insecurity, defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods, is major difficulty faced by many poor subpopulations despite national economic growth. Previous research has yielded inconsistent results about the association between food insecurity and obesity, with positive associations more consistently observed among women than men...
October 13, 2018: Appetite
Hollie A Raynor, J Graham Thomas, Chelsi C Cardoso, Alexis C Wojtanowski, Gary D Foster
Maintaining dietary self-monitoring during obesity treatment may improve outcomes. As dietary variety is associated with energy intake, understanding the pattern of when new foods and beverages are consumed may assist with identifying when self-monitoring should occur. This study examined dietary variety (total number of differing foods and beverages consumed) from the first 40 days of self-monitoring records reporting ≥ 3 eating occasions and >600 kcal/day from 60 adults (55.9 ± 9.1 yrs, 35...
October 13, 2018: Appetite
Michael Siegrist, Christina Hartmann
Consumers' food selections have a large impact on the environment. In this study, we examined how consumers evaluated the environmental impact of various foods. Furthermore, we investigated whether the perceived environmental effect of foods, health consciousness, and food disgust sensitivity would be related to the consumption of meat substitutes and organic meat. We used data from the Swiss Food Panel 2.0 for our analyses (N = 5586 participants from the German- and French-speaking part of Switzerland)...
October 12, 2018: Appetite
Ruth B S Harris
Rats offered 30% sucrose solution plus chow or a sucrose-free diet develop leptin resistance within 4 weeks. This experiment tested whether leptin resistance was associated with the reward of sweet taste or the pre- or post-absorptive effects of consumption of simple carbohydrate. Male Sprague Dawley rats were offered a sucrose-free diet (NS), a diet containing 67% calories as sucrose (HS) or NS diet plus 30% sucrose (LS), 0.03% saccharin (Sacc) or 20% SolCarb® solution for 38 days. SolCarb® is a maltodextrin powder...
October 11, 2018: Appetite
Scott T Schepers, Mark E Bouton
Three experiments with rats explored the hypothesis that inhibited food-seeking can be reinstated by stress if stress has been part of the context of earlier food-seeking. In all experiments, rats first learned to lever press for sucrose pellets and then had the response inhibited through extinction (where responding no longer yielded sucrose pellets). In a final test, inhibited responding was tested after exposure to a stressor or not. Previous research indicates that stress during testing does not normally reinstate extinguished food-seeking, although it reliably does so when animals are responding for drugs...
October 11, 2018: Appetite
Tatjana van Strien, Roseriet Beijers, Sanny Smeekens, Laura H H Winkens
Emotional eating (EE), or eating in response to negative emotions, was earlier shown to be associated with difficulty in identifying emotions (alexithymia). To improve our understanding of possible causes of alexithymia and EE, we assessed possible associations with duration of breastfeeding in infancy. The aim of the present study was to examine in a prospective, longitudinal study whether duration of breastfeeding is associated with EE in adolescence, through its effect on alexithymia difficulty identifying emotions, and whether this mediation effect is contingent on gender...
October 10, 2018: Appetite
K K Davison, C E Blake, A Kachurak, J C Lumeng, D L Coffman, A L Miller, S O Hughes, T G Power, A F Vaughn, R E Blaine, N Younginer, J O Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: Appetite
Jessica L Kerin, Haley J Webb, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck
The aim of this study was to identify the interrelations between, and the core components of, adaptive and maladaptive measures of eating behaviours. Participants were 2018 females (Mage  = 23.14 years) who completed measures of intuitive eating, mindful eating, overeating regulation, dietary restraint, emotional eating, external eating, and overeating dysregulation in contexts of leisure and discomfort. Most associations between eating measures were significant, with the largest association between eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (intuitive eating) and emotional eating, and the smallest and nonsignificant associations usually involving the mindful eating subscales...
October 9, 2018: Appetite
Travis D Masterson, Maria A Bermudez, Marielle Austen, Ella Lundquist, Amanda S Bruce, Alaina L Pearce, Kathleen L Keller
Food commercials promote snack intake and alter food decision-making, yet the influence of exposure to food commercials on subsequent neural processing of food cues and intake at a meal is unclear. This study tested whether exposing children to food or toy commercials altered subsequent brain response to high- and low-energy dense food cues and influenced laboratory intake at a multi-item, ad libitum meal. Forty-one 7-9-year-old children (25 healthy weight; 16 with overweight/obesity) completed five visits as part of a within-subjects design where they consumed multi-item test-meals under three conditions: no exposure, food commercial exposure, and toy commercial exposure...
October 9, 2018: Appetite
Oren Contreras-Rodriguez, Tracy Burrows, Kirrilly Pursey, Peter Stanwell, Linden Parkes, Carles Soriano-Mas, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
INTRODUCTION: The concept of "food addiction" (FA) has gained popularity in view of clinical and neurobiological overlaps between excessive food intake and addictive disorders. However, no studies have examined the link between FA and striatocortical circuits involved in addictive disorders, or the influence of homeostatic status, which regulates the drive to eat, on these systems. This study aims to investigate changes in striatal functional connectivity between fasted and fed conditions among adults ranging in body mass index (BMI) and FA symptoms...
October 9, 2018: Appetite
Jillian J Haszard, Catherine G Russell, Rebecca A Byrne, Rachael W Taylor, Karen J Campbell
BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the impact of maternal feeding practices on weight outcomes in young children remains unclear given equivocal longitudinal study outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether feeding practices used by mothers when their child was less than 2 years of age were related to overweight status at ages 3.5 and 5 years in a large cross-country sample; and investigate whether these associations were moderated by weight status in early life...
October 9, 2018: Appetite
Paweł Jędras, Andrew Jones, Andrej Stancak, Matt Field
Attentional biases for reward-related (e.g., food, alcohol) cues are moderated by the expectation of imminent reward availability, but the psychological mechanisms that underlie this effect are unclear. We report two studies in which we investigated if effects of reward gain anticipation are specific to the type of reward that is anticipated, and if anticipation of loss has comparable effects to anticipation of reward gain. We used an eye tracking task to investigate the effects of anticipation of gain (experiment 1) or loss (experiment 2) of alcohol and chocolate on attentional bias for alcohol and chocolate pictures using full crossover designs; the effects of uncertain outcomes were investigated in both experiments...
October 6, 2018: Appetite
Laura Witzling, Bret R Shaw
This research sought to better understand local food consumers and take steps to begin to identify how targeted messages could engage different groups. In order to accomplish these aims, data was collected through a survey mailed to a random sample of Wisconsin households with a final sample size of 577. These consumers were then segmented based on variables related to the food related lifestyle (FRL) and political ideology. Political ideology was included as it influences the media to which individuals pay attention, and how they interpret messages...
October 6, 2018: Appetite
Sofia Vilela, Milton Severo, Teresa Moreira, Andreia Oliveira, Marion M Hetherington, Carla Lopes
The examination of specific characteristics of eating habits in childhood and its influence on eating behaviours is needed to better understand the establishment of appetite-related eating behaviours. This study aimed to assess the association between eating frequency (EF) (main meals vs. snacks) at 4 and 7y and problematic eating behaviours and appetite-related eating behaviours at 7y. The analysis included 1359 children from the birth cohort Generation XXI who provided 3-day food diaries, at both ages, and complete information on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, at 7y...
October 5, 2018: Appetite
Adrienne L Romer, Min Su Kang, Yuliya S Nikolova, Ashley N Gearhardt, Ahmad R Hariri
The prevalence rate of obesity continues to rise in the U.S., but effective treatment options remain elusive resulting in increased emphasis on prevention. One such area of prevention research capitalizes on the relatively novel behavioral construct of food addiction, which has been implicated in obesity. Food addiction reflects an individual's propensity for compulsive eating despite negative consequences, and shares not only symptoms with both eating and substance use disorders but also genetic and neural correlates within neural reward-circuitry modulated by dopamine...
October 5, 2018: Appetite
Sara M Ahern, Samantha J Caton, Pam Blundell-Birtill, Marion M Hetherington
Children's vegetable consumption in the UK remains lower than national recommendations, presenting potential long-term health risks. It is known that repeated exposure promotes intake of novel vegetables and that offering children variety and choice can also encourage intake. The current study aimed to compare the impact of offering variety over simple repeated exposure as a strategy for increasing pre-school children's vegetable consumption. Children (N = 95) aged 24-55 months were recruited through participating nurseries and assigned to receive repeated exposure (RE) to a single vegetable snack or a mixed snack consisting of five different vegetables (variety: V)...
October 2, 2018: Appetite
Emily I M Collins, Jason M Thomas, Eric Robinson, Paul Aveyard, Susan A Jebb, Peter Herman, Suzanne Higgs
There is some evidence from laboratory-based studies that descriptive social-norm messages are associated with increased consumption of vegetables, but evidence of their effectiveness in real-world settings is limited. In two observational field studies taking an ecological approach, a vegetable-related social norm (e.g. "Did you know that most students here choose to eat vegetables with their meal?"), and a health message (e.g. "Did you know that students who choose to eat vegetables have a lower risk of heart disease?") were displayed in two different student canteens...
October 1, 2018: Appetite
Noa Hazut, Kayla Rapps, Donald A Kristt, Abraham J Susswein, Aron Weller
Nitric Oxide (NO) and its precursor l-arginine were found to inhibit feeding in rats with a low motivation to eat, as they do in Aplysia. In rats that are relatively satiated, treatment with an NO blocker increased feeding, and treatment with an NO donor or with either of 2 doses of l-arginine inhibited feeding. NO and l-arginine modulated several parameters of feeding, such as the total duration of appetitive behaviors, the time spent feeding, the quantity of food eaten and the number of feeding bouts. The inhibitory effect of l-arginine on feeding could not be attributed to changes in locomotion...
September 29, 2018: Appetite
Rachel J Sharkey, Josiane Bourque, Kevin Larcher, Bratislav Mišić, Yu Zhang, Ayça Altınkaya, Abbas Sadikot, Patricia Conrod, Alan C Evans, Hugh Garavan, Marco Leyton, Jean R Séguin, Robert Pihl, Alain Dagher
Across age groups, differences in connectivity of the mesolimbic and the prefrontal cortex co-vary with trait impulsivity and sensation-seeking. Impulsivity and sensation-seeking are also known to increase during early adolescence as maturation of subcortical structures outpaces that of the prefrontal cortex. While an imbalance between the striatum and prefrontal cortex is considered a normal developmental process, higher levels of adolescent impulsivity and sensation-seeking are associated with an increased risk for diverse problems, including obesity...
September 29, 2018: Appetite
Jan L Madsen, Morten Damgaard, Stefan Fuglsang, Carsten Dirksen, Jens J Holst, Jesper Graff
In young individuals, oral free fatty acid delays gastric emptying, promotes gut hormone release, and reduces energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride does. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the free fatty acid oleic acid (OA) and the triglyceride olive oil (OO) on gastrointestinal motility, gut hormone secretion, and energy intake in older and middle-aged healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, study 10 older (age 83.0 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD) years) and 10 middle-aged (age 43...
September 25, 2018: Appetite
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