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Saher Hasnain
In recent years, consumption of alternatively produced foods has increased in popularity in response to the deleterious effects of rapidly globalising and industrialised food systems. Concerns over food safety in relation to these changes may result from elevated levels of risk and changing perceptions associated with food production practices. This paper explores how the middle class residents of Islamabad, Pakistan, use the concept of 'good food' to reconnect themselves with nature, changing food systems, and traditional values...
April 16, 2018: Appetite
Aleksandra Niemyjska, Katarzyna Cantarero, Katarzyna Byrka, Michał Bilewicz
People who exclude meat from their diets are not only devoid of situational pressures to disengage morally and deny humanlike mental states to animals but also they may be dispositionally more inclined to ascribe human-like qualities to non-human animals than omnivores. The aim of this research was to test whether individual differences in anthropomorphism are related to empathic connection with non-human animals and hence decreased meat consumption. In two studies (N = 588) we confirmed that decreased meat consumption was associated with both increased recognition of human features of animals and increased empathy to animals...
April 12, 2018: Appetite
Jennifer Albertz, Gretha J Boersma, Kellie L Tamashiro, Timothy H Moran
Binge eating disorder (BED) is an eating disorder involving repeated, intermittent over consumption of food in brief periods of time, usually with no compensatory behaviors. There are few successful treatments and the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that voluntary running wheel (RW) activity could reduce binge-like eating behavior in a rat model. Rats were given intermittent (3 times/wk) limited (1hr) access to a high-fat food (Crisco), in addition to continuously available chow...
April 11, 2018: Appetite
Chantal L Verhage, Marleen Gillebaart, Shelley M C van der Veek, Carolus M J L Vereijken
Family meals are associated with multiple health benefits in children and adolescents including evidence that eating together as a family may play a role in reducing childhood obesity. The current review aims to investigate whether the beneficial health effects of the family meal also apply to infants and toddlers. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and PsycInfo were searched and 14 empirical studies were identified. The findings were discussed according to frequency of having a family meal and parental perception, associations between the family meal and health aspects (e...
April 11, 2018: Appetite
Pamela K Keel, Alissa A Haedt-Matt, Britny Hildebrandt, Lindsay P Bodell, Barbara E Wolfe, David C Jimerson
Purging disorder (PD) has been included as a named condition within the DSM-5 category of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder and differs from bulimia nervosa (BN) in the absence of binge-eating episodes. The current study evaluated satiation through behavioral and self-report measures to understand how this construct may explain distinct symptom presentations for bulimia nervosa (BN) and purging disorder (PD). Women (N = 119) were recruited from the community if they met DSM-5 criteria for BN (n = 57), PD (n = 31), or were free of eating pathology (n = 31 controls)...
April 11, 2018: Appetite
Jennifer B Webb, Courtney B Rogers, Lena Etzel, Meagan P Padro
A growing evidence base confirms sociocultural theory's predictions regarding the influence of direct exposure to family factors (e.g., parental commentary) in promoting disordered eating behavior as mediated by negative body image. Nevertheless, this model has not been specifically applied to investigating indirect or vicarious exposure to family communications (e.g., negative body talk) in estimating mindful eating behavior via positive body image intervening variables. Therefore, to address this gap the present study provided a preliminary evaluation of the indirect effects of overhearing family fat talk through both body appreciation and functional body appreciation in predicting mindful eating among undergraduate females...
April 9, 2018: Appetite
Rachel F Rodgers, Jennifer L O'Flynn, Althea Bourdeau, Emily Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to test a biopsychosocial model of body image, eating, and feeding attitudes among postpartum women. Specifically, the model predicted that desired weight-loss, depressive symptoms, and body surveillance would predict body dissatisfaction and appearance-related barriers to breastfeeding, which in turn would predict maternal disordered eating and breastfeeding self-efficacy. METHODS: Data from 151 women, mean age = 32...
April 9, 2018: Appetite
Holly Miller, Dieter Struyf, Pascale Baptist, Boushra Dalile, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Ilse Van Diest
The treatment of anxiety-based psychopathology often hinges upon extinction learning. Research in nutritional neuroscience has observed that the regular consumption of perilla oil (50% alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) facilitates extinction learning in rats (Yamamoto et al., 1988). However, acute facilitation of extinction learning by oils rich in ALA has not been reported for rats or humans, though the acute consumption of rapeseed oil (10% ALA) has been observed to improve cognitive processing speed in humans (Jones, Sünram-Lea, & Wesnes, 2012)...
April 7, 2018: Appetite
Adyya Gupta, Lisa G Smithers, Jane Harford, Tracy Merlin, Annette Braunack-Mayer
Efforts to reduce sugar intake levels have been primarily limited to increasing knowledge and changing attitudes. We conducted a systematic review to (1) identify factors influencing adults' knowledge and attitudes about sugar, and (2) determine if there is an association between knowledge and attitudes about sugar and sugar intake. We searched 15 electronic databases from inception to December 2016 for English language publications including adults with relevant exposure and outcome measures. Findings were summarised meta-narratively...
April 7, 2018: Appetite
Steffen Jahn, Jutta Schuch-Haellmigk, Till Dannewald, Yasemin Boztug
Improving diet quality is as important as it is difficult. Market-level information such as summary information in the form of an average (i.e., category average reference point [CARP]) discloses information otherwise difficult to obtain by comparing different products. The results of a choice-based conjoint experiment (N = 698) show that CARP affects food choice in multicue environments and interacts with source credibility in driving consumer acceptance of sugar content. In particular, the likelihood of choosing high amounts of sugar increases when a high CARP is provided by a credible source because of increased consumer acceptance of higher levels of that nutrient...
April 7, 2018: Appetite
Miranda R Blake, Emily Lancsar, Anna Peeters, Kathryn Backholer
There is a paucity of evidence regarding the impact of sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) price increases on beverage consumption, using individual-level data, for the population overall and for different socioeconomic groups. This study aimed to predict the impact of altered beverage prices and educational messages on consumer purchasing behavior. 2020 adults representative of the Australian population by age, gender and income completed a discrete choice experiment online in 2016. Each subject completed 20 choice scenarios in a hypothetical convenience store setting where subjects chose between seven SSB and non-SSB beverage options or a no beverage option...
April 5, 2018: Appetite
M Murphy, D J Dijkstra, J S Duncan, G W Horgan, J G Mercer
Many pre-clinical models of binge-like eating involve predictable, scheduled, access to a palatable diet high in fat (HF), where access may be preceded by anticipatory behaviour. Here, to introduce spontaneity into the binge-type consumption of palatable diets, mice were allowed 2 h access on a random day once per week and at a random time within an 8 h window either side of the transition from dark phase to light phase. Despite normal intake of a stock diet prior to unpredictable access to HF diet, mice immediately initiated a substantial eating episode when presented with HF diet...
April 5, 2018: Appetite
Alyssa J Bakke, Cody A Stubbs, Elliott H McDowell, Kameron J Moding, Susan L Johnson, John E Hayes
Only a quarter of adults and 7% of children consume recommended amounts of vegetables each day. Often vegetables are not initially palatable due to bitterness, which may lead children and adults to refuse to taste or eat them. The objective of this research was to determine if very small amounts of sugar or salt (common household ingredients) could lead to significant reductions in bitterness intensity and increased hedonic ratings of green vegetable purees. For Experiment 1, three different green vegetable purees (broccoli, spinach, and kale) were prepared with different levels of sugar (0%, 0...
March 29, 2018: Appetite
Amber E Vaughn, Chantel L Martin, Dianne S Ward
PURPOSE: Parents have a strong influence on their children's eating habits; however, researchers struggle to identify which food parenting practices to recommend. This study examined the influence of parents modeling of healthy eating ("parent role modeling") and parents' actual food intake ("parent dietary intake") on child diet quality, and explored whether these practices work together to influence children's diets. METHODS: Baseline data from a larger intervention trial were used for this analysis...
March 28, 2018: Appetite
Tessa Hamilton, Jessica Hoffman, Dilbur Arsiwalla, Robert Volpe, Ellyn Schmidt, Sareen Gropper
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale (REBS) in mixed-gender, American samples and to evaluate how responses differed across male and female respondents. Responses were examined in a sample of 535 undergraduate students in the Southeastern United States. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the predicted factor structure; male and female participants were analyzed in a multi-group, unconstrained configural model, with male and female participants analyzed simultaneously to allow for multi-group comparisons within the same model...
March 28, 2018: Appetite
Jessica Jarick Metcalfe, Barbara H Fiese
Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children...
March 27, 2018: Appetite
Sara E Benjamin-Neelon, Amber E Vaughn, Alison Tovar, Truls Østbye, Stephanie Mazzucca, Dianne S Ward
BACKGROUND: Developing healthy eating behaviors and food preferences in early childhood may help establish future healthy diets. Large numbers of children spend time in child care, but little research has assessed the nutritional quality of meals and snacks in family child care homes. Therefore, it is important to assess foods and beverages provided, policies related to nutrition and feeding children, and interactions between providers and children during mealtimes. We examined associations between the nutrition environments of family child care homes and children's diet quality...
March 27, 2018: Appetite
Mark C Pachucki, Andrew J Karter, Nancy E Adler, Howard H Moffet, E Margaret Warton, Dean Schillinger, Bethany Hendrickson O'Connell, Barbara Laraia
Though eating with others is often a social behavior, relationships between social contexts of eating and nutrient intake have been underexplored. This study evaluates how social aspects of eating - frequencies of eating meals with others, meals prepared at home, and meals outside the home - are associated with nutrient intake. Because diet improvement can reduce complications of diabetes mellitus, we surveyed a multi-ethnic cohort of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 770) about social aspects of diet (based on 24 h recalls)...
March 27, 2018: Appetite
Megan R Winkler, Jerica M Berge, Nicole Larson, Katie A Loth, Melanie Wall, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of health-focused (healthy eating, physical activity) and weight-focused (weight, dieting) parent-child conversations, and to understand who is talking and who is listening, by exploring the associations these conversations have with parent and child characteristics. The study population included 546 parents (age 27-36 years) who participated in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults)-IV (2015-2016) and had a child aged 2-17 years. Cross-sectional prevalence ratios were calculated to identify associations between parent and child characteristics and the parent-child conversations...
March 27, 2018: Appetite
Peter A Hall, Cassandra J Lowe, Adrian Safati, Huaqi Li, Emilia Klassen, Amer Burhan
BACKGROUND: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) plays a central role in the inhibition of eating, but also the modulation of conscious thought processes that might precede, accompany or follow initial food tasting. The latter might be particularly important to the extent that post-tasting cognitions may drive prolonged eating beyond the satiety point. However, we know very little about the effect of the dlPFC on conation following initial food sampling. This investigation compared the effects of dlPFC down-regulation using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on social cognition following (Study 1) and prior to (Study 2) a food consumption opportunity...
March 27, 2018: Appetite
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