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Journal of Public Health Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401808/monsanto-pcbs-and-the-creation-of-a-world-wide-ecological-problem
#1
Gerald Markowitz, David Rosner
For the past three decades, we have written on the history of occupational and environmental health, authoring books and articles on lead poisoning, silicosis, asbestosis, and angiosarcoma of the liver, among other diseases. One book, Deceit and Denial, focused specifically on the chemical and lead industries. Because of the rarity of historians who study this history, we have been asked to testify on behalf of workers who allege harm from these industrial materials and by state, county, and local governments who seek redress for environmental damages and funds to prevent future harm to children...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401807/learning-from-history
#2
EDITORIAL
David H Wegman
The ways historians assemble primary material from which to learn how industry has failed to protect workers and the environment is changing dramatically. Increasingly, historians focus concern on the evolution of the internet and the demise of paper records. The authors of "Monsanto, PCBs," and the Creation of a "World-Wide Ecological Problem" (2018) are also founders of ToxicDocs.org. This web-based resource provides an entirely new degree of transparency. Readers of their article may look at any document they cite by clicking on the reference...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382156/support-for-evidence-based-alcohol-policy-in-ireland-results-from-the-community-action-on-alcohol-pilot-project
#3
Martin P Davoren, David Lane, Joe Kirby, Kate Gibney, Gordon Kinsley, Ann Hope, Michael Byrne, Ivan J Perry
In Ireland, the Public Health (Alcohol) Bill proposes introducing minimum unit pricing, health labelling, and advertising restrictions to tackle excessive consumption. The aim of this research was to examine the level of support for evidence-based alcohol control policy among the Irish population. We conducted a household survey using quota sampling in three pilot sites in Southern Ireland. Consumption, attitude, and behaviour questions were taken from previously validated instruments. In total, 1075 individuals completed the questionnaire...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377300/air-pollution-control-and-the-occurrence-of-acute-respiratory-illness-in-school-children-of-quito-ecuador
#4
Bertha Estrella, Fernando Sempértegui, Oscar H Franco, Magda Cepeda, Elena N Naumova
Because of air quality management and control, traffic-related air pollution has declined in Quito, Ecuador. We evaluated the effect of a city-wide 5-year air pollution control program on the occurrence of acute respiratory illness (ARI). We compared two studies conducted at the same location in Quito: in 2000, 2 years before the policy to control vehicle emission was introduced, and in 2007. Each study involved ~ 730 children aged 6-12 years, observed for 15 weeks. We examined associations between carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) serum concentration-an exposure proxy for carbon monoxide (CO)-ambient CO, and ARI in both cohorts...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353132/malnutrition-in-india-status-and-government-initiatives
#5
REVIEW
Jitendra Narayan, Denny John, Nirupama Ramadas
Malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), refers to deficiencies, excesses, or imbalances in a person's intake of energy and/or nutrients. It is well-known that maternal, infant, and child nutrition play significant roles in the proper growth and development, including future socio-economic status of the child. Reports of National Health & Family Survey, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, and WHO have highlighted that rates of malnutrition among adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women, and children are alarmingly high in India...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297918/policy-options-for-reducing-antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistant-genes-in-the-environment
#6
Ellen Bloomer, Martin McKee
Responses to the threat posed by antimicrobial resistance have been inadequate. Most attention has focused on the emergence of resistant organisms in human medicine and in agriculture. Much less attention has been given to antibiotic contamination of the environment. To assist health advocates to engage with this issue, we review the evidence on the role of agriculture, aquaculture, domestic waste and pharmaceutical manufacturing in the spread of antibiotic resistance, concluding that all of these activities pose a potentially serious threat...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279448/barriers-to-the-evaluation-of-evidence-based-public-health-policy
#7
REVIEW
Megan Freund, Alison Zucca, Robert Sanson-Fisher, Andrew Milat, Lisa Mackenzie, Heidi Turon
Public health policy has the potential to produce great benefits for individuals and communities. There is growing demand that such efforts be rigorously evaluated to ensure that the expected benefits are, in fact, realised. Commonly, public health policy is evaluated by consumer acceptability, reach, or changes in knowledge and attitudes. Non-robust research designs are often used. But these approaches to evaluation do not answer three critical questions: Has a change in the desired outcome occurred? Was it a consequence of the policy and not some extraneous factor? Was the size of the change considered significant and cost-effective? We, a team of government and academic scholars working in research and evaluation, have examined some of the more common impediments to robust evaluation: political impediments, a lack of investment in evaluation capacity within bureaucracy, and the failure of academic researchers to understand the need for the evaluation of public health policy...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228355/wfpha-world-federation-of-public-health-associations-www-wfpha-org-bettina-borisch-and-marta-lomazzi-federation-s-pages-editors
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177729/xenophobia-as-a-determinant-of-health-an-integrative-review
#9
Shazeen Suleman, Kent D Garber, Lainie Rutkow
Though xenophobia has become increasingly relevant in today's political climate, little is known about the impact of xenophobia on health. While some studies have shown that xenophobia, in local contexts, may contribute to worse mental health outcomes, none have attempted to review the published literature to integrate these findings. This integrative scoping review examines the strength of these publications, then synthesizes their findings to provide a global perspective on xenophobia. The results show that it is not merely a political threat, but also has real, negative impact on the health of individuals and their communities...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097612/should-suicide-prevention-training-be-required-for-mental-health-practitioners-a-colorado-united-states-case-study
#10
Laura M Schwab-Reese, Vladka Kovar, Sarah Brummett, Carol Runyan
Suicide is a critical public health problem, resulting in more than 40,000 deaths a year in the United States (U.S.) and 800,000 globally. Provision of mental health services is a key component of a comprehensive population-based approach to prevention. State licensing boards in some U.S. states require mental health practitioners to be trained in suicide risk assessment and management, but such requirements are not uniform. Our case study examined mental health practitioner preparedness to engage in suicide prevention and intervention in Colorado, a state with a high suicide rate, using a survey designed to understand training experiences and perceptions of the acceptability of mandated training...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089882/seroepidemiology-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-children-12-years-after-china-s-expanded-program-on-immunization-in-qamdo-tibet
#11
Yao Hu, Ciyang, Dunzhuyongzong, Awangluosong, Zuoqing Yang, Aqing
Although hepatitis B vaccine (HepB1 ) was first recommended through China's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1992, Tibet was able to offer universal HepB1 vaccination starting only in early 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess, 12 years after administration of HepB1 , the seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children in Qamdo, Tibet. Focusing on a population of individuals ≤ 15 years of age living in Tibet, we analyzed serum samples from 261 healthy children for HBV status based on the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs)...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018300/applying-a-prevention-framework-to-address-homelessness-as-a-population-health-issue
#12
Will C Nicholas, Benjamin F Henwood
This paper presents a population health framework for homelessness prevention. Rooted in the Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative, the framework includes strategies that affect social determinants of health that influence a broad range of health outcomes prevalent among the homeless. For each prevention level, we consider the purpose of prevention, the sub-population of interest, and evidence of the effectiveness of interventions in addressing factors that affect health and health outcomes. Our review highlights the importance of cross-cutting strategies and the limits of our knowledge about more targeted preventive interventions...
August 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013136/completing-the-global-strategy-a-missing-element-in-preparation-for-pandemic-influenza
#13
EDITORIAL
Anthony Robbins, Phyllis Freeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013135/what-treating-ebola-means-for-pandemic-influenza
#14
David S Fedson
Almost all new treatments being developed for the next influenza pandemic target the virus. During the Ebola crisis in West Africa, patients were treated with an inexpensive generic statin/angiotensin receptor blocker combination that appeared to greatly improve survival. These drugs target the host response, not the virus, and probably reverse endothelial dysfunction. Scientists and health officials have shown little interest in this idea. Yet, during the early months of the next pandemic, vaccines will be unavailable and treatment options will be limited...
August 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950575/energy-poverty-in-healthcare-facilities-a-silent-barrier-to-improved-healthcare-in-sub-saharan-africa
#15
Nadia S Ouedraogo, Caroline Schimanski
This paper addresses an important topic, energy poverty in healthcare facilities. We try to provide an interesting perspective on bringing together two SDGs. The SDG 7, which seeks to ensure access to affordable, sustainable, and modern energy for all, is interlinked with Goal 3 on Health. The literature studies as well as data on the subject are sparse. Nevertheless, a systematic documentation of the levels and variation in access to energy at the health-facility level is important for designing effective policies to improve the quality of healthcare and the ultimate health of the population...
August 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950574/strengthening-non-communicable-disease-policy-with-lessons-from-bhutan-linking-gross-national-happiness-and-health-policy-action
#16
Gyambo Sithey, Mu Li, Anne Marie Thow
There is growing global interest in Gross National Happiness (GNH) as a metric to capture population well-being and economic development. Empirical evidence suggests that health is necessary for achievement of happiness. The growing epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) threatens to undermine the achievement of GNH. We analyze synergies between current policy priorities and the institutional mechanism for GNH and the Global NCD Action Plan 2013-2020 that has informed Bhutan's approach to NCDs. We identify strategic policy opportunities to strengthen outcomes for both policy areas...
August 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807998/did-two-booster-doses-for-schoolchildren-change-the-epidemiology-of-pertussis-in-israel
#17
Emilia Anis, Larisa Moerman, Gary Ginsberg, Isabella Karakis, Paul E Slater, Bruce Warshavsky, Ruslan Gosinov, Itamar Grotto, Esther Marva
Pertussis is the only vaccine-preventable disease that has re-emerged in Israel. In the last two decades, despite high primary immunization coverage, crude incidence increased over tenfold, with especially high morbidity among infants and adolescents and with 19 infant deaths. Two pertussis vaccine boosters were added, in 2005 for 7-year-olds and in 2011 for 13-year-olds. We reviewed age group incidence from 1999 to 2016, before and after the booster program introduction. We compared three groups of 13-15 year-olds with identical primary immunization but different booster immunization histories...
August 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795522/public-health-actions-to-mitigate-long-term-consequences-of-child-maltreatment
#18
Aida Dias, Trudy Mooren, Rolf J Kleber
Child maltreatment (CM) is highly prevalent and one of the most injurious conditions that children may experience. Because it is often-clandestine, it is difficult to assure that existing prevention and treatment mechanisms reach those in need. CM's consequences may take a long time to be recognized and expressed. We discuss the need to increase public health actions when the person reaches adulthood to mitigate the consequences of CM. We propose three intervention targets to alleviate CM-related difficulties in adults: emotion regulation, social functioning, and self-concept...
August 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795521/drug-information-misinformation-and-disinformation-on-social-media-a-content-analysis-study
#19
Khalid A J Al Khaja, Alwaleed K AlKhaja, Reginald P Sequeira
Dissemination of misleading drug information through social media can be detrimental to the health of the public. This study, carried out in Bahrain, evaluated the truthfulness of 22 social media claims about drugs (72.7%), dietary supplements (22.7%), and toxic bisphenol-A (4.5%). They circulated on WhatsApp platform, as case studies. We categorized claims as objectively true, false, or potentially misleading. The content analysis revealed that "potentially misleading" claims were the most frequent messages (59...
August 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884897/roundup-litigation-discovery-documents-implications-for-public-health-and-journal-ethics
#20
REVIEW
Sheldon Krimsky, Carey Gillam
This paper reviews the court-released discovery documents obtained from litigation against Monsanto over its herbicide Roundup and through Freedom of Information Act requests (requests to regulatory agencies and public universities in the United States). We sought evidence of corporate malfeasance and undisclosed conflicts of interest with respect to issues of scientific integrity. The findings include evidence of ghostwriting, interference in journal publication, and undue influence of a federal regulatory agency...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
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