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Annual Review of Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384086/evaluating-the-health-impact-of-large-scale-public-policy-changes-classical-and-novel-approaches
#1
Sanjay Basu, Ankita Meghani, Arjumand Siddiqi
Large-scale public policy changes are often recommended to improve public health. Despite varying widely-from tobacco taxes to poverty-relief programs-such policies present a common dilemma to public health researchers: how to evaluate their health effects when randomized controlled trials are not possible. Here, we review the state of knowledge and experience of public health researchers who rigorously evaluate the health consequences of large-scale public policy changes. We organize our discussion by detailing approaches to address three common challenges of conducting policy evaluations: distinguishing a policy effect from time trends in health outcomes or preexisting differences between policy-affected and -unaffected communities (using difference-in-differences approaches); constructing a comparison population when a policy affects a population for whom a well-matched comparator is not immediately available (using propensity score or synthetic control approaches); and addressing unobserved confounders by utilizing quasi-random variations in policy exposure (using regression discontinuity, instrumental variables, or near-far matching approaches)...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384085/an-overview-of-research-and-evaluation-designs-for-dissemination-and-implementation
#2
C Hendricks Brown, Geoffrey Curran, Lawrence A Palinkas, Gregory A Aarons, Kenneth B Wells, Loretta Jones, Linda M Collins, Naihua Duan, Brian S Mittman, Andrea Wallace, Rachel G Tabak, Lori Ducharme, David A Chambers, Gila Neta, Tisha Wiley, John Landsverk, Ken Cheung, Gracelyn Cruden
The wide variety of dissemination and implementation designs now being used to evaluate and improve health systems and outcomes warrants review of the scope, features, and limitations of these designs. This article is one product of a design workgroup that was formed in 2013 by the National Institutes of Health to address dissemination and implementation research, and whose members represented diverse methodologic backgrounds, content focus areas, and health sectors. These experts integrated their collective knowledge on dissemination and implementation designs with searches of published evaluations strategies...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384084/strengthening-integrated-care-through-population-focused-primary-care-services-international-experiences-outside-the-united-states
#3
Rene Loewenson, Sarah Simpson
Many high- and middle-income countries (HMICs) are experiencing a burden of comorbidity and chronic diseases. Together with increasing patient expectations, this burden is raising demand for population health-oriented innovation in health care. Using desk review and country case studies, we examine strategies applied in HMICs outside the United States to address these challenges, with a focus on and use of a new framework for analyzing primary care (PC). The article outlines how a population health approach has been supported by focusing assessment on and clustering services around social groups and multimorbidity, with support for community roles...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384083/assessing-the-exposome-with-external-measures-commentary-on-the-state-of-the-science-and-research-recommendations
#4
Michelle C Turner, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Kim Anderson, David Balshaw, Yuxia Cui, Genevieve Dunton, Jane A Hoppin, Petros Koutrakis, Michael Jerrett
The exposome comprises all environmental exposures that a person experiences from conception throughout the life course. Here we review the state of the science for assessing external exposures within the exposome. This article reviews (a) categories of exposures that can be assessed externally, (b) the current state of the science in external exposure assessment, (c) current tools available for external exposure assessment, and (d) priority research needs. We describe major scientific and technological advances that inform external assessment of the exposome, including geographic information systems; remote sensing; global positioning system and geolocation technologies; portable and personal sensing, including smartphone-based sensors and assessments; and self-reported questionnaire assessments, which increasingly rely on Internet-based platforms...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384082/introduction-how-is-the-growing-concern-for-relevance-and-implementation-of-evidence-based-interventions-shaping-the-public-health-research-agenda
#5
Lawrence W Green, Ross C Brownson, Jonathan E Fielding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384081/countermarketing-alcohol-and-unhealthy-food-an-effective-strategy-for-preventing-noncommunicable-diseases-lessons-from-tobacco
#6
P Christopher Palmedo, Lori Dorfman, Sarah Garza, Eleni Murphy, Nicholas Freudenberg
Countermarketing campaigns use health communications to reduce the demand for unhealthy products by exposing motives and undermining marketing practices of producers. These campaigns can contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable diseases by denormalizing the marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food. By portraying these activities as outside the boundaries of civilized corporate behavior, countermarketing can reduce the demand for unhealthy products and lead to changes in industry marketing practices...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125393/surveillance-systems-to-track-and-evaluate-obesity-prevention-efforts
#7
Deanna M Hoelscher, Nalini Ranjit, Adriana PĂ©rez
To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125392/natural-experiments-an-overview-of-methods-approaches-and-contributions-to-public-health-intervention-research
#8
Peter Craig, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Alastair Leyland, Frank Popham
Population health interventions are essential to reduce health inequalities and tackle other public health priorities, but they are not always amenable to experimental manipulation. Natural experiment (NE) approaches are attracting growing interest as a way of providing evidence in such circumstances. One key challenge in evaluating NEs is selective exposure to the intervention. Studies should be based on a clear theoretical understanding of the processes that determine exposure. Even if the observed effects are large and rapidly follow implementation, confidence in attributing these effects to the intervention can be improved by carefully considering alternative explanations...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125391/generalizing-about-public-health-interventions-a-mixed-methods-approach-to-external-validity
#9
Laura C Leviton
Public health researchers and practitioners are calling for greater focus on external validity, the ability to generalize findings of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) beyond the limited number of studies testing effectiveness. For public health, the goal is applicability: to translate, disseminate, and implement EBIs for an impact on population health. This article is a review of methods and how they might be combined to better assess external validity. The methods include (a) better description of EBIs and their contexts; (b) combining of statistical tools and logic to draw inferences about study samples; (c) sharper definition of the theory behind the intervention and core intervention components; and (d) more systematic consultation of practitioners...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125390/engagement-of-sectors-other-than-health-in-integrated-health-governance-policy-and-action
#10
Evelyne de Leeuw
Health is created largely outside the health sector. Engagement in health governance, policy, and intervention development and implementation by sectors other than health is therefore important. Recent calls for building and implementing Health in All Policies, and continued arguments for intersectoral action, may strengthen the potential that other sectors have for health. This review clarifies the conceptual foundations for integral health governance, policy, and action, delineates the different sectors and their possible engagement, and provides an overview of a continuum of methods of engagement with other sectors to secure integration...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125389/the-impact-of-trauma-care-systems-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#11
Teri A Reynolds, Barclay Stewart, Isobel Drewett, Stacy Salerno, Hendry R Sawe, Tamitza Toroyan, Charles Mock
Injury is a leading cause of death globally, and organized trauma care systems have been shown to save lives. However, even though most injuries occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), most trauma care research comes from high-income countries where systems have been implemented with few resource constraints. Little context-relevant guidance exists to help policy makers set priorities in LMICs, where resources are limited and where trauma care may be implemented in distinct ways. We have aimed to review the evidence on the impact of trauma care systems in LMICs through a systematic search of 11 databases...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125388/bias-analysis-for-uncontrolled-confounding-in-the-health-sciences
#12
Onyebuchi A Arah
Uncontrolled confounding due to unmeasured confounders biases causal inference in health science studies using observational and imperfect experimental designs. The adoption of methods for analysis of bias due to uncontrolled confounding has been slow, despite the increasing availability of such methods. Bias analysis for such uncontrolled confounding is most useful in big data studies and systematic reviews to gauge the extent to which extraneous preexposure variables that affect the exposure and the outcome can explain some or all of the reported exposure-outcome associations...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125387/toward-greater-implementation-of-the-exposome-research-paradigm-within-environmental-epidemiology
#13
Jeanette A Stingone, Germaine M Buck Louis, Shoji F Nakayama, Roel C H Vermeulen, Richard K Kwok, Yuxia Cui, David M Balshaw, Susan L Teitelbaum
Investigating a single environmental exposure in isolation does not reflect the actual human exposure circumstance nor does it capture the multifactorial etiology of health and disease. The exposome, defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onward, may advance our understanding of environmental contributors to disease by more fully assessing the multitude of human exposures across the life course. Implementation into studies of human health has been limited, in part owing to theoretical and practical challenges including a lack of infrastructure to support comprehensive exposure assessment, difficulty in differentiating physiologic variation from environmentally induced changes, and the need for study designs and analytic methods that accommodate specific aspects of the exposome, such as high-dimensional exposure data and multiple windows of susceptibility...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125386/moving-from-discovery-to-system-wide-change-the-role-of-research-in-a-learning-health-care-system-experience-from-three-decades-of-health-systems-research-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#14
David Atkins, Amy M Kilbourne, David Shulkin
The Veterans Health Administration is unique, functioning as an integrated health care system that provides care to more than six million veterans annually and as a home to an established scientific enterprise that conducts more than $1 billion of research each year. The presence of research, spanning the continuum from basic health services to translational research, has helped the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) realize the potential of a learning health care system and has contributed to significant improvements in clinical quality over the past two decades...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125385/climate-change-and-collective-violence
#15
Barry S Levy, Victor W Sidel, Jonathan A Patz
Climate change is causing increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and other environmental impacts. It is also causing or contributing to heat-related disorders, respiratory and allergic disorders, infectious diseases, malnutrition due to food insecurity, and mental health disorders. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence, generally in combination with other causal factors. Increased temperatures and extremes of precipitation with their associated consequences, including resultant scarcity of cropland and other key environmental resources, are major pathways by which climate change leads to collective violence...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125384/china-s-health-reform-update
#16
Gordon G Liu, Samantha A Vortherms, Xuezhi Hong
China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Health care financing reform led to universal basic medical insurance, whereas the public hospital reform required more complex measures ranging from changes in regulatory, operational, and service delivery settings to personnel management...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125383/climate-change-and-global-food-systems-potential-impacts-on-food-security-and-undernutrition
#17
Samuel S Myers, Matthew R Smith, Sarah Guth, Christopher D Golden, Bapu Vaitla, Nathaniel D Mueller, Alan D Dangour, Peter Huybers
Great progress has been made in addressing global undernutrition over the past several decades, in part because of large increases in food production from agricultural expansion and intensification. Food systems, however, face continued increases in demand and growing environmental pressures. Most prominently, human-caused climate change will influence the quality and quantity of food we produce and our ability to distribute it equitably. Our capacity to ensure food security and nutritional adequacy in the face of rapidly changing biophysical conditions will be a major determinant of the next century's global burden of disease...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068486/the-changing-epidemiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Kristen Lyall, Lisa Croen, Julie Daniels, M Daniele Fallin, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Brian K Lee, Bo Y Park, Nathaniel W Snyder, Diana Schendel, Heather Volk, Gayle C Windham, Craig Newschaffer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068485/obesity-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-burden-drivers-and-emerging-challenges
#19
Nicole D Ford, Shivani A Patel, K M Venkat Narayan
We have reviewed the distinctive features of excess weight, its causes, and related prevention and management efforts, as well as data gaps and recommendations for future research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Obesity is rising in every region of the world, and no country has been successful at reversing the epidemic once it has begun. In LMICs, overweight is higher in women compared with men, in urban compared with rural settings, and in older compared with younger individuals; however, the urban-rural overweight differential is shrinking in many countries...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068484/informatics-and-data-analytics-to-support-exposome-based-discovery-for-public-health
#20
Arjun K Manrai, Yuxia Cui, Pierre R Bushel, Molly Hall, Spyros Karakitsios, Carolyn J Mattingly, Marylyn Ritchie, Charles Schmitt, Denis A Sarigiannis, Duncan C Thomas, David Wishart, David M Balshaw, Chirag J Patel
The complexity of the human exposome-the totality of environmental exposures encountered from birth to death-motivates systematic, high-throughput approaches to discover new environmental determinants of disease. In this review, we describe the state of science in analyzing the human exposome and provide recommendations for the public health community to consider in dealing with analytic challenges of exposome-based biomedical research. We describe extant and novel analytic methods needed to associate the exposome with critical health outcomes and contextualize the data-centered challenges by drawing parallels to other research endeavors such as human genomics research...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
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