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Annual Review of Public Health

Lawrence W Green, Ross C Brownson, Jonathan E Fielding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Liliana De Lima, Tania Pastrana
In May 2014, the World Health Assembly, of the World Health Organization (WHO), unanimously adopted a palliative care (PC) resolution, which outlines clear recommendations to the United Nations member states, such as including PC in national health policies and in the undergraduate curricula for health care professionals, and highlights the critical need for countries to ensure that there is an adequate supply of essential PC medicines, especially those needed to alleviate pain. This resolution also carries great challenges: Every year over 20 million patients (of which 6% are children) need PC at the end of life (EOL)...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Keon L Gilbert, Rashawn Ray, Arjumand Siddiqi, Shivan Shetty, Elizabeth A Baker, Keith Elder, Derek M Griffith
Over the past two decades, there has been growing interest in improving black men's health and the health disparities affecting them. Yet, the health of black men consistently ranks lowest across nearly all groups in the United States. Evidence on the health and social causes of morbidity and mortality among black men has been narrowly concentrated on public health problems (e.g., violence, prostate cancer, and HIV/AIDS) and determinants of health (e.g., education and male gender socialization). This limited focus omits age-specific leading causes of death and other social determinants of health, such as discrimination, segregation, access to health care, employment, and income...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Rebecca J Scharf, Mark D DeBoer
Temporal trends in the epidemic of childhood obesity have been paralleled by increases in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) during childhood. Consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades in all age ranges, with some moderation over the past 10 years. Evidence from cross-sectional, longitudinal, and interventional studies supports links between SSB consumption in childhood and unhealthy weight gain, as well as other untoward health outcomes. These data have stimulated public health efforts to curtail consumption as a means of improving childhood weight status and related health outcomes...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Debra Haire-Joshu, Rachel Tabak
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Barry S Levy, Victor W Sidel
War and other forms of armed conflict have profound adverse effects on population health. It is important to document these effects to inform the general public and policy makers about the consequences of armed conflict, provide services to meet the needs of affected populations, protect human rights and document violations of international humanitarian law, and help to prevent future armed conflict. Documentation can be accomplished with surveillance, epidemiological surveys, and rapid assessment. Challenges include inadequate or absent data systems, social breakdown, forced migration, reporting biases, and the fog of war...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Tord Kjellstrom, David Briggs, Chris Freyberg, Bruno Lemke, Matthias Otto, Olivia Hyatt
Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Nicholas Freudenberg, Daliah Heller
In the past decade, many constituencies have questioned the efficacy, cost, and unintended consequences of mass incarceration in the United States. Although substantial evidence now demonstrates that US incarceration policies have had unintended adverse health consequences, we know less about the strategies and policies that can prevent or reduce these problems for justice-involved individuals and how the criminal justice system (CJS) can contribute to the Healthy People 2020 national goal of eliminating inequities in health...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Eduardo Villamor, Erica C Jansen
The timing of puberty has important public health, clinical, and social implications. The plasticity of sexual development onset could be a mechanism that adapts to prevailing environmental conditions. Early-life nutrition may provide cues for the environment's suitability for reproduction. This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of the role of diet in the timing of sexual maturation. Population-based observational studies consistently indicate that childhood obesity is related to the earlier onset of puberty in girls...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Catherine M Crespi
Studies in which clusters of individuals are randomized to conditions are increasingly common in public health research. However, the designs utilized for such studies are often suboptimal and inefficient. We review strategies to improve the design of cluster randomized trials. We discuss both older but effective design concepts that are underutilized, such as stratification and factorial designs, as well as emergent ideas including fractional factorial designs and cluster randomized crossover studies. We draw examples from the recent literature and provide resources for sample size and power planning...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Jose M Martin-Moreno, Meggan Harris, Elke Jakubowski, Hans Kluge
Given the broad scope and intersectoral nature of public health structures and practices, there are inherent difficulties in defining which services fall under the public health remit and in assessing their capacity and performance. The aim of this study is to analyze how public health functions and practice have been defined and operationalized in different countries and regions around the world, with a specific focus on assessment tools that have been developed to evaluate the performance of essential public health functions, services, and operations...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Kevin Fiscella, Mechelle R Sanders
The annual National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports document widespread and persistent racial and ethnic disparities. These disparities result from complex interactions between patient factors related to social disadvantage, clinicians, and organizational and health care system factors. Separate and unequal systems of health care between states, between health care systems, and between clinicians constrain the resources that are available to meet the needs of disadvantaged groups, contribute to unequal outcomes, and reinforce implicit bias...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Angela K McGowan, Mary M Lee, Cristina M Meneses, Jane Perkins, Mara Youdelman
To improve health in the twenty-first century, to promote both access to and quality of health care services and delivery, and to address significant health disparities, legal and policy approaches, specifically those focused on civil rights, could be used more intentionally and strategically. This review describes how civil rights laws, and their implementation and enforcement, help to encourage health in the United States, and it provides examples for peers around the world. The review uses a broad lens to define health for both classes of individuals and their communities--places where people live, learn, work, and play...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Amit Prasad, Chelsea Bettina Gray, Alex Ross, Megumi Kano
The research community has shown increasing interest in developing and using metrics to determine the relationships between urban living and health. In particular, we have seen a recent exponential increase in efforts aiming to investigate and apply metrics for urban health, especially the health impacts of the social and built environments as well as air pollution. A greater recognition of the need to investigate the impacts and trends of health inequities is also evident through more recent literature. Data availability and accuracy have improved through new affordable technologies for mapping, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Sudipto Banerjee
With increasing accessibility to geographic information systems (GIS) software, statisticians and data analysts routinely encounter scientific data sets with geocoded locations. This has generated considerable interest in statistical modeling for location-referenced spatial data. In public health, spatial data routinely arise as aggregates over regions, such as counts or rates over counties, census tracts, or some other administrative delineation. Such data are often referred to as areal data. This review article provides a brief overview of statistical models that account for spatial dependence in areal data...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Heather Wipfli, Jonathan M Samet
Today's global tobacco epidemic may represent one of the first instances of the globalization of a noninfectious cause of disease. This article focuses on the first century of the global tobacco epidemic and its current status, reviewing the current and projected future of the global tobacco epidemic and the steps that are in progress to end it. In the United States and many countries of Western Europe, tobacco consumption peaked during the 1960s and 1970s and declined as tobacco control programs were initiated, motivated by the evidence indicting smoking as a leading cause of disease...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Roger Strasser, Sophia M Kam, Sophie M Regalado
Compared to their urban counterparts, rural and remote inhabitants experience lower life expectancy and poorer health status. Nowhere is the worldwide shortage of health professionals more pronounced than in rural areas of developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) includes a disproportionately large number of developing countries; therefore, this article explores SSA in depth as an example. Using the conceptual framework of access to primary health care, sustainable rural health service models, rural health workforce supply, and policy implications, this article presents a review of the academic and gray literature as the basis for recommendations designed to achieve greater health equity...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Ana F Abraído-Lanza, Sandra E Echeverría, Karen R Flórez
This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions--intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation--and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Pelle Guldborg Hansen, Laurits Rohden Skov, Katrine Lund Skov
In recent years, the nudge approach to behavior change has emerged from the behavioral sciences to challenge the traditional use of regulation in public health strategies to address modifiable individual-level behaviors related to the rise of noncommunicable diseases and their treatment. However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier are being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, its relationship with regulation, and its ethical implications...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
Gina M Solomon, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Lauren Zeise, John B Faust
Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes...
2016: Annual Review of Public Health
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