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Annual Review of Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125393/surveillance-systems-to-track-and-evaluate-obesity-prevention-efforts
#1
Deanna M Hoelscher, Nalini Ranjit, Adriana Pérez
To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125392/natural-experiments-an-overview-of-methods-approaches-and-contributions-to-public-health-intervention-research
#2
Peter Craig, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Alastair Leyland, Frank Popham
Population health interventions are essential to reduce health inequalities and tackle other public health priorities, but they are not always amenable to experimental manipulation. Natural experiment (NE) approaches are attracting growing interest as a way of providing evidence in such circumstances. One key challenge in evaluating NEs is selective exposure to the intervention. Studies should be based on a clear theoretical understanding of the processes that determine exposure. Even if the observed effects are large and rapidly follow implementation, confidence in attributing these effects to the intervention can be improved by carefully considering alternative explanations...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125390/engagement-of-sectors-other-than-health-in-integrated-health-governance-policy-and-action
#3
Evelyne de Leeuw
Health is created largely outside the health sector. Engagement in health governance, policy, and intervention development and implementation by sectors other than health is therefore important. Recent calls for building and implementing Health in All Policies, and continued arguments for intersectoral action, may strengthen the potential that other sectors have for health. This review clarifies the conceptual foundations for integral health governance, policy, and action, delineates the different sectors and their possible engagement, and provides an overview of a continuum of methods of engagements with other sectors to secure integration...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125389/the-impact-of-trauma-care-systems-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#4
Teri A Reynolds, Barclay Stewart, Isobel Drewett, Stacy Salerno, Hendry Sawe, Tamitza Toroyan, Charles Mock
Injury is a leading cause of death globally, and organized trauma care systems have been shown to save lives. However, even though most injuries occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), most trauma care research comes from high-income countries where systems have been implemented with few resource constraints. Little context-relevant guidance exists to help policy makers set priorities in LMICs, where resources are limited and where trauma care may be implemented in distinct ways. We have aimed to review the evidence on the impact of trauma care systems in LMICs through a systematic search of 11 databases...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125386/moving-from-discovery-to-system-wide-change-the-role-of-research-in-a-learning-health-care-system-experience-from-three-decades-of-health-systems-research-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#5
David Atkins, Amy M Kilbourne, David Shulkin
The Veterans Health Administration (VA) is unique, functioning as an integrated health care system that provides care to more than six million veterans annually and as a home to an established scientific enterprise that conducts more than $1 billion of research each year. The presence of research, spanning the continuum from basic health services to translational research, has helped the VA realize the potential of a learning health care system and has contributed to significant improvements in clinical quality over the past two decades...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125385/climate-change-and-collective-violence
#6
Barry S Levy, Victor W Sidel, Jonathan A Patz
Climate change is causing increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and other environmental impacts. It is also causing or contributing to heat-related disorders, respiratory and allergic disorders, infectious diseases, malnutrition due to food insecurity, and mental health disorders. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence, generally in combination with other causal factors. Increased temperatures and extremes of precipitation with their associated consequences, including resultant scarcity of cropland and other key environmental resources, are major pathways by which climate change leads to collective violence...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125384/china-s-health-reform-update
#7
Gordon G Liu, Samantha A Vortherms, Xuezhi Hong
China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Health care financing reform led to universal basic medical insurance, whereas the public hospital reform required more complex measures ranging from changes in regulatory, operational, and service delivery settings to personnel management...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125391/generalizing-about-public-health-interventions-a-mixed-methods-approach-to-external-validity
#8
Laura C Leviton
Public health researchers and practitioners are calling for greater focus on external validity, the ability to generalize findings of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) beyond the limited number of studies testing effectiveness. For public health, the goal is applicability: to translate, disseminate, and implement EBIs for an impact on population health. This article is a review of methods and how they might be combined to better assess external validity. The methods include (a) better description of EBIs and their contexts; (b) combining of statistical tools and logic to draw inferences about study samples; (c) sharper definition of the theory behind the intervention and core intervention components; and (d) more systematic consultation of practitioners...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125388/bias-analysis-for-uncontrolled-confounding-in-the-health-sciences
#9
Onyebuchi A Arah
Uncontrolled confounding due to unmeasured confounders biases causal inference in health science studies using observational and imperfect experimental designs. The adoption of methods for analysis of bias due to uncontrolled confounding has been slow, despite the increasing availability of such methods. Bias analysis for such uncontrolled confounding is most useful in big data studies and systematic reviews to gauge the extent to which extraneous preexposure variables that affect the exposure and the outcome can explain some or all of the reported exposure-outcome associations...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125387/toward-greater-implementation-of-the-exposome-research-paradigm-within-environmental-epidemiology
#10
Jeanette A Stingone, Germaine M Buck Louis, Shoji F Nakayama, Roel C H Vermeulen, Richard K Kwok, Yuxia Cui, David M Balshaw, Susan L Teitelbaum
Investigating a single environmental exposure in isolation does not reflect the actual human exposure circumstance nor does it capture the multifactorial etiology of health and disease. The exposome, defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onward, may advance our understanding of environmental contributors to disease by more fully assessing the multitude of human exposures across the life course. Implementation into studies of human health has been limited, in part owing to theoretical and practical challenges including a lack of infrastructure to support comprehensive exposure assessment, difficulty in differentiating physiologic variation from environmentally induced changes, and the need for study designs and analytic methods that accommodate specific aspects of the exposome, such as high-dimensional exposure data and multiple windows of susceptibility...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125383/climate-change-and-global-food-systems-potential-impacts-on-food-security-and-undernutrition
#11
Samuel S Myers, Matthew R Smith, Sarah Guth, Christopher D Golden, Bapu Vaitla, Nathaniel D Mueller, Alan D Dangour, Peter Huybers
Great progress has been made in addressing global undernutrition over the past several decades, in part because of large increases in food production from agricultural expansion and intensification. Food systems, however, face continued increases in demand and growing environmental pressures. Most prominently, human-caused climate change will influence the quality and quantity of food we produce and our ability to distribute it equitably. Our capacity to ensure food security and nutritional adequacy in the face of rapidly changing biophysical conditions will be a major determinant of the next century's global burden of disease...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068485/obesity-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-burden-drivers-and-emerging-challenges
#12
Nicole D Ford, Shivani A Patel, K M Venkat Narayan
We have reviewed the distinctive features of excess weight, its causes, and related prevention and management efforts, as well as data gaps and recommendations for future research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Obesity is rising in every region of the world, and no country has been successful at reversing the epidemic once it has begun. In LMICs, overweight is higher in women compared with men, in urban compared with rural settings, and in older compared with younger individuals; however, the urban-rural overweight differential is shrinking in many countries...
December 23, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068484/informatics-and-data-analytics-to-support-exposome-based-discovery-for-public-health
#13
Arjun K Manrai, Yuxia Cui, Pierre R Bushel, Molly Hall, Spyros Karakitsios, Carolyn J Mattingly, Marylyn Ritchie, Charles Schmitt, Denis A Sarigiannis, Duncan C Thomas, David Wishart, David M Balshaw, Chirag J Patel
The complexity of the human exposome-the totality of environmental exposures encountered from birth to death-motivates systematic, high-throughput approaches to discover the environmental determinants of disease. In this review, we describe the state of science in analyzing the human exposome and provide recommendations for the public health community to consider in dealing with analytic challenges of exposome-based biomedical research. We describe extant and novel analytic methods needed to associate the exposome with critical health outcomes and contextualize the data-centered challenges by drawing parallels to other research endeavors such as human genomics research...
December 23, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068486/the-changing-epidemiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
Kristen Lyall, Lisa Croen, Julie Daniels, M Daniele Fallin, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Brian K Lee, Bo Y Park, Nathaniel W Snyder, Diana Schendel, Heather E Volk, Gayle C Windham, Craig Newschaffer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992725/smoking-mental-illness-and-public-health
#15
Judith J Prochaska, Smita Das, Kelly C Young-Wolff
Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e...
December 16, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992731/impact-of-provider-incentives-on-quality-and-value-of-health-care
#16
Tim Doran, Kristin A Maurer, Andrew M Ryan
The use of financial incentives to improve quality in health care has become widespread. Yet evidence on the effectiveness of incentives suggests that they have generally had limited impact on the value of care and have not led to better patient outcomes. Lessons from social psychology and behavioral economics indicate that incentive programs in health care have not been effectively designed to achieve their intended impact. In the United States, Medicare's Hospital Readmission Reduction Program and Hospital Value- Based Purchasing Program, created under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), provide evidence on how variations in the design of incentive programs correspond with differences in effect...
December 15, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992730/the-affordable-care-act-s-impacts-on-access-to-insurance-and-health-care-for-low-income-populations
#17
Gerald F Kominski, Narissa J Nonzee, Andrea Sorensen
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) expands access to health insurance in the United States, and, to date, an estimated 20 million previously uninsured individuals have gained coverage. Understanding the law's impact on coverage, access, utilization, and health outcomes, especially among low-income populations, is critical to informing ongoing debates about its effectiveness and implementation. Early findings indicate that there have been significant reductions in the rate of uninsurance among the poor and among those who live in Medicaid expansion states...
December 15, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992729/an-appraisal-of-social-network-theory-and-analysis-as-applied-to-public-health-challenges-and-opportunities
#18
Thomas W Valente, Stephanie R Pitts
The use of social network theory and analysis methods as applied to public health has expanded greatly in the past decade, yielding a significant academic literature that spans almost every conceivable health issue. This review identifies several important theoretical challenges that confront the field but also provides opportunities for new research. These challenges include (a) measuring network influences, (b) identifying appropriate influence mechanisms, (c) the impact of social media and computerized communications, (d) the role of networks in evaluating public health interventions, and (e) ethics...
December 15, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992728/macro-trends-and-the-future-of-public-health-practice
#19
Paul Campbell Erwin, Ross C Brownson
Public health practice in the twenty-first century is in a state of significant flux. Several macro trends are impacting the current practice of governmental public health and will likely have effects for many years to come. These macro trends are described as forces of change, which are changes that affect the context in which the community and its public health system operate. This article focuses on seven such forces of change: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, and globalized travel...
December 15, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992727/organic-food-in-the-diet-exposure-and-health-implications
#20
Anne Lise Brantsæter, Trond A Ydersbond, Jane A Hoppin, Margaretha Haugen, Helle Margrete Meltzer
The market for organic food products is growing rapidly worldwide. Such foods meet certified organic standards for production, handling, processing, and marketing. Most notably, the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and genetic modification is not allowed. One major reason for the increased demand is the perception that organic foods are more environmentally friendly and healthier than conventionally produced food. This review provides an update on market data and consumer preferences for organic food and summarizes the scientific evidence for compositional differences and health benefits of organic compared with conventionally produced food...
December 15, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
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